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Voice of America, 20 September 1995

From: yanni@ix.netcom.com (Ioannis Bousnakis)

Voice of America Directory

CONTENTS

  • [01] WEDNESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [02] BOSNIA/FIGHTING (L) BY KYLE KING ( ZAGREB )

  • [03] BOSNIA SITREP BY WAYNE COREY ( VIENNA)

  • [04] BOSNIA / SARAJEVO (L UPDATE) BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)

  • [05] BOSNIAN OFFENSIVE / U-N REACT (S ONLY) BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)

  • [06] DEBATING BOSNIA BY ED WARNER ( WASHINGTON)

  • [07] NATO / BOSNIA (S) BY DAVID SWAN (PENTAGON)

  • [08] TURKEY/POLITICS (L) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)


  • [01] WEDNESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=09/20/95
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09179
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=NEAL LAVON
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-S-T ON WEDNESDAY SEPTEMBER 20TH //

    INTRO: THERE ARE PLENTY OF TOPICS TO INTEREST ALMOST ALL READERS IN AMERICA'S EDITORIAL COLUMNS TODAY. THE PRINCIPAL SUBJECTS ARE THE PUBLICATION OF THE "UNABOMBER'S" HUGE MANUSCRIPT ON WHAT'S WRONG WITH SOCIETY, AND THE PASSAGE OF A SWEEPING CHANGE TO THE NATION'S WELFARE LAWS IN CONGRESS. OTHER TOPICS OF NOTE THIS WEDNESDAY INCLUDE CRITICISM OF PRESIDENT CLINTON ON HIS ROLE IN THE BUDGET; THE BOSNIAN SITUATION AND HONG KONG'S FIGHT FOR DEMOCRACY. NOW, HERE WITH A CLOSER LOOK IS _______________ IN TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: "THE WASHINGTON POST" AND "THE NEW YORK TIMES" HAVE JOINTLY PUBLISHED A 35-THOUSAND WORD ARTICLE WRITTEN BY A MAN THE F-B-I CALLS THE "UNABOMER", A TERRORIST WHO, DURING THE PAST TWO DECADES, HAS USED MAIL BOMBS TO KILL THREE PEOPLE AND INJURE MORE THAN A DOZEN. THE MAN HAD DEMANDED PUBLICATION OF HIS MANIFESTO ON THE ILLS OF INDUSTRIALIZED SOCIETY IN RETURN FOR HIS PROMISE NOT TO SEND AMY MORE MAIL BOMBS. THE TWO PAPERS SAID THEY TOOK THE MOVE AFTER REQUESTS FROM THE F-B-I AND ATTORNEY GENERAL JANET RENO.

    THE PUBLICATION HAS TRIGGERED A WIDE OUTPOURING OF COMMENT ON JOURNALISTIC ETHICS. FOR EXAMPLE, "THE MIAMI HERALD" SAYS:

    VOICE: "SUCH DECISIONS CAN'T BE MADE OR EVALUATED SOLELY IN THEORY. THEY DON'T LEND THEMSELVES TO GENERAL PRONOUNCEMENTS. [OPT] IN THIS CASE, THE F-B-I EVIDENTLY HAD PARTLY SECRET REASONS TO BELIEVE (A) THAT THE MAIL-BOMBER'S PROMISE TO STOP KILLING PEOPLE IS PROBABLY GENUINE, AND (B) THAT PUBLISHING HIS DIATRIBE COULD HELP SPEED HIS CAPTURE. IF THE NEWSPAPERS, HEARING SOME OF THOSE REASONS, SHARED THE GOVERNMENT'S CONCLUSIONS, THEN THEY WERE RIGHT TO PUBLISH. .... FEW PEOPLE, PROBABLY, WILL EVER BE COMPLETELY COMFORTABLE WITH THE RESULT. [END OPT] ... THE POST AND THE TIMES HAVE NOTHING WHATSOEVER TO APOLOGIZE FOR."

    TEXT: HOWEVER "THE WALL STREET JOURNAL", IN AN ARTICLE IN ITS MEDIA COLUMN, COMMENTS:

    VOICE: "THE DECISION ... TO PUBLISH A MAIL BOMBER'S MANIFESTO STIRRED FEARS IN JOURNALISM AND CORPORATE CIRCLES THAT THE NEWSPAPERS WERE SETTING A DANGEROUS PRECEDENT BY YIELDING TO A TERRORIST'S THREAT. [REST OPT] BUT MANY WERE QUICK TO DEFEND THE NEWSPAPERS, POINTING OUT THAT THERE ARE PLENTY OF PRECEDENTS AMONG BIG COMPANIES FOR DEALING WITH TERRORISTS - - SUCH AS PAYING RANSOM FOR A KIDNAPPED EXECUTIVE. ..... 'WE EXPECT CRITICISM. IT'S A NO-WIN SITUATION.' TIMES PUBLISHER ARTHUR ... SULZBERGER JUNIOR SAID YESTERDAY."

    TEXT: HOWEVER IN "THE WASHINGTON TIMES," WHICH HAS IN THE PAST BEEN HIGHLY CRITICAL OF EDITORIAL STANDS TAKEN BY BOTH "THE NEW YORK TIMES" AND "THE POST", THERE IS CRITICISM OF THE DECISION.

    VOICE: "[OPT] IT MIGHT BE EASIER FOR THE WASHINGTON POST TO EXPLAIN ITS DECISION TO PRINT THE TEXT OF THE UNABOMBER'S CANTICLE IF THE PAPER HAD NOT TAKEN UNCOMPROMISING STANDS IN THE PAST AGAINST NEGOTIATING WITH OR ACCOMMODATING TERRORISTS. [END OPT] ..... BY MEETING THE BOMBER'S DEMANDS, THE ... POST AND THE ... TIMES ..... HAVE NOT ONLY MADE ONE VICIOUS MADMAN HAPPY, THEY HAVE ENCOURAGED WOULD-BE TERRORISTS AND WANNABE BOMBERS OF EVERY STRIPE: HOW MANY KILLERS NOW WONDER HOW MANY PEOPLE THEY HAVE TO KILL BEFORE THE ESTABLISHMENT PRESS AGREES TO PRINT THEIR REVOLUTIONARY SCREEDS?"

    TEXT: TURNING TO THE MORNING'S OTHER BIG STORY, THE PASSAGE OF MAJOR WELFARE REFORM BY THE SENATE LATE TUESDAY, "THE WASHINGTON POST" SAYS IN ITS LEAD EDITORIAL HEADLINE: "BIG MAJORITY, BAD BILL," ADDING:

    VOICE: "[OPT] YOU MIGHT THINK FROM THE OVERWHELMING VOTE IN THE SENATE IN FAVOR OF THE WELFARE BILL .... THAT THIS, AT LONG LAST, IS THE SANE, RESPONSIBLE APPROACH TO WELFARE REFORM. THAT IS NOT THE CASE. [END OPT] THE FUNDAMENTAL FLAW IN THIS LEGISLATION IS THAT IT ABANDONS THE PRINCIPLE THAT THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT WILL MAINTAIN AT LEAST SOME BASIC SYSTEM OF SUPPORT FOR THE NATION'S POOR, ESPECIALLY POOR CHILDREN."

    TEXT: SO IMPORTANT IS THE SUBJECT THAT "THE NEW YORK TIMES" AND THE "LOS ANGELES TIMES" ARE ALSO BOTH LEADING THEIR COMMENTARIES ON THE VOTE. IN NEW YORK, THE PAPER NOTES:

    VOICE: "OVERWHELMING BIPARTISAN SUPPORT FOR HISTORIC REFORM IS ORDINARILY CAUSE FOR CELEBRATION. BUT NOT IN THE CASE OF THE WELFARE 'REFORM' APPROVED BY THE SENATE YESTERDAY. ..... THE SENATE PASSED AN EXTREME WELFARE BILL THAT WILL INEVITABLY HARM POOR CHILDREN. [OPT] ... THE DEMOCRATS, INCLUDING THE PRESIDENT, PREFERRED TO SWALLOW A BILL THEY KNOW IS WRONG RATHER THAN LOSE ON PRINCIPLE. ..... THE HOUSE BILL IS EVEN WORSE BECAUSE IT WOULD ALLOW STATES TO ELIMINATE COMPLETELY THEIR SPENDING ON THE POOR. ... THAT MAKES THE LESS PUNITIVE SENATE PLAN LOOK BETTER. BUT IT IS NEITHER HUMANE NOR REASONABLE." [END OPT]

    TEXT: WHILE IN CALIFORNIA, "THE LOS ANGELES TIMES" IS MORE SUPPORTIVE:

    VOICE: "BOTH BILLS WOULD REQUIRE WELFARE RECIPIENTS TO GO TO WORK. MOST SHOULD. BOTH BILLS WOULD SET A DEADLINE FOR GETTING OFF THE DOLE, AND THAT'S GOOD AS LONG AS STATES GRANT REASONABLE EXCEPTIONS. .... BOTH BILLS, HOWEVER, CERTAINLY WOULD DO ONE THING: END THE CURRENT VERSION OF WELFARE, WHICH EVEN THE MOST COMPASSIONATE MUST ADMIT IS QUITE DIFFERENT FROM THE PROGRAM FOR WIDOWS, MOTHERS AND CHILDREN DRAWN UP BY PRESIDENT FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT."

    TEXT: THERE IS A STRONG REBUKE FOR PRESIDENT CLINTON IN TODAY'S "DENVER POST" WHICH COMMENTS ON AN OPEN LETTER TO THE CHIEF EXECUTIVE FROM COLORADO'S GOVERNOR RICHARD LAMM WHICH RUNS ACROSS FROM TODAY'S EDITORIALS IN THE SAME PAPER. "THE DENVER POST" COMMENTS:

    VOICE: "IT [THE ADVICE FROM GOV. LAMM] BOILS DOWN TO THE FACT THAT BILL CLINTON SHOULD ROLL UP HIS SLEEVES AND TAKE AN ACTIVE ROLE IN SHAPING THE BUDGET DEBATE NOW WAGING IN WASHINGTON. IF HE CONTINUES TO SIT ON THE SIDELINES, THE PRESIDENT WILL FORFEIT A KEY CHANCE TO SHAPE THE COURSE OF THE U-S GOVERNMENT OVER THE NEXT DECADE. [OPT] GOVERNMENT IS ABOUT MORE THAN BUDGET ISSUES, OF COURSE. BUT BUDGET AND FINANCE ISSUES ... ARE THE HEART OF WHAT THE GOVERNMENT DOES. ... WE DON'T EXPECT PRESIDENT CLINTON TO PRODUCE MIRACLES IN THE BUDGET. BUT WE DO EXPECT HIM TO TAKE HIS DUTIES AS CHIEF EXECUTIVE SERIOUSLY AND START ADDRESSING THE NATION'S FISCAL PROBLEMS. [END OPT] ..... AFTER A PROMISING START IN HIS FIRST TWO YEARS, PRESIDENT CLINTON HAS ABDICATED HIS FISCAL RESPONSIBILITIES TO HIS REPUBLICAN RIVALS."

    TEXT: TURNING OVERSEAS, THE LONG ISLAND (NEW YORK) DAILY "NEWSDAY" IS WORRIED THAT PEACE IN THE BALKANS MAY BE SUBVERTED IF BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT MILITARY FORCES DO NOT STOP ATTACKING BOSNIAN SERBS NOW THAT THE ADVANTAGE HAS SHIFTED.

    VOICE: "[OPT] THE WESTERN ALLIES' EFFORT TO FORCE A PEACE ON THE BALKANS THROUGH MASSIVE BOMBING OF SERBS IS NOW FALLING PREY TO THE IRON LAW OF UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES. [END OPT] AS A DIRECT RESULT OF NATO'S BOMBING CAMPAIGN, A FIERCE AND UNEXPECTEDLY SUCCESSFUL MUSLIM-CROAT OFFENSIVE HAS PLACED THE U-S PEACE INITIATIVE IN GREAT JEOPARDY. ..... THE BOSNIAN SERBS' BATTLEFIELD LOSSES ARE SEVERE ENOUGH THAT THEY MAY PROMPT THE ARMY OF SERBIA [ACTUALLY THE YUGOSLAV ARMY, ED.] PROPER TO ENTER THE CONFLICT. .... IF SERBIA'S ARMY ASSISTS THE BOSNIAN SERBS, CROATIA'S OWN ARMY IS LIKELY TO DEPLOY ITS FULL FORCE, AND THE WAR WILL ESCALATE."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: IN BALTIMORE, "THE SUN" HAS THE SAME WORRIES, SUGGESTING:

    VOICE: "LET US HOPE THE CROATS AND MUSLIMS TAKE HEED. THEIR CAPTURE OF BANJA LUKA WOULD DOUBLE THE REFUGEE PROBLEM OVERNIGHT AND RAISE THE GRIM SPECTER OF SERBIA'S INTERVENTION - - A DEVELOPMENT THAT COULD BRING IN CROATIA AND DANGEROUSLY WIDEN THE WAR."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: WITH REGARD TO THE RECENT VICTORY OF DEMOCRATIC PARTIES IN HONG KONG'S LOCAL ELECTION OVER PRO-CHINESE COMMUNIST OPPOSITION, TODAY'S "CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR" SAYS:

    VOICE: "THE SUN NEVER SETS ON THE OVERSEAS CHINESE COMMERCIAL EMPIRE. ONE OF THE GREAT PRODUCTION AND TRADING FORCES IN THE WORLD TODAY, ITS INFLUENCE STRETCHES FROM BANGKOK TO KUALA LUMPUR TO SINGAPORE, SYDNEY TO TAIPEI TO VANCOUVER, SAN FRANCISCO TO LONDON. ... THE HUB OF THIS VERY INFORMAL EMPIRE CONTINUES TO BE HONG KONG ..... ..... ALL OF WHICH SHOULD PUT A BRAKE ON BEIJING'S OFTEN PUGILISTIC, KING KONG APPROACH TO HONG KONG AND TAIWAN. .... WE'VE SAID IN THE RECENT PAST THAT THE U-S AND ITS PARTNERS SHOULD CONTINUE, EVEN INCREASE, HARDHEADED DIALOGUE WITH PRESENT AND FUTURE LEADERS IN BEIJING."

    TEXT: WHILE ON THE SAME SUBJECT IN "THE WASHINGTON POST," SAYS:

    VOICE: "THE MAIN HOPE THAT THE CHINESE WILL GO LIGHT [NOT BE REPRESSIVE AGAINST] ON THE TERRITORY STILL ARISES FROM THE ARGUMENT THAT BY GOING HEAVY CHINA WILL UNDERMINE THE 'CONFIDENCE' HONG KONG REQUIRES TO REMAIN THE ECONOMIC POWERHOUSE WHOSE BENEFITS REACH THE REST OF CHINA TOO. THE COMMUNIST LEADERS OF CHINA WANT THE ECONOMIC FRUITS OF OPENNESS WITHOUT THE LOSS OF POLITICAL CONTROL. ..... THEY SHOULD NOT - - AND PROBABLY CANNOT - - HAVE IT BOTH WAYS."

    TEXT: AND FINALLY, ON THE POPE'S VISIT TO AFRICA, "THE PORTLAND [MAINE] PRESS HERALD" COMMENTS:

    VOICE: "..... SPEAKING FROM KENYA NEAR THE END OF HIS SIX-DAY AFRICAN JOURNEY, HE CONDEMNED THE ETHNOCENTRISM THAT 'HOVERS LIKE A CLOUD OVER AFRICA.' IT WAS THIS CONDITION, HE SAID, THAT 'SO BRUTALLY HIT' NEARBY RWANDA AND BURUNDI. AFTER THE POPE RETURNS TO ROME TODAY, IT WILL BE A LITTLE HARDER FOR AFRICAN DESPOTS TO ABUSE THEIR OWN PEOPLE. ..... WHEN THE POPE SPEAKS, PEOPLE LISTEN - - AND HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSERS, WITH GOOD CAUSE, START LOOKING OVER THEIR SHOULDERS."

    TEXT: AND ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF SOME OF THE NATION'S EDITORIAL TOPICS ON THIS WEDNESDAY IN MID SEPTEMBER.

    ANG/NL

    20-Sep-95 10:39 AM EDT (1439 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [02] BOSNIA/FIGHTING (L) BY KYLE KING ( ZAGREB )

    DATE=9/20/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-185647
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: U-N OFFICIALS SAY THE COMBINED BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT-CROAT OFFENSIVE AGAINST THE SERBS IN NORTHWESTERN BOSNIA MAY HAVE SLOWED, BUT IT HAS NOT YET ENDED. U-N OFFICIALS ARE URGING THE BOSNIAN AND CROATIAN GOVERNMENTS TO HALT THE MILITARY OPERATION, WHICH THREATENS TO SET OFF A NEW REFUGEE CRISIS, AND COULD DERAIL A U-S LED PEACE INITIATIVE. VOA'S KYLE KING REPORTS FROM ZAGREB.

    TEXT: CROATIAN AND BOSNIAN OFFICIALS HAD INDICATED TUESDAY THAT THEY WERE READY TO HALT THE OFFENSIVE, WHICH HAS ALREADY COST THE SERBS A LARGE CHUNK OF THE TERRITORY THEY HAD CONTROLLED AND FORCED TENS OF THOUSANDS OF SERBS TO TAKE REFUGE IN THE TOWN OF BANJA LUKA.

    THERE ARE SOME INDICATIONS THE OFFENSIVE HAS SLOWED, BUT U-N OFFICIALS SAY FIGHTING CONTINUES IN SOME AREAS.

    FOUR U-N PEACEKEEPERS WERE WOUNDED IN ONE EXCHANGE ALONG THE NORTHERN BOSNIAN BORDER LATE TUESDAY. U-N SPOKESMAN ALEXANDER IVANKO SAYS BOSNIAN AND CROAT TROOPS APPEAR TO BE CLOSE TO CAPTURING PRIJEDOR, A TOWN THAT HAD BEEN OVERRUN BY THE SERBS IN 1992.

    // IVANKO ACT //

    BOTH CROATIAN AND BOSNIAN FIFTH CORPS TROOPS ARE ASSESSED TO HAVE ADVANCED CLOSE TO PRIJEDOR AND MAY HAVE EVEN SURROUNDED THE TOWN ITSELF. THE UNITED NATIONS HAS UNCONFIRMED REPORTS OF BOSNIAN SERB ARMY UNITS LEAVING PRIJEDOR.

    // END ACT //

    LOCAL SERB RADIO SAYS THE ATTACKS WERE CONTINUING AND SERB DEFENDERS WERE CONSOLIDATING THEIR POSITIONS IN THE TOWN.

    U-N OFFICIALS SAY BOSNIAN AND CROAT FORCES NOW CONTROL MORE THAN 50 PERCENT OF THE COUNTRY, ABOUT WHAT THEY WERE TO GET UNDER THE TERMS OF A PROPOSED PEACE AGREEMENT.

    BUT WITH BOSNIAN ARTILLERY NOW JUST 15 KILOMETERS FROM THE MAIN SERB TOWN OF BANJA LUKA AND CROATIAN TROOPS INSIDE BOSNIAN TERRITORY FURTHER TO THE NORTH, OFFICIALS ARE CONCERNED ABOUT THE REPERCUSSIONS FROM ANY FURTHER ADVANCES.

    U-N OFFICIALS SAY MOVE AGAINST THE BANJA LUKA WOULD SEND A FLOOD OF REFUGEES TOWARD SERBIA AND COULD BRING INTERVENTION BY THE SERB DOMINATED YUGOSLALV ARMY.

    BOSNIAN OFFICIALS, WHO ARE FOR THE FIRST TIME NEGOTIATING FROM A POSITION OF RELATIVE STRENGTH, ARE NOW DEMANDING THE DEMILITARIZATION OF BANJA LUKA -- SOMETHING ANALYSTS SAY AMOUNTS TO SERB SURRENDER. U-N OFFICIALS ARE LEFT WITH FEW OPTIONS, EXCEPT TO URGE AN END TO THE FIGHTING.

    // REST OPT //

    // IVANKO ACT //

    WITH THE MILITARY SITUATION DETERIORATING IN WESTERN BOSNIA, THE UNITED NATIONS MAIN CONCERN IS THE PLIGHT OF THE REFUGEES. THE UNITED NATIONS ONCE AGAIN URGES THE BOSNIAN AND CROATIAN GOVERNMENT TO CEASE ALL MILITARY ACTIVITY IN THE REGION SO AS NOT TO EXACERBATE THE REFUGEE CRISIS AND THE ONGOING PEACE PROCESS.

    // END ACT //

    U-S PEACE ENVOY RICHARD HOLBROOKE IS EXPECTED TO REDOUBLE HIS EFFORTS IN THE COMING DAYS, IN THE HOPES OF TAKING ADVANTAGE OF THE PROGRESS THAT HAS BEEN MADE IN SARAJEVO AND TO AVOID A WIDENING OF THE WAR. (SIGNED)

    NEB/KBK/MH/GPT
    20-Sep-95 10:19 AM EDT (1419 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [03] BOSNIA SITREP BY WAYNE COREY ( VIENNA)

    DATE=9/20/95
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-31170
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED NATIONS AND NATO ARE EXPECTED TO ANNOUNCE LATE WEDNESDAY THAT THE BOSNIAN SERBS HAVE SUFFICIENTLY COMPLIED WITH THEIR DEMANDS TO START LIFTING THE SIEGE OF SARAJEVO. BUT, WHILE THE SITUATION IN SARAJEVO MAY BE DRAMATICALLY IMPROVING, THE SITUATION ELSEWHERE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA COULD DRAMATICALLY WORSEN. V-O-A'S CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT, WAYNE COREY, REPORTS.

    TEXT: THE UNITED NATIONS APPEARS SATISFIED THAT THE SERBS ARE MOVING THEIR HEAVY WEAPONS 20 KILOMETERS AWAY FROM SARAJEVO. THE SERBS HAVE ALREADY ALLOWED ROADS INTO THE CITY AND THE SARAJEVO AIRPORT TO BE REOPENED FOR INTERNATIONAL AID DELIVERIES. BUT, IF THEIR SIEGE OF SARAJEVO IS TO BE REALLY LIFTED, THE SERBS MUST STILL RESTORE THE FLOW OF ELECTRICITY, WATER AND NATURAL GAS SUPPLIES FOR THE BOSNIAN CAPITAL.

    U-N OFFICIALS WILL PURSUE THIS AND THE POSSIBLE USE OF SARAJEVO AIRPORT FOR COMMERCIAL FLIGHTS IN TALKS WITH THE SERBS AND WITH THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT.

    AT THIS POINT, ONE CAN SAY SO FAR, SO GOOD, AS FAR AS SARAJEVO IS CONCERNED. BUT, THE SITUATION IN NORTHWESTERN BOSNIA MAY YET WORSEN AND SERIOUSLY COMPLICATE NEGOTIATIONS ON AN OVERALL AGREEMENT. THE MUSLIM AND CROAT OFFENSIVE IN THE DIRECTION OF THE KEY SERB-HELD TOWN OF BANJA LUKA RAISES THE MILITARY STAKES FOR ALL OF THE WARRING FORCES.

    THAT OFFENSIVE HAS SLOWED, POSSIBLY TO ENABLE THE MUSLIMS AND CROATS TO BE RESUPPLIED AND REINFORCED. CONTINUED CROATIAN ARMY INVOLVEMENT IN THE OFFENSIVE WILL BE A CRITICAL FACTOR AS THE MUSLIMS AND BOSNIAN CROATS DETERMINE THEIR NEXT MOVES. WHAT IS HAPPENING AROUND THE BOSNIAN SERB TOWN OF PRIJEDOR, NORTHWEST OF BANJA LUKA, IS VERY IMPORTANT IN ASSESSING HOW THE MILITARY SITUATION IN THAT AREA WILL UNFOLD.

    A UNITED NATIONS SPOKESMAN IN ZAGREB SAYS MUSLIM AND CROAT FORCES MAY NOW SURROUND PRIJEDOR. A REPORT ON TUESDAY THAT PRIJEDOR HAD FALLEN WAS PREMATURE, BUT THE TOWN IS CLEARLY UNDER PRESSURE. IF THE MUSLIMS AND CROATS CAN TAKE PRIJEDOR, THEIR THREAT TO BANJA LUKA AND THEIR DEMAND FOR BANJA LUKA TO BE DEMILITARIZED WOULD BE SIGNIFICANT.

    THE BOSNIAN SERBS WOULD NOT GIVE UP BANJA LUKA WITHOUT A FIGHT. THEY, APPARENTLY, NOW HAVE REINFORCEMENTS FROM SERBIA -- SO-CALLED VOLUNTEERS LED BY "ARKAN" (ZELJKO RAZNATOVIC), THE ULTRA-NATIONALIST, ACCUSED BY THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER COUNTRIES OF WAR CRIMES.

    THE MUSLIMS AND CROATS COULD DECIDE TO CONSOLIDATE THE TERRITORY THEY HAVE GAINED AND NOT TRY TO TAKE BANJA LUKA. BUT, THAT WOULD NOT MEAN THE FIGHTING IN NORTHWESTERN BOSNIA WOULD BE ENDED.

    THE SERBS SAY THEY ARE NOT GOING TO LET THE MUSLIMS AND CROATS KEEP THE TERRITORY THEY HAVE WON. THE SERBS DO NOT WANT TO BE AT A DISADVANTAGE ON THE BATTLEFIELD WHILE THEY NEGOTIATE A POSSIBLE PEACE AGREEMENT.

    THE LOGIC OF WAR AND THE LOGIC OF PEACE BOTH EXIST IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. THE LOGIC OF WAR STILL APPEARS DOMINANT DESPITE THE GENERALLY ENCOURAGING DEVELOPMENTS IN SARAJEVO. (SIGNED)

    NEB/WC/MH/CF
    20-Sep-95 11:46 AM EDT (1546 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [04] BOSNIA / SARAJEVO (L UPDATE) BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)

    DATE=9/20/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-185666
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:
    /// EDS: THIS REPORT IS GOOD FOR THIS HOUR ONLY. DEADLINE EXPIRES AT 4 PM E-D-T. FOLEY WILL FILE AN UPDATE. ///

    INTRO: NATO AND U-N MILITARY COMMANDERS ARE SHORTLY EXPECTED TO ANNOUNCE THE PERMANENT SUSPENSION OF NATO AIRSTRIKES ON THE BOSNIAN SERBS. UNPROFOR SPOKESMAN CHRIS VERNON SAYS UNPROFOR IS CONTENT COMPLIANCE HAS BEEN ACHIEVED. A FORMAL STATEMENT IS EXPECTED WHEN THE DEADLINE EXPIRES (4 PM E-D-T). DAVID FOLEY REPORTS FROM SARAJEVO.

    TEXT: U-N OFFICIALS SAID EARLIER THE FINAL MOVEMENT OF BOSNIAN SERB HEAVY WEAPONS WAS ALMOST FINISHED, AND THE COMMANDER OF NATO AIRSTRIKES, U-S ADMIRAL LEIGHTON SMITH, AND THE SENIOR U-N COMMANDER IN THE REGION, FRENCH GENERAL BERNARD JANVIER, BOTH VISITED SARAJEVO ON WEDNESDAY TO SUPERVISE THE FINAL STAGES OF THE WITHDRAWAL.

    U-N INSPECTION TEAMS, ACCOMPANIED BY BOSNIAN SERB LIAISON OFFICERS, HAVE BEEN SEARCHING SERB AREAS INSIDE THE EXCLUSION ZONE THROUGHOUT THE DAY, BUT THERE HAVE BEEN NO REPORTS THAT ANY HEAVY WEAPONS HAVE BEEN FOUND. U-N OFFICIALS SAID EARLIER THAT ANY GUNS THAT COULD NOT BE MOVED OR WERE DISCOVERED IN THE ZONE WOULD HAVE TO BE DESTROYED BY THE BOSNIAN SERBS. BOSNIAN SERB MILITARY COMMANDERS HAD PROMISED TO MEET TONIGHT'S DEADLINE, AND, IN ADDITION TO ALLOWING THE U-N INSPECTIONS, THEY PERMITTED THREE U-N CHECKPOINTS TO BE SET UP ON THE EDGE OF THE ZONE TO MONITOR THE WITHDRAWAL. IF AIRSTRIKES ARE PERMANENTLY SUSPENDED IT WILL END A MONTH- LONG CRISIS THAT BEGAN WHEN A BOSNIAN SERB MORTAR BOMB KILLED MORE THAN 30 PEOPLE OUTSIDE SARAJEVO'S MAIN MARKET. THE CARNAGE PROMPTED A TWO-WEEK NATO BOMBING CAMPAIGN AGAINST THE BOSNIAN SERBS, AND ARTILLERY ATTACKS ON BOSNIAN SERB HEAVY GUNS AROUND SARAJEVO BY THE MULTINATIONAL RAPID REACTION FORCE. IN THE WAKE OF THE WIDESPREAD AND INTENSE NATO BOMBING OF THE SERBS, THE BOSNIAN ARMY AND CROAT FORCES, BACKED BY THE CROATIAN ARMY, SEIZED LARGE AMOUNTS OF SERB HELD TERRITORY AND CAUSED ALMOST 100-THOUSAND BOSNIAN SERB CIVILIANS TO FLEE THEIR HOMES -- A REFUGEE CRISIS THAT IS STILL CONTINUING. U-N OFFICIALS SAY THE NATO AND U-N COMMANDERS SHOULD ISSUE A JOINT STATEMENT SHORTLY BEFORE THE DEADLINE EXPIRES LESS THAN AN HOUR FROM NOW, BUT U-N SOURCES HAVE SAID A RESUMPTION OF NATO AIR STRIKES IS "EXTREMELY UNLIKELY." (SIGNED)

    NEB/DF/BG
    20-Sep-95 2:57 PM EDT (1857 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [05] BOSNIAN OFFENSIVE / U-N REACT (S ONLY) BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)

    DATE=9/20/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-185665
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL IS PREPARING TO TAKE A TOUGH STAND ON THE MUSLIM-CROAT OFFENSIVE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. THE COUNCIL PRESIDENT ADMONISHED BOTH SIDES WEDNESDAY AND A RUSSIAN RESOLUTION IS WAITING IN THE WINGS. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT ELAINE JOHANSON REPORTS:

    TEXT: SECURITY COUNCIL PRESIDENT, FRANCESCO FULCI OF ITALY, CALLED IN THE BOSNIAN AND CROATIAN AMBASSADORS TO TELL THEM THE OFFENSIVE MUST STOP -- NOTING THEIR ARMIES ALREADY CONTROL 50 PERCENT OF BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA.

    APPARENTLY THEY HEDGED A BIT AND WERE TOLD THE COUNCIL WILL ACCEPT NOTHING SHORT OF AN IMMEDIATE CESSATION:

    ///FULCI ACT///

    WHAT THEY SAID IS THAT THE OFFENSIVES ARE ON THE EBB, THAT THEY ARE ALMOST FINISHING -- THAT THESE THINGS YOU CAN NOT JUST STOP WITH A STROKE, LIKE A MAGIC STROKE. IT TAKES SOME TIME BEFORE THEY STOP ENTIRELY. AND I INSISTED THAT TO US IMMEDIATELY MEANS IMMEDIATELY.

    ///END ACT///

    IF THE BOSNIAN AND CROAT ARMIES FAIL TO RESPOND, THE COUNCIL COULD BE READY TO VOTE THURSDAY ON A RUSSIAN DRAFT RESOLUTION DEMANDING AN END TO THEIR MILITARY ACTIVITIES. IT WOULD CALL ON ALL PARTIES IN THE CONFLICT -- INCLUDING THE BOSNIAN SERBS -- TO OBSERVE AN IMMEDIATE CEASE-FIRE AND TO GET ON WITH PEACE TALKS. (SIGNED)

    NEB/EJ/BG
    20-Sep-95 2:46 PM EDT (1846 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [06] DEBATING BOSNIA BY ED WARNER ( WASHINGTON)

    DATE=9/20/95
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-31171
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: AS THE BATTLEFIELD CHANGES IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA, ANALYSTS IN THE UNITED STATES CONTINUE TO ARGUE ABOUT WHAT KIND OF WAR IT IS AND HOW DEEPLY INVOLVED OUTSIDE POWERS SHOULD BECOME. V-O-A'S ED WARNER REPORTS SHARPLY CONTRASTING VIEWS WERE EXPRESSED IN A DEBATE THIS WEEK AT WASHINGTON'S CATO INSTITUTE.

    TEXT: A MEMBER OF THE SERBIAN-AMERICAN AFFAIRS COUNCIL, DANIELLE SREMAC, SAID WHILE THE BOSNIAN SERBS HAVE BEEN ACCUSED OF ETHNIC CLEANSING THEY ARE ALSO ITS VICTIM. DURING A DEBATE ON BOSNIA AT THE CATO INSTITUTE IN WASHINGTON SHE ASKED -- WHO WILL PROTECT THE VILIFIED SERBS?

    MS. SREMAC SAID THE NATO AIR ATTACKS HAD PROMPTED THE CROAT AND MUSLIM OFFENSIVE:

    /// SREMAC ACTUALITY ///

    BY DOING SO, NATO HAS BECOME AN AGGRESSOR. IT HAS CLEARLY TAKEN SIDES IN A CIVIL WAR. BY STRIKING BOSNIAN-SERB BRIDGES, COMMUNICATIONS FACILITIES, AND AMMUNITION DEPOTS, NATO HAS FUNDAMENTALLY ALTERED THE BALANCE OF POWER IN THE REGION. NOW THE MUSLIMS AND CROATS HAVE MILITARY SUPERIORITY OVER THE BOSNIAN SERBS. WITH THE HELP OF NATO AIR POWER, A COMPLETE VICTORY NOW SEEMS POSSIBLE.

    /// END ACT ///

    DANIELLE SREMAC SAID NATO SHOULD COME TO THE AID OF THE BOSNIAN SERBS AND PROVIDE THEM WITH SAFE HAVENS TO RESTORE A BALANCE.

    IT IS NOT JUST A CIVIL WAR, CONTENDED NEWSPAPER COLUMNIST AND FORMER U-S STATE DEPARTMENT OFFICIAL STEFAN HALPER.

    /// HALPER ACTUALITY ///

    ONE OF THE PRINCIPAL SERB OBJECTIVES IN THE UNITED STATES WAS TO PERSUADE POLITICIANS AND DECISION MAKERS THAT THE CIVIL WAR WAS COMPLEX, NOT UNLIKE VIETNAM, AND THAT IT WOULD ONLY BE EXACERBATED BY FOREIGN INVOLVEMENT, WHICH IN ANY CASE, WOULD HAVE NO EFFECT ON THE OUTCOME. LET ME SAY HERE THAT THIS IS A WAR OF AGGRESSION WITH CLEAR IRREDENTIST ELEMENTS.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. HALPER SAID TRADITIONAL AMERICAN INTERESTS MAY NOT BE INVOLVED IN THE BALKAN CONFLICT, BUT THERE IS A MORAL CONCERN. AS A WORLDWIDE POWER, THE UNITED STATES CANNOT IGNORE ACTS OF AGGRESSION IF IT IS ABLE TO REACT TO THEM.

    HE EMPHASIZED U-S AIR POWER MUST BE COMMITTED, NOT GROUND TROOPS.

    ANY INTERVENTION IN THIS CIVIL WAR IS DANGEROUS, REPLIED THE DIRECTOR OF FOREIGN POLICY STUDIES AT THE CATO INSTITUTE, TED CARPENTER:

    /// CARPENTER ACTUALITY ///

    NATO'S INVOLVEMENT AND AMERICA'S INVOLVEMENT ARE LIKELY TO DEEPEN IF A PEACE ACCORD IS EVER SIGNED BECAUSE THE ALLIANCE HAS ALREADY AGREED TO POLICE THAT SETTLEMENT. THE PROPOSED PEACEKEEPING FORCE WOULD CONSIST OF BETWEEN 30-THOUSAND AND 50-THOUSAND TROOPS, OF WHICH 15 OR 20-THOUSAND WOULD BE AMERICAN. THAT COMMITMENT IN MY JUDGMENT WOULD BE AN ACT OF FOLLY. THE PEACE PLAN IS ONE OF THOSE CONVOLUTED ENTERPRISES THAT HABITUALLY ENCHANT DIPLOMATS, BUT HAVE ABSOLUTELY NO CONNECTION TO REALITY.

    /// END ACT ///

    OTHERS OBSERVED THE COMPLEX BOSNIA SITUATION DEFIES SIMPLE SOLUTIONS AND WILL CONTINUE TO PERPLEX THE WESTERN POWERS, AS IT HAS IN THE PAST. (SIGNED) NEB/RAE 20-Sep-95 12:47 PM EDT (1647 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [07] NATO / BOSNIA (S) BY DAVID SWAN (PENTAGON)

    DATE=9/20/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-185645
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: BOSNIAN SERBS HAVE FIRED ON NATO WARPLANES AGAIN BUT OFFICIALS SAY THE SERBS ARE PULLING BACK THEIR BIGGEST WEAPONS FROM SARAJEVO. V-O-A'S DAVID SWAN REPORTS THE DEADLINE FOR THOSE GUNS TO BE MOVED EXPIRES WITHIN HOURS.

    TEXT: NATO SAYS THE AIRCRAFT WERE SHOT AT BY MISSILES LAUNCHED FROM SHOULDER SUPPORTED WEAPONS AND ANTI-AIRCRAFT ARTILLERY NEAR THE BOSNIAN CAPITAL. BUT A SPOKESMAN DOWNPLAYS THE INCIDENT, SAYING THE PILOTS WERE IN NO DANGER AND DID NOT RETURN FIRE.

    WHILE ALLIED BOMBING HAS DESTROYED MUCH OF THE SERB AIR-DEFENSE NETWORK, THE SERBS STILL HAVE THE PORTABLE MISSILES AND GUNS. NATO HAS HALTED AIR STRIKES WHILE THE SERBS WITHDRAW OTHER WEAPONS -- INCLUDING TANKS, ARTILLERY AND MORTARS -- FROM SARAJEVO. BY 10 P-M LOCAL TIME (WEDNESDAY), THE WEAPONS ARE SUPPOSED TO BE GONE FROM THE 20-KILOMETER EXCLUSION ZONE AROUND THE CAPITAL. OFFICIALS HAVE WARNED THE AIR RAIDS COULD START AGAIN IF THE SERBS FAIL TO COMPLY. SO FAR, UNITED NATIONS OFFICIALS SAY THE GUNS ARE MOVING. (SIGNED)

    NEB/DS/CF
    20-Sep-95 10:03 AM EDT (1403 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [08] TURKEY/POLITICS (L) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)

    DATE=9/20/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-185657
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: TURKISH PRIME MINISTER TANSU CILLER, WHO HAS HELD THE POST SINCE 1993, HAS RESIGNED AFTER FAILING TO RENEW A COALITION AGREEMENT WITH HER SOCIAL DEMOCRAT PARTNERS. AMBERIN ZAMAN REPORTS FROM ANKARA.

    TEXT: SPEAKING TO REPORTERS BEFORE HANDING IN HER RESIGNATION TO PRESIDENT SULEYMAN DEMIREL, MS. CILLER BLAMED THE SOCIAL DEMOCRAT LEADER DENIZ BAYKAL FOR THE COLLAPSE OF THE FOUR YEAR OLD COALITION GOVERNMENT.

    TURKEY'S FIRST WOMAN PRIME MINISTER SAID MR. BAYKAL'S DEMAND THAT SHE DISMISS THE CHIEF OF ISTANBUL POLICE, NECDET MENZIR, WAS THE MAIN REASON FOR THE BREAKDOWN OF THE GOVERNMENT.

    MR. MENZIR CAME UNDER FIRE FROM THE SOCIAL DEMOCRATS FOR ACCUSING THE SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC MINISTER IN CHARGE OF HUMAN RIGHTS, ALGAN HACALOGLU, OF ENCOURAGING KURDISH SEPARATISM.

    MR. BAYKAL SOUGHT THE DISMISSAL OF MR. MENZIR AS A CONDITION FOR CONTINUING HIS COALITION WITH MS. CILLER'S CONSERVATIVE TRUE PATH PARTY.

    OFFICIALS CLOSE TO DISCUSSIONS BETWEEN MR. MENZIR AND MS. CILLER SAID THAT DIFFERENCES OVER WAGE HIKES FOR GOVERNMENT WORKERS WERE THE REAL REASON FOR THE FALL-OUT BETWEEN THE TWO LEADERS -- NOT THE DISPUTE.

    AN ESTIMATED 150-THOUSAND PUBLIC SECTOR WORKERS WENT ON STRIKE WEDNESDAY TO PROTEST A FIVE PERCENT WAGE INCREASE ANNOUNCED BY THE GOVERNMENT. AVERAGE ANNUAL INFLATION IS ABOUT 100 PERCENT.

    WESTERN DIPLOMATS HAVE EXPRESSED CONCERN THAT THE ABSENCE OF THE SOCIAL DEMOCRATS FROM THE GOVERNMENT WILL JEOPARDIZE DEMOCRATIC REFORMS OPPOSED BY HARDLINERS WITHIN MS. CILLER'S TRUE PATH PARTY.

    THIS IN TURN COULD BLOCK A CRUCIAL FREE TRADE AGREEMENT WITH THE EUROPEAN UNION. THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT HAS SAID IT WILL VETO THE AGREEMENT IF TURKEY DOES NOT ADOPT REFORMS TO CURB ALLEGED WIDESPREAD HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES.

    MS. CILLER HAS TWO OPTIONS NOW, OBSERVERS SAY -- EITHER TO FORM A NEW COALITION OR TO HOLD EARLY GENERAL ELECTIONS THAT ARE OFFICIALLY SCHEDULED TO TAKE PLACE NEXT YEAR.

    MESUT YILMAZ, LEADER OF THE MAIN OPPOSITION RIGHT WING MOTHERLAND PARTY, SAID ON WEDNESDAY THAT HE IS PREPARED TO BACK MS. CILLER, IF SHE ANNOUNCES A DATE FOR EARLY ELECTIONS. (SIGNED)

    NEB/AZ/MH/MMK
    20-Sep-95 1:31 PM EDT (1731 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

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