U.S. Department of State
1996 International Narcotics Control Strategy Report, March 1997
United States Department of State
Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
Legislative Basis for the INCSR
The Department of State's International Narcotics Control Strategy
Report (INCSR) has been prepared in accordance with ß489 of the Foreign
Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (the "FAA," 22 U.S.C. ß2291).
The 1997 INCSR is the eleventh annual report prepared pursuant to the
FAA. In addition to addressing the reporting requirements of FAA ß489 (as
well as ß 481(d)(2) and ß 804 of the Narcotics Control Trade Act of 1974,
as amended), the INCSR provides the factual basis for the Presidential
narcotics certification determinations for major drug producing and/or
drug-transit countries required under FAA ß490. FAA ß490 requires that
fifty percent of certain kinds of assistance be withheld from all such
countries identified and reported to Congress by the President November 1
OF EACH YEAR, pending the President's March 1 certification determinations.
If a country is not certified, most foreign assistance is cut off and the
United States is required to vote against multilateral development bank
lending to that country.
Among other things, the statute asks, with respect to each country that
received INL assistance in the past two fiscal years, for a report on the
extent to which the country has "met the goals and objectives of the United
Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and
Psychotropic Substances." FAA ß489(a)(1)(A). Similarly, the President's
certification determination depends in part on whether a country, during
the previous year, has cooperated fully with the United States, or has
taken adequate steps on its own, to achieve full compliance with the goals
and objectives established by the 1988 UN Drug Convention. FAA
Although the Convention does not contain a list of goals and objectives,
it does set forth a number of obligations that the parties agree to
undertake. Generally speaking, it requires the parties to take legal
measures to outlaw and punish all forms of illicit drug production,
trafficking, and drug money laundering, to control chemicals that can be
used to process illicit drugs, and to cooperate in international efforts to
these ends. The statute lists action by foreign countries on the following
issues as relevant to this evaluating performance under the 1988 UN Drug
Convention: illicit cultivation, production, distribution, sale, transport
and financing, and money laundering, asset seizure, extradition, mutual
legal assistance, law enforcement and transit cooperation, precursor
chemical control, and demand reduction.
In attempting to evaluate whether countries are meeting the goals and
objectives of the 1988 UN Drug Convention, the Department has used the best
information it has available. The 1997 INCSR covers countries that range
from major drug producing and drug-transit countries, where drug control is
a critical element of national policy, to mini-states, where drug issues
and/or the capacity to deal with them are minimal. The reports vary in the
extent of their coverage. For key drug-control countries, where
considerable information is available, we have provided comprehensive
reports. For some smaller countries where only sketchy information is
available, we have included whatever data the responsible post could
The country chapters report upon actions, including plans, programs,
and, where applicable, timetables toward fulfillment of Convention
obligations. Because the 1988 UN Drug Convention's subject matter is so
broad, and availability of information on elements related to performance
under the Convention varies widely within and between countries, the
Department's views on the extent to which a given country is meeting the
goals and objectives of the Convention are based on the overall response of
the country to those goals and objectives.
Some countries are not yet parties to the 1988 UN Drug Convention; Some
do not have status in the united nations that would allow them to become
parties. For such countries, we have nonetheless considered actions taken
by those countries in areas covered by the Convention, and plans (if any)
for becoming parties and for bringing their legislation into conformity
with the Convention's requirements. For some of the very smallest
countries, the Department has insufficient information to make a judgment
as to whether the goals and objectives of the Convention are being met.
Except as noted in the relevant country chapters, INL considers all
countries with which the USG has bilateral narcotics agreements to be
meeting the goals and objectives of those agreements.
Information concerning counternarcotics assistance is provided,
pursuant to section 489(B) in sections entitled "FY 1996-1998 Fiscal
Summary and Functional Budget" and "Other USG Assistance Provided."
Statement on Certification
FAA ß490(b)(2) requires that, in making determinations regarding full
certification, the President consider the extent to which each major drug
producing or drug-transit country has:
- met the goals and objectives of the United Nations Convention Against
Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances including
action on such issues as illicit cultivation, production, distribution,
sale, transport and financing, and money laundering, asset seizure,
extradition, mutual legal assistance, law enforcement and transit
cooperation, precursor chemical control, and demand reduction;
- accomplished the goals described in an applicable bilateral narcotics
agreement with the United States, or a multilateral agreement; and
- taken legal and law enforcement measures to prevent and punish public
corruption--especially by senior government officials--that facilitates the
production, processing , or shipment of narcotic and psychotropic drugs and
other controlled substances, or that discourages the investigation or
prosecution or such acts.
The statute provides, alternatively, that a country that cannot be
certified under the foregoing standard may be certified on the grounds that
"vital national interests of the United States require" that assistance be
provided to and the United States not vote against multilateral development
bank lending to such country. FAA ß490(b)(1)(B).
Major Drug Producing, Drug Transit, Significant Source, Precursor
Chemical, and Money Laundering Countries.
Section 489(a)(3) requires the USG to identify: (A) major illicit drug
producing and major drug-transit countries, (B) major sources of precursor
chemicals used in the production of illicit narcotics; and (C) major money
laundering countries. These countries are identified below.
Major Drug Producing and Drug-Transit Countries:
A major illicit drug producing country is one in which: (A) 1,000
hectares or more of illicit opium poppy are cultivated or harvested during
a year; (B) 1,000 hectares or more of illicit coca are cultivated or
harvested during a year; or (C) 5,000 hectares or more of illicit cannabis
are cultivated or harvested during a year, unless the President determines
that such illicit cannabis production does not significantly affect the
United States. FAA ß481(e)(2).
A major illicit drug-transit country is one: (A) that is a significant
direct source of illicit narcotic or psychotropic drugs or other controlled
substances significantly affecting the United States; or (B) through which
are transported such drugs or substances. FAA ß481(e)(5).
The following are major drug producing and/or drug-transit countries
have been identified and notified to Congress by the President pursuant to
490(h) of the FAA for this year: Afghanistan, Aruba, The Bahamas, Belize,
Bolivia, Brazil, Burma, Cambodia, China, Colombia, Dominican Republic,
Ecuador, Guatemala, Haiti, Hong Kong, India, Iran, Jamaica, Laos, Lebanon,
Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Syria, Taiwan,
Thailand, Venezuela, and Vietnam.
Major Precursor Chemical Source Countries:
The following countries have been determined to be major sources of
precursor or essential chemicals used in the production of illicit
narcotics: Argentina, Brazil, China, Germany, India, Mexico, and the
Netherlands. Information is provided pursuant to ß 489 in the section
entitled "Chemical Controls."
Major Money Laundering Countries:
A major money laundering country is one whose financial institutions
engage in currency transactions involving significant amounts of proceeds
from international narcotics trafficking. FAA ß481(e)(7). The following
countries have been identified this year in this category: Antigua,
Argentina, Aruba, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Cayman Islands, China, Colombia,
Costa Rica, Cyprus, Dominican Republic, Germany, Hong Kong, India, Israel,
Italy, Japan, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands,
Netherlands Antilles, Nigeria, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Russia,
Singapore, Spain, Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, United Arab
Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, and Venezuela. Further
information on these countries and United States money laundering policies,
as required by section 489, is set forth in the section entitled "Financial
Crimes and Money Laundering."