An agreement between Italy and Turkey, dating December 28, 1932 clearly outlined the line of demarcation between the shores of Eastern Turkey and the island Kastellorizo, which then belonged to Italy. Specifically, this agreement established the territorial waters separation of the turkish sea between Kastellorizo and the Minor Asia coast.

According to the protocol of the agreement between Italy and Turkey, signed in the turkish Foreign Ministry in Ankara on December 28, 1932, the demarcation line designates to whom the terrritory belongs, and does not divide the Aegean Sea.

As such, the protocol states, within a distance of 12 (twelve) miles and a minimal distance of territory between the two countries, the demarcation line will designate the two countries' sea sovereignty.

The protocol also states: "It is clearly understood that in the areas where this distance surpasses the twelve (12) miles, the demarcation line will not affect the extension of territorial waters of both countries."

Specifically, the demarcation line is represented by 1) 10m miles south of the island Volos. 2) Half the distance between the Rhodes lighthouse and Cape Kapouia.

Section 30 of this agreement clearly mentions that the italian-turkish border line passes between the Imia islands group -which then belonged to Italy- and the uninhabited island Kato, which belongs to Turkey.






THE ROYAL GOVERNMENT OF ITALY represented by His Excellency Baron Pompeo ALOISI,

Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary in Turkey, of the one part; and

THE COVERNMENT OF THE TURKISH REPUBLIC represented by His Excellency Dr. Tevfik

RUSTU BEY, Minister for Foreign Affairs, Deputy for Izmir, of the other part;

Being desirous of maintaining and strengthening still further the relation of sincere friendship which happily exist between them, have decided to settle by a direct agreement the dispute which has arisen between Italy and Turkey concerning the sovereignty over the islets situated between the Anatolian coast and the island of Castellorizo and also over the island of kara- Ada, and to delimit the territorial waters surrounding the said islets, the ownership of which has given rise to a dispute between them in consequence of the interpretation of the provision of the Treaty of Lausanne relevant thereto.

The undersigned, having shown their full powers, found in good and due form, have agreed upon the following points:

Article 1

The Italian Government recognises the sovereignty of Turkey over the following islets:

Volo (Gatal-Ada), Ochendra(Uvendire), Fournachia (Furnakya), Kato Volo (Katovolo), Prassoudi (Prasudi) (soyth-east of Catovolo). The islets of Tchatallota, Pighi, Nissi-Tis-Pighi, Agricelia reef, Proussecliss (rock), Pano Makri, Kato Makri(including the rocks), Marathi, Roccie Voutzaky (Rocci Vutchaki), Dacia (Dasya), Nissi-Tis Dacia, Prassoudi (north of Dacia), Alimentarya (Alimentaria), Caravola (Karavola).

Article 2

The islet of Kara-Ada, situated in the Bay of Bodrum, shall likewise belong to Turkey.

Article 3

On the other hand, the Turkish Government recognises Italian sovereignty over the islets situated in the zone delimited by a circle having for its centre the dome of the Church of the town of Castellorizo and for its radius the distance between that centre and Cape San Stephano (windward side), namely: Psoradia, Polyphados, St. George (two islands included in the English map No 236: St. George being the island to the south and Agrielaia the island to the north).

Psomi (Strongylo, English map 236), Cutsumbora (Koutsoumbas) (Rocks), Mavro Poinaki (Mavro Poinachi), Mavro Poinis (Mavro Poini).

In addition to these islets included in the above- mentioned circle, the islets of St. George (Rho) Dragonera, Ross and Hypsili (Stronghyli) shall likewise belong to Italy.

Article 4

It is clearly understood that all the islands and the islets and rocks on both sides of the line of demarcation of the waters laid down in the present Convention, whether their names are mentioned therein or not, shall belong to the State under whose sovereignty the zone in which the said islands and islets and rocks are situated is placed.

Article 5

The High Contacting Parties have also agreed to delimit the territorial waters as follows:

To the East: From a point situated halfway between Cape San Stephano (windward side) and Cape Gata;

Thence in a straight line to a point situated halfway between Psomi and Proussecliss (Proussecliss)

>From this point in a straight line to a point situared halfway between Mavro-Points and Proussecliss;

>From this point in a straight line to a point situared halfway between Niphtis Promontory and the Proussecliss Rock;

>From this point in a straight line to a point situated halfway between the north-east coast of the island of Hypsili (Stronghyli) and the south- west coast of th island of Nissi-Tis Dacia;

>From this point, in a straight line, to a point three miles south of Tugh-Burnu.

To the South :

>From this latter point the line runs to a point situated three miles south of the South Hypsili promontory where it joint the maritime frontier which is not under discussion,

To the North :

>From this latter situated halfway Cape San Stephano (windward side) and Cape Gata the line of demarcation runs in a straight line to a point situated halfway between Cape San Stephano (windward side)and Cape Vathy;

>From this point in a straight line to a point situated halfway between the Cape of Limenari and the Voutzaki rocks (Rocci Vutzaki);

>From this latter point to a point situated halfway between the Dragonera island and the Voutzaki rocks (Rocci Vutchaki);

>From this latter point the line runs northwards to a point situated halfway between the north-east point of the St. George island (Rho) and the nearest point of the Anatolian coast north of that island;

>From this point to a point sistuated halfway between Prassoudi and the south-west point of the St. George island (Rho);

>From the latter point in a straignt line to a point situated three miles south of the island of Volo where it joins the maritime frontier which is not under discussion.

The line of demarcation described in the present Article, which has been fixed island and islets on either side of that line, joins in an easterly direction at a point situated three miles south of the island of Volo, the general maritime frontier which in not under discussion between Turkey and Italy.

Article 6

The names of the places mentioned have been taken from the Italian map (624), the french map(5551) and the English map (236).

The High Contracting Parties agree that in case of divergence between the text of the present Convention and the maps annexed thereto, the text shall prevail

Article 7

The present Convention shall be ratified and the ratifacation shall be exchanged at Rome as soon as possible.

It shall come into force fifteen days after the date of the exchange of ratifacation.

In faith where of the Plenipotentiaries of the High Contracting Parties have signed the present Convention and have thereto affixed their seals.

Done in duplicate at Ankara, June 4, 1932.

(L. S.) ALOISI (L. S.) T. RUSTU.


The other islands

Le Delegue italien et les Delegues turcs, conforment aux dispositions des lettres echangees le 4 Janvier 1932 lors de la signature de la Convention portant la meme date et conclue entre l' Italie et la Turquie en vue d' etablir l' appartenance des iles, flots et rochers situes entre l' ile de Castelorizo et les cotes d' Anatolie, ainsi que l' ile de Kara Ada et de proceder a la delimination des eaux territoriales environnant les dites lies, flots et rochers, lettres en vertu desquelles les deux Parties s' etaient engagees a proposer a leur Gouvernement respectifis de proceder de suite au trace de la partie restante de la frontiere maritime italo-turque ne faisant l' objet d' aucune contestation, se sont reunis a cet effet au Ministere des Affaires Etrangeres de la Republique Turque a Ankara le 28 decembre 1932.

Etaient presents:

Pour le Gouvernement Italien: Monsieur le Capitaine de Vaisseau Roberto Soldati, Attache Naval et Aeronautique pres l' Ambassade de la Majeste de Roi d' Italie en Turquie

Pour le Gouvernement Turc:

Saip Bey, Conseiller d' Ambassade, Chef de Section au 1er Departement, Ertogrul Bey, Capitaine de Fregate, Asim Bey, Commandant d' Etat Major, Hayrettin Bey, Capitaine de Corvette.

Avant de proceder au trace de la ligne frontiere le delegue italien et les delegues turcs sont tombes d' accord, afin d' eviter toute divergance de vues qui pourraient surgir dans les negotiations, sur les principes suivants, quant a la definition de la ligne frontiere:

  1. La ligne frontiere est tracees pour fixer l' appartenance des territoires possedes par les deux Etats et non pour separer les eaux de la mer.

  2. Toutefois de la distance minima entre les territoires des deux Parties jusqu' a une distance de 12 milles (1 mille 1852 m) la ligne frontiere determinera la souverainete des deux Pays sur les eaux de la mer. Il est par consequent bien entendu que dans les Parties ou cette distance depasse 12 milles la ligne frontiere ne porte aucun prejudice a la fixation de l' etendue des eaux territoriales des deux Pays.

Apres quoi les deux Delegations d' un commun accord ont trace sur les cartes hydrographiques anglaises Nos.236, 872, 1546. La ligne frontiere qui passe par les points suivants:

  1. 10 milles au sud de liflet de Volos,

  2. a moitie distance entre la phare de Kumburnu (Rhodes) et Pandian Point (Anatolia).

    [Twenty seven (27) additional sections follow, which designate the line of demarcation]

  3. a moitie distance entre Kardak [Imia] (R.k.s.)et Kato I. (Anatolie),

    [Six (6) additional sections follow, which designate the line of demarcation

  4. a moitie distance entre la pointe Est de Nero I. (Gaidaro) et Kavo Plakes (Anatolie),

  5. a moitie distance entre la pointe Nord de Psethonisi (Gaidaro) et la pointe Sud de Theopori I. (Anatolie),

La frontiere tracee ay moyen des 37 points ce-dessus definis va se joindre a la limite ouest de la frontiere de l'ile de Castellorizo, frontiere qui a ete decrite dans la Canvention du 4 janvier 1932.

Enfin de l'extreme Est de la frontriere de Castellorizo (point designe par le chiffre I romain) La ligne a ete prolongee a travers le point II romain et arrtee au point III romain.

Les points II et III romain sont definis comme suit:

Le point II romain est situe a IO milles au Sud de Trugh Burnu. Le point III romain est situe a IO milles au Sud de la pointe Sud de Khelidonia (carte anglaise No 236).

L'orthographe des localites ci-dessus mentionnes a ete empruntee aux cartes anglaises susenumerees.

En cas de divergence entre la present texte et les cartes annexees c' est le texte qui fera foi.