Psara has been inhabited since antiquity, but with no precise determination of the historical period. Homer and Stravon, the great geographer, refer to the island by the name "Psyra". After 1453, the inhabitants abandoned the island, but it was inhabited again in the 16th century by Euboeans, Thessalians and Chians who could not bear the Turks. In the beginning, they lived separately, but the common fear of the enemy united them, and they built Palaiokastro and lived in a common settlement. The inhabitants of Psara turned to the sea and created a remarkable marine force, the third largest after Hydra and Spetses, which brought prosperity to the island. In 1821, they participated in the Greek Revolution and offered their invaluable services. Papanikolis, Nikolaos Apostolis and Kanaris are names that praised the history of the country. In June, 1824, the island was completely destroyed by the Turks. The Psarians that escaped, fled to Monemvasia and then to Eretria, which was later named Nea Psara.