THE TREATY OF PEACE BETWEEN THE ALLIED AND ASSOCIATED POWERS
SIGNED AT SÈVRES
AUGUST 10, 1920
Turkey undertakes to recognise and to accept the conventions
made or to be made by the Allied Powers or any of them with
any other Power as to the traffic in arms and in spirituous liquors,
and also as to the other subjects dealt with in the General Acts
of Berlin of February 26, 1885, and of Brussels of July 2, 1890,
and the conventions completing or modifying the same.
The High Contracting Parties declare and place on record that
they have taken note of the Treaty signed by the Government of
the French Republic on July 17, 1918, with His Serene Highness
the Prince of Monaco,defining the relations between France and
Without prejudice to the provisions of the present Treaty,
Turkey undertakes not to put forward directly or indirectly
against any Allied Power any pecuniary claim based on events
which occurred at any time before the coming into force of the
The present stipulation will bar completely and finally all
claims of this nature, which will be thenceforward extinguished,
whoever may be the parties in interest.
Turkey accepts and recognises as valid and binding all decrees
and orders concerning Turkish ships and goods and all orders
relating to the payment of costs made by any Prize Court of any
of the Allied Powers, and undertakes not to put forward any
claim arising out of such decrees or orders on behalf of any
The Allied Powers reserve the right to examine in such manner
as they may determine all decisions and orders of Turkish Prize
Courts, whether affecting the property rights of nationals of those
Powers or of neutral Powers. Turkey agrees to furnish copies of
all the documents constituing the record of the cases, including
the decisions and orders made, and to accept and give effect to the
recommendations made after such examination of the cases.
With a view to minimising the losses arising from the sinking
of ships and cargoes in the course of the war, and to facilitating
the recovery of ships and cargoes which can be salved and the
adjustment of the private claims arising with regard thereto, the
Turkish Government undertakes to supply all the information
in its power which may be of assistance to the Governments of
the Allied Powers or to their nationals with regard to vessels
sunk or damaged by the Turkish naval forces during the period
Within six months from the coming into force of the present
Treaty the Turkish Government must restore to the Governments of the Allied Powers the trophies, archives, historical
souvenirs or works of art taken from the said Powers or their
nationals, including companies and associations of every description controlled by such nationals, since October 29, 1914.
The delivery of the articles will be effected in such places and
conditions as may be laid down by the Governments to which
they are to be restored.
The Turkish Government will, within twelve months from the
coming into force of the present Treaty, abrogate the existing
law of antiquities and take the necessary steps to enact a new law
of antiquities which will be based on the rules contained in the
Annex hereto, and must be submitted to the Financial Commission for approval before being submitted to the Turkish Parliament. The Turkish Government undertakes to ensure the
execution of this law on a basis of perfect equality between all
"Antiquity" means any construction or any product of human
activity earlier than the year 1700.
The law for the protection of antiquities shall proceed by encouragement rather than by threat.
Any person who, having discovered an antiquity without being
furnished with the authorisation referred to in paragraph 5,
reports the same to an official of the competent Turkish Department, shall be rewarded according to the value of the discovery.
No antiquity may be disposed of except to the competent Turkish Department, unless this Department renounces the acquisition of any such antiquity.
No antiquity may leave the country without an export licence
from the said Department.
Any person who maliciously or negligently destroys or damages
an antiquity shall be liable to a penalty to be fixed.
No clearing of ground or digging with the object of finding
antiquities shall be permitted, under penalty of fine, except to
persons authorised by the competent Turkish Department.
Equitable terms shall be fixed for expropriation, temporary or
permanent, of lands which might be of historical or archæological
Authorisation to excavate shall only be granted to persons who
show sufficient guarantees of archæological experience. The
Turkish Government shall not, in granting these authorisations,
act in such a way as to eliminate scholars of any nation without
The proceeds of excavations may be divided between the excavator and the competent Turkish Department in a proportion
fixed by that Department. If division seems impossible for
scientific reasons, the excavator shall receive a fair indemnity in
lieu of a part of the find.
All objects of religious, archæological, historical or artistic
interest which have been removed since August 1, 1914, from any
of the territories detached from Turkey will within twelve months
from the coming into force of the present Treaty be restored by
the Turkish Government to the Government of the territory from
which such objects were removed.
If any such objects have passed into private ownership, the
Turkish Government will take the necessary steps by expropriation or otherwise to enable it to fulfil its obligations under this
Lists of the objects to be restored under this Article will be furnished to the Turkish Government by the Governments concerned within six months from the coming into force of the
The Turkish Government undertakes to preserve the books,
documents and manuscripts from the Library of the Russian
Archæological Institute at Constantinople which are now in its
possession, and to deliver them to such authority as the Allied
Powers, in order to safeguard the rights of Russia, reserve the
right to designate. Pending such delivery the Turkish Government must allow all persons duly authorised by any of the Allied
Powers to have free access to the said books, documents and
On the coming into force of the present Treaty, Turkey will
hand over without delay to the Governments concerned archives,
registers, plans, title-deeds and documents of every kind belonging to the civil, military, financial, judicial or other forms of administration in the transferred territories. If any one of these
documents, archives, registers, title-deeds or plans is missing, it
shall be restored by Turkey upon the demand of the Government
In case the archives, registers, plans, title-deeds or documents
referred to in the preceding paragraph, exclusive of those of a
military character, concern equally the administrations in Turkey, and cannot therefore be handed over without inconvenience
to such administrations, Turkey undertakes, subject to reciprocity, to give access thereto to the Govermllents concerned.
The Turkish Government undertakes in particular to restore
to the Greek Government the local land registers or any other
public registers relating to landed property in the districts of the
former Turkish Empire transferred to Greece since 1912, which
the Turkish authorities removed or may have removed at the
time of the evacuation.
In cases where the restitution of one or more of such registers
is impossible owing to their disappearance or for any other
reason, and whenever necessary for purposes of verification of
titles produced to the Greek authorities, the Greek Government
shall be entitled to take any necessary copies of the entries in the
Central Land Registry at Constantinople.
Tlle Turkish Government undertakes, subject to reciprocity,
to afford to the Governments exercising authority over territory
detached from Turkey, or of which the existing status is recognised
by Turkey under the present Treaty, access to any archives
and documents of every description relating to the administration
of Wakfs in such territory, or to particular Wakfs, wherever
situated, in which persons or institutions established in such
territory are interested.
All judicial decisions given in Turkey by a judge or court of an
Allied Power between October 30, 1918, and the coming into
force of the new judicial system referred to in Article 136, Part
III (Political Clauses) shall be recognised by the Turkish Government, which undertakes if necessary to ensure the execution of
Subject to the provisions of Article 46, Part III (Political
Clauses) Turkey hereby agrees so far as concerns her territory as
delimited in Article 27 to accept and to co-operate in the execution of any decisions taken by the Allied Powers, in agreement
where necessary with other Powers, in relation to any matters previously dealt with by the Constantinople Superior Council of
Health and the Turkish Sanitary Administration which was
directed by the said Council.
As regards the territories detached from Turkey under the
present Treaty, and in any territories which cease in accordance
with the present Treaty to be under the suzerainty of Turkey,
Turkey hereby agrees to accept any decisions in conformity with
the principles enunciated below taken by the Allied Powers, in
agreement where necessary with other Powers, in relation to any
matters previously dealt with by the Constantinople Superior
Council of Health or the Turkish Sanitary Administration which
was directed by the said Council, or by the Alexandria Sanitary,
Maritime and Quarantine Board.
The principles referred to in the preceding paragraph are as
(a) Each Allied Power will be responsible for maintaining and
conducting in accordance with the provisions of international
sanitary conventions its own quarantine establishments in any
territory detached from Turkey which is placed under its control,
whether the Allied Power be in sovereign possession, or act as
mandatory or protector, or be responsible for the administration,
of the territory in question;
(b) Such measures for the sanitary control of the Hedjaz pilgrimage as have hitherto been carried out by, or under the direction of, the Constantinople Superior Council of Health or the
Turkish Sanitary Administration, or by the Alexandria Sanitary,
Maritime and Quarantine Board, will henceforth be undertaken
by the Allied Powers under whose sovereignty, mandate, protection or responsibility will pass those territories in which the various quarantine stations and sanitary establishments necessary
for the execution of such measures are situated. The measures
will be in conformity with the provisions of international sanitary
conventions, and in order to secure complete uniformity in their
execution each Allied Power concerned in the sanitary control of
the pilgrimage will be represented on a co-ordinating Pilgrimage
Quarantine Committee placed under the supervision of the
Council of the League of Nations.
The High Contracting Parties agree that, in the absence of a
subsequent agreement to the contrary, the Chairman of any
Commission established by the present Treaty shall in the event
of an equality of votes be entitled to a second vote.
Except where otherwise provided in the present Treaty, in
all cases where the Treaty provides for the settlement of a question
affecting particularly certain States by means of a special Convention to be concluded between the States concerned, it is understood by the High Contracting Parties that difficulties arising in
this connection shall, until Turkey is admitted to membership of
the League of Nations, be settled by the Principal Allied Powers.
Subject to any special provisions of the present Treaty, at the
expiration of a period of six months from its coming into force,
the Turkish laws must have been modified and shall be maintained by the Turkish Government in conformity with the
Within the same period, all the administrative and other
measures relating to the execution of the present Treaty must
have been taken by the Turkish Government.
Turkey will remain bound to give every facility for any investigation which the Council of the League of Nations, acting if
need be by a majority vote, may consider necessary, in any matters relating directly or indirectly to the application of the
The High Contracting Parties agree that Russia shall be entitled, on becoming a Member of the League of Nations, to accede
to the present Treaty under such conditions as may be agreed
upon between the Principal Allied Powers and Russia, and
without prejudice to any rights expressly conferred upon her
under the present Treaty.
The present Treaty, in French, in English, and in Italian,
shall be ratified. In case of divergence the French text shall prevail, except in Parts I (Covenant of the League of Nations) and
XII (Labour), where the French and English texts shall be of
The deposit of ratifications shall be made at Paris as soon as
Powers of which the seat of the Government is outside Europe
will be entitled merely to inform the Government of the French
Republic through their diplomatic representative at Paris that
their ratification has been given; in that case they must transmit
the instrument of ratification as soon as possible.
A first procès-verbal of the deposit of ratifications will be drawn
up as soon as the Treaty has been ratified by Turkey on the one
hand, and by three of the Principal Allied Powers on the other
From the date of this first procès-verbal the Treaty will come
into force between the High Contracting Parties who have ratified it.
For the determination of all periods of time provided for in the
present Treaty this date will be the date of the coming into force
of the Treaty.
In all other respects the Treaty will enter into force for each
Power at the date of the deposit of its ratification.
The French Government will transmit to all the signatory
Powers a certified copy of the procès-verbaux of the deposit of
IN FAITH WHEREOF the above-named Plenipotentiaries
have signed the present Treaty.
Done at Sevrès, the tenth day of August one thousand nine
hundred and twenty, in a single copy which will remain deposited
in the archives of the French Republic, and of which authenticated copies will be transmitted to each of the Signatory Powers.
(L. S.) GEORGE GRAHAME.
(L. S.) GEORGE H. PERLEY.
(L. S.) ANDREW FISHER.
(L. S.) GEORGE GRAHAME.
(L. S.) R. A. BLANKENBERG.
(L. S.) ARTHUR HIRTZEL.
(L. S.) A. MILLERAND.
(L. S.) F. FRANÇOIS-MARSAL.
(L. S.) JULES CAMBON.
(L. S.) PALÉOLOGUE.
(L. S.) BONIN.
(L. S.) MARIETTI.
(L. S.) K:. MATSUI.
(L. S.) A. AHARONIAN.
(L. S.) J. VAN DEN HEUVEL.
(L. S.) ROLIN JAEQUEMYNS,
(L. S.) E. K. VENIZELOS.
(L. S.) A. ROMANOS.
(L. S.) MAURICE ZAMOYSKI.
(L. S.) ERASME PILTZ
(L. S.) AFFONSO COSTA.
(L. S.) D. J. GUIKA.
(L. S.) STEFAN OSUSKY.
(L. S.) HADI.
(I.. S.) DR. RIZA TEWFIK.
(L. S.) RÉCHAD HALISS.