Addressed to the international academic community
Documents of Ancient Greek, Hebrew and roman writers.
Excerpts for the Old and New Testament and other sources
Athens, April 1995
The so-called "Macedonian Question", is in fact a great political
and historical fraud that was deliberately fabricated by the Communists
in 1944 in order to wrest Greek Macedonia from Greece and absorb it into
the Communist bloc, thus breaking up the West's eastern flank and gaining
control of the north Aegean seacoast.
The political motives behind the creation of this spurious Republic have
been rejected by:
"This Government considers talk of Macedonian "nation",
Macedonian "Fatherland", or Macedonian "national consciousness"
to be unjustified demagoguery representing no ethnic nor political reality,
and sees in its present revival a possible cloak for aggressive intentions
against Greece. The approved policy of this Government is to oppose any
revival of the Macedonian issue as related to Greece".
The Macedonian Question, is more than a mere squabble over a name. It is
a well-designed scheme for annexing the northern Greek provinces of Macedonia
and Thrace. It started during the inter-war period, by the decisions of
the Comintern and the Balkan communist parties seeking to establish a united
(Macedonian and Thracian) State. Subsequently it was Tito, in 1944, who
tried to establish such a State within Yugoslavia. He changed the name of
Southern Serbia (which had been known as Vardashka since 1913) to "Macedonia"
and then proceeded to establish, out of the Slavs of the region (Bulgarians
and Serbs), a new Slavic nation inappropriately called "Macedonian"
(See Document No 4).
To transform this theoretical concept into a political reality TITO:
Thus, politicians and historians collaborated:
Their theoretical basis for these claims was based on the assertion that:
World history does not record a similar case of usurpation of a people's
name and history by another group of people.
Lack of the slightest credibility on the part of the pseudo-Macedonian "nation"
of Skopje is furthermore revealed by the single fact that Skopje's Bulgarians
and Serbs discovered only after 1944 that back in the sixth century they
had been transformed from Slavs into Macedonians.
To claim that the Ancient Macedonians were not Greeks, however, and to use
the term "Slav" with reference to the creation of the "Macedonian
nation" is a trick.
The "Macedonian Nation" does not, nor did it ever exist. The Macedonians
were Greeks, they spoke the same language and worshipped the same gods (who
were inhabiting the Macedonian mountain of Olympus) and performed the same
sacrifices, in the same sanctuaries as all the other Greeks.
The Macedonians, together with the rest of Greeks, possess according to
Herodotus, the kind and constituent element that composed a nation:
"And next the kinship of all Greeks in blood and speech,
and the shrines of gods and the sacrifices that we have in common and the
likeness of our way of life " Herodotus, History VIII, 144,2 (Loeb,
A.D. Godley) .
The Greek identity of the Ancient Macedonians and their name is attested,
among other sources, by:
a) the Hebrew sources (the Bible, the book of Maccabees, the
Talmud as well as the Jewish writers Josephus, Philo Judaeus and others
(doc. 6, p. 44-45).
b) the New Testament:
- Paul the Apostle, was summoned to Macedonia by a Macedonian in
the form of a vision speaking to him in Greek (Act Apost. XVI 9,10)
- The Apostles Paul and Silas met Greek men and women in Thessaloniki
and Beroea (Act Apost. XVII 4, 12).
c) works by various classical authors, including
- "And she conceived and bore to Zeus who delights in the thunderbolttwo
sons, Magnes and Macedon, rejoicing in horses, who dwell round-about Pieria
and Olympus", Hesiod, Catalogues of Women andEoiae 3 (Loeb, H.G.
- "Macedonia, of course, is a part of Greece". Strabo,
VII, Frg. 9 (Loeb, H.L. Jones)
- "The Peloponnesians that were with the fleet were... the Lacedaemonians...
the Corinthians... the Sicyonians... the Epidaurians... the Troezenians...
the people of Hermione there; all these, except the people of Hermione,
were of Dorian and Macedonian stock and had last come from Erineus and Pindus
and the Dryopian region". Herodotus VIII, 43 (Loeb. A.D. Godley).
- "For in the days of king Deucalion it inhabited the land of
Phthiotis, then in the time of Dorus son of Helen the country called Histiaean,
under Ossa and Olympus; driven by the Cadmeans from this Histiaean country
it settled about Pindus in the parts called Macedonian; thence again it
migrated to Dryopia, and at last came from Dryopia into Peloponnesus, where
it took the name of Dorian". Herodotus I, 56, 3 (Loeb, A.D. Godley).
- "Tell your king who sent you how his Greek viceroy of Macedonia
has received you hospitably... " Herodotus V, 20, 4 (Loeb, A.D.
- "For I myself am by ancient descent a Greek, and I would not
willingly see Hellas change her freedom for slavery". Herodotus
IX, 45, 2 (Loeb, A.D. Godley)
- "Now that these descendants of Perdiccas are Greeks, as they
themselves say, I myself chance to know" Herodotus V, 22, 1 (Loeb,
- "This is a sworn treaty made between us, Hannibal.. and Xenophanes
the Athenian... in the presence of all the gods who possess Macedonia and
the rest of Greece". The Histories of Polybius, VII, 9, 4 (Loeb,
W. R. Paton)
- "How highly should we honour the Macedonians, who for the
greater part of their lives never cease from fighting with the barbarians
for the sake of the security of Greece? For who is not aware that Greece
would have constantly stood in the greater danger, had we not been fenced
by the Macedonians and the honorable ambition of their kings?"
The Histories of Polybius, IX, 35, 2 (Loeb, W.R. Paton)
- "... all men will be grateful to you: the Hellenes for your
kindness to them and the rest of the nations, if by your hands they are
delivered from barbaric despotism and are brought under the protection of
Hellas". Isocrates, To Philip, 154 (Loeb, G. Norlin)
- "It is your privilege, as one who has been blessed with untrammeled
freedom, to consider all Hellas your fatherland, as did the founder of your
race". Isocrates, To Philip, 127 (Loeb, G. Norlin)
- "Argos is the land of your fathers". Isocrates, To
Philip, XII, 32 (Loeb, G. Norlin),
and Titus Livius
- "Aetolians, Acarnanians, Macedonians, men of the same language"
T. Livius XXXI, 29, 15 (Loeb, E.T. Sage) ,
- "Three brothers of the lineage of Temenus came as banished
men from Argos to Illyria, Gauanes and Aeropos and Perdiccas".
Herodotus VIII, 137, l (Loeb, A.P. Godley)
- "The country by the sea which is now called Macedonia... Alexander,
the father of Perdiccas, and his forefathers, who were originally Temenidae
from Argos" Thucydides 99,3 (Loeb, C F Smith)
- "He sent to Athens three hundred Persian panoplies to 6e set
up to Athena in the acropolis; he ordered this inscription to be attached:
Alexander son of Philip and the Greeks, except the Lacedaemonians, set up
these spoils from the barbarians dwelling in Asia", Arrian I, 16,
7 (Loeb, P. A. Brunt)
- "Your ancestors invaded Macedonia and the rest of Greece and
did us great harm, though we had done them no prior injury;... I have been
appointed hegemon of the Greeks... "Arrian, Anabasis of Alexander
II, 14, 4 (Loeb, P. A. Brunt);
d) the fact that the Macedonians took part in the Amphictyonies
and the Olympic Games
- "They say that these were the clans collected by Amphiktyon
himself in the Greek assembly... `The Macedonians managed to join and the
entire Phocian race... In my day there were thirty members: six each from
Nikopolis, Macedonia, and Thessaly...". Pausanias, Phokis VIII
2&4 (Loeb, W. Jones)
- "But Alexander proving himself to be an Argive, he was judged
to be a Greek; so he contended in the furlong race and ran a dead heat for
the first place". Herodotus V, 22, 2 (Loeb, A. D. Godley)
- "Belistiche, a woman from the coast of Macedonia, won with
the pair of foals.. at the hundred and twenty-ninth Olympics".
Pausanias, Eleia VIII, 11 (Loeb, W. Jones - H. A. Ormerod);
e) the archaeological sites of Dion, Vergina, Pella, Beroea,
Amphipolis, etc., which have yielded 70,000 finds and thousands of Greek
inscriptions from Macedonia and the East (See the Kuwait
inscriptions in Document No 7)
f) the four ancient theaters in Macedonia (at Dion, Vergina,
Philippi, and Thassos). It is a well-known fact that only the ancient Greeks
had theaters. The theater of Dion hosted the first performance (before an
audience of Greek-speaking Macedonians, of course) of Euripides world-famous
tragedy Bacchae, which he wrote at Pella of Macedonia. Euripides died and
was buried in Macedonia
"Euripides himself went t' King Aschelausaus and lies
buried in Macedonia" Pausanias, Attica II, 2 (Loeb, W. Jones);
g) as shown on a map published in the December 1 949 issue of
the National Geographic Magazine, the Romans, who conquered Macedonia, considered
it a Greek province. Indeed, in Roman times coins minted in Macedonia depicted
ancient Macedonian symbols with Greek inscriptions. (See
Document No 8)
h) A study by the German writer Sigrid Dull, concerning the
gods that were worshipped during Roman times in ancient Macedonia which
was occupied by the Serbs and the Bulgarians in 1913, reveals that the gods
that were worshipped were gods of Olympus. The German author writes further
that all the inscriptions are Greek and that seldom does one encounter idioms
that are not encountered in the rest are no inscriptions in any other language
except in Greek and Latin in ancient Macedonia which was occupied in 1913
by Serbia and Bulgaria.
The Greek Macedonians played a major part in the history of Greece, of Europe,
and of the whole world during the Hellenistic period (336-30 BC).
Alexander, the King and commander-in-chief of all the Greeks, crushed the
despotic Persian Empire. He propagated Hellenic culture (as Plutarch tells
us) and, assisted by his successors, the diadochi, established Greek
as the universal language, thus changing the whole course of history.
It is deliberately deceitful to use the term "Slav", for the word
"Slav" means "race". For centuries, the only Slavs known
in the Balkans were the Croats, the Slovenes, the Serbs, and the Bulgarians.
Until 1944, the only Slavs living in the territory of the FYROM were either
Serbs or Bulgarians, as historical references and statistics attest (see
Document No 9) Since they could not, in 1944, transform Serbs and Bulgarians
into "Macedonians", Skopje's historians resorted to the term "Slav".
Historical accounts, statistics and wartime events also, confirm that the
only Slavs in the region were Serbs and Bulgarians. The Macedonian Struggle
(1903-1908) was waged by Greeks and Bulgarians; the first Balkan War (1912)
was fought by Serbs, Bulgarians, and Greeks against the Turks; the second
Balkan War (1913) was fought by Serbs, Greeks, Rumanians, and Montenegrins
against the Bulgarians; and during the First World War British, French,
Serbian, and Greek troops clashed in this region with Germans, Austrians,
Turks and Bulgarians. There were no "Macedonians" fighting on
The deliberately misleading use of the terms "Macedonians" and
"Slavs" is exposed by two irrefutable Turkish documents. One is
a population census of 1905, published by an Italian firm and the other
is an election announcement of 1912 from Monastir (now Bitolj), which describes
the candidates as Turks, Greeks, and Bulgarians. There was no such thing
as "Macedonian" nationality during the Turkish period either.
The referred Slavs were only "Serbian" and "Bulgarian"
(See Document No 10).
For the people of FYROM to call themselves "Macedonians" constitutes
an assault on fundamental principles and on the proclamations of international
organizations, states, and world leaders. We underline the following three
First: Everyone talks about democracy, but no-one bothers to mention
that this "sad farce" (as the French Byzantinist Raine Gerdan
has described it) is the brainchild of the world's most undemocratic system,
Communism (See Document No 11)
In order to gain control of the Balkans and the northern Aegean, Stalin
imitated Hitler (who invented the "Arian race") and created the
Macedonian nation". A statement he made in 1946 is eloquent in this
respect; "They do not have Macedonian consciousness at the moment,
but they shall acquire it': The Communist propaganda machinery, efficient
as always, bore out the truth of Stalin's words. (See
Document No 12)
To recognize the people of FYROM as "Macedonians" is to support
not only an undemocratic edifice but also an evil plot conceived by the
Communists to take over Greek Macedonia.
In 1948, the Communist Guerrillas abducted 28,000 Greek children from Macedonia
and took them to various Eastern Block countries. The United Nations archives
contain documented evidence of this, and a description may be found in Nicholas
Gage's book Eleni. Those children were brainwashed about "Macedonia"
for years, the guerrillas intention being to liberate one day Macedonia
from the Greeks. In 1988, a few thousands of them, now adults, gathered
in Skopje. Many came from Canada, Australia, the United States of America
and Europe. In the presence and with the support of the political leadership
of Skopje', they decided to raise once again the Macedonian Question. A
special international committee was set up and, since then, it has been
engaged in coordinating a worldwide propaganda against Greece.
Second: To recognize the people of FYROM as "Macedonians"
will create a permanent source of friction that will endanger peace in the
region. The name of "Macedonia", imposed on the republic by the
Yugoslav Communist Party, at the conclusion of World War II, bears the seeds
of aggression on regions of neighboring countries.
Successive Greek Governments have declared, on many occasions, that they
are not opposing the independence and territorial integrity of the new Republic.
But no Greek would consent to this state's appropriation of the Greek name
of "Macedonia". It is only with a new name (after the example
of America and Australia, for instance) that the new Republic, with its
multi-ethnic population, will be able to live in peace in a turbulent region.
Third: As any country, Greece is not represented only by its geographical
territory, but also by its history and its cultural heritage. International
organizations such as UNESCO and the Council of Europe, governments and
prominent world figures, have stated that the history and the cultural heritage
constitute fundamental elements of a peoples' identity and should be safeguarded
When Slovenia declared its independence in 1991, it issued a banknote depicting
an Austrian throne of the fourteenth century. Austria immediately accused
Slovenia of an infringement upon its history and its symbols and demanded
that the banknote be withdrawn. The Slovenians complied.
Under the circumstances, how should Greece react, given the fact that FYROM
- as attested by its new school textbooks for 1992-3 - appropriate the whole
of Macedonian history which is a cherished element of the Greek national
and cultural identity?
The Hellenistic period (335-30 BC) was created by Alexander the Great and
his Greek Macedonian diadochi, and was so named because it was, during that
period, that the Hellenic culture was diffused throughout the world. It
brought new scientific, philosophical, and religious ideas that dominated
the world for centuries and influenced the development of all cultures.
Can these achievements, by any stress of imagination, be attributed to the...
ancestors of FYROM? Their ancestors came into the area centuries after that
The Russian historian Avraam B. Rankovitch (of the Soviet Academy of Sciences),
in his book, Hellenistic Period, p. 285, writes: "The culture
that was fostered in the Hellenistic period also burst the bounds of the
Hellenistic world. This culture, which was later inherited 6y the Roman
Empire, Byzantium, and the peoples of the East, exercised a significant
influence on the culture of the modern era".
Consequently, the falsification of Macedonian history is not an affront
to the Greeks alone, but to the world civilization, as a whole.
In June 1992, Dr. Henry Kissinger, as a self-respecting historian, made
a statement in Paris in which he described the history of Macedonia as the
strong weapon that justifies Greece's inalienable right to the name of "Macedonia".
My book The Falsification of Macedonian History, reveals the extent
to which Skopje has falsified Macedonian history. I believe that there is
irrefutable evidence from the works of ancient Greek writers, the Old and
the New Testament, Jewish writers and thousands of Greek inscriptions found
on Macedonian territory. They all attest to the Hellenic identity of the
ancient Macedonians. This was very well known in the ancient world, as shown
by the fact that the Macedonians participated in the Amphictyonies and in
the Olympic Games.
Among other acknowledgments regarding the value and validity of my book,
I was honored by the former Chancellor of Germany, Mr. Helmut Schmidt and
the former President of France Mr. Valery Giscard d'Estaing. (See
Document No 13)
As I pointed out in a letter to President Clinton on November 20, 1993 the
creation of the "Republic of Macedonia" is an act of hostility
against Greece for the following reasons:
i) it constitutes an illicit usurpation of the name, the history
and the cultural heritage of Greek Macedonia;
ii) it denies the "Greek character" of Greek Macedonia
and, thus, encourages the aggressive pretensions against Greek territories;
iii) it interrupts the continuity of Greek history, given that,
from 337 BC the Greeks at Corinth (See Document
No 14) made first Philip and later his son Alexander (not, certainly,
Mr. Gligorov's ancestors) their King and Commander-in-Chief in the war against
It is everybody's duty to research and confirm the truth of these assertions.
Ancient Macedonia, as a constituent element of Hellenism, is the very cornerstone
of modern Western civilization, an arena of desperate battles for freedom
and democracy; in particular the international centers of science and learning,
have an obligation towards the free people to present the truth, the fundamental
prerequisite of democracy .
The following Macedonian Greeks set their seal on the history of Greece,
Europe, and the whole world:
1. Philip of Macedon, who established the Macedonian Kingdom
as a great political power and urged on by the Athenian Isocrates, was the
pioneer of the European idea. "Argos is the land of your fathers".
Isocrates, To Philip XII, 32 (Loeb, G. Norlin);
2. Aristotle, the scientist and philosopher whose work will always influence
research and knowledge;
3. Alexander the Great, the most stupendous historical figure ever, who
influenced the course of world history tremendously.
Alexander was the first ever to talk of peace and fraternity between all
peoples (Plutarch's On the Fate and Virtue of Alexander and Holzner
and Arrian) and the first to speak out against racial discrimination (Arrian
and Martis' Logos).
"Alexander gave a general feast, sitting himself there, and all
the Macedonians sifting round him; and then next to them Persians, and next
any of the other tribes... And Alexander prayed for all sorts of blessings,
and especially for harmony and fellowship in the empire between Macedonians
and Persians. They say that those who shared the feast were nine thousand,
and that they all poured the same libation and there of sang the one song
of victory" Arrian, Anabasis of Alexander VII, 11, 8-9 (Loeb,
He put this latter principle into action by marrying Roxana and Darius'
daughter. Stateira, as also by countenancing the marriage of hundreds of
his officers with Persians (Plutarch).
Furthermore, he entrusted various sectors of his administration to foreign
officers of countries he had conquered. By overthrowing the Persian Empire,
transmitting Greek civilization to the East, and establishing Greek as the
lingua franca of all peoples, he changed the history of the whole
In the cities Alexander liberated, he abolished the oligarchies that ruled
them and restored democracy (see Arrian I 18,2). Today, Arabs and other
peoples of Asia he conquered, proudly claim descent from Alexander the Great
(See Document No 15: A list of 22 of Pakistan's national
heroes, the 11th of whom is Alexander.)
- "If it were not my purpose to combine foreign things with things
Greek, to traverse and civilize every continent, to search out the uttermost
parts of land and sea, to push the bounds of Macedonia to the farthest Ocean,
and to disseminate and shower the blessings of Greek justice and peace over
every nation, I should not content to sit quietly in the luxury of idle
power, but I should emulate the frugality of Diogenes" Plutarch's
Moralia, On the Fortune of Alexander I ,332A (Loeb, F.C Babbitt)
- "Yet through Alexander Bactria and the Caucasus learned to revere
the gods of Greeks... Alexander established more than seventy cities among
savage tribes, and sowed all Asia with Grecian magistracies. Egypt would
not have its Alexandria, nor Mesopotamia its Seleucia, nor Sogdiana its
Prophthasia, nor India its Bucephalia, no the Caucasus a Greek city for
by the founding of cities in these places savagery was extinguished and
the worse element, gaining familiarity with the better, changed under its
influence" Plutarch's Moralia, On the Fortune of Alexander
I, 328D, 329A (Loeb, F.C. Babbitt).
- "By these criteria let Alexander also be judged! For from his
words, from his deeds, and from the instruction' which he imparted, it will
be seen that he was indeed a philosopher" Plutarh's Moralia,
On the Fortune Of Alexander I, 4, 328B (Loeb, F.C. Babbitt).
The achievement of Alexander and his Macedonian successors in the Helleno-Bactrian
kingdom had a profound influence on Buddhism. Before Alexander's time, there
were no representations of Buddha; so it is quite amazing to see a statue
of Buddha with a bust of Alexander beside it. (See
Document No 16)
Alexander is mentioned by the Prophets Isaiah (19:20,23), Daniel (8:21-22),
and Maccabees (A, 1) and also in the Talmud. The Romans deified him, and
Mohammed includes him in the Koran, as Zul-Carnein, amongst the prophets.
(See Document No 17)
4. The Ptolemies: Ptolemy II (285-245 BC) translated the Old Testament into
Greek, producing the Septuagint, which is the official version used by both
the Eastern and the Western Church. Ptolemy I founded the Museum (Academy)
of Alexandria and also its Library, which, thanks to the Greek Ptolemies,
contained 700,000 volumes at the time of its destruction.
It was on the Ptolemies' orders that the legacy of the ancient Greek philosophers
was preserved in Alexandria, the possession of all humankind today.
It was in Alexandria that science - physics, mathematics, engineering, astronomy
(the first observatory was built in 289 BC by Prolemy 111) developed and
it was in the same city that Aristarchus of Samos first expounded the theory
of the heliocentric universe, anticipating Copernicus by many hundreds of
The first surgical operation on a human being was performed in Alexandria,
by Herophilus and Erissistratos, and the science of anatomy was developed
Not only was the old Testament translated into Greek, but the New Testament
was actually written in Greek. St. Paul saw a vision, in which a "man
of Macedonia" spoke to him - of course in Greek - (Acts 16:9) and it
was in Macedonia that the Apostle began his missionary work in Europe. Paul
and Silas met Greek men and women in Thessalonika and Beroea who were converted
into Christianity (Acts 17:4,12), and thanks to the Greek Macedonians Christianity
was transmitted all over the world in the Greek language.
5. Cyril and Methodius, the two Greek brothers from Thessaloniki, now known
as the "Apostles to the Slavs", are the protagonists of the Slavs'
Christianisation in the 9th century, an event which came to be the most
important historical and cultural incident for Europe and the world by and
"Rightly, therefore, Saints Cyril and Methodius were at an early stage,
recognized by the family of Slav peoples, as the fathers of both Christianity
and their culture" (See Document No 18 from Epistola
Enciclica of Pope Giovanni Paolo II.)