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Voice of America, 18 September 1995

From: yanni@ix.netcom.com (Ioannis Bousnakis)

Voice of America Directory

CONTENTS

  • [01] MONDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [02] BOSNIA/FIGHTING (L UPDATE) BY KYLE KING ( ZAGREB )

  • [03] BOSNIA/SARAJEVO (S) BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)

  • [04] BOSNIA/TALKS (S ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY ( VIENNA )

  • [05] BOSNIA / DEADLINE (S) BY KYLE KING (ZAGREB)

  • [06] BOSNIA RELIEF / MICHIGAN BY PAUL FRANCUCH (CHICAGO)

  • [07] BOSNIA / SITREP (L ) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA )

  • [08] BOUTROS/BOSNIA (S & L)) BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)

  • [09] CONGRESS-CYPRUS (L ONLY) BY PAULA WOLFSON (CONGRESS)

  • [10] E-U / BOSNIA BY JOHN FRASER ( BRUSSELS)

  • [11] E-U / POPULATION (L ONLY) BY JOHN FRASER ( BRUSSELS)

  • [12] FRANCE BOSNIA PILOTS (L) BY JULIAN NUNDY (PARIS)

  • [13] PROFILE: BOSNIAN SERB GENERAL BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (LONDON)

  • [14] U-S / BOSNIA (L ONLY) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)


  • [01] MONDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=09/18/95
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09175
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=NEAL LAVON
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-S-T ON MONDAY SEPTEMBER 19TH //

    INTRO: U-S NEWSPAPERS ARE COMMENTING UPON A WIDE ARRAY OF TOPICS IN THEIR EDITORIAL COLUMNS THIS MONDAY INCLUDING: THE ISSUE OF GLOBAL WARMING; A FORMER PRESIDENT TRYING TO MEDIATE A BITTER DISPUTE; THE SITUATION IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA AND U-S READINESS TO COMPETE IN THE GLOBAL MARKETPLACE. NOW HERE WITH A CLOSER LOOK AT THOSE AND OTHER EDITORIALS IS ________________ IN TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: "THE NEW YORK TIMES" WORRIES ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING AND RECENT REPORTS THAT THINGS IN THE PLANET'S ATMOSPHERE ARE GETTING WORSE.

    VOICE: "THE EVIDENCE MOUNTED LAST WEEK THAT MANMADE GASES ARE CAUSING DETERIORATION OF THE EARTH'S ATMOSPHERE. ..... GLOBAL WARMING COULD CAUSE A RISE IN SEA LEVEL THAT WOULD FLOOD COASTAL LOWLANDS, AN INCREASE IN WEATHER EXTREMES AND DAMAGE TO FORESTS AND CROPLANDS IN SOME REGIONS. ... THAT MAKES IT ESPECIALLY DISTRESSING THAT COMMITTEES IN THE HOUSE AND SENATE ARE SLASHING FUNDS FOR PROGRAMS AIMED AT PROTECTING THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT. .... IT IS PERVERSE THAT, AS THE EVIDENCE OF GLOBAL ATMOSPHERIC HARM GETS SOMEWHAT STRONGER, THE POLITICAL RESPONSE TO MITIGATING IT GETS PROGRESSIVELY WEAKER."

    TEXT: TODAY'S "MIAMI HERALD" LEADS ITS EDITORIAL COLUMN WITH HOPE FOR SUCCESS IN FORMER PRESIDENT JIMMY CARTER'S LATEST DIPLOMATIC VENTURE: TRYING TO MEDIATE AN IMPROVEMENT IN RELATIONS BETWEEN CUBAN EXILE GROUPS AND THE CUBAN GOVERNMENT. "THE HERALD" SAYS:

    VOICE: "MR. CARTER HAS ... EMBARKED ON ANOTHER POTENTIALLY THANKLESS MISSION. YET SO LONG AS HE WORKS TOWARD THE GOALS OF MULTIPARTY DEMOCRACY AND THE RULE OF LAW IN CUBA, HIS LONG-SHOT MEDIATION DESERVES A VOTE OF CONFIDENCE."

    TEXT: COMMENTING ON ANOTHER DISPUTE, THE CIVIL WAR IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA, TODAY'S "CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR" NOTES:

    VOICE: "IT IS HEARTENING THAT SOME PROGRESS HAS BEEN MADE TOWARD ENDING THE FIGHTING IN BOSNIA. U-S ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE RICHARD HOLBROOKE DESERVES COMMENDATION FOR HIS SHUTTLE DIPLOMACY, BUT HIS SUCCESS IN LARGE PART WAS ENABLED BY CROATIAN VICTORY IN THE KRAJINA AND THE U-N'S TARDY RESOLVE TO BACK UP HIS DIPLOMACY WITH NATO AIR POWER. MANY LIVES MIGHT HAVE BEEN SAVED IF THE UNITED NATIONS HAD TAKEN THIS COURSE SOONER. ..... PEACE IS STILL A LONG WAY OFF. FOR THOSE TRYING TO BROKER IT, PATIENCE, FIRMNESS, AND EVEN-HANDEDNESS ARE THE NEEDS OF THE HOURS."

    TEXT: WHILE IN THE NATION'S CAPITAL, "THE WASHINGTON TIMES" ASKS READERS TODAY:

    VOICE: "REMEMBER HAITI? ONE YEAR AGO, OUR ATTENTION WAS FOCUSED ON THAT SMALL ISLAND COUNTRY, AS 20-THOUSAND AMERICAN TROOPS WAITED FOR THE SIGNAL TO INVADE. ..... ONE YEAR LATER, THE GOOD NEWS IS THAT THE DIRE MISGIVINGS, EXPRESSED AMONG OTHERS BY THIS PAGE, HAVE NOT COME TRUE. ..... SO FAR, SO GOOD. NEVERTHELESS, A HUGE QUESTION REMAINS ABOUT HAITI'S LONG-TERM FUTURE. ..... WHAT IS CLEAR, HOWEVER, IS THAT WHERE THE STAKES ARE DEEMED HIGH ENOUGH, AMERICAN INITIATIVE AND MUSCLE CAN BE AS EFFECTIVE AS EVER."

    TEXT: THE NEWLY REVAMPED "BALTIMORE SUN" ABSORBED THE RESOURCES OF "THE BALTIMORE EVENING SUN" WHICH CEASED PUBLICATION FRIDAY. TODAY, THE NEW "SUN" TALKS ABOUT CAMBODIA AND SOME ENCOURAGING NEWS.

    VOICE: "NOBLE EFFORTS AT RESTORING RURAL ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL LIFE ARE GOING FORWARD THANKS TO SUCH INTERNATIONAL AGENCIES AS THE WORLD BANK AND NONGOVERNMENT ORGANIZATIONS SUCH AS CATHOLIC RELIEF SERVICES. BUT THEY WON'T WORK IF THE KHMER ROUGE DESTROY THEIR FRUITS. ..... IN THE LONG RUN, CAMBODIA MUST BE JUDGED BY THE SAME HUMAN RIGHTS STANDARDS AS EVERY OTHER COUNTRY. IT WON'T HAVE DEMOCRACY UNTIL THOSE IN POWER AGREE TO BEING OVERTHROWN PEACEABLY. BUT A COUNTRY PARALYZED BY INSURRECTION AND SUBVERSION OF CRIMINALS OF WHOM THE POPULACE IS TERRIFIED IS ENTITLED TO DEFEAT THAT THREAT FIRST. ALL THE WELL-WISHING OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY DOESN'T ACCOMPLISH THAT."

    TEXT: IN NEW ENGLAND, "THE PORTLAND [MAINE] PRESS HERALD" SAYS THE UNITED NATIONS FOURTH WORLD CONFERENCE ON WOMEN, WHICH ENDED LAST WEEK IN BEIJING, WAS A SUCCESS.

    VOICE: "THE 5-THOUSAND DELEGATES FROM 189 NATIONS RETURN TO THEIR COUNTRIES WITH NO MAGIC FORMULA FOR EQUALITY. THEY POSSESS, HOWEVER, A NON-BINDING 'PLATFORM FOR ACTION' TO GUIDE THEM AND THEIR GOVERNMENTS TOWARD EQUITY. FOR THE FIRST TIME, A U-N DOCUMENT ACKNOWLEDGES REPRODUCTIVE FREEDOM AS A HUMAN RIGHT. IT URGES NATIONS OF THE WORLD TO ENSURE WOMEN HAVE 'EQUAL ACCESS TO ECONOMIC RESOURCES.' ... IT IS A PLATFORM FOR ACTION THAT IS ONLY JUST GETTING STARTED. DELEGATES, NEWLY RETURNED TO THEIR OWN COUNTRIES, ASSURE IT IS ACTION THAT WILL GO FORWARD."

    TEXT: "THE ORLANDO SENTINEL" SAYS THE UNITED STATES NEEDS TO DO EVEN MORE IN THE AREA OF GLOBAL COMMERCE, SUGGESTING:

    VOICE: "INCREASINGLY KEEN COMPETITION IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMY REQUIRES A DYNAMISM THAT THE U-S LACKS. MUCH CAN BE DONE TO TURN THE SITUATION AROUND. ...... A PROPER, MAJOR EMPHASIS IS ON THE GARGANTUAN FEDERAL BUDGET DEFICIT. THE ACCUMULATION OF PAST YEARS OF OVERSPENDING MUST BE ELIMINATED. IT REPRESENTS A DRAG ON THE ECONOMY, REDUCING THE AMOUNT OF CAPITAL THAT COULD PRODUCE INVESTMENTS AND JOBS. ..... THE UNITED STATES CERTAINLY HAS THE RESOURCES TO REVERSE REMAINING IMPEDIMENTS TO SUSTAINED PROSPERITY. THE RIGHT COMBINATION OF EFFORTS WOULD ENSURE THAT ITS SLOT AT THE TOP OF THE GLOBAL LIST IS MAINTAINED DURING THE LONG TERM."

    TEXT: AND FINALLY, FROM "THE WASHINGTON POST" SOME THOUGHTS ON THE PROSPECT THAT PRESIDENT CLINTON MAY USE A SERIES OF VETOES TO HEAD OFF VARIOUS REPUBLICAN INITIATIVES. HOWEVER "THE POST" SAYS THE POWER OF THE VETO MAY BE OVERRATED.

    VOICE: "IN THE END, THE VETO THREAT IS BOTH AN IMMENSELY POWERFUL WEAPON AND A LIMITED ONE. IT CAN MUST AND MODERATE LEGISLATION AND ROUND OFF ROUGH EDGES. AGAINST A PRESIDENT OF THE OPPOSITE PARTY DETERMINED TO USE HIS VETO, A NARROW CONGRESSIONAL MAJORITY WILL HAVE TROUBLE WORKING A 'REVOLUTION.' BUT IT'S NEARLY IMPOSSIBLE TO USE THE VETO TO FORCE CONGRESS TO PASS NEW LEGISLATION AGAINST ITS WILL."

    TEXT: AND ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF LOOK AT SOME OF THE AMERICAN EDITORIAL PAGES THIS MONDAY.

    ANG/TBA 18-Sep-95 11:29 AM EDT (1529 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [02] BOSNIA/FIGHTING (L UPDATE) BY KYLE KING ( ZAGREB )

    DATE=9/18/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-185528
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED NATIONS IS CALLING ON THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT AND ITS CROAT ALLIES TO HALT THEIR MILITARY OPERATIONS AGAINST THE SERBS IN WESTERN AND CENTRAL BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. AS MANY AS 100-THOUSAND SERBS HAVE NOW FLED THE OFFENSIVE, CREATING WHAT U-N OFFICIALS CALL A LOOMING HUMANITARIAN CATASTROPHE. AS V-O-A'S KYLE KING REPORTS FROM ZAGREB, THERE IS ALSO GROWING ANXIETY THAT BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT GAINS ON THE BATTLEFIELD COULD DOOM PROSPECTS FOR A NEGOTIATED SETTLEMENT.

    TEXT: RELIEF WORKERS IN THE BOSNIAN SERB STRONGHOLD OF BANJA LUKA SAY SOME 70-THOUSAND REFUGEES HAVE NOW GATHERED IN AND AROUND THE TOWN, AND THOUSANDS OF OTHERS ARE CLOGGING THE ROADS, TRYING TO FLEE THE FIGHTING. RELIEF AGENCIES HAVE BEEN ABLE TO GET SUPPLIES INTO THE AREA, BUT THE SITUATION IS SO CHAOTIC, THEY SAY SOME OF THE FOOD IS BEING DELIVERED WITH HORSE-DRAWN CARRIAGES. BOSNIAN SERB LEADERS ACKNOWLEDGE THEY HAVE SUFFERED MAJOR TERRITORIAL LOSSES IN THE LAST FEW DAYS, BUT THEY SAY THEIR TROOPS ARE WORKING TO RE-ESTABLISH NEW DEFENSIVE LINES. NEVERTHELESS, U-N SPOKESMAN ALEXANDER IVANKO SAYS UNITED NATIONS OFFICIALS ARE CONCERNED THE SITUATION IN CENTRAL BOSNIA COULD SPIN OUT OF CONTROL AND JEOPARDIZE THE PROGRESS THAT HAS RECENTLY BEEN MADE TOWARD A PEACE SETTLEMENT.

    // IVANKO ACT //

    THE GUNS ARE SILENT AROUND SARAJEVO, THEY NOW MUST BE SILENT THROUGHOUT BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. PEACE MAY NOT BE AROUND THE CORNER, BUT THIS IS THE CLOSEST THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY HAS COME TO SETTLING THE TRAGEDY IN BOSNIA.

    // END ACT //

    IRONICALLY, SOME DIPLOMATS SAY THE TERRITORIAL GAINS MADE BY THE GOVERNMENT AND ITS CROAT ALLIES HAVE CREATED A DIVISION OF THE COUNTRY THAT IS MUCH LIKE THE PEACE PLAN THAT IS BEING PUSHED SO HARD BY U-S ENVOY RICHARD HOLBROOKE. BUT THEY SAY ANY FURTHER PUSH TOWARD THE SERB STRONGHOLD OF BANJA LUKA WOULD LIKELY SINK THE PLAN. ANALYSTS SAY SUCH A MOVE COULD WELL TRIGGER INTERVENTION BY THE SERB DOMINATED YUGOSLAV ARMY. INDEED, SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSOVIC IS NOW CALLING FOR AN IMMEDIATE STOP TO THE FIGHTING IN BOSNIA. IN A STATEMENT AFTER TALKS WITH MR. HOLBROOKE IN BELGRADE, THE SERBIAN PRESIDENT SAID THE WORLD SHOULD USE ITS INFLUENCE TO STOP THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT AND THE CROATS FROM CONTINUING THEIR OFFENSIVE. THE SUBJECT IS EXPECTED TO BE HIGH ON THE AGENDA TUESDAY, WHEN MR. HOLBROOKE MEETS IN ZAGREB WITH THE BOSNIAN AND CROATIAN PRESIDENTS. (SIGNED)

    NEB/KBK/MH/BG
    18-Sep-95 3:03 PM EDT (1903 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [03] BOSNIA/SARAJEVO (S) BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)

    DATE=9/18/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-185502
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: U-N OFFICIALS SAY THE BOSNIAN SERBS HAVE WITHDRAWN SUBSTANTIAL QUANTITIES OF THEIR HEAVY WEAPONS FROM AROUND SARAJEVO, BUT MUCH MORE NEEDS TO BE DONE TO MEET THE WEDNESDAY DEADLINE FOR COMPLETE WITHDRAWAL. THE OFFICIALS SAY WHILE AID IS NOW FLOWING INTO THE CITY, THE BOSNIAN SERBS ARE STILL STOPPING SOME VEHICLES AT CHECKPOINTS. DAVID FOLEY REPORTS FROM SARAJEVO.

    TEXT: NATO AND U-N COMMANDERS DECIDED THE SERBS HAD SHOWN SIGNIFICANT COMPLIANCE BY WITHDRAWING ABOUT ONE-HALF THEIR HEAVY WEAPONS FROM THE 20-KILOMETER EXCLUSION ZONE AROUND SARAJEVO. THE COMMANDERS DECIDED NATO AIRSTRIKES WOULD BE PAUSED FOR ANOTHER 72-HOURS TO ALLOW THE SERBS TO COMPLETE THE WITHDRAWAL.

    U-N OFFICIALS SAY THE AID ROUTES INTO SARAJEVO, INCLUDING THE AIRPORT, ARE OPEN, BUT THE BOSNIAN SERBS ARE OCCASIONALLY STOPPING VEHICLES AT CHECKPOINTS. U-N MILITARY OFFICIALS SAID NO INTERFERENCE AT ALL WOULD BE TOLERATED, AND U-N VEHICLES SHOULD BE ABLE TO DRIVE INTO SARAJEVO WITHOUT STOPPING FOR ANYTHING.

    THE U-N COMMANDER IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA, GENERAL RUPERT SMITH, IS ATTEMPTING TO ARRANGE A LOCAL CEASEFIRE AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE TWO SIDES AROUND SARAJEVO. U-N OFFICIALS SAY THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT HAS VERBALLY AGREED NOT TO TAKE MILITARY ADVANTAGE OF THE WITHDRAWAL OF SERB HEAVY WEAPONS, BUT SO FAR HAS REFUSED TO SIGN A FORMAL AGREEMENT. (SIGNED)

    NEB/DF/DW/RAE
    18-Sep-95 8:19 AM EDT (1219 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [04] BOSNIA/TALKS (S ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY ( VIENNA )

    DATE=9/18/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-185508
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: MORE PROGRESS IS REPORTED TOWARD REACHING A PEACE AGREEMENT FOR THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA AFTER TWO MEETINGS IN BELGRADE BETWEEN AMERICAN ENVOY RICHARD HOLBROOKE AND THE SERBIAN PRESIDENT, SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC. V-O-A'S CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT, WAYNE COREY, REPORTS.

    TEXT: MR. HOLBROOKE TOLD REPORTERS IN BELGRADE HIS LATEST TALKS WITH PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC MADE A LITTLE PROGRESS AND THAT HE WILL REDOUBLE HIS PEACE EFFORTS. PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC ALSO SAYS PROGRESS HAS BEEN MADE. THE AMERICAN PEACE ENVOY IS GOING NEXT TO ZAGREB TO MEET WITH THE BOSNIAN AND CROATIAN PRESIDENTS. ONE ITEM ON THE AGENDA IN ZAGREB WILL BE HOW TO STRENGTHEN THE MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. MR. HOLBROOKE REPEATED THAT THE BOSNIAN SERBS MUST FULLY AND CLEARLY COMPLY WITH THE EXTENDED UNITED NATIONS AND NATO DEADLINE TO LIFT THEIR SIEGE OF SARAJEVO. HE SAYS HE ESPECIALLY WANTS THE ROADS INTO THE BOSNIAN CAPITAL TO BE REOPENED. HE SAYS THE ROADS AND THE SARAJEVO AIRPORT MUST REMAIN OPEN. WHILE HE CALLS THE SITUATION VERY DELICATE, MR. HOLBROOKE IS SLIGHTLY HOPEFUL, AS HE PUTS IT, THAT THE SERBS WILL MEET THE U-N AND NATO DEMANDS. (SIGNED)

    NEB/WC/MH/MMK
    18-Sep-95 9:57 AM EDT (1357 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [05] BOSNIA / DEADLINE (S) BY KYLE KING (ZAGREB)

    DATE=9/18/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-185490
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: U-N AND NATO OFFICIALS HAVE GIVEN THE BOSNIAN SERBS AN ADDITIONAL THREE DAYS TO COMPLETE THE WITHDRAWAL OF THEIR HEAVY WEAPONS FROM AROUND SARAJEVO. THE EXTENSION CAME LATE SUNDAY, AT THE END OF A 72-HOUR PAUSE IN THE NEARLY THREE-WEEK NATO BOMBING CAMPAIGN. V-O-A'S KYLE KING HAS THIS REPORT FROM ZAGREB.

    TEXT: U-N AND NATO OFFICIALS SAY THEY EXTENDED THE DEADLINE AFTER THE BOSNIAN SERBS HAD MADE A SUBSTANTIAL START IN WITHDRAWING HEAVY WEAPONS FROM THE 20-KILOMETER EXCLUSION ZONE. OFFICIALS ALSO CITE THE FACT THE SERBS ALLOWED THE REOPENING OF THE AIRPORT AND A KEY ROAD INTO THE EMBATTLED CITY.

    SERB MILITARY OFFICIALS SAY THEY HAVE NOW WITHDRAWN AT LEAST 50 PERCENT OF THE ESTIMATED 200 TO 300 HEAVY WEAPONS FROM AROUND SARAJEVO.

    U-N COMMANDER GENERAL BERNARD JANVIER IS NOW EXPECTED TO MEET WITH BOSNIAN SERB AND BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT MILITARY COMMANDERS TO TRY TO FORMALIZE A CEASEFIRE IN SARAJEVO. IF THAT IS SUCCESSFUL, THE GROUP IS TO DISCUSS AN EXTENSION OF THE CEASEFIRE TO THE ENTIRE COUNTRY.

    U-S PEACE ENVOY RICHARD HOLBROOKE SAYS THE LIFTING OF THE SIEGE OF SARAJEVO WOULD GIVE AN ENORMOUS BOOST TO EFFORTS TO FIND A DIPLOMATIC SOLUTION TO THE CONFLICT.

    MR. HOLBROOKE IS EXPECTED BACK IN ZAGREB TUESDAY FOR FURTHER TALKS WITH CROATIAN AND BOSNIAN OFFICIALS. (SIGNED)

    NEB/KBK/KK / WOD
    18-Sep-95 3:39 AM EDT (0739 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [06] BOSNIA RELIEF / MICHIGAN BY PAUL FRANCUCH (CHICAGO)

    DATE=9/18/95
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-31147
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: WHILE NON-GOVERNMENTAL GROUPS AND THE UNITED NATIONS PROVIDE THE BEST-KNOWN RELIEF EFFORTS TO WAR-RAVAGED VICTIMS OF THE FIGHTING IN BOSNIA-HERTZEGOVINA, SOME LESSER-KNOWN EFFORTS ARE UNDER WAY. ONE IS CALLED, SIMPLY, "BOSNIAN-CROATIAN RELIEF". IT IS INFORMALLY OPERATED FROM THE MIDWESTERN CITY OF GRAND RAPIDS, MICHIGAN, BY THREE MEN WHO VOLUNTEER THEIR TIME. OUR MIDWEST REPORTER PAUL FRANCUCH REPORTS.

    TEXT: THIRTY-EIGHT YEAR-OLD JON MAXEY WORKS THE NIGHT SHIFT AT A GENERAL MOTORS FACTORY IN GRAND RAPIDS, A SMALL CITY KNOWN FOR ITS FURNITURE PRODUCTS AND FOR BEING THE HOME OF FORMER PRESIDENT GERALD FORD. BUT DURING WHAT'S LEFT OF HIS FREE TIME MOST MORNINGS THESE DAYS, HE AND TWO OTHER MEN FROM GRAND RAPIDS ARE BUSY PHONING COMPANIES, SMALL BUSINESSES AND OTHERS ASKING FOR DONATIONS TO BUY MEDICINE AND MEDICAL SUPPLIES, MOSTLY TO AID REFUGEES AND ORPHANS IN THE BALKANS.

    MR. MAXEY SAYS THE PROJECT BEGAN A LITTLE OVER TWO YEARS AGO WHEN HE AND HIS BUSINESS INVESTMENT PARTNER, GRAND RAPIDS ATTORNEY JIM FLICKINGER, WERE READING ABOUT THE WAR WHILE WAITING FOR BREAKFAST AT A LOCAL RESTAURANT.

    // MAXEY ACT //

    WE HAPPENED TO HAVE THE NEWSPAPER THERE AND WE SAW THE HEADLINES ABOUT THE TRAGEDY THAT'S HAPPENING OVER THERE. AND I LOOKED AT IT AND SAID, "I WONDER IF THERE'S SOMETHING WE COULD DO TO AID AND SENT A BOX OF MEDICINE?" IT WAS JUST KIND OF A CASUAL COMMENT. AND WE DECIDED, LET'S TRY IT.

    // END ACT //

    THEY JOINED EFFORTS WITH A LOCAL POLICE OFFICER NAMED BOB HINER ('HIGH-NUR) WHO WAS ALREADY RAISING RELIEF FUNDS ON HIS OWN. NONE KNEW MUCH ABOUT HOW IT SHOULD BE DONE -- JUST THAT SOMETHING NEEDED TO BE DONE. SO CALLS WENT OUT FOR DONATIONS. THOSE PEOPLE CALLED OTHERS. SOON AFTERWARDS ENOUGH MEDICINE AND MEDICAL SUPPLIES WERE GATHERED TO FILL A 14-METER LONG SEMI-TRAILER TRUCK. THE THREE MEN ESCORTED THE GOODS TO ZAGREB AND THEN TO SPLIT. MR. MAXEY SAYS HE USED THE TRIP TO VISIT A REFUGEE CAMP. THAT, FOR HIM, WAS A MOMENT OF DECISION.

    // MAXEY ACT //

    THE TURNING POINT FOR ME CAME WHEN I ACTUALLY WENT THERE. I WAS STANDING IN THIS REFUGEE CAMP AND THERE WERE JUST HUNDREDS OF KIDS. AND THERE WAS THIS ONE LITTLE GIRL THAT WAS JUST STARING AT ME. FROM THE CORNER OF MY EYE I SAW HER. AND SHE CAME UP AND SHE PUT HER FINGER INSIDE MY HAND AND STARTED WALKING AROUND WITH ME AS I WAS TOURING THIS FACILITY. AND I ALWAYS TELL PEOPLE, IT'S ONE THING TO WATCH THIS ON T-V, OR TO EVEN BE THERE FIRST-HAND. BUT SOMETHING HAPPENS AND I CAN'T EVEN EXPLAIN IT, WHEN THEY TOUCH YOU, WHEN THAT LITTLE GIRL TOUCHED ME AND LOOKED AT ME LIKE I COULD SOLVE ALL HER PROBLEMS AND I KNOW DARN WELL I COULDN'T. JUST SOMETHING HAPPENED WHERE YOU GET A COMMITMENT THAT YOU HAVE TO DO WHAT YOU CAN DO.

    // END ACT //

    // OPT //

    MR. MAXEY SAYS HE AND HIS TWO FRIENDS SPEND A FEW HOURS EACH DAY SOLICITING DONATIONS FOR THEIR EFFORT.

    // OPT MAXEY ACT //

    REALLY, IT'S JUST US. WE GET ON THE PHONES AND GET OUT AND HIT THE PAVEMENT, DRUM THE STUFF UP TO MAKE IT HAPPEN.

    // END ACT //

    // OPT //

    THE THREE USE THEIR VACATION TIME AND SPEND THEIR OWN MONEY TO FLY TO ZAGREB TO SHEPHERD THE RELIEF SHIPMENTS. MR. MAXEY SAYS THAT NO MONEY CONTRIBUTED TO THE EFFORT IS USED TO DEFRAY THEIR TRAVEL COSTS. SO FAR, 11 TRUCK-LOADS OF MEDICINE AND SUPPLIES WORTH MORE THAN FIVE MILLION DOLLARS HAVE BEEN SHIPPED. MR. MAXEY SAYS HIS COLLEAGUES ARE TOLD THE GOODS ARE REACHING THEIR INTENDED DESTINATIONS.

    // OPT MAXEY ACT //

    THEY GOT WORD FROM SARAJEVO THAT WE'RE GETTING VERY WELL-KNOWN OVER THERE NOW. AND WE JUST SEEM TO GET THROUGH.

    // END ACT., END OPT //

    NOW MR. MAXEY IS FOCUSING HIS ATTENTION ON AN EFFORT HE HOPES WILL BRING MORE ATTENTION TO THE PLIGHT OF REFUGEES AND ORPHANS. HIS DAUGHTER, ANGELLA, CONSTRUCTED WHAT SHE'S CALLING A "PEACE BOMB" -- A PAPER SHELL FIELD WITH PHOTOGRAPHS OF YOUNGSTERS FROM WAR-TORN BOSNIA.

    // MAXEY ACT //

    // OPT //

    AND WHAT THIS IS IS A PAPIER-MACHE SHELL THAT WE MADE TOGETHER. I HAVE A LOT OF PICTURES FROM THE AREAS WE WENT INTO OF KIDS. WE WORK A LOT WITH KIDS OVER THERE -- IN FACT, THAT'S OUR PRIMARY THRUST, TRYING TO HELP THE KIDS. // END OPT // AND MY DAUGHTER CUT THESE PICTURES OUT THAT WE HAVE -- THEY'RE WALLET-SIZED PICTURES AND WE'VE GOT ALMOST A THOUSAND OF THEM, A LOT ARE REFUGEES, ORPHANS, ALL DIFFERENT KINDS OF STORIES BEHIND THEM. SHE FILLED THIS SHELL, PAINTED THE OUTSIDE AND I TOOK IT OUT INTO THE GARAGE AND WE HINGED IT SO IT COULD CRACK OPEN.

    // END ACT //

    JON MAXEY SAYS HIS DAUGHTER HOPES TO ADDRESS DELEGATES TO THE BOSNIAN PEACE TALKS, TO "CRACK OPEN" THE PAPER SHELL FILLED WITH PHOTOS TO SHOW NEGOTIATORS FACES OF THOSE WHOSE FUTURE FATE DEPENDS ON THEIR ACTIONS. WHILE THE IDEA MAY SEEM FAR-FETCHED TO SOME, MR. MAXEY THINKS IT WOULD MAKE A PROFOUND STATEMENT. AND HE'S DETERMINED TO MAKE THE IDEA REALITY -- JUST LIKE HE TURNED AN IDEA OVER BREAKFAST WITH A FRIEND INTO A MULTI-MILLION DOLLAR RELIEF EFFORT. (SIGNED)

    NEB/PCF/CF
    18-Sep-95 3:08 PM EDT (1908 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [07] BOSNIA / SITREP (L ) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA )

    DATE=9/18/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-185518
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT SAYS ITS FORCES HAVE MADE MORE GAINS IN THE MUSLIM AND CROAT OFFENSIVE AGAINST THE SERBS IN WESTERN AND CENTRAL BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. THE SERBS DENY THAT. THEY SAY THEIR FORCES ARE LAUNCHING COUNTER-ATTACKS. V-O-A'S CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT, WAYNE COREY, REPORTS.

    TEXT: GOVERNMENT-CONTROLLED SARAJEVO RADIO SAYS THE BOSNIAN ARMY IS ADVANCING TOWARD TWO SERB-HELD TOWNS IN NORTHWESTERN BOSNIA, PRIJEDOR AND BOSANSKI NOVI. THE RADIO SAYS SERB TROOPS ARE IN A CHAOTIC RETREAT TOWARD BANJA LUKA, THE BIGGEST SERB TOWN IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. AT THE SAME TIME, THE BOSNIAN ARMY REPORTS ITS FORCES HAVE MADE FURTHER GAINS IN CENTRAL BOSNIA DESPITE FIERCE SERB RESISTANCE. GOVERNMENT FORCES ARE SUPPORTED BY CROAT TROOPS AND BY ELEMENTS OF THE CROATIAN ARMY IN THE FIGHTING, ESPECIALLY IN CENTRAL BOSNIA. UNITED NATIONS OFFICIALS IN SARAJEVO AND ZAGREB SAY THE MUSLIMS AND CROATS NOW CONTROL AT LEAST HALF THE TERRITORY OF BOSNIA. BUT THE SERBS SAY THEIR DEFENSE LINES HAVE STABILIZED AND THAT THEY ARE COUNTER-ATTACKING. THEY SAY THEY HAVE PUSHED THE MUSLIMS AND CROATS BACK IN AT LEAST SOME AREAS. THE SERBS SAY THEY HAVE STRENGTHENED THEIR POSITIONS AROUND SANSKI MOST, 40 KILOMETERS WEST OF BANJA LUKA. THE BOSNIAN ARMY EARLIER SAID IT CAPTURED SANSKI MOST. U-N OFFICIALS SAID THEY HAD NO REASON TO DOUBT THAT. ACCORDING TO THE SERBS, THEIR FORCES HAVE COUNTER-ATTACKED SOUTH OF BANJA LUKA AND HAVE INFLICTED HEAVY CASUALTIES ON THE MUSLIMS AND CROATS. THE SERB ACCOUNT IS PARTLY SUPPORTED BY AN EASING OF THE INFLUX OF TENS OF THOUSANDS OF DISPLACED SERB CIVILIANS INTO BANJA LUKA. A U-N RELIEF OFFICIAL THERE SAYS SERB DEFENSE LINES IN THE AREA MAY NOW BE MORE STABLE. ON THE DIPLOMATIC FRONT, AMERICAN ENVOY RICHARD HOLBROOKE AND THE SERBIAN PRESIDENT, SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC, BOTH REPORT PROGRESS IN THEIR LATEST TALKS ON A PEACE AGREEMENT FOR THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. BUT MR. HOLBROOKE REFERS TO ONLY A LITTLE PROGRESS. OTHER U-S OFFICIALS SAY AN AGREEMENT IS NOT NEAR. MR. HOLBROOKE IS SLIGHTLY HOPEFUL THAT THE BOSNIAN SERBS WILL COMPLY WITH THEIR AGREEMENT TO EFFECTIVELY LIFT THEIR SIEGE OF SARAJEVO. HE SAYS HE, ESPECIALLY, WANTS THE ROADS INTO SARAJEVO AND THE CITY'S AIRPORT TO REMAIN OPEN. MR. HOLBROOKE IS NOW IN THE CROATIAN CAPITAL, ZAGREB. HE WILL MEET THERE ON TUESDAY WITH THE CROATIAN PRESIDENT, FRANJO TUDJMAN, AND WITH BOSNIAN PRESIDENT ALIJA IZETBEGOVIC. (SIGNED)

    NEB/WC/MH/BG
    18-Sep-95 12:09 PM EDT (1609 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [08] BOUTROS/BOSNIA (S & L)) BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)

    DATE=9/18/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-185526
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    //USE OPTIONAL MATERIAL FOR LONG CR//

    INTRO: U-N SECRETARY-GENERAL BOUTROS BOUTROS-GHALI HAS RECOMMENDED TO THE SECURITY COUNCIL THAT A MULTINATIONAL FORCE SHOULD TAKE OVER FROM U-N TROOPS IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA -- WHETHER OR NOT A PEACE AGREEMENT IS REACHED. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT ELAINE JOHANSON REPORTS THIRTY-ONE-THOUSAND OF THE NEARLY 70-THOUSAND PEACEKEEPERS THE UNITED NATIONS DEPLOYS WORLD-WIDE ARE BASED IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC.

    TEXT: IF THE CURRENT PEACE PROCESS SUCCEEDS -- THE SECRETARY-GENERAL WANTS A COALITION OF COUNTRIES QUICKLY TO REPLACE THE PEACEKEEPERS TO SUPERVISE IMPLEMENTATION OF AN AGREEMENT. NATO COUNTRIES ALREADY ENVISAGE SUCH A PLAN-- WITH THE UNITED STATES EXPECTED TO CONTRIBUTE GROUND FORCES.

    MR. BOUTROS-GHALI ALSO BELIEVES A MULTINATIONAL FORCE SHOULD STEP IN IF DIPLOMACY FAILS AND THE SECURITY COUNCIL DECIDES TO AUTHORIZE MORE AGGRESSIVE MILITARY ACTION. U-N PEACEKEEPERS ARE ILL-EQUIPPED FOR COMBAT -- AS THE RECENT EXPERIENCE IN SOMALIA HAS SHOWN.

    THE BIG QUESTION IN THIS SCENARIO IS WHETHER RUSSIA WOULD ALLOW THE COUNCIL TO LAUNCH AN ENFORCEMENT OPERATION THAT WOULD LIKELY BE TARGETED PRIMARILY AT ITS SERBIAN ALLIES. MEANWHILE, DIPLOMATIC HOPES ARE PINNED ON U-S LED DIPLOMACY IN THE REGION. MR. BOUTROS-GHALI WARMLY WELCOMED UNITED STATES LEADERSHIP WHICH COAXED KEY MINISTERS TO ACCEPT PRINCIPLES FOR A SETTLEMENT AT SEPTEMBER EIGHTH MEETING IN GENEVA.

    /// REST OPT ///

    THE SECRETARY-GENERAL MADE HIS RECOMMENDATION AFTER MEETING SATURDAY WITH HIS TOP REPRESENTATIVES IN THE BALKANS. THEY REVIEWED ALL DIPLOMATIC AND MILITARY OPTIONS -- WITH A SPECIAL FOCUS ON THE ROLE OF THE UNITED NATIONS.

    IN A LETTER TO THE SECURITY COUNCIL, THE U-N LEADER STRESSED THE ORGANIZATION'S RESOURCES ARE LIMITED. HE INDICATED THE U-N WOULD NOT BE ABLE TO HANDLE EITHER A MAJOR OUTBREAK OF PEACE OR WAR IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. MR. BOUTROS-GHALI CITED THE U-N'S INABILITY TO RAISE CASH AND MANPOWER, OR EVEN TO MANAGE LARGE-SCALE OPERATIONS.

    THIS ADMISSION OF LIMITED CAPACITY COMES AS THE ORGANIZATION PREPARES TO CELEBRATE ITS 50TH ANNIVERSARY NEXT MONTH. WORLD LEADERS WILL ARRIVE IN NEW YORK IN RECORD NUMBERS TO ASSESS ITS ACHIEVEMENTS AND FAILURES DURING HALF A CENTURY AND TO PLOT PERHAPS A MORE REALISTIC COURSE FOR THE FUTURE. (SIGNED) NEB/RAE 18-Sep-95 1:56 PM EDT (1756 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [09] CONGRESS-CYPRUS (L ONLY) BY PAULA WOLFSON (CONGRESS)

    DATE=9/18/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-185531
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    /// ATTENTION GREEK AND TURKISH SERVICES ///

    INTRO: THE U-S HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES TOOK SOME TIME OFF FROM ITS CONSIDERATION OF DOMESTIC ISSUES TODAY (MONDAY) AND TURNED ITS ATTENTION HALFWAY AROUND THE WORLD. V-O-A'S PAULA WOLFSON REPORTS AMONG OTHER THINGS, LAWMAKERS TALKED ABOUT THE CYPRUS DISPUTE.

    TEXT: THE HOUSE PASSED A RESOLUTION THAT STRESSES ONGOING CONGRESSIONAL SUPPORT FOR EFFORTS TO BRING PEACE TO CYPRUS.

    THE RESOLUTION SAYS THE CURRENT OCCUPATION OF PART OF CYPRUS BY TURKISH TROOPS IS UNACCEPTABLE. IT CALLS FOR THE DEMILITARIZATION OF THE ISLAND, AND ENCOURAGES THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION TO DO ALL IT CAN TO BRING ABOUT A SETTLEMENT -- INCLUDING THE USE OF SANCTIONS TO BRING RELUCTANT PARTIES TO THE BARGAINING TABLE.

    ONE OF THE BIGGEST SUPPORTS OF THE MEASURE IS REPUBLICAN DOUG BEREUTER OF NEBRASKA -- A SENIOR MEMBER OF THE HOUSE INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS COMMITTEE AND CHAIR OF THE SUBCOMMITTEE ON ASIA.

    /// BEREUTER ACT ///

    HAVING WALKED THE BLUE LINE THAT DIVIDES GREEKS FROM TURKS IN CYPRUS -- A LINE FROZEN IN TIME FOR MORE THAN 20 YEARS -- THIS MEMBER IS WELL AWARE OF THE NEED TO MOVE FORWARD IN ACHIEVING A JUST SETTLEMENT OF THE CYPRUS ISSUE.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE RESOLUTION IS NOT BINDING ON THE CLINTON WHITE HOUSE. BUT IT DOES CARRY SOME WEIGHT AS AN EXPRESSION OF THE VIEW OF THE LEGISLATURE. IT PASSED EASILY WITH BIPARTISAN SUPPORT, ALTHOUGH A FEW MEMBERS DID EXPRESS CAUTION.

    REPUBLICAN TOBY ROTH OF WISCONSIN SAID THE RESOLUTION MAKES NO MENTION OF THE GREEK FORCES IN CYPRUS. HE SAID THE RESOLUTION IS ONE-SIDED AND CONTRIBUTES NOTHING TO THE PEACE PROCESS.

    /// ROTH ACT ///

    AND I FEEL AS A CONGRESS WE SHOULD BE EVEN-HANDED AND LOOK AT BOTH SIDES. THE REALITY IS THAT BOTH GREECE AND TURKEY HAVE A LEGITIMATE INTEREST IN CYPRUS. FOR THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS NOW TO COME DOWN ON ONE SIDE IN THIS DISPUTE IS UNFAIR AND I THINK IT IS GOING TO BE COUNTER-PRODUCTIVE.

    /// END ACT ///

    EARLIER IN THE DAY, THE HOUSE PASSED A RESOLUTION ENCOURAGING PEACE EFFORTS IN SRI LANKA, AND A MEASURE COMMENDING THE PEOPLE OF MONGOLIA FOR THEIR STRONG POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC REFORMS. LAWMAKERS ALSO ADOPTED LANGUAGE STRESSING THE DETERMINATION OF THE CONGRESS TO SEE NORTH KOREA ABIDE BY ITS 1994 NUCLEAR AGREEMENT WITH THE UNITED STATES. (SIGNED)

    NEB/PW/LWM
    18-Sep-95 4:47 PM EDT (2047 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [10] E-U / BOSNIA BY JOHN FRASER ( BRUSSELS)

    DATE=9/18/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-185523
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE EUROPEAN UNION IS TO TAKE THE LEAD IN A MULTI-BILLION-DOLLAR PROGRAM TO REBUILD BOSNIA, ONCE PEACE ARRIVES. THIS WAS ANNOUNCED AFTER TALKS IN BRUSSELS BETWEEN E-U PEACE ENVOY CARL BILDT AND E-U COMMISSIONER HANS VAN DEN BROEK. JOHN FRASER REPORTS FROM BRUSSELS.

    TEXT: EUROPEAN UNION FOREIGN POLICY COMMISSIONER HANS VAN DEN BROEK SAYS THAT HE HOPES TO CONVENE A DONORS' CONFERENCE, ONCE THERE IS PEACE IN BOSNIA.

    THIS WILL SEEK PLEDGES BOTH FOR SHORT-TERM HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE, AND FOR LONGER-TERM AID FOR REHABILITATION IN BOTH BOSNIA AND CROATIA. HE ADDS THAT THE PAYMENT OF AID SHOULD BE LINKED TO HUMAN RIGHTS, TO THE RESPECT FOR MINORITIES, AND TO THE COOPERATION OF THE RECIPIENTS IN BRINGING WAR CRIMINALS TO JUSTICE.

    THE E-U'S PEACE ENVOY IN BOSNIA, CARL BILDT, ADDS THAT WHILE HE IS STILL PREOCCUPIED BY THE WAR, THE TIME HAS COME TO ALSO CONSIDER THE PEACE.

    ///BILDT ACT///

    WHEN IT COMES TO THE ECONOMIC ISSUES, THEY ARE NOT THAT CENTRAL TO THE WAR, BUT THEY ARE CENTRAL TO THE PEACE. ECONOMIC RECONSTRUCTION AND ECONOMIC REINTEGRATION IS GOING TO BE CRITICAL TO THE RECONCILIATION THAT MAKES IT NOT ONLY POSSIBLE TO END THE WAR -- THAT IS IMPORTANT, OF COURSE, BUT IT IS NOT ENOUGH -- YOU MUST NOT ONLY END THE WAR, YOU MUST END THE CONFLICT. AND IN ORDER TO END THE CONFLICT, THE ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS ARE GOINGTO BE THE CRITICAL ONES, AND HERE, NEEDLESS TO SAY, EUROPE IS THE KEY TO THE ENTIRE PROCESS

    ////END ACT///

    MR. BILDT ADDED THAT HE IS STILL UNABLE TO JUDGE WHETHER THE RECENT ADVANCES BY THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT FORCES WILL MAKE IT EASIER TO ACHIEVE PEACE. HE STRESSES THAT THE CURRENT MAP DIVIDING THE WARRING FACTIONS IS DIFFERENT TO THE ONE WHICH HAS BEEN ON THE TABLE IN THE PEACE PROCESS.

    HE WAS ASKED ABOUT THE DIFFERENT ROLES THAT EUROPE AND AMERICA HAVE PLAYED IN TRYING TO RESOLVE THE BOSNIAN CONFLICT. HE SAID THAT IT WAS ONLY WHEN EUROPE AND AMERICA GOT TOGETHER AND ADOPTED THE SAME APPROACH THAT PEACE WAS POSSIBLE.

    IN THE PAST, THE AMERICANS FAVORED THE USE OF NATO MILITARY MIGHT, WHILE THE EUROPEANS, LED BY FRANCE AND BRITAIN, FAVORED RESTRAINT. MR. BILDT CLAIMS THAT THIS DIVISION DELAYED A BOSNIAN SETTLEMENT BY MORE THAN TWO YEARS.

    // BILDT ACT///

    IF YOU LOOK BACK AT THE HISTORY OF THE CONFLICT, THERE HAVE BEEN TIMES IN THE PAST WHERE A SETTLEMENT MIGHT HAVE BEEN POSSIBLE. LET'S TALK PRIMARILY ABOUT THE SPRING OR THE SUMMER OF 1993, BUT WHERE I THINK DIVISIONS ACROSS THE ATLANTIC PREVENTED THAT SETTLEMENT FROM OCCURRING. THAT IS WHY IT HAS BEEN SO IMMENSELY CRITICAL TO HAVE THE COOPERATION BETWEEN THE AMERICANS AND BETWEEN THE EUROPEANS

    ///END ACT///

    MR. BILDT CONCLUDES THAT IT HAS ONLY BEEN THE THE PAST MONTH OR SO THAT BOTH THE E-U AND THE UNITED STATES REACHED AGREEMENT ON THE BLUEPRINT FOR PEACE, WITH BOSNIA BECOMING A FEDERATION OF TWO ENTITIES. HE SAYS THAT THIS APPROACH HAS BEEN THE KEY TO THE RECENT PROGRESS IN THE PEACE TALKS. (SIGNED)

    NEB/JF/MH/BG
    18-Sep-95 1:06 PM EDT (1706 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [11] E-U / POPULATION (L ONLY) BY JOHN FRASER ( BRUSSELS)

    DATE=9/18/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-185524
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: A NEW REPORT FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION INDICATES MOST OF EUROPE'S RECENT POPULATION GROWTH HAS BEEN CAUSED BY MIGRATION, RATHER THAN BY BIRTHS AMONG THE NATIVE POPULATION. JOHN FRASER REPORTS FROM BRUSSELS.

    TEXT: THE REPORT SHOWS THAT THE EUROPEAN UNION'S POPULATION GREW BY ONE-POINT-ONE MILLION LAST YEAR, AND NOW TOTALS JUST OVER 371 MILLION.

    THE REPORT SAYS THAT THE RATE OF INCREASE IN THE E-U'S POPULATION IS SLOWING DOWN. THIS IS PARTLY BECAUSE OF A FALL IN THE BIRTH RATE, AND ALSO BECAUSE OF A DECLINE IN IMMIGRATION.

    TWO-THIRDS OF LAST YEAR'S NET INCREASE WAS DUE TO IMMIGRATION, AND ONE-THIRD TO BIRTHS. HOWEVER, THE PICTURE IS DIFFERENT IN DIFFERENT E-U STATES.

    THE GERMAN POPULATION ROSE BY 214-THOUSAND LAST YEAR, REFLECTING NET IMMIGRATION OF MORE THAN ONE-THIRD OF A MILLION, OFFSET BY A DECLINE IN THE NUMBER OF NATIVE GERMANS, AMONG WHICH WITH DEATHS OUTNUMBERED BIRTHS.

    THE PICTURE WAS THE SAME IN ITALY, WHERE THE FALL IN THE BIRTH RATE WAS COMPENSATED FOR BY A LARGE NUMBER OF IMMIGRANTS.

    IN CONTRAST, IN IRELAND THERE WAS A NET OUT-MIGRATION OF PEOPLE. THAT HELPED TO BRING DOWN THE POPULATION INCREASE WHICH HAD BEEN CAUSED BY A HIGH BIRTH RATE.

    THE HIGHEST LEVELS OF IMMIGRATION INTO EUROPE WERE IN GERMANY AND ITALY, WITH BRITAIN IN THIRD PLACE. THE E-U POPULATION STATISTICS ALSO GIVE SOME PICTURE OF CHANGES IN FAMILY LIFE.

    BIRTHS OUTSIDE MARRIAGE SEEM TO BE ON THE RISE IN MOST E-U COUNTRIES, AND IS PARTICULARLY HIGH IN NORTHERN EUROPEAN STATES. THE INCREASE IN OUT-OF-WEDLOCK BIRTHS COINCIDES WITH A DECLINE IN THE MARRIAGE RATE -- ALTHOUGH THE NUMBER OF DIVORCES IN THE E-U IS ALSO RISING.

    ON THE POSITIVE SIDE, E-U CITIZENS CAN EXPECT TO LIVE LONGER -- WITH MEN REACHING 72 YEARS OF AGE, ON AVERAGE, AND WOMEN HAVING AN AVERAGE LIFE EXPECTANCY OF ALMOST 80. (SIGNED)

    NEB/JF/MH/ART
    18-Sep-95 1:16 PM EDT (1716 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [12] FRANCE BOSNIA PILOTS (L) BY JULIAN NUNDY (PARIS)

    DATE=9/18/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-185500
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: ALTHOUGH THE FRENCH DEFENSE MINISTRY SAYS TWO FRENCH AIR FORCE PILOTS SHOT DOWN OVER BOSNIA LAST MONTH ARE STILL ALIVE, THERE ARE GROWING FEARS FOR THEIR SAFETY. JULIAN NUNDY REPORTS FROM PARIS.

    TEXT: FRENCH DEFENSE MINISTER CHARLES MILLON SAYS THE TWO PILOTS SHOT DOWN ON AUGUST 30 ARE STILL ALIVE. THEIR AIRCRAFT WAS SHOT DOWN ON THE FIRST DAY OF NATO'S OPERATION "DELIBERATE FORCE" TO DESTROY BOSNIAN SERB ARTILLERY.

    THE MINISTER SAYS HE CANNOT GIVE ANY OTHER DETAILS FOR SECURITY REASONS. DESPITE HIS STATEMENT, THERE ARE FEARS FOR THE AIRMEN'S SAFETY, MAINLY BECAUSE THERE HAS BEEN NO NEWS ABOUT THEM. BOTH MEN WERE SEEN PARACHUTING TO THE GROUND AFTER THEIR MIRAGE 2000 PLANE WAS STRUCK BY A SERB MISSILE.

    THE DEFENSE MINISTER SAID AT THE TIME THAT THE TWO MEN HAD BEEN IN CONTACT. OFFICIAL SOURCES NOW SAY THAT RADIO-TRACKING DEVICES EMITTED A SIGNAL FOR A SHORT WHILE AFTER THE PILOTS LANDED NEAR THE BOSNIAN SERB CAPITAL OF PALE. BUT THE MEN NEVER USED THEIR PERSONAL RADIOS TO CONFIRM THAT THEY HAD SURVIVED.

    THE CONSERVATIVE DAILY LE FIGARO SAYS A HUGE OPERATION WAS MOUNTED BY NATO AND LED BY THE U-S AIR FORCE ON SEPTEMBER 7 TO RECOVER THE PILOTS. ON THAT DAY, REPORTS FROM PALE SPOKE OF HELICOPTERS BEING INVOLVED IN A FIREFIGHT. LE FIGARO SAYS THE HELICOPTERS WERE TRYING TO FIND THE FRENCH AIRMEN BUT FAILED.

    THE DETAILED LE FIGARO REPORT SAYS A TOTAL OF 40 NATO AIRCRAFT WERE USED IN THE RESCUE ATTEMPT. THE PLANES INCLUDED FIGHTERS GIVING COVER TO THE HELICOPTERS, AWACS (AIRBORNE COMMAND AND CONTROL) RADAR AIRCRAFT AND TANKERS TO REFUEL THE FIGHTERS. AFTER FLYING OVER THE AREA WHERE THE PILOTS LANDED FOR ABOUT 30 MINUTES, THE HELICOPTER PILOTS GAVE UP THE SEARCH.

    AFTER THAT RESCUE EFFORT, OFFICIALS SAY PRESIDENT JACQUES CHIRAC TELEPHONED PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC IN BELGRADE. BUT THE SERBIAN LEADER SAID HE HAD NO INFORMATION ABOUT THE PILOTS. LATER, GENERAL BERNARD JANVIER, THE FRENCH COMMANDER OF THE UNITED NATIONS PROTECTION FORCE IN YUGOSLAVIA, ASKED GENERAL RADKO MLADIC, THE BOSNIAN SERBS' SENIOR MILITARY OFFICER FOR NEWS. OFFICIAL SOURCES SAY GENERAL MLADIC SAID HE KNEW NOTHING ABOUT THE FATE OF THE AIRMEN.

    IMMEDIATELY AFTER THE PLANE WAS SHOT DOWN, THE BOSNIAN SERBS SAID THEY HAD CAPTURED THE MEN. BUT FOR TWO WEEKS THE BOSNIAN SERBS HAVE BEEN SILENT. THEY HAVE SO FAR GIVEN NO PUBLIC PROOF THAT THEY REALLY HOLD THE TWO FRENCH OFFICERS. (SIGNED)

    NEB/JN/DW/CF
    18-Sep-95 8:10 AM EDT (1210 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [13] PROFILE: BOSNIAN SERB GENERAL BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (LONDON)

    DATE=9/18/95
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-31142
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO AND THE UNITED NATIONS HAVE GRANTED THE BOSNIAN SERB ARMY AN ADDITIONAL 72-HOURS TO COMPLY WITH THEIR DEMANDS TO WITHDRAW ALL HEAVY WEAPONS AROUND SARAJEVO. IF THEY DO NOT, NATO THREATENS TO RESUME ITS AIR STRIKES. IN THIS BACKGROUND REPORT FROM LONDON, VOA CORRESPONDENT ANDRE DE NESNERA LOOKS AT THE MAN WHOSE WILL THE WESTERN ALLIANCE WANTS TO BREAK -- GENERAL RATKO MLADIC, THE BOSNIAN SERB MILITARY COMMANDER -- WHO IS CURRENTLY RECUPERATING IN A BELGRADE HOSPITAL FOLLOWING AN OPERATION TO REMOVE KIDNEY STONES.

    TEXT: FOR TWO WEEKS, NATO BOMBERS AND CRUISE MISSILES RELENTLESSLY ATTACKED BOSNIAN SERB POSITIONS IN A STRATEGY AIMED AT FORCING THE BOSNIAN SERB ARMY TO WITHDRAW HEAVY WEAPONS FROM SARAJEVO.

    NATO RAIDS DESTROYED AMMUNITION DEPOTS, COMMUNICATIONS FACILITIES, WEAPONS AND BRIDGES COMPELLING THE BOSNIAN SERBS TO AGREE TO NATO'S DEMANDS. AN INITIAL 72-HOUR DEADLINE WAS EXTENDED FOR AN ADDITIONAL THREE DAYS TO ALLOW THE BOSNIAN SERBS TO COMPLETE THE PULLOUT.

    THE PULLOUT OF HEAVY WEAPONS WAS AGREED TO BY BOSNIAN SERB POLITICAL AND MILITARY LEADERS -- INCLUDING RATKO MLADIC, THE COMMANDER OF THE BOSNIAN SERB ARMY. DEFENSE EXPERTS AGREE THE NATO BOMBINGS WERE AIMED PRIMARILY AT BREAKING GENERAL MLADIC'S WILL. THE 52-YEAR-OLD GENERAL IS REVERED BY MANY OF HIS FOLLOWERS -- VILIFIED BY OTHERS.

    LAST MONTH THE U-N WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL INDICTED GENERAL MLADIC -- ALONG WITH THE BOSNIAN SERB POLITICAL LEADER RADOVAN KARADZIC -- AS A WAR CRIMINAL. AT THAT TIME HE OVERSAW THE TAKING OF THE U-N SAFE AREAS OF SREBRENICA AND ZEPA WHICH LED TO THE ETHNIC CLEANSING (REMOVAL) OF MORE THAN 50-THOUSAND MUSLIMS FROM THE TOWNS. THIS WAS BUT THE LATEST ATROCITY IN WHICH GENERAL MLADIC WAS INVOLVED.

    PAUL BEAVER -- SENIOR ANALYST WITH THE BRITISH PUBLICATION JANE'S DEFENSE WEEKLY -- SAYS GENERAL MLADIC IS REVERED BY HIS SOLDIERS.

    // BEAVER ACT //

    HE IS ADORED BY HIS SOLDIERS BECAUSE HE DOES NOT MIND GETTING INTO THE FRONT LINES AND GETTING HIS HANDS DIRTY, AS IT WERE. IN TERMS OF HIS HISTORY, HE COMES FROM BOSNIAN SERB AREAS. HIS MOTHER IS STILL ALIVE. HIS FATHER WAS SHOT BY THE CROAT USTASHA -- THE FASCISTS -- AND WE HAVE TO REMEMBER THAT CROATIA WAS A FASCIST COUNTRY DURING THE SECOND WORLD WAR AND ON THE SIDE OF THE GERMANS AGAINST THE ALLIES. AT THAT TIME -- STRANGE ENOUGH -- SERBIA WAS A GREAT ALLY OF THE UNITED STATES, THE UNITED KINGDOM AND FRANCE. SO WE SEE A MAN WHO FEELS HE HAS BEEN BETRAYED BY HIS FORMER ALLIES AND I THINK ALSO WE HAVE SOMEBODY WHO IS VERY, VERY MUCH A SERB NATIONALIST, BUT NOT TO THE EXTREME DEGREE THAT (RADOVAN) KARADZIC, THE POLITICIAN WHO CLAIMS TO BE RUNNING BOSNIAN SERB POLICY IS.

    // END ACT //

    THAT VIEW IS SHARED BY MICHAEL CLARK, FROM THE CENTER OF DEFENSE STUDIES AT KING'S COLLEGE IN LONDON. HE SAYS GENERAL MLADIC TOTALLY CONTROLS THE BOSNIAN SERB MILITARY AND IS FIGHTING RADOVAN KARADZIC FOR THE LOYALTY OF THE BOSNIAN SERBS.

    // CLARK ACT //

    IT WAS VERY CLEAR THAT WHEN KARADZIC AND HE FELL OUT A COUPLE OF MONTHS AGO, THAT NO ONE TAKES ORDERS EXCEPT FROM GENERAL MLADIC. KARADZIC ISSUES ORDERS AND PEOPLE JUST IGNORED THEM. INDEED THE WHOLE OF THE PALE PARLIAMENT, THE SELF-STYLED SERBIAN PARLIAMENT, BACKED KARADZIC AND THAT DID NOT MAKE ANY IMPRESSION ON THE ARMED FORCES.

    // END ACT //

    MR. CLARK SAYS GENERAL MLADIC IS AT HIS BEST WHEN HE FEELS CORNERED AND ISOLATED -- WHICH MAY BE THE CASE RIGHT NOW.

    // 2ND CLARK ACT //

    HE IS RUTHLESS. HE IS VERY CLEVER. HE HAS A SORT OF LOW CUNNING AND A GOOD TACTICAL AND STRATEGIC SENSE. HE IS NOT A NICE MAN BUT HE HAS AN INSTINCT AND HE FOLLOWS THAT INSTINCT. NOW I THINK HIS INSTINCT HAS GOTTEN HIM IN TROUBLE SOMETIMES IN THE PAST AND I SUSPECT IT IS GOING TO RUN HIM INTO TROUBLE BEFORE THIS WAR IS FINISHED. BUT HE TRUSTS HIS INSTINCST AND HE IS A VERY STRONG-MINDED MAN. SO HE IS A VERY COMPLEX CHARACTER. BUT HE HAS PAINTED HIMSELF INTO A CORNER. BUT LIKE A LOT OF PEOPLE LIKE THAT, HE IS AT HIS BEST WHEN HE IS CORNERED, HE IS AT HIS BEST WHEN HE IS DESPERATE. IN THAT RESPECT HE IS A BIT LIKE SADDAM HUSSEIN. HIS QUALITIES -- SUCH AS THEY ARE -- COME OUT MOST FERVENTLY WHEN HE IS ISOLATED, DESPERATE, ON HIS OWN -- AND HE IS THE SORT OF PERSON WHO WILL TAKE DRAMATIC ACTION.

    // END ACT //

    MANY DEFENSE EXPERTS SAY THE NATO AIR STRIKES HAVE PAVED THE WAY FOR THE CURRENT PUSH BY CROATIAN AND BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT FORCES AGAINST GENERAL MLADIC'S ARMY. MR. CLARK SAYS GENERAL MLADIC CAN RESIST NATO AIR STRIKES -- BUT MAY NOT BE ABLE TO STOP THE CURRENT BOSNIAN AND CROAT ADVANCES SPURRED BY THOSE AIR ATTACKS. IF THAT IS THE CASE, MR. CLARK SAYS GENERAL MLADIC'S POSITION WILL BEGIN TO CRUMBLE VERY SOON. (SIGNED)

    NEB/ADEN/MH/CF
    18-Sep-95 9:36 AM EDT (1336 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [14] U-S / BOSNIA (L ONLY) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)

    DATE=9/18/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-185536
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED STATES IS SUGGESTING THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT HALT ITS OFFENSIVE IN WESTERN BOSNIA AND NEGOTIATE PEACE BECAUSE THE BATTLEFIELD SITUATION CAN CHANGE AGAIN. RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT.

    TEXT: NO MATTER WHAT FACTS ARE BEING CREATED ON THE GROUND BY THE MUSLIM AND CROAT MILITARY VICTORIES IN WESTERN BOSNIA, THE UNITED STATES IS URGING THE BOSNIAN AND CROATIAN GOVERNMENTS TO STOP SHOOTING NOW IN THE HOPE OF ACHIEVING MORE GAINS AT THE NEGOTIATING TABLE LATER.

    THE STATE DEPARTMENT SAYS THE CONTACT GROUP'S PROPOSAL FOR A 51 TO 49 PERCENT DIVISION OF BOSNIA BETWEEN THE MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION AND THE BOSNIAN SERBS WILL REMAIN THE BASIS FOR NEGOTIATIONS. THE RECENT GOVERNMENT GAINS HAVE REDUCED THE BOSNIAN SERBS' CONTROL OF TERRITORY TO ROUGHLY 55 PERCENT.

    U-S OFFICIALS ARE CONCERNED MORE MILITARY PRESSURE BY THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT WILL ONLY ENCOURAGE THE SERBIAN GOVERNMENT TO BREAK OFF PEACE TALKS AND TO SEND THE SERBIAN ARMY BACK INTO BOSNIA IN SUPPORT OF THE BOSNIAN SERBS.

    STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN NICHOLAS BURNS EXPRESSES UNDERSTANDING FOR THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT'S DESIRE TO RECAPTURE TERRITORY LOST TO THE BOSNIAN SERBS OVER THE LAST FOUR YEARS. AT THE SAME TIME, HE WARNS THE GAINS MAY BE TEMPORARY.

    ///BURNS ACT///

    WE DON'T BELIEVE THEY ARE STRONG ENOUGH TO WIN A MILITARY VICTORY ON THE GROUND. EVEN AT A TIME IT LOOKS LIKE THE BOSNIAN SERBS ARE REELING AND RETREATING, WHICH THEY ARE, AND EVEN AT A TIME WHEN 85 TO 100-THOUSAND, PERHAPS, REFUGEES HAVE FLED THEIR HOMES TOWARDS BANJA LUKA AND OTHER CITIES. THERE IS AN OBVIOUS TEMPTATION FOR PARTIES ON THE GROUND AFTER SO MUCH MISERY TO FEEL EMBOLDENED BY SUCCESS OVER A WEEK, BUT COUNTRIES SHOULD NOT DECIDE THEIR ULTIMATE OBJECTIVES BASED ON A WEEK'S WORK. THEY HAVE GOT TO ELECT TO MOVE TOWARD THE PEACE TABLE. THAT'S WHERE THEY CAN ACHIEVE THE ULTIMATE JUSTICE THAT THE BOSNIAN PEOPLE DESERVE.

    ///END ACT///

    THE SPOKESMAN RULES OUT SANCTIONS AGAINST BOSNIA AND CROATIA EVEN IF THEY CONTINUE TO IGNORE THE U-S CALLS FOR RESTRAINT. AT THE SAME TIME, HE WARNS THE BOSNIAN SERBS ARE STILL A HIGHLY EFFECTIVE FIGHTING FORCE DESPITE THE RECENT DEFEATS AND NATO AIR STRIKES.

    IF THE SERBS DO STRIKE BACK, THE SPOKESMAN SAYS, NATO IS ONLY COMMITTED TO PROTECTING THE SO-CALLED SAFE AREAS -- SARAJEVO, GORAZDE, TUZLA, AND BIHAC. THE IMPLICATION IS THAT WHILE BANJA LUKA WILL NOT BE PROTECTED FOR THE SERBS, THE RECENT MUSLIM-CROAT VICTORIES WILL NOT BE PROTECTED FROM SERBIAN RETALIATION.

    THE STATE DEPARTMENT EXPRESSES LITTLE SYMPATHY FOR THE BOSNIAN SERB GOVERNMENT, REMEMBERING JUST A FEW MONTHS AGO WITH THE CAPTURE OF SREBRENICA AND ZEPA IN EASTERN BOSNIA, THE SERBS APPEARED TO BE ON THE VERGE OF A MILITARY VICTORY. THERE IS MORE SYMPATHY HERE FOR THE NEW GROUP OF REFUGEES WHO HAPPEN TO BE BOSNIAN SERBS.

    THE POINT THE UNITED STATES IS MAKING TO BOSNIA AND CROATIA IS THAT THERE WILL ALWAYS BE UPS AND DOWNS ON THE BATTLEFIELD AND THEIR BEST CHANCES FOR REAL GAINS WILL BE AT NEGOTIATIONS. (SIGNED)

    NEB/RP/CB/BG
    18-Sep-95 4:52 PM EDT (2052 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
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