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[English] [ASCII Greek] [Elot928 Greek]

Diabazontas, grafontas kai typwnontas ellhnika

Sth selida ayth kaluptontai kyriws systhmata UNIX poy trexoyn kapoion X-server. H selida den periorizetai stis grammatoseires alla prosferei prosbash se polla programmata poy endiaferoyn toys ellhnoglwssoys xrhstes. Yparxoyn diafora merh me sxetiko yliko, alla ta perissotera einai sthn Agglia kai sthn Ellada kai oi epikoinwnies einai syxna polu polu arges. Gia ayto prosferontai se ayth th selida, antigrafa programmatwn, grammatoseirwn klp. sto HR-Net.

Pinakas Periexomenwn

  • Giati blepw akatalabistika pragmata otan blepw ellhnikes selides;
  • Pws kanoyme to termatiko mas na deijei ellhnika
  • Problhmata, ejaireseis
  • Pws grafoyme ellhnika (editing)
  • Ellhnika onomata arxeiwn klp.
  • Pws typwnoyme ellhnika
  • Pws stelnw h diabazw hlektroniko taxydromeio sta ellhnika ;
  • Alla programmata poy doyleuoyn me ellhnika
  • Ejakoloyqw na mh mporw na dw ellhnika!!! Ti na kanw;
  • Alles phges plhroforiwn gia to qema twn ellhnikwn

    Xarakthres 8-bit

    Opws isws jerete, ena byte exei 8 bits. Kaqe bit mporei na einai 0 h 1, ara mporeite na exete 256 diaforetika bytes. Paradosiaka ta agglika mazi me ta shmeia stijhs, control characters klp. katalambanoyn toys prwtoys 128 syndyasmous. Oi anw 128, xrhsimopoiountai gia diaforoys skopous. To dieqnes protypo ISO-8859-7 poy sympiptei sxedon me to EL.O.T. 928, orizei mia sygkekrimenh antistoixia ellhnikwn me toys dekaejadikous kwdikes. Paromoiws gia tis dytikoeyrwpaikes glwsses poy xreiazontai accent panw apo e h a, h to ~ panw apo to n, yparxoyn orismoi gnwstoi ws ISO-8859-1. To apotelesma einai gia paradeigma oti o kwdikas D0 eidwmenos me ellhnika dinei to [PI] , enw me to dytikoeyrwpaiko protypo dinei [D]

    Gia parapanw plhrofories mporeite na diabasete to ISO.8859-1.FAQ kai mporeite na deite toys plhreis pinakes antistoixiwn kwdikwn kai xarakthrwn gia ta ellhnika kai tis dytikoeyrwpaikes glwsses

    Pws kanoyme to termatiko mas na deijei ellhnika

    1. Grammatoseires Hrnet. Prokeitai gia mia plhrh syllogh grammatoseirwn poy eftiaje mia omada toy HR-net. Einai idanikh gia xrhsh me Mosaic, Netscape kai perilambanei xarakthres metablhtou kai staqerou platoys, plagiastous kai mh. Yparxoyn ekdoseis gia analuseis oqonhs 75 dpi kai 100 dpi (dots per inch, shmeia ana intsa). To HR-Net dinei plhreis odhgies egkatastashs kai xrhshs.
      To HR-Net eyxaristei ton Aggelo Xaritsh gia th bohqeia toy sth dhmioyrgia twn grammatoseirwn.
    2. greekXfonts Elleiphs syllogh grammatoseirwn, alla kalhs poiothtas. Epeidh leipoyn polla megeqh, den einai polu wraia gia xrhsh me Mosaic, Netscape k.l.p. alla gia suntajh/diorqwsh einai mia xara. Oi dhmioyrgoi aytwn twn seirwn eftiajan to gterm, mia ellhnikh ekdosh toy xterm, alla yparxoyn diafora problhmata, opws diarroes mnhmhs klp. Parakatw ginetai anafora sto rxvt, poy einai mallon kaluterh lush.
    3. postscript fonts Ayta einai mia plhrhs syllogh ellhnikwn gia X-11 kai postscript, ftiagmenh apo ton Aggelo Xaritsh To paketo perilambanei odhgies egkatastashs. An den eiste empeiroi se tetoia qemata, diabaste omws tis genikes odhgies egkatastashs To tmhma poy afora ta X-windows, egkaqistatai me ton idio tropo opws kai oi alles ellhnikes grammatoseires. Oi seires postscript, einai katallhles gia polla pragmata. Mia megalh praktikh xrhsimothta toys einai h dynatothta na typwqoun ellhnikes selides HTML. Ayto exei hdh ginei an kai me merika elattwmata.
    4. Grammatoseires apo to Eqniko Metsobio Polytexneio. Perilambanontai grammatoseires staqerou platoys kaqws kai Helvetica kai Courier, megeqoys apo 12 ews 18. Koitajte to README toy Panagiwth Xristia. H phgh brisketai sthn Ellada.

    Oi parapanw sylloges grammatoseirwn mporoun na egkatastaqoun sto susthma sas an akoloyqhsete tis genikes odhgies egkatastashs grammatoseirwn se X-windows.

    Afou egkatasthsete ellhnikes grammatoseires opoiodhpote programma poy trexei katw apo X, qa prepei na mporei na deixnei ellhnika (ypo ton oro oti mporei na deixnei xarakthres 8-bit) me toys akoloyqoys 2 tropoys:

    1. Pernwntas mia parametro ths morfhs " -fn h -font sc-elot14 " apo th grammh entolhs
    2. Bazontas se ena resource file (p.x. netscape.rsrc) grammes opws : *documentFonts.latin1.fixed*family: hrtt klp. kai meta dinontas: xrdb -merge netscape.rsrc. Otan janatrejete to en logw programma (Netscape gia to parapanw paradeigma) qa xrhsimopoihsei oti resources dhlwsate, ara kai ellhnika. An qelete ayto na ginetai kaqe fora, qa prepei na balete thn entolh xrdb -merge netscape.rsrc sto .xinitrc. An eiste superuser, mporeite na balete to resource file sto directory app-defaults.

    Piqana problhmata

    • Remote font server. An h entolh xset fp+ dinei mhnumata opws "parameter out of range" kai "opcodes of failed request" kai an den exete kanei kanena laqos sthn plhktrologhsh toy pathname oute sta dikaiwmata xrhshs (permissions) twn arxeiwn, ayto shmainei kata pasa piqanothta oti oi grammatoseires fortwnontai sto termatiko sas apo kapoio allo mhxanhma (font server). Parallages ayths ths katastashs einai problhmata poy dhmioyrgei h xrhsh AFS, remote login kai NIS kaqws kai orismena eidika problhmata me to xterminal kai allhlepidraseis toy xdm kai paliwn ekdosewn toy netscape. Gia luseis kai genikh bohqeia deite to remote font servers kai loipa .
    • Andrew file system . An to susthma sas xrhsimopoiei to katanemhmeno susthma diaxeirishs arxeiwn AFS (Andrew file system), tote prepei ektos apo ta klassika dikaiwmata prosbashs (ugo-rwx) na orisete kai ta eidika dikaiwmata gia to AFS. Gia na oloklhrwqei h egkatastash twn grammatoseirwn prepei kapoios tritos (o X server sthn periptwsh ayth) na exei dikaiwma prosbashs sta arxeia twn grammatoseirwn, dhladh na exei oristei dikaiwma "list" kai "read" gia to kaqena. Ayto ginetai me thn entolh
      fs sa <grfonts> system:anyuser rl
      
      opoy anti gia <grfonts> qa balete to onoma toy directory poy periexei tis grammatoseires (xwris ta <>).
    • Openwindows systems . Ta paliotera systhmata ths Sun, de xrhsimopoioun ta shmerina protypa gia th xrhsh grammatoseirwn kai gia ayto xreiazeste odhgies gia openwindows

    Pws grafoyme ellhnika (editing)

    • An xrhsimopoieite emacs, to emacs greek-mode tou Sarantoy Kapidakh orizei ena 'greek-mode' to opoio energopoieitai/apenergopoieitai otan pathsete "ESC-G". To greek-mode.el de doyleuei me ton XEmacs. To XEmacs den einai to emacs sta X11, alla allo anejarthto programma. Deite sto xemacs greek mode gia odhgies. To greek-mode.el kata kapoio tropo doyleuei eite blepete eite oxi ellhnika, mia kai aplws stelnei akoloyqies 8-bit. Gia na deite ellhnika mhn jexasete na peite standard-display-european to opoio genika epitrepei na blepete xarakthres 8-bit, eite gallikwn eite skandinayikwn glwsswn k.o.k.. Diaforetika qa blepete mia seira akoloyqiwn opws \345\374 klp. H phgh einai sthn Krhth.

      H teleytaia ekdosh aytou toy paketoy brisketai sto greek-mode.el , kai yposthrizei thn ekdosh 19.34 toy emacs. An balete thn epomenh grammh sto .emacs, qa fortwnete aytomata to greek-mode.el. Ayto den shmainei oti qa einai energopoihmeno, opote oysiastika de xanete tipota me ayto (ektos apo kapoia arxikh kaqysterhsh).

       (load "/yourpath/greek-mode" nil t) 
      

      Ean trexete to emacs se diko toy paraqyro, (kai oxi px. mesa apo rxvt h xterm), mporeite na balete kwdika san ton parakatw sto arxeio .emacs o opoios bazei ta ellhnika sto menou twn fonts toy emacs. Piezete, aristero koympi pontikiou kai Control taytoxrona, kai qa deite ta ellhnika san epilogh. Ayto einai epishs diafanes sto xrhsth, kai shmainei oti de xreiazetai na exete diaforetiko paraqyro gia ellhnika kai mh ellhnika.

       ;;; Include greek fonts for Ctrl+Right-Mouse-Button
      (setq x-fixed-font-alist
        '("Font menu"
          ("Misc"
           ;; default fonts
           ("fixed" "fixed")
           ("Unreadable" "nil2")
           ("Tiny" "5x7")
           ("Small" "6x10")
           ("Medium" "7x13")
           ("Large" "9x15")
           ("Huge" "10x20")
          )
          ("Greek"
           ;;  greek fonts
           ("Greek Large" "g9x15")
           ("Greek Huge" "gallant.gr.elot.19")
          )
         )       
      )
      
      
      Aytos einai kwdikas o opoios mporei na prosarmostei me profanh tropo stis grammatoseires poy exete egkatasthsei.

      XEmacs

      An xrhsimopoieite ton XEmacs, balete thn akoloyqh grammh sto greek-mode.el meta apo thn (provide 'greek-mode) (pou einai kapoy sthn arxh.)

      (defvar standard-display-table nil "")
      
      Epeidh ayth h grammh kanei to greek-mode.el asumbato me to emacs, ftiajte ena xgreek-mode.el me th grammh ayth gia xrhsh me ton XEmacs, kai krateiste to arxiko greek-mode.el gia ton aplo emacs.
    • Yparxei vi me ellhnika, gia to opoio den yparxoyn sources, mia kai ta dikaiwmata ta exei kapoia etaireia, (ATT isws;) . Ayto shmainei oti den mporeite na to trejete opoy qelete, alla mono se mhxanhmata gia ta opoia diatiqetai hdh. H selida odhgiwn brisketai sto The man page is at viH.1 man page kai to ektelesimo programma gia kaqe mhxanhma sta SunOS 4.1 , OSF , Convex , HP , linux .
    • Mia polu kalh ekdosh toy dhmofilous vi gia ellhnoglwssoys xrhstes einai o viH toy Andrea Mosxobou, o opoios basizetai ston vim . Prosferontai toso o kwdikas oso kai ektelesima arxeia gia mia seira systhmatwn UNIX. Para th synwnymia me ton prohgoumeno viH, den einai to idio pragma.
    • ELVIS O elvis epishs mporei na epejergastei ellhnika. Den exoyme leptomereies dystyxws.
    • rxvt.210 me ellhnika . Mporeite na peite p.x.
       grep 'Giwrgos' paradeigma.keimeno 
      an trexete rxvt , ena programma poy antikaqista to xterm, xwris diarroes mnhmhs kai sto opoio grafete ellhnika an dwsete, synhqws, deji-ALT (orizetai mesw toy Xmodmap). Den exei Tektronix emulation opws to xterm. H phgh brisketai sthn Agglia.
    • xterm X-resources Mporeite na balete ta parakatw sto .Xdefaults h kapoio analogo arxeio. Ayto qa sas ftiajei to menou grammatoseirwn toy xterm, to opoio briskete me CTRL+deji koympi pontikiou.

      
      *fontMenu.Label:  VT Fonts
      *fontMenu*fontdefault*Label:    Default
      *fontMenu*font1*Label: g9x15
      VT100*font1: g9x15
      *fontMenu*font2*Label:  gallant.gr.elot.19
      *VT100*font2:  gallant.gr.elot.19
      *fontMenu*font3*Label: screen.gr.elot.14
      *VT100*font3: screen.gr.elot.14
      *fontMenu*font4*Label: courier.gr.elot.16
      *VT100*font4: courier.gr.elot.16
      *fontMenu*font5*Label:  9x15
      *VT100*font5:           9x15
      *fontMenu*font6*Label:  10x20
      *VT100*font6:           10x20
      *fontMenu*fontescape*Label:     Escape Sequence
      *fontMenu*fontsel*Label: Selection
      *Title: ellhniko"
      
      

      Ki edw fysika, mporeite na to prosarmosete stis apaithseis sas. Mh jexnate oti to xterm mporei na exei ws 6 epiloges me ayton to mhxanismo.

    Ellhnika onomata arxeiwn kai eyrethriwn

    To SunOS kai to Linux epitrepoyn 8-bit onomata arxeiwn (files) kai eyrethriwn (directories). Mporeite na xrhsimopoihsete oti qelete apo to Unix ean to shell poy trexete einai «8-bit-clean» opws oi teleytaies ekdoseis toy tcsh , kai bebaia ta antistoixa programmata, (grep, awk k.o.k.). O syndyasmos tcsh se Linux me to rxvt doyleuei xwris kanena problhma. Gia thn akribeia to mono problhma einai ti ginetai an kanete ftp h allws metaferete ta arxeia sas se allo mhxanhma.

    Pws typwnoyme ellhnika

    • Enas eukolos tropos einai me to a2ps Metatrepei to keimeno se arxeio tupoy postscript (symperilambanontas tis grammatoseires) to opoio meta typwnete ws synhqws. H phgh toy brisketai sthn Krhth.
    • ENSCRIPT Apo ton Manwlh Loyrakh erxetai to GNU ENSCRIPT . Dokimaste to.
    • Enas pio duskolos tropos einai na perasete apo TeX/LaTex.
    • Pws typwnoyme ellhnikes selides HTML, p.x. apo to netscape; Prwta prepei na exete egkatasthsei ellhnikes grammatoseires postscript . Katopin, h idea einai na kanete File|Save as Postscript| apo to netscape th selida poy sas endiaferei. To epomeno stadio einai na allajete tis arxikes dhlwseis toy kwdika postscript poy parhgage to netscape, wste p.x. to Times-Bold na ginei GreekTimesBold k.o.k.. Bebaiwqeite oti to GS_FONTPATH perilambanei to directory opoy exete ta ellhnika. Katopin mesw ghostview h ghostscript mporeite na typwsete. Dystyxws, o kwdikas poy paragei to netscape einai ftiagmenos gia ta megeqh twn seirwn ISO-8859-1. To apotelesma einai oti mporei merikes lejeis na peftoyn h mia panw sthn allh, h oi protaseis na kobontai sta dejia ths selidas. Elpizoyme na mporesoyme na lusoyme ayto to problhma suntoma.

    Ellhnikh stoixeioqesia, eidika me TeX/LaTex

    Pws stelnw h diabazw hlektroniko taxydromeio sta ellhnika ;

    Ean xrhsimopoieite programmata opws ta pine, elm h mail, mailx dhladh programmata poy trexoyn mesa se kapoio termatiko paraqyro, tote den exete problhma, giati xrhsimopoieite tis dynatothtes toy xterm h toy rxvt. P.x. an eiste se ena paraqyro rxvt, molis dwsete pine h mail, piezete to Right_Alt, mpainete sto ellhniko mode toy rxvt, kai grafete ellhnika.

    An xrhsimopoieite programmata opws to mailtool h to exmh, dhl. programmata poy anoigoyn diko toys X-window qa exete problhma ws pros to na gracete. Eidika me to X11R6, den qa mporeite na balete tonoys giati to X11R6 den yposthrizei dead keys. To X11R5 fainetai oti ta yposthrize.

    Mia lush poy xrhsimopoiw einai to programma Xmodmap poy orizei ti xarakthres antistoixoun se kaqe plhktro. Xreiazeste 2 arxeia, ena gia to ellhniko alfabhto ki ena gia to latiniko. Meta prepei na breite pws na balete sta menou toy window manager tis entoles gia na trexete to Xmodmap me to epiqymhto plhktrologio. H mporeite na orisete kapoio parajeno syndyasmo plhktrwn gia na allazete metaju twn 2 alfabhtwn. Mporw na bohqhsw sth periptwsh toy fvwm poy xrhsimopoiw. Paraqetoyme 2 arxeia gia Xmodmap kai plhktrologio PC. Einai polu eukolo na ta prosarmosete se alla plhktrologia. (Ta arxeia ayta basizontai sth doyleia toy Rorrh)

    ellhniko xmodmap kai US xmodmap

    Opws ejhghqhke parapanw, ta ellhnika katalambanoyn tis panw 128 qeseis ston pinaka twn xarakthrwn 8-bit. Logw ths Amerikanikhs proeleyshs toy diktuoy (mia kai ta agglika den xreiazontai aytes tis qeseis), aytoi oi xarakthres me to ogdoo bit na einai 1, exoyn xrhsimopoihqei gia elegxo isotimias (parity checks), kai alla kolpa. Epishs polla gateways, aytomata, otan blepoyn ogdoo bit =1, to kanoyn 0, kai prowqoun to mhnyma sas me stripped high bit. Gia ayto yparxoyn pragmata opws to uuencode paliotera, kai twra to MIME, ta opoia metatrepoyn ta mhnyma poy exoyn 8-bit xarakthres se mia anaparastash poy den ephreazetai apo ta gateways ayta. Ola ta monterna programmata email, kanoyn aytes tis metatropes aytomata toso sthn apostolh oso kai sthn lhch, eidika ta pine kai elm. To mail den kanei ayth th doyleia, aytomata. To elm exei to problhma oti kalei ena ejwteriko programma onomati metamail poy epejergazetai arxeia poy einai kwdikopoihmena se MIME. To pine exei enswmatwmenh ayth th dynatothta. H apoch moy einai oti to pine einai to kalutero programma gia osoys qeloyn na gracoyn sta ellhnika.

    Perilhptika, mporeite na steilete ellhnika eite se apeyqeias 8-bit anaparastash, me kapoio mikro kindyno na katastrafei to mhnyma sas, eite me MIME, to opoio basika apaitei opoiodhpote programma ektos toy mail.

    Pantws, to na steilete ellhnika mhnumata einai polu pio eukolo apo oti fantazeste . Dokimaste to!!

    Alla programmata poy doyleuoyn me ellhnika

    • Gia na blepete ta keimena sas yparxei to moreH, h phgh toy opoioy brisketai sthn Krhth.
    • Gia na diorqwnete ta laqh sas yparxei to ispellH apo tis H.P.A. Exei lejiko to opoio mporei na sas dwsei mia kalh arxh. H phgh kai aytou brisketai sthn Krhth.
    • Oi Giannhs Mhtalas kai Nikos Seraskerhs ekanan tis aparaithtes tropopoihseis wste na mporei o ispell na diorqwnei ellhnika keimena. H doyleia toys einai sto ellhniko ispell .
    • To gr2gr.prl einai ena programma PERL poy metatrepei ellhnika metaju EL.O.T. 928, IBM437, Mac, ellhnikwn opws ta xrhsimopoiei to Cosmos-FM sta nea toy k.l.p. To egrace o Aggelos Xaritshs.
  • Netscape Odhgies gia ellhnika sto Netscape
  • Ejellhnismena netscape resources. Ena paradeigma toy ti mporeite na kanete me to Netscape.ad. Allagh twn strings poy emfanizontai sto Netscape wste na exete menou sta ellhnika, (oxi mono to periexomeno). Prepei na kanete ta gnwsta pia xrdb -merge netscape928.ad Ayta isxuoyn gia Netscape mexri 1.12. Bebaia, mporeite na to xrhsimopoihsete san protypo gia tis epomenes ekdoseis.
  • Apo Iapwnia, Multi-Localization Enhanced Mosaic (polu wraio gia poluglwssoys) Allazete glwsses mesw menou, opws kai sth deuterh ekdosh toy Netscape. Dystyxws den ermhneuei pinakes klp. opws to Netscape. Einai pia palio...

    An xrhsimopoieite tis grammatoseires hrnet mporeite na akoloyqhsete tis eidikes odhgies gia th xrhsh toys me ayta ta programmata.


    Ejakoloyqw na mh mporw na dw ellhnika!!! Ti na kanw;

    An qelete na deite monoi sas ti symbainei, mhn jexnate thn entolh man. Entoles poy exoyn na kanoyn me grammatoseires sta X-windows einai oi ejhs: xlsfonts, xfd, mkfontdir, xset . Diabaste tis sxetikes selides odhgiwn toy systhmatos (man pages). An pairnete ta mhnumata peri "parameter out of range" h "opcodes of failed request" klp. apo to xset fp+, bebaiwqeite oti diabasate to yliko sxetika me ta Piqana problhmata .


    Gracte sth dieuqynsh fonts@hri.org . An mas gracete qa sas zhthsoyme na trejete to xset q . Opote parakaloume na eswkleisete ta apotelesmata ths entolhs
     xset q
    
    me to prwto sas mhnyma. Ayto qa mas dwsei plhrofories gia to an exete to problhma remote font server metaju allwn. Einai to 99% twn paraponwn. Parakaloume na mas perigracete leptomerws th diadikasia poy akoloyqhsate kai ta problhmata poy antimetwpisate kai na symperilabete antigrafa twn mhnymatwn toy systhmatos (p.x. mhnumata laqwn klp.) an einai dynaton.


    Mhn jexasete na mas peite ti susthma exete. Xrhsimopoieiste thn entolh dmesg h thn uname . .

  • Alles phges plhroforiwn gia to qema twn ellhnikwn

  • HR-Net, 12 Ioylioy 1998
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