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AFIERWMA STON PONTIAKO ELLHNISMO

From: Macedonian Press Agency <mpa@philippos.mpa.gr>

Macedonian Press Agency Documents in ASCII Greek Directory

AFIERWMA STON ELLHNISMO TOY PONTOY

Qessalonikh 17 Maioy 1996


PERIEXOMENA

  • [01] O ELLHNISMOS TOY PONTOY (M.P.E. toy Blash Blasidh)
  • [02] EIS ANAMNHSIN THS GENOKTONIAS TWN PONTIWN (M.P.E. toy Blash Blasidh)
  • [03] PONTIAKOS ELLHNISMOS: H EGKATASTASH STIS NEES PATRIDES (toy Iakwboy Mixahlidh)

  • [01] O ELLHNISMOS TOY PONTOY (M.P.E. toy Blash Blasidh),

    Ena shmantiko meros toy Ellhnismoy diafylaxqhke meta th dialysh ths Byzantinhs aytokratorias sta boreia ths Mikras Asias ston Ponto. Bebaia h alwsh ths Trapezoyntas apo toys Oqwmanoys Toyrkoys to 1461 shmaine gia ton Ellhnismo toy Pontoy thn apwleia ths anejarthsias toy, alla oxi kai thn eqnikh toy syneidhsh.

    Mesa sthn Oqwmanikh aytokratoria oi Pontioi apoteloysan to pio apokommeno kommati toy Ellhnismoy, poy zoysan se mia perioxh ftwxh, xwris idiaitero endiaferon gia thn kentrikh dioikhsh. Epipleon apoteloysan meiochfia mesa se ena plhqos alloqrhskwn kai alloglwsswn lawn, opws oi Koyrdoi kai oi Armenioi.

    Par' ola ayta oi Pontioi katorqwsan na diathrhsoyn th glwssa kai th qrhskeia toys, na apokthsoyn kyriarxh oikonomikh qesh sta astika kentra ths perioxhs toys, na epideijoyn enan ajiologo dhmografiko dynamismo poy toys epetrece na epektaqoyn kai stis perioxes toy Kaykasoy kai ths Krimaias, kai telos na anaptyjoyn mia shmantikh ekpaideytikh drasthriothta.

    Ta aitia ths oikonomikhs anaptyjhs qa prepei na anazhthqoyn arxika sthn ekmetalleysh twn metalleiwn ths Argyroypolhs, sth synexeia sth dianoijh toy emporikoy dromoy Trapezoyntas-Tayridas kai argotera twn oikonomikwn antallagwn, mesw qalasshs me ta limania toy Eyjeinoy Pontoy kyriws ekeina ths Krimaias.

    H oikonomikh anakamch syndyasthke me dhmografikh anodo. To 1865 oi Ellhnes toy Pontoy anerxontan se 265.000 atoma, to 1880 se 330.000 atoma oi opoioi katoikoysan kyriws sta astika kentra. Stis arxes toy 20oy aiwna mesa sthn Oqwmanikh aytokratoria zoysan peripoy 600.000 Pontioi, enw thn idia epoxh yphrxan ston Kaykaso peripoy 150.000 Pontioi.

    Fysiko epakoloyqo ths oikonomikhs anaptyjhs kai ths dhmografikhs ayjhshs htan h emfanish arxika kai h anaptyjh ystera ths ekpaideytikhs drasthriothtas. To 1860 yphrxan sthn perioxh toy Pontoy 100 ellhnika sxoleia, enw meta thn katalysh ths oqwmanikhs kyriarxias to 1919 ta sxoleia ypologizontan se 1401 me 86.000 maqhtes, me pio fhmismeno to Frontisthrio ths Trapezoyntas. Bebaia ektos apo ta sxoleia oi Pontioi dieqetan typografeia, periodika, efhmerides, lesxes, kai qeatra, me ta opoia ekanan aisqhto toso to ychlo pneymatiko toys epipedo, oso kai to eqniko toys fronhma.

    Ayth h pneymatikh anagennhsh fanhke na odhgei se eqnikh anagennhsh to 1919 otan, meta thn katarreysh ths Oqwmanikhs aytokratorias, oi Pontioi zhthsan thn eqnikh tour apokatastash. Arxika zhtoysan thn enwsh toys me thn Ellada, alla otan egine fanero oti ayto den htan efikto, epidiwjan th dhmioyrgia omospondias me toys Armenioys. Omws h lamprh ayth poreia elabe oristiko telos me th Mikrasiatikh Katastrofh kai thn prosfygia toy Pontiakoy Ellhnismoy sthn Ellada kai stis Sobietikes Dhmokraties ths Gewrgias kai ths Armenias.

    [02] EIS ANAMNHSIN THS GENOKTONIAS TWN PONTIWN (M.P.E. toy Blash Blasidh)

    H Kyriakh 19 Maioy exei oristei apo th Boylh twn Ellhnwn ws hmera mnhmhs ths genoktonias toy Pontiakoy Ellhnismoy, poy ezhse kai akmase sto boreio meros ths Mikras Asias mexri to 1922.

    O pontiakos ellhnismos poy zoyse stis arxes toy 20oy aiwna stis perioxes Sinwphs, Amaseias, Trapezoyntas, Samcoyntas, Lazikhs, Argyroypolhs, Sebasteias, Tokaths, kai Nikopolhs ths Oqwmanikhs aytokratorias ariqmoyse, symfwna me ypologismoys toy Oikoymenikoy Patriarxeioy kai twn Oqwmanikwn arxwn peripoy 600.000 atoma. Parallhla sth notia Rwsia, sthn perioxh toy Kaykasoy, thn idia epoxh yphrxan peripoy 150.000 Pontioi, poy eixan metoikisei ekei meta thn Alwsh ths Trapezoyntas apo toys Oqwmanoys to 1461.

    To 1915 htan mia xronia oroshmo gia ton Pontiako Ellhnismo ths Mikras Asias. Th xronia ekeinh, kai enw ola ta eyrwpaika krath eixan emplakei ston A' Pagkosmio Polemo, oi Toyrkoi ekponhsan ena sxedio ejontwshs twn xristianikwn plhqysmwn ths Mikras Asias. Ton Ioynio pragmatopoihqhke h ejoria kai sth synexeia h sfagh twn Armeniwn, enw arxizoyn oi prwtes biopragies enantion toy pontiakoy stoixeioy.

    Ton Dekembrio toy 1916 ekponhqhke apo toys Toyrkoys strathgoys Ember kai Talaat sxedio ejontwshs toy amaxoy ellhnikoy plhqysmoy toy Pontoy poy proeblepe: "Amesh ejontwsh monon twn andrwn twn polewn apo 16-60 etwn kai genikh ejoria olwn twn andrwn kai gynaikopaidwn twn xwriwn sta endotera ths Anatolhs me programma sfaghs kai ejontwshs". To programma jekinhse 15 hmeres argotera kai efarmosthke kyriws stis perioxes ths Samcoyntas kai ths Pafras.

    H perioxh ths Trapezoyntas eixe glytwsei apo th mania twn Toyrkwn dioti eixe katalhfqei ton Aprilio toy 1916 apo ton rwsiko strato. Otan omws oi Rwsoi egkateleican thn polh ton Febroyario toy 1918, tote o misos peripoy plhqysmos ths perioxhs egkateleice tis esties toy kai akoloyqhse ton rwsiko strato kata thn ypoxwrhsh toy. Oi perissoteroi apo toys prosfyges egkatastaqhkan sthn perioxh toy Kaykasoy kai twn paraliwn ths Gewrgias.

    Oi Pontioi pisteysan oti to telos toy A' Pagkosmioy Polemoy qa eferne kai oristiko terma sta deina toys, alla diaceysqhsan. Oi ekklhseis toys gia na symperilhfqoyn sto ellhniko kratos den eisakoysthkan apo ton Eleyqerio Benizelo, o opoios qewroyse oti o Pontos htan poly apomakrysmenos apo tis ypoloipes ellhnikes perioxes me apotelesma na einai adynath h yperaspish toy apo tis touqjij]r epidromes. Se antallagma proteine na proxwrhsoyn oi Pontioi sth dhmioyrgia mias omospondias me toys Armenioys, kai pragmati o arxiepiskopos Trapezoyntas Xrysanqos Filippidhs kai o proedros twn Armeniwn Alejandros Xatisian ypegracan ton Ianoyario toy 1920 symfwnia gia th dhmioyrgia Pontoarmenikoy kratoys. Omws ton Noembrio toy 1920 o armenikos stratos htthqhke sto Erzeroym apo tis dynameis toy Kemal me apotelesma na synqhkologhsoyn oi Armenioi kai na meinoyn oi Pontioi monoi toys.

    Ektote kai mexri ton Aygoysto toy 1922 o Kemal, exontas ekkaqarisei ta deytereyonta metwpa sth Mikra Asia, proxwrhse anenoxlhtos sth stadiakh ejontwsh toy Pontiakoy Ellhnismoy. Oi poleis kai ta xwria kahkan, oi xwrikoi sfaxthkan, atimasthkan, ejoristhkan h efeygan omadika sta dash kai sta boyna. Osoi andres syllambanontan prowqoyntan sto eswteriko ths Mikras Asias. Ypologizetai oti sto diasthma 1914-1922 ejontwqhkan peripoy 200.000 Pontioi.

    Ton Oktwbrio toy 1922 me mesolabhsh twn symmaxikwn dynamewn h ellhnikh kybernhsh kai o Kemal symfwnhsan na metaferqoyn oi Ellhnes toy Pontoy me toyrkika karabia sthn Kwnstantinoypolh kai apo ekei me ellhnika sthn Ellada. Ypeyqynos gia thn omalh metakinhsh twn prosfygwn oristhke o Alejandros Pallhs.

    To prwto karabi me prosfyges jekinhse apo th Samcoynta ton Noembrio toy 1922 gia thn Ellada mesw Kwnstantinoypolhs. To prosfygiko reyma qa synexistei kai se olh th diarkeia toy 1923. To 1924 oi xristianikoi plhqysmoi toy Pontoy perielhfqhkan sth ellhnotoyrkikh symbash gia thn antallagh twn plhqysmwn. Osoi andres epezhsan apo ekeinoys poy eixan syllhfqei ta prohgoymena xronia kai yphretoysan sta tagmata ergasias (amele tampoyroy), perasan sthn Ellada eite mesw Samcoyntas, eite mesw Syrias.

    Den yparxoyn akribh stoixeia gia to pososto twn Pontiwn sto 1.220.000 prosfyges poy dexqhke h Ellada sth dekaetia toy 1920. Ta pontiaka swmateia ypologizoyn oti peripoy 400.000 Pontioi egkatastaqhkan sthn Ellada, kyriws stoys nomoys Dramas, Kilkis, Kabalas, Janqhs, Kozanhs, Prebezas kai sta astika kentra Aqhna, Peiraia kai Qessalonikh, entassomenoi sthn ellhnikh koinwnia.

    Shmera briskomaste se mia nea metakinhsh Pontiwn pros thn Ellada. Oi Pontioi poy zoysan sta paralia ths Mayrhs Qalassas kai ston Kaykaso meta thn katarreysh ths Sobietikhs Enwshs, logw ths ejarshs toy eqnikismoy kai ths oikonomikhs dyspragias egkataleipoyn tis esties toys kai erxontai na egkatastaqoyn monima sthn Ellada, kyriws stis paryfes twn astikwn kentrwn kai stis agrotikes perioxes ths Qrakhs.

    [03] PONTIAKOS ELLHNISMOS: H EGKATASTASH STIS NEES PATRIDES (toy Iakwboy Mixahlidh)

    H afijh twn Pontiwn stis Nees Patrides htan h aparxh mias dyskolhs, alla kai synama dhmioyrgikhs poreias gia ton pontiako ellhnismo. Sthn Ellada h moira twn Pontiwn syndeqhke arrhkta me th moira twn ypoloipwn prosfygwn.

    Ta prwta xronia ths zwhs sth nea patrida den htan sigoyra kai ta pio eyxarista.To ergo ths prosfygikhs apokatastashs htan terastio kai h ellhnikh kybernhsh adynatoyse na to antimetwpisei apo monh ths. Gia to logo ayto prosefyge sth bohqeia ths dieqnoys koinothtas. Pragmatika diafores filanqrwpikes organwseis, kyriws agglikes kai amerikanikes, opws h American Bible Society, h Save the Children Fund kai h All British Appeal proseferan shmantika sthn anakoyfish twn prosfygwn. Parallhla, h Ellada proxwrhse sth synach daneiwn me jenes trapezes, gia na egkatasthsei paragwgika toys prosfyges.

    Thn olh diaxeirish twn xrhmatwn, kaqws kai thn proodo toy epoikistikoy ergoy, anelabe mia dieqnhs epitroph poy systaqhke ypo thn khdemonia ths K.T.E., h Epitroph Apokatastasews Prosfygwn, gnwstoterh ws E.A.P. Prwtos proedros ths E.A.P. diorisqhke o Amerikanos Henry Morgentau, presbeyths ligo argotera sthn Aqhna.

    H egkatastash twn prosfygwn proxwrhse pros dyo basikes kateyqynseis, a)thn agrotikh kai b)thn astikh egkatastash. H agrotikh egkatastash apodeixqhke safws pio eykolh apo thn astikh, giati h diaqesimh gh poy yphrxe htan arketh, idiws sth Makedonia kai th Qrakh. H E.A.P. analambane na xorhghsei stoys agrotes-prosfyges spitia, synhqws antistoixoyse 1 spiti se kaqe 2 h 3 oikogeneies.Epishs, toys promhqeye kai me ton aparaithto ejoplismo, gia na mporesoyn na kallierghsoyn th gh. H agrotikh egkatastash twn prosfygwn proxwrhse me gorgoys ryqmoys kai to 1930 eixe sxedon oloklhrwqei. Antiqeta, h astikh egkatastash synantoyse megalyteres dysxereies, ki ayto giati oi prosfyges eprepe oxi mono na egkatastaqoyn stis poleis, alla parallhla na exoyn th dynatothta na broyn doyleia. Allwste, oi astoi apoteloysan to 42% metajy twn prosfygwn, enw thn idia epoxh o synolikos astikos plhqysmos ths xwras den jepernoyse to 23%. To apotelesma htan na dhmioyrghqoyn gyrw apo tis megales poleis prosfygikoi synoikismoi apo xamospita, opoy oi synqhkes diabiwshs htan kyriolektika aqlies. H astikh apokatastash twn prosfygwn proxwrhse telika me poly argoys ryqmoys kai oysiastika paremeine anoloklhrwth. Malista, mexri kai ta telh ths dekaetias toy 1970 ,ypologizetai pws yphrxan peripoy 3.000 prosfyges poy htan akomh astegoi.

    Para ta problhmata poy anafyontan , omws, h egkatastash twn prosfygwn sth mhtropolitikh Ellada krinetai telika ikanopoihtikh. H mazikh afijh xiliadwn prosfygwn prokalese isxyro sok se mia koinwnia me aparxaiwmenoys qesmoys kai se mia oysiastika kaqysterhmenh oikonomia. Oi qetikes allages ths afijhs twn prosfygwn entopizontai se diafores ptyxes toy oikonomikoy kai koinwnikoy bioy. As tis ejetasoyme loipon jexwrista.

    • a) Ston eqnologiko tomea. To 1913 oi meionothtes sthn Ellada apoteloysan peripoy to 13% toy synolikoy plhqysmoy. Ligo argotera, malista, to 1920, to pososto ayto plhsiase to 20%.Ayto shmainei pws to 1920 o enas stoys pente katoikoys ths xwras den htan Ellhnas. Malista sth Makedonia, to 1920, to pososto toy ellhnikoy plhqysmoy kymainontan gyrw sto 45%. Omws, h mazikh ecjat\stasg prosfygwn, kyriws sth Makedonia kai th Qrakh, se syndyasmo me thn taytoxronh apoxwrhsh 300.000 peripoy Moysoylmanwn kai 60.000 peripoy Boylgarwn, anetrece dramatika ta plhqysmiaka dedomena. Etsi, to 1926, to pososto toy ellhnikoy plhqysmoy ths Makedonias eftase to 88,8% , enw to 1928 oi Ellhnes apoteloysan to 93,8% toy synolikoy plhqysmoy ths xwras. Ayto shmainei pws sta telh ths dekaetias toy 1920 h Ellada htan to kratos me th megalyterh eqnikh omoiogeneia sth Balkanikh kai ena apo ta pleon omoiogenh krath sthn Eyrwph. H apoch malista ayth pistopoieitai kai apo ta pleon epishma xeilh, toys proedroys ths E.A.P., Morgentau, Eddy kai Howland.
    • b) Ston oikonomiko tomea. Ki edw h prosfora twn prosfygwn htan terastia.Sta telh toy 1922 h oikonomia ths xwras eixe sxedon aposynteqei kai h paragwgh eixe pesei poly xamhla. Omws, oi prosfyges anetrecan plhrws thn katastash. Oi anagkes ths egkatastashs toys odhghsan sthn apallotriwsh twn tsiflikiwn ksi twn megalwn kthmatwn poy mexri tote apoteloysan thn kyria morfh idiokthsias ghs. Akomh, eishxqhsan nees kalliergeies kai efarmosqhkan nees texnikes. Pio sygkekrimena, mexri to 1922 h stafida apoteloyse thn kyria kalliergeia, logw, omws, twn synexwn stafidikwn krisewn antikatastaqhke apo ton kapno o opoios kalyce to 70% peripoy twn ellhnikwn ejagwgwn. H kalliergeia toy kapnoy ginotan malista kata ta 2/3 apo prosfyges. To apotelesma htan oti deka xronia meta thn afijh twn prosfygwn h kallierghsimh gh eixe ayjhqei kata 55% kai to agrotiko eisodhma eixe diplasiasqei. Alla kai ston tomea ths biotexnias kai ths biomhxanias h prosfora twn prosfygwn htan eyergetikh. Anaptyxqhkan neoi kladoi, opws h metajoyrgia, h kerameikh, h xalkoyrgia, h taphtoyrgia, h argyroxoia kai h byrsodecia. Sto diasthma 1923-1930 perissoteres apo 900 biomhxanies idryqhkan. Epishs , sto idio diasthma, oi emporikes synallages ths xwras me to ejwteriko sxedon diplasiasqhkan.
    • g) Ston pneymatiko tomea. Ki edw h symbolh twn prosfygwn yphrje terastia. Episthmones, dianooymenoi kai diaforoi alloi pneymatikoi anqrwpoi apo th M.Asia lamprynan me thn paroysia toys ton xwro twn ellhnikwn grammatwn. Anaferontai endeiktika orismena onomata. O ajexastos arxaiologos Manwlhs Andronikos, o istorikos Paylos Karolidhs, o filologos Iwannhs Sykoytrhs, o Dhmhtrhs Glhnos, o Giwrgos Seferhs, o Hlias Benezhs, o Fwths Kontogloy, h Didw Swthrioy, h Maria Iordanidoy, o Menelaos Loyntemhs, o Dhmhtrhs Caqas, o Karolos Koyn, o Panos Katselhs, o Manwlhs Kalomoirhs. Oson afora, eidikotera, sthn pneymatikh syneisfora twn Pontiwn einai shmantiko oti to 1927 idryqhke h Epitroph Pontiakwn Meletwn apo omada Pontiwn me epikefalhs ton mhtropolith Trapezoyntas kai metepeita arxiepiskopo Aqhnwn Xrysanqo. Epishs, kykloforhsan ta ejhs periodika:Pontiaka Fylla, Xronika toy Pontoy, Pontiako Qeatro, Pontiakh Estia, Filoi ths Pontiakhs Moysikhs kai fysika to periodiko Arxeion Pontoy. Alla ta basana twn jerizwmenwn enepneysan kai para polloys kallitexnes. Oloklhrh h metepeita logotexnikh paragwgh einai sfragismenh apo thn tragwdia ths Asias. Den eleican, epishs, kai oi diafores thleoptikes paragwges. Anaferontai endeiktika h tainia tou Nikoy Koyndoyroy ''Magikh Polh'', gyrismenh to 1955, h ''Tragwdia toy Aigaioy'' toy Basilh Maroy(1961), h ''Jerizwmenh Genia'' toy Apostoloy Tegopoyloy(1968) kai to ''1922'' toy Pantelh Boylgarh(1978).

    Complete archives of the Macedonian Press Agency bulletins are available on the MPA Home Page at http://www.mpa.gr/ and on the U.S. mirror at http://www.hri.org/MPA/

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