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U.S. DEPARTMENT OF STATE
1995 APRIL: PATTERNS OF GLOBAL TERRORISM, 1994

Department of State Publication 10239

Office of the Secretary
Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism, Philip C. Wilcox, Jr.


STATE-SPONSORED TERRORISM OVERVIEW


CONTENTS


Introduction

The provision of funding, safehaven, and weapons and logistic support to terrorists by sovereign states is crucial to the operation of many international terrorist organizations. Such support continues in defiance of the international community's unequivocal condemnation of terrorism and those who support it. Recognizing the danger that such support represents, a primary aim of our counterterrorism policy has been to apply pressure to such states to stop that support and to make them pay the cost if they persist. We do this by publicly identifying state sponsors and by imposing economic, diplomatic, and sometimes military sanctions. Seven nations are designated as states that sponsor international terrorism: Cuba, Iran, Iraq, Libya, North Korea, Sudan, and Syria.

Cuba is no longer able to actively support armed struggle in Latin America and other parts of the world as the Castro regime has become preoccupied with its struggle for existence. Although there is no evidence of direct sponsorship of terrorist acts in 1994, Havana does provide safehaven for several international terrorists. Cuba has not renounced political support for groups that engage in international terrorism.

Iran is still the most active state sponsor of international terrorism. Iranian terrorist operations concentrate on Iranian dissidents living outside Iran. While Tehran has tried to moderate its public image in the West, Iran continues to use terrorism as ruthlessly as it did under Khomeini and supports groups, such as Hizballah, that pose a threat to Americans. In December, a French court handed down a decision in the trial of three Iranians accused of participating in the 1991 murder of former Iranian Prime Minister Bakhtiar and an assistant. One was sentenced to life and one to 10 years in prison, while the third, an employee of the Iranian Embassy in Bern, was acquitted. Iran remains committed to carrying out the death sentence imposed on British author Salman Rushdie. Iran's main client, Hizballah, could well have been responsible for the 18 July bombing of the Argentine-Israel Mutual Association (AMIA) that left nearly 100 persons dead. Iran supports many other radical organizations that have resorted to terrorism, such as the Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ), HAMAS, and the Popular Front for the Liberation of PalestineöGeneral Command (PFLP-GC).

Throughout 1994 Iraq remained out of compliance with UN Security Council resolutions, including those requiring it to renounce terrorism. Iraq continued its terrorist attacks against political dissidents, both at home and abroad. It also continued its terrorist war of attrition aimed at driving UN and other foreign aid agencies out of northern Iraq and depriving the Kurdish population of relief supplies. There were at least 17 attacks against UN and international relief personnel reported in 1994. Iraq continues to provide safehaven and training facilities for several terrorist organizations, including Abu Abbas' Palestine Liberation Front (PLF), the ANO, and the Arab Liberation Front (ALF). In June, a Kuwaiti court rendered verdicts in the trial of the 14 individuals accused of participating in the plot to assassinate former President Bush during his April 1993 visit to Kuwait.

Libya continued to defy the demands of UN Security Council resolutions adopted in response to Tripoli's involvement in the bombings of Pan Am Flight 103 and UTA Flight 772. The resolutions demand that Tripoli turn over the two Libyan intelligence agents suspected of carrying out the bombing plot for trial either in a US or UK court, pay compensation to the victims, cooperate in the ongoing investigation, and cease all support for terrorism. Available evidence suggests Libya was behind the disappearance of prominent Libyan dissident and human rights activist Mansour Kikhia from his hotel room in Egypt in December 1993. Leaders of terrorist groups HAMAS and the Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ) publicly announced that Qadhafi had pledged to provide them with aid for the "Liberation of Palestine."

North Korea is not known to have sponsored any international terrorist attacks since 1987, when it conducted the midflight bombing of a KAL airliner. North Korea has publicly condemned terrorism but maintains contact with groups that practice terrorism and continues to provide sanctuary to Japanese Communist LeagueöRed Army Faction terrorists who hijacked a Japan Airlines flight to North Korea in 1970.

While there is no evidence that the Government of Sudan conducted or sponsored a specific act of terrorism in 1994, the regime provided safehaven and support for members of several international terrorist groups operating in Sudan. These include some of the world's most violent organizations: the ANO, the Lebanese Hizballah, HAMAS, the Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ), and Egypt's Islamic Group. Some of Sudan's neighbors have complained that insurgents in North Africa have received training, funds, weapons, travel documents and indoctrination from Sudan. In December, Eritrea severed diplomatic relations with Sudan for its support for subversive activities and hostile acts. Sudan turned over the international terrorist Carlos to France in August, after offering him safehaven in Khartoum since late 1993. The regime has stated that the turnover was a one-time occurrence and would not affect other terrorists currently harbored in Sudan.

There is no evidence that Syrian officials have been directly involved in planning or executing terrorist attacks since 1986, but Syria continues to provide safehaven and support, inside Syria or in areas of Lebanon under Syrian control, for terrorist groups such as Ahmad Jibril's PFLP-GC, HAMAS, PIJ, the Japanese Red Army, and the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK). Syria also permits Iran to resupply Hizballah via Damascus. Nevertheless, Damascus continues to restrain the international activities of some of these groups.


Cuba

The Castro regime, which is preoccupied with its existence, is no longer able to support armed struggle actively in Latin America and other parts of the world. In years past, Havana provided significant levels of military training, weapons, funds, and guidance to leftist subversives. Currently, the regime's focus is largely on economic survival, and the government is attempting to upgrade diplomatic and trade relations within Latin America. Cuba's economy continued to deteriorate, and a large antiregime demonstration broke out for the first time in 1994.

Although there is no evidence that Cuban officials have been directly involved in sponsoring a specific act of terrorism during the past year, Havana did provide safehaven in 1994 to several terrorists in Cuba. A number of ETA Basque terrorists who sought sanctuary in Cuba several years ago continue to live on the island. Some of the more than 40 Chilean terrorists from the Manuel Rodriguez Patriotic Front (FPMR) who escaped from a Chilean prison in 1990 also probably still reside in Cuba. Colombia's two main guerrilla groups, the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and the National Liberation Army (ELN), reportedly maintain representatives in Havana.


Iran

Iran is still the most active state sponsor of international terrorism and continues to be directly involved in planning and executing terrorist acts. This year Tehran seems to have maintained its terrorist activities at the level of 1993, when there were four confirmed and two possible Iranian attacks on dissidents living outside Iran. Iranian terrorist operations concentrate on Iranian dissidents, particularly members of the Mojahedin-e Khalq (MEK) and the Kurdish Democratic Party of Iran (KDPI). Iran supports extremist Palestinian groups that have used terrorism to try to halt the Middle East peace process. Tehran also gives varying degrees of assistance to an assortment of radical Islamic and secular groups from North Africa to Central Asia.

While President Rafsanjani has tried to moderate Iran's public image to expand its economic and political ties to Western Europe and Japan, Iran continues to use terrorism as ruthlessly as it did under Khomeini. Tehran supports groups, such as its main client Hizballah, that pose a threat to Americans. Due to the continuing threat from Tehran and Hizballah, American diplomatic missions and personnel remain at risk.

Confirmed attacks on Iranian dissidents in the past year include the following: the 7 January killing of Taha Kirmeneh, a dissident who was a member of the Kurdish Democratic Party of Iran (KDPI), by gunmen in Coru, Turkey; the 10 January wounding of a member of the KDPI by a letter bomb in Stockholm, Sweden; the killing of a KDPI leader in Sulaymaniyah, Iraq, on 10 March; and the killing of two members of the Mojahedin-e Khalq (MEK) in Qabbiyah, Iraq, while driving to Baghdad on 29 May. While the MEK has been victimized by Iranian terrorism, the group has itself employed terrorist tactics.

The 24 June murder of dissident Osman Muhammed Amini at his home in Copenhagen and the 12 November murder of dissident Ali Mohammed Assadi in Bucharest may also have been carried out at the Iranian Government's behest.

On 6 December, a French court handed down a decision in the trial of three Iranians accused of participating in the 1991 murder of former Iranian Prime Minister Bakhtiar and an assistant. One defendant received life imprisonment. A second, an Iranian radio correspondent who is reputed to be a nephew of the late Ayatollah Khomeini, was sentenced to 10 years in jail. The third, an employee of the Iranian Embassy in Bern, was acquitted.

Iran remains committed to implementation of the death sentence imposed on British author Salman Rushdie. When speaking to Western audiences, Iranian leaders claim that the fatwa (or religious finding) against Rushdie is a religious matter that does not involve the Government of Iran.

However, the Iranian Government continued its propaganda campaign against Rushdie. In February, the fifth anniversary of the fatwa, Tehran Radio stated that "The least punishment for (Rushdie)·is·his execution." Ayatollah Hassan Sanei, the head of a quasi-governmental foundation that has offered a $2 million reward for the murder of Rushdie, said that supporters of Rushdie who campaign for the lifting of the fatwa deserved to be "punished." A Revolutionary Guards official vowed publicly that the death sentence would be carried out. The influence of this campaign has been felt outside Iran. In September, the head of a Muslim organization in Norway threatened to kill Rushdie if he attended a conference on freedom of expression in Stavanger.

Iran is also the world's preeminent state sponsor of extremist Islamic and Palestinian groups, providing funds, weapons, and training. Hizballah, Iran's closest client, could well have been responsible for the 18 July bombing of the Argentine Israel Mutual Association that left nearly 100 persons dead. This operation was virtually identical to the one conducted in March 1992 against the Israeli Embassy in Buenos Aires, for which Hizballah claimed responsibility. Hizballah had stated that it would seek retaliation against Israel for the kidnapping of a well-known Lebanese Shia terrorist and the Israeli airstrike in June on a Hizballah camp in Lebanon that killed more than 20 militants.

Iran supports many other radical organizations that have engaged in terrorism. Tehran opposes any compromise with or recognition of Israel and, as the peace process moves ahead, has worked to coordinate a rejectionist front to oppose the Israeli-PLO accords, particularly with the PIJ, the PFLP-GC, and HAMAS, as well as Hizballah.

Tehran continues to provide safehaven to the terrorist Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) in Iran. The PKK -- seeking to establish a Kurdish state in southeastern Turkey -- in 1994 conducted a violent campaign against Turkish tourism, including attacks on tourist spots frequented by foreigners, while continuing unabated the use of terrorism against Turkish citizens, including ethnic Kurds.


Iraq

Iraq continued to engage in state-sponsored internal and international terrorism in 1994. It is rebuilding its ability to mount terrorist attacks abroad, despite financial and diplomatic constraints imposed in the wake of the Gulf war.

The Government of Iraq provides safehaven and logistic support to several terrorist groups and individuals, including elements of the ANO, based in Lebanon; the Mojahedin-e Khalq, which is opposed to the government in Tehran; Abu Abbas' Palestine Liberation Front (PLF); and notorious bomb-maker Abu Ibrahim. Both Abbas and Ibrahim enjoy sanctuary in Iraq.

Political killings and terrorist actions are directed against civilians, foreign relief workers, journalists, and opposition leaders. On 12 April, a prominent Iraqi expatriate oppositionist residing in Beirut, Lebanon, was assassinated. The Government of Lebanon stated that it had firm evidence linking the killing to the Government of Iraq and arrested two Iraqi diplomats in connection with the incident. Lebanon subsequently broke diplomatic relations with Iraq.

Since 1991, in violation of UN Security Council resolutions, the Government of Iraq has obstructed the international community's provision of humanitarian assistance. We believe that Iraq is responsible for more than 100 attacks on relief personnel and aid convoys over the past four years. Moreover, the Government of Iraq has offered monetary "bounties" to anyone who assassinates UN and other international relief workers.

A German journalist and her Kurdish bodyguard were shot to death on 3 April in an ambush near Suleymaniya. Kurdish authorities arrested several suspects who reportedly confessed that the government had paid them to commit the murders. Several other international personnel, including UN guards and journalists, were critically injured in bombing and shooting attacks. At least 16 such attacks were reported. On 2 January, two UN vehicles were fired on while approaching the Aski Kalak bridge between Mosul and Irbil. One vehicle was hit seven times. On 21 January a handmade device using TNT exploded in the garden of a UN residence. Two Swedish journalists were injured on 14 March near Aqrah when a bomb exploded under their car. On 24 May two vehicles carrying representatives from the NGO OXFAM were shot at while returning to Suleymaniyah from a UN-NGO meeting in Salaheddin. On 1 June handgrenades were thrown at a warehouse in Suleymaniyah belonging to the French relief group Equilibre.

In July, three members of a prominent Shi'a family, the al-Khoeis, and their driver died under suspicious circumstances in an automobile crash in southern Iraq, near Al Najaf. Evidence points to involvement by the Government of Iraq. The al-Khoei family had long been targeted for harassment and abuse by the government.

On 4 June, a Kuwaiti court returned verdicts in the trial of the 14 individuals accused of participation in the plot to assassinate former President Bush during his April 1993 visit to Kuwait. Six of the 14 were sentenced to death, seven were sentenced to prison for terms ranging from six months to 12 years, and one was acquitted.


Libya

The Libyan regime continued to defy the demands of UN Security Council Resolutions 731, 748, and 883 adopted in response to Tripoli's involvement in the bombings of Pan Am Flight 103 and UTA Flight 772. UNSCR 731 was adopted following the November 1991 indictments by British and US authorities of two Libyan intelligence agents for their role in the 1988 Pan Am bombing. The resolution incorporated US and British demands that Tripoli turn over the two suspects for trial in either a US or UK court, pay compensation to the victims, cooperate in the ongoing investigation, and cease all support for terrorism. UNSCR 731 also demanded that Tripoli cooperate with French authorities in their separate investigation of the UTA 772 bombing in 1989.

In April 1992, UNSCR 748 imposed sanctions against the Libyan regime for its refusal to comply with the demands of UNSCR 731. Those sanctions involved embargoing Libyan civil aviation and military procurement efforts, as well as requiring all states to reduce Libya's diplomatic presence. In November 1993, UNSCR 883 imposed additional sanctions to increase the pressure on Libya to comply with previous demands. The 883 sanctions added a limited assets freeze and oil technology ban and strengthened existing sanctions.

By the end of 1994, Libya had taken no serious steps toward compliance with any of the UNSC demands. Instead, the Libyan regime continued to propose half measures and "compromise" solutions to the trial venue for the two suspects. Tripoli's proposals appeared disingenuous from the start, as none satisfy the demands of UNSC resolutions or meet the requirements of American or British judicial systems.

Even while Libya continued its efforts to convince international public opinion that it had abandoned terrorism, Qadhafi and his senior advisers vehemently attacked the Libyan opposition, calling them "stray dogs" and publicly threatening them. Indeed, available evidence strongly suggests Libya was behind the disappearance of prominent Libyan dissident and human rights activist, Mansour Kikhia, from his hotel room in Egypt in December 1993.

Throughout 1994, Tripoli demonstrated its willingness to support groups that oppose Western interests with terrorism. Qadhafi repeatedly urged radical rejectionists of the Middle East peace process to use "whatever means" possible to oppose it. Libya opened its arms to leaders of well- known militant groups opposed to the Gaza-Jericho accord and hosted several meetings of the rejectionist groups in 1994. In addition, Libya hailed the 19 October bus-bombing attack in Tel Aviv by HAMAS as a "courageous operation." In addition, the leaders of HAMAS and the Palestinian Islamic Jihad publicly announced that Qadhafi had pledged to provide them with aid for the "liberation of Palestine."


North Korea

The Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK or North Korea) is not known to have sponsored any international terrorist attacks since 1987, when it conducted the midflight bombing of a KAL airliner. A North Korean spokesman in April 1993 condemned all forms of terrorism, including state terrorism, and said his country resolutely opposed the encouragement and support of terrorism. Nevertheless, North Korea maintains contact with groups that practice terrorism and continues to provide political sanctuary to members of the Japanese Communist Leagueö Red Army Faction who hijacked a Japan Airlines flight to North Korea in 1970.

Sudan

The Government of Sudan provided safehaven and support for members of several international terrorist groups operating in Sudan. The regime also permitted Tehran to use Sudan as a secure transit point and meeting site for Iranian-backed extremist groups. There is no evidence that Sudan, which is dominated by the National Islamic Front (NIF), conducted or sponsored a specific act of terrorism in 1994.

The list of groups that maintain a presence or operate in Sudan is disturbing and includes some of the world's most violent organizations: the ANO, the Lebanese Hizballah, the Palestinian Islamic Resistance Movement (HAMAS), the Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ), and Egypt's Islamic Group. The NIF also supports Islamic opposition groups from Algeria, Tunisia, Kenya, and Eritrea. Some of Sudan's neighbors have complained that insurgents in North Africa have received assistance from Sudan in the form of training, funds, weapons, travel documents, and indoctrination. In December, Eritrea severed diplomatic relations with Sudan for its support for subversive activities and hostile acts.

In a positive development, Sudan turned over the international terrorist "Carlos" (Ilyich Ramirez Sanchez) to France in August. Carlos -- who bragged about his ties to senior government officials, carried a weapon, and flaunted Sudan's laws -- had been living in Sudan since late 1993 with full knowledge and protection of senior levels of the NIF and Sudanese Government.

While the reasons for the expulsion of Carlos are not entirely clear, the regime emphasized that the affair did not signal a shift in Sudanese policy and that the fate of Carlos would not affect other terrorist elements currently harbored in Sudan. President Bashir stated publicly it was Sudan's duty to protect "mujahedin" who sought refuge. In a press interview on the suicide bus bombing in Tel Aviv by a HAMAS militant in October, which left 22 persons dead, NIF leader Hassan Turabi praised the attack, calling it "an honorable act."

The Sudanese regime regularly denied there are terrorists in Sudan, and it refused to investigate information the US Ambassador supplied in September about the training of terrorists at the Merkhiyat Popular Defense camp located northwest of Khartoum. The Foreign Minister categorically dismissed the information without even offering to look into it.


Syria

There is no evidence that Syrian officials have been directly involved in planning or executing terrorist attacks since 1986. Damascus is publicly committed to the Middle East peace process and has taken some steps to restrain the international activities of these groups. Syria also uses its influence with Hizballah to limit outbreaks of violence on the border between Lebanon and Israel, but permits Iran to resupply Hizballah via Damascus.

However, Syria continues to provide safehaven and support for several groups that engage in international terrorism; spokesmen for some of these groups have publicly claimed responsibility for attacks in Israel and the occupied territories. Several radical terrorist groups maintain training camps or other facilities on Syrian territory. Ahmad Jibril's PFLP-GC has its headquarters near Damascus. In addition, Damascus grants a wide variety of groups engaged in terrorism basing privileges or refuge in areas of Lebanon's Bekaa Valley under Syrian control: these include HAMAS, the PFLP-GC, the Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ), and the Japanese Red Army (JRA).

The terrorist group PKK continues to train in the Bekaa Valley, and its leader, Abdullah Ocalan, resides at least part-time in Syria. The PKK in 1994 conducted a violent campaign against Turkish tourist spots frequented by foreigners, as well as other terrorist violence across Europe. Syrian safehaven for PKK operations was vigorously protested by Turkey and is the subject of discussions between Syria and Turkey.

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