The "Macedonian Question"

Notes to

An expose' of the question and the position of Skopje

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6. See M. Nystazopoulou-Pelekidou, Εθνικιστικά φαινόμενα καί χωριστικές τάσεις στα Βαλκάνια. Τά ιστορικά αίτια (= Nationalistic Phenomena and Separatist Tendencies in the Balkans. The Historical Reasons), Publications of the Greek Committee for Southeastern European Studies (Athens, 1991), p. 28.

7. See generally E. Hoesch, The Balkans. A Short History from Greek Times to the Present Day (English translation, London, 1972), pp. 171 and 174. M. de Vos, Histoire de la Yugoslavie 2, "Que sais-je?" No 675 (Paris, 1965), p. 111 et sq; for the renaming, see p. 126.

8. Apart from the autonomous republics which were detached from Serbia, inside the limits of the Republic of Sebia the autonomous province of Vojvodina and the autonomous region of Kossyphopedion (Kossovo) - Metojija were created. Since then Serbia has owned an area of 88,361 square kilometres, i.e. 34,5% of the total area of Yugoslavia, while in the inter-war period it exceeded 60%. Cf. also M. de Vos, Histoire de la Yougoslavie2, p. 112.

9. After the Serbian Revolution (1804-1830) and the establishment of the Serbian autonomous principality (1834), Serbia sought to play a leading role among the Yugoslav Peoples as well as throughout the Balkans. This policy was expressed in the Nacertanije, "The Plan", that Ilija Garasanin worked out in 1844 and which constituted the guideline for Serbian foreign policy during the entire 19th century. Cf. M. Laskaris, The Eastern Question, op. cit., p. 200. M. Nystazopoulou-Pelekidou, The Balkan Peoples, op. cit., p. 199 sq. Cf. also D. Djordjevic, Revolutions nationales, op. cit. p. 73.

10. About the Serbian hegemonistic policy after World War I, see M. de Vos, Histoire de la Yougoslavie2, p. 97 sq.

11. See Ev. Kofos, Macedonia in the Yugoslav Historiography, pp. 6-7 with the notes.

12. Macedonia. Documents and Material (Sophia, 1978), pp. 661-662. Cf. Ev. Kofos, The Macedonian Struggle, op. cit., pp. 22-23. It should be noted that neither Chr. Tatarchev nor earlier the Communist Congress of 1924 mention a "Macedonian Nation": see M. Papaconstantinou, Η Μαψεδονία μετά τ\;ν Μακεδονικό Αγώνα (= Macedonia after the Macedonian Struggle) (Athens, 1992), p. 35.

13. The name Vardarska Banovina is a result of the reorganization of 1931. At that time the old names and administrative divisions were abolished and simultaneously with its renaming as Kingdom of Yugoslavia the state was organized into nine banovinas, which took their names from the river which passed through them. In this way the new Concstitution attempted to eradicate localism and the old divisions into ethnic groups and at the same time to obliterate the interior boundaries: Cf. M. de Vos, Histoire de la Yougoslavie2, p. 100.

14. See Ev. Kofos, Macedonia in the Yugoslav Historiography, p. 8.

14a. See N. Andriotis, The Federative Republik of Skopje and its language2 (Thessaloniki, 1966).

15. See H. Papastathis, "L'autocephalie de l'Eglise de la Macedoine Yougoslave", Balkan Studies 8 (1967), pp. 151-154.

16. In 1976 Ev. Kofos, Macedonia in the Yugoslave Historiography (p. 13 et sq.), had already observed: "Within a few years in Skopje they collected hundreds of thousands of microtapes from state, private and ecclesiastic archives which referred, in whatever way, to Macedonia. Without stinting themselves materially, they also photographed thousands of pages of old editions, books, pamphlets and newspapers". In theis way they created huge Archives relating to Macedonia, although, of course, this material should not be able in any way to support the existence of a separate Macedonian nation.

17. For the first publications, see Ev. Kofos, Macedonia in the Yugoslav Historiography, p. 9 and notes 1-2. From these publications the moist basic is the Istorija na Makedonskijot Narod which I have already mentioned (see above, note 5). A second voluminous edition of this work is being prepared since the first one is considered out-of-date.

18. The examples are many. Characteristically, I mention the work of the brothers Constantin and Dimitri Miladinov, Balgarski Narodni Pesni [= Bulgarian Popular Songs], which was published in Zagreb in 1861 and was widely disseminated; it was republished recently in Skopje, but with its original title changed into Makedonski Narodni Pesni [= Macedonian Popular Songs].

19. See Ev. Kofos, Macedonia in the Yugoslav Historiography, p. 4 and note 7.

20. Idem, Macedonia in the Yugoslav Historiography, p.11

21. For the term, see ibid., p. 11.

22. Ibid., pp. 11-12.

23. See E. Zografski, Egeiska Makedonia (Skopje, 1951), p. 50: So that the Greek character of Greek Macedonia could be disputed, they fabricated a census for the year 1941, in which it is stated that at that time the following ethnic groups lived in Greek Macedonia: 258,000 "Macedonians", 250,000 Greeks, 210,000 Karamanlids (that is populations coming from Asia Minor by virtue of the exchange of populations), 80,000 Armenians, 74,000 Lazes and others. In these statistics the population of Thessaloniki, Chalkidiki and of the prefecture of Kozani is not included, because it would then have been more difficult to falsify the numbers (Cf. Ev. Kofos, Macedonia in the Yugoslav Historiography, p.12).

24. See Ul. Wilcken, Alexandre le Grand (Paris, 1952), p. 15: "Alexander the Great belongs to the small minority of men who initiated a new era in world History. Perhaps, he may be the only one who sealed the world with the stamp of his personal will, and with such strength that the progress of mankind remained under his influence for many centuries".

25. Cf. Istorija na Makedonskijot Narod, vol. I, ch. 20, especially p. 45. (Cf. the book review by P. Charanis, Balkan Studies 13, 1972, pp. 166-168. Cf. Ev. Kofos, Macedonia in the Yugoslav Historiography, pp. 15-16.

26. See Istorija na Makedonskijot Narod, vol I, p. 117.

27. See Makedonskijat Vapros (Sophia, November 1968), Greek translation published by the Institute of Balkan Studies, p. 9.

28. See P. Miljkovic-Pepek, "L'architecture chretienne chez les Slaves Macedoniens a partir d'avant la moitie' du IXe siecle jusqu'a fin du XIIIe ciecle", The 17th International Byzantine Congress. Major Papers (Washington D.C., August 3-8, 1986) (New York 1986), p. 483.

29. D. Vlahov, Makedonija. Momenti od Istorijata na Makedksijot Narod [= Macedonia. Moments from the History of the Macedonian People] (Skopje, 1950), pp. 11-12 (Greek translation published by the Institute of Balkna Studies).

30. Cf. P. Miljkovic-Pepek, "L'architecture chretienne", op. cit., pp. 483-496.

31. D. Vlahov, Makedonija..., op.cit., p. 10. Cf. Ev. Kofos, Macedonia..., op. cit., pp. 20-21.

32. See in detail Ev. Kofos, The Macedonian Struggle, p. 9 sq. and pp. 15-16.


Cover Page - Preface - Introduction - I. The question and the position of Skopje -
II. Sources and findings of research: 1. Antiquity - 2. Middle Ages - 3. Turkish Domination
Notes: 1-5 - 6-32 - 33-38 - 39-58 - 59-73 - 74-95 --- Maps: 1 - 2 - 3