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Voice of America, 8 November 1995

From: yanni@ix.netcom.com (Ioannis Bousnakis)

Voice of America Directory

CONTENTS

  • [01] WEDNESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [02] !!! VOA DAILY BOSNIA REPORT -- NOVEMBER 8, 1995

  • [03] BOSNIA'S FUTURE AT THE DAYTON CONFERENCE TABLE BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [04] BOSNIA / JOURNALIST (S UPDATE) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

  • [05] BOSNIAN SERBS MUST RELEASE ROHDE

  • [06] U-S/BOSNIA WAR CRIMES (S ONLY) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)

  • [07] U-S/BOSNIA (L ONLY) BY GARY THOMAS (WASHINGTON)

  • [08] U-S/RUSSIA/BOSNIA (L-UPDATE) BY DAVID GOLLUST (BRUSSELS)

  • [09] YUGO SITREP (L ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)


  • [01] WEDNESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=11/08/95
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09261
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-S-T ON WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER 8TH //

    INTRO: A WIDE RANGE OF TOPICS COME UNDER THE EDITORIAL SCRUTINY OF THE NATION'S MAJOR NEWSPAPERS THIS WEDNESDAY, AS THE WORLD RECOVERS FROM THE SHOCK OF THE RABIN ASSASSINATION IN ISRAEL. AMONG TODAY'S CONCERNS ARE A DRIVE TO IMPROVE THE PARTISAN POLITICAL DIALOGUE IN THE UNITED STATES; BOSNIAN WAR CRIMES; THE CONTROVERSY OVER JAIL SENTENCES GIVEN FOR COCAINE OFFENSES; WOMEN'S COLLEGIATE ATHLETICS AND SENATOR JESSE HELMS OBSTRUCTION OF FOREIGN POLICY. NOW, HERE IS _____________ WITH A CLOSER LOOK IN TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: UPSET WITH THE INVECTIVE THAT CHARACTERIZES MUCH OF THE POLITICAL DEBATE BETWEEN DEMOCRATS AND REPUBLICANS, TODAY'S "BOSTON GLOBE" FINDS HOPE IN A NEW GUIDE TO RESPONSIBLE CAMPAIGNING ISSUED BY THE NATION'S ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOPS.

    VOICE: "WITH NEWSPAPERS FULL OF BICKERING ... FROM WASHINGTON AND WITH LOW TURNOUTS IN LOCAL ELECTIONS YESTERDAY (TUESDAY), IT IS REFRESHING TO HEAR TALK OF 'THE COMMON GOOD' AND CITIZENS' 'PUBLIC RESPONSIBILITIES.' THE ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOPS .... 'BELIEVE EVERY PROPOSED POLICY ON POLITICAL PLATFORM SHOULD BE MEASURED BY HOW IT TOUCHES THE HUMAN PERSON; WHETHER IT ENHANCES OR DIMINISHES HUMAN LIFE, HUMAN DIGNITY AND HUMAN RIGHTS; AND HOW IT ADVANCES THE COMMON GOOD.' VOTERS WOULD DO WELL TO MEASURE CANDIDATES BY THIS HIGH STANDARD."

    TEXT: ON THE SUBJECT OF THE WAR CRIMES ATROCITIES IN BOSNIA, "THE WASHINGTON POST" COMMENTS:

    VOICE: "OF THE PROSPECTIVE PROVISIONS OF A BOSNIAN PEACE ACCORD, NONE IS MORE URGENT THAN A CONSTITUTIONAL MANDATE FOR THE PROSECUTION OF WAR CRIMES. ON ALL SIDES OF THE NEARLY FOUR-YEAR CONFLICT, THE RULES OF WAR, DESIGNED TO ENSURE A MINIMAL DECENCY, HAVE BEEN CRASSLY BROKEN. ... FOR MAXIMUM EFFECT ... THE CALL FOR JUSTICE NEEDS TO BE EMBEDDED IN THE STRUCTURE OF A BOSNIAN STATE. IT NEEDS TO BE TREATED NOT SIMPLY AS A FOREIGN IMPOSITION BUT AS AN OBLIGATION THE RELUCTANT PARTNERS IN A NEW BOSNIA HAVE TAKEN UPON THEMSELVES."

    TEXT: TODAY'S SAINT LOUIS "POST-DISPATCH" SAYS WHILE INSTABILITY RULES IN MUCH OF THE FORMER SOVIET UNION, THE SITUATION IN SOME PARTS OF THAT ONE-TIME EMPIRE ARE NOT SO BLEAK:

    VOICE: "IN GEORGIA, ACCORDING TO UNOFFICIAL RETURNS, PRESIDENT EDUARD SHEVARDNADZE WON A LANDSLIDE VICTORY -- ROUGHLY 70 PERCENT OF THE VOTE... IN THE PAST THREE YEARS HE HAS HELD GEORGIA TOGETHER THROUGH A CIVIL WAR AND AN ASSASSINATION ATTEMPT ON HIS OWN LIFE. HIS PRIMARY CHALENGER, JUMBER PATIASHVILI, WAS A FORMER COMMUNIST PARTY LEADER OPPOSED TO RELINQUISHING GOVERNMENT OWNERSHIP OF INDUSTRY AND LAUNCHING A MAJOR PRIVATIZATION EFFORT. BY THEIR VOTE, GEORGIANS HAVE DECIDELY REJECTED THAT COURSE OF ACTION ... AND CHOSED TO CONTINUE TO PURSUE MARKET REFORMS..."

    TEXT: SEVERAL PAPERS TODAY PICK UP AN EDITORIAL THEME THAT HAS BEEN COMMON IN RECENT WEEKS -- THE DEBATE OVER THE SHARP DIFFERENCES IN PUNISHMENT GIVEN PERSONS CONVICTED FOR COCAINE VIOLATIONS, DEPENDING ON THE TYPE OF COCAINE INVOLVED. THE COOKED VARIETY, CALLED "CRACK", IS USED MORE BY BLACKS AND CARRIES MUCH HEAVIER PENALTIES FOR POSSESSION OR SALE THAN POWERED COCAINE, WHICH IS CHEMICALLY IDENTICAL AND FAVORED BY WHITES. ABOUT THIS, TODAY'S "MIAMI HERALD" NOTES:

    VOICE: "YES, MANY WHITES BUY CRACK AND GET CHARGED WITH LESSER OFFENSES IN STATE (NOT FEDERAL) COURT OR USE OTHER DRUGS AND GET LESSER SENTENCES IN FEDERAL COURT. HOWEVER, IT IS 'BLACK' [ITALICS FOR EMPHASIS] COMMUNITIES THAT HAVE BEEN DEVASTATED BY CRACK. THEY ARE THE PLACES WHERE GANGS THRIVE, WHERE LAW ENFORCEMENT HISTORICALLY TURNED A BLIND EYE TO CRIMES OF VICE... PUNISHMENT AND CONFINEMENT ARE ONLY EPHEMERAL SOLUTIONS... GOVERNMENT AND SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS NEED[S] TO LOOK FOR NEW STRATEGIES TO SAVE NEIGHBORHOODS AND PEOPLE FROM CRIME... TALKING ABOUT RACISM [REGARDING THE DISPARATE PUNISHMENTS] WILL NOT GET THAT JOB DONE, NOR WILL BLINDLY LOCKING UP YOUNG MEN."

    TEXT: ON THE SAME TOPIC, TODAY'S "BOSTON GLOBE" SAYS:

    VOICE: "A POLITICAL DESIRE TO APPEAR TOUGH ON CRIME IS NO EXCUSE FOR PERPETUATING A CLEAR INEQUITY IN THE NATION'S CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM. THAT IS WHY PRESIDENT CLINTON SHOULD NOT BE LET OFF THE HOOK [BE IMMUNE TO CRITICISM] FOR HIS RECENT DECISION TO MAINTAIN THE PERVERSE FEDERAL SENTENCING DISPARITY BETWEEN CRIMES INVOLVING THE POWERED AND CRACK [COOKED OVER A MATCH] FORMS OF COCAINE. [OPT] UNDER FEDERAL LAW, POSSESSION OF FIVE GRAMS OF POWDERED COCAINE CARRIES A MANDATORY SENTENCE OF 10 MONTHS' PROBATION. GETTING CAUGHT WITH THE SAME AMOUNT OF CRACK COCAINE ... INVOKES A MINIMUM OF FIVE YEARS IN PRISON."

    TEXT: THE NATIONAL WEEKDAY PAPER, "USA TODAY", HAS BEEN RUNNING A SERIES OF INVESTIGATIVE REPORTS ON THE INEQUALITIES OF COLLEGIATE ATHLETICS BETWEEN MEN'S AND WOMEN'S TEAMS, AND TODAY RUNS THIS EDITORIAL CONCLUSION TO ITS PROBE:

    VOICE: "A GENERATION AGO, BEFORE GENDER DISCRIMINATION IN HIGHER EDUCATION WAS OUTLAWED, SPORTS OPPORTUNITIES FOR COLLEGE WOMEN BEYOND INTRAMURAL AND CLUB-LEVEL COMPETITION WERE SEVERELY LIMITED -- NON- EXISTENT ON MANY CAMPUSES. NOW, WITH WOMEN COMPRISING CLOSE TO 35 PERCENT OF COLLEGIATE ATHLETES, THERE'S REAL PROGRESS, RIGHT? YES AND NO... AS A SERIES RUNNING IN USA TODAY THIS WEEK DEMONSTRATES, THE PICTURE IS VERY UNEVEN. IN SPITE OF PRESSURE BROUGHT BY THE 1972 [FEDERAL ANTI-DISCRIMINATION] LAW THAT PROMPTED THE IMPROVEMENTS, FOOT-DRAGGING [STALLING] GOES ON. [OPT] ... GIVING WOMEN THE SPORTS OPPORTUNITIES MEN HAVE LONG ENJOYED DOES NOT COME FREE. SPORTS DO, INDEED, COST MONEY. BUT EXCUSING DISCRIMINATION ON GROUNDS OF COST WENT OUT EVEN BEFORE 'SEPARATE BUT EQUAL'. [A REFERENCE TO THE KEY PHRASE IN THE HISTORIC 1954 SUPREME COURT DECISION OVER INEQUALITY IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS BETWEEN THE RACES, 'BROWN VERSUS BOARD OF EDUCATION.'" [END OPT]

    TEXT: THE AFTERMATH OF THE ASSASSINATION OF ISRAELI PRIME MINISTER YITZHAK RABIN CONTINUES TO HOLD SWAY IN SEVERAL PAPERS. ON NEW YORK'S LONG ISLAND, "NEWSDAY" SAYS "[ACTING PRIME MINISTER SHIMON] PERES NEEDS TO TURN ISRAEL'S REVULSION OVER [PRIME MINISTER] RABIN'S MURDER INTO SUPPORT FOR HIS AGENDA", ADDING:

    VOICE: IT WILL NOT BE AN EASY TASK. THE COUNTRY ITSELF IS STILL DEEPLY SPLIT OVER THE WISDOM OF RETURNING THE LAND IT CAPTURED IN THE 1967 WAR."

    TEXT: ON THE SAME TOPIC, "THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR" IN BOSTON REMARKS:

    VOICE: "AFTER TEARS, THE GEARS GRIND ON. EVEN AS A GRIM SHIMON PERES BID FAREWELL TO HIS ASSASSINATED CO-MANAGER OF THE MIDEAST PEACE MACHINERY AND TO HIS ASSASSINATION-SURVIVING ARAB NEIGHBORS, ISRAELI TROOPS RESUME THEIR TURNOVER OF WEST BANK VILLAGES TO PALESTINIAN CONTROL... ISRAEL AND ITS NEIGHBORS MAY LACK OIL. BUT THEY HAVE A RARER RESOURCE: LEADERS OF COURAGE."

    TEXT: "THE NEW YORK TIMES" TODAY CONTINUES TO CASTIGATE SENATOR JESSE HELMS, CHAIRMAN OF THE SENATE FOREIGN RELATIONS COMMITTEE, FOR HIS FEUD WITH THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION. THE SENATOR WANTS THE U-S INFORMATION AGENCY AND TWO OTHER AGENCIES INCORPORATED INTO THE STATE DEPARTMENT, AND IS HOLDING UP DOZENS OF DIPLOMATIC APPOINTMENTS HOPING TO FORCE THE ISSUE.

    VOICE: "BECAUSE OF THE OBSTINACY OF SENATOR ... HELMS OF NORTH CAROLINA, THE UNITED STATES DOES NOT HAVE AN AMBASSADOR IN BEIJING AT A TIME WHEN RELATIONS WITH CHINA HAVE REACHED THEIR MOST DELICATE AND DANGEROUS POINT IN MORE THAN 20 YEARS... AMERICANS ARE ALSO BEING DEPRIVED OF THE SERVICES OF AMBASSADORS IN SOUTH AFRICA, PAKISTAN, LEBANON, INDONESIA AND 12 OTHER COUNTRIES... MR. HELMS, A REPUBLICAN ... HAS SHORTSIGHTEDLY GIVEN HIS DRIVE TO DESTROY THREE INDEPENDENT FOREIGN POLICY AGENCIES PRECEDENCE OVER THESE URGENT ISSUES. HE IS WRONG ABOUT THE AGENCIES TOO."

    TEXT: AND ON THAT FOREIGN POLICY NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF LOOK AT SOME OF THE EDITORIALS AMERICANS ARE PONDERING THIS WEDNESDAY.

    NEB/ANG/PCH

    08-Nov-95 11:10 AM EST (1610 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [02] !!! VOA DAILY BOSNIA REPORT -- NOVEMBER 8, 1995

    DATE=11/8/95
    TYPE=ADVISORY
    CONTENT=

    VOA DAILY BOSNIA REPORT -- 11/8/95 THE FOLLOWING IS A SYNOPSIS OF SIGNIFICANT REPORTING ON BOSNIA BY THE VOICE OF AMERICA THAT HAD BEEN BROADCAST OR FIRMLY SCHEDULED AT THE TIME OF PUBLICATION. THIS SELECTION IS NOT INTENDED TO BE EXHAUSTIVE, AND DOES NOT INCLUDE LATE-BREAKING NEWS OR THE MANY REPORTS IN ALL VOA LANGUAGES THAT ARE BASED ON COMMERCIAL WIRE SERVICES OR OTHER SECONDARY SOURCES. WE REGRET THAT WE CANNOT RESPOND TO REQUESTS FOR TRANSCRIPTS OF SPECIFIC BROADCASTS OR PROGRAM SEGMENTS. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, CONTACT VOA, OFFICE OF EXTERNAL AFFAIRS. TELEPHONE: +1-202-619-2538. ELECTRONIC MAIL: LETTERS@VOA.GOV (FOR CORRESPONDENCE FROM OUTSIDE THE UNITED STATES); LETTERS-USA@VOA.GOV (FOR CORRESPONDENCE WITHIN THE UNITED STATES).

    REPORTS BY VOA NEWS SERVICES:

    US / RUSSIA / BOSNIA -- THE UNITED STATES AND RUSSIA HAVE REACHED A COMPROMISE ALLOWING FOR RUSSIAN PARTICIPATION IN THE BOSNIA PEACEKEEPING FORCE BEING ASSEMBLED BY NATO. AT LEAST ONE THOUSAND RUSSIAN SOLDIERS WILL TAKE PART, BUT NOT DIRECTLY UNDER NATO COMMAND. CORRESPONDENT DAVID GOLLUST HAS DETAILS FROM NATO HEADQUARTERS IN BRUSSELS. (11/8)

    US / RUSSIA / MEET -- US DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM PERRY AND RUSSIAN DEFENSE MINISTER PAVEL GRACHEV ARE MEETING IN BRUSSELS IN ANOTHER ATTEMPT TO FIND A WAY TO BRING RUSSIAN TROOPS INTO A NATO-LED PEACE IMPLEMENTATION FORCE IN BOSNIA. MOSCOW HAS RESISTED THE US DEMAND THAT ANY RUSSIAN COMBAT UNITS IN BOSNIA BE UNDER NATO COMMAND. CORRESPONDENT DAVID GOLLUST REPORTS FROM BRUSSELS. (11/8)

    TUDJMAN / DAYTON -- CROATIAN PRESIDENT FRANJO TUDJMAN IS FLYING TO THE UNITED STATES TO REJOIN PEACE TALKS ON THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. INTERNATIONAL MEDIATORS ARE REMAINING IN CROATIA TO TRY TO NEGOTIATE A PEACE AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT AND REBEL CROATIAN SERBS. CORRESPONDENT WAYNE COREY REPORTS. (11/8)

    BOSNIA / JOURNALIST -- BOSNIAN SERBS HAVE FREED A DETAINED AMERICAN JOURNALIST WHO REPORTED A SERB MASSACRE OF BOSNIAN MUSLIMS EARLIER THIS YEAR. THE SERBS SAY HE HAS BEEN RELEASED AS A GOODWILL GESTURE. CORRESPONDENT WAYNE COREY REPORTS. (11/8)

    YUGO TRIBUNAL / APPEAL -- THE PRESIDENT OF THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL FOR THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA, ANTONIO CASSESSE HAS APPEALED TO THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY TO PROVIDE MORE SUPPORT IN BRINGING SUSPECTS TO JUSTICE. IN A SPEECH TO THE UN GENERAL ASSEMBLY, MR CASSESSE COMPLAINED THE FAILURE OF GOVERNMENTS TO COOPERATE AND TO FINANCE THE TRIBUNAL IS HAMPERING ITS WORK. CORRESPONDENT ELAINE JOHANSON REPORTS. (11/7)

    US / BOSNIA / WAR CRIMES -- THE UNITED STATES SAYS IT IS COOPERATING WITH THE INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL FOR BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. CORRESPONDENT RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS THAT DOES NOT MEAN THE CHIEF PROSECUTOR GETS EVERYTHING HE NEEDS FOR PROSECUTION OF SUSPECTED WAR CRIMINALS. (11/7)

    KOSOVO / YUGOSLAVIA -- BUJAR BUKOSHI, PRIME MINISTER OF THE SELF-PROCLAIMED REPUBLIC OF KOSOVO, SAYS THERE CAN BE NO LASTING PEACE IN THE BALKANS WITHOUT PEACE IN THE PREDOMINANTLY ALBANIAN-INHABITED REGION OF KOSOVO. MR BUKOSHI URGED WASHINGTON TO MAINTAIN SANCTIONS ON SERBIA UNTIL A SOLUTION TO THE DISPUTE OVER KOSOVO IS FOUND. THE ALBANIAN LEADER WAS INTERVIEWED BY STAFFER ELEZ BIBERAJ. (ALBANIAN 11/8)

    BUKOSHI / KOSOVO -- STAFFER DJORDJE PUTIC INTERVIEWS BUJAR BUKOSHI, PRIME MINISTER OF THE SELF-PROCLAIMED REPUBLIC OF KOSOVO. MR BUKOSHI SAID THAT KOSOVO ALBANIANS DO NOT HAVE ANY CONDITIONS FOR STARTING UP A DIALOGUE WITH THE BELGRADE REGIME, BUT THAT HE'S PESSIMISTIC ABOUT POSSIBLE EARLY CONTACTS WITH YUGOSLAV AUTHORITIES. BUJAR BUKOSHI ALSO HELD A NEWS CONFERENCE IN WASHINGTON, AND CALLED ON THE US GOVERNMENT TO MEDIATE TALKS BETWEEN BELGRADE AND ALBANIANS IN KOSOVO. (SERBIAN 11/8)

    US / RUSSIA / NATO -- TALKS IN BRUSSELS BETWEEN US DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM PERRY AND HIS RUSSIAN COUNTERPART PAVEL GRACHEV RESULTED IN A COMPROMISE ABOUT RUSSIAN PARTICIPATION IN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS IN BOSNIA. STRINGER LADA STIPIC NIZETEO REPORTS THAT ONE THOUSAND RUSSIAN TROOPS WILL BE DIRECTLY UNDER COMMAND OF US GENERAL GEORGE JOULWAN. (CROATIAN 11/8)

    UN / BOSNIA -- REPRESENTATIVES OF THE UN HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES IN SARAJEVO EXPRESSED CONCERN THAT BOTH SIDES IN THE BOSNIAN-CROAT FEDERATION NEGLECT HUMAN RIGHTS AND DO NOT ALLOW THE RESETTLEMENT OF REFUGEES ON TERRITORIES THEY CONTROL. SPOKESMAN OF THE UNHCR, CHRIS JANOWSKI SAID THAT THERE WAS ALSO CONCERN FOR THE NON-SERBIAN INHABITANTS OF BANJALUKA. STRINGER BORO KONTIC REPORTS FROM SARAJEVO. (SERBIAN 11/7)

    CROATIA / DAYTON -- IN COMMENTING ON THE DAYTON PEACE TALKS, CROATIAN MEDIA CONCLUDE THAT PRESIDENT S MILOSEVIC OF SERBIA IS IN A VERY DIFFICULT POSITION. THE SITUATION IN EASTERN SLAVONIA IS JUDGED TO BE QUIET BUT TENSE. STRINGER STEVICA SUSA REPORTS FROM ZAGREB. (SERBIAN 11/7)

    BOSNIA / DAYTON TALKS -- REPORTER JOHN PITMAN TALKS WITH DAN NELSON OF OLD DOMINION UNIVERSITY ABOUT THE ARSENAL OF INCENTIVES AND THREATS RICHARD HOLBROOK HAS AT HIS DISPOSAL TO KEEP THE WARRING SIDES AT THE TABLE IN DAYTON. THE LIST OF INCENTIVES BEGINS WITH BOWLING AND MOVIES, THEN MOVES ONTO MORE SUBSTANTIAL OFFERINGS, LIKE SANCTIONS RELIEF. THE THREAT LIST BEGINS AND ENDS WITH AIR STRIKES. (ENP 11/7)

    SARAJEVO / ENERGY SHORTAGE -- GAS AND ELECTRICITY RATIONING HAS BEGUN IN SARAJEVO AS RESIDENTS ARE FACED WITH WINTER. STRINGER VLADIMIR BILI?C REPORTS THAT SHORTAGE IS DUE TO EXCESSIVE DEMANDS FOR HOME HEATING. (CROATIAN 11/8)

    SERBS / EASTERN SLAVONIA -- REPRESENTATIVES OF SERBS OF EASTERN SLAVONIA EXPLAIN THE REASONS FOR REJECTING THE LATEST INTERNATIONAL PLAN FOR THE AREA. AT A NEWS CONFERENCE IN VUKOVAR, THEY SAID THAT THE PROPOSAL DID NOT GARANTEE PEACE, SURVIVAL AND SECURITY OF SERBS IN EASTERN SLAVONIA. STRINGER DUSAN MASIC REPORTS FROM BELGRADE. (SERBIAN 11/7)

    BOSNIA / ATTACK ON UN -- IT IS STILL UNKNOWN WHO ATTACKED THE UN COMPOUND IN VRAPCICI NEAR MOSTAR. STRINGER LINDA MILISA REPORTS THAT ALL RELEVANT SOURCES ARE STILL SILENT IN ORDER TO AVOID ANY DISTURBANCE OF ONGOING INVESTIGATION. (CROATIAN 11/8)

    UN / BOSNIA -- THE UN GENERAL ASSEMBLY DISCUSSED A REPORT OF THE INTERNATIONAL COURT ON WAR CRIMES IN FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. THE REPORT WAS SUBMITTED BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE COURT, ANTONIO CASSESSE, AND REPRESENTATIVES OF EIGHT COUNTRIES PARTICIPATED IN THE DEBATE. STRINGER DRAGISA BOSKOVIC REPORTS FROM NEW YORK. (SERBIAN 11/7)

    GERMANY / BOSNIA -- GERMAN FOREIGN MINISTER KLAUS KINKEL SAYS THAT IS TOO EARLY TO ASSESS THE BOSNIAN PEACE TALKS IN DAYTON, OHIO. STRINGER IVICA LOVRIC REPORTS THAT MR KINKEL MADE THIS REMARKS DURING BUDGET DISCUSSIONS IN THE BUNDESTAG. (CROATIAN 11/8) 08-Nov-95 5:39 PM EST (2239 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [03] BOSNIA'S FUTURE AT THE DAYTON CONFERENCE TABLE BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=11/08/95
    TYPE=U-S OPINION ROUNDUP
    NUMBER=6-09262
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=NEAL LAVON
    CONTENT=

    INTRO: AFTER THE BURIAL OF ASSASSINATED ISRAELI PRIME MINISTER YITZHAK RABIN, EVENTS IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA HAVE COME BACK INTO FOCUS, AND INTO U-S EDITORIAL COLUMNS. WE GET A SAMPLING NOW OF EDITORIAL COMMENT ON THE PEACE TALKS THAT HAVE RESUMED IN THE CITY OF DAYTON, OHIO, LOLCATED IN THE MIDWESTERN UNITED STATES. HERE'S MORE FROM ______________ IN TODAY'S U-S OPINION ROUNDUP.

    TEXT: THERE IS A WIDE RANGE OF OPINION ON WHAT CAN BE EXPECTED FROM THE PEACE TALKS AMONG LEADERS OF CROATIA, SERBIA AND BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. WE BEGIN OUR SURVEY IN THE FAR PACIFIC NORTHWEST, WITH PORTLAND'S "OREGONIAN."

    VOICE: "ANY PEACE DEAL COMING OUT OF THESE TALKS WILL PROBABLY INVOLVE A ROLE FOR AMERICAN TROOPS IN ENFORCING IT. THERE IS A PERSUASIVE CASE FOR THAT INVOLVEMENT - - BUT SO FAR, THIS ADMINISTRATION HASN'T MADE IT. AT THE SAME TIME PRESIDENT CLINTON AND THE STATE DEPARTMENT ARE TALKING TO THE EX-YUGOSLAVS, THEY NEED TO BE TALKING TO AMERICANS. AS THEY PLAN THEIR ARGUMENTS, THE HEARTLAND RESIDENTS OF DAYTON AREN'T A BAD AUDIENCE TO KEEP IN MIND. [OPT] TWENTY-FIVE YEARS AGO, DEMOGRAPHER BEN WATTENBERG CONCLUDED THAT THE TYPICAL AMERICAN VOTER WAS A HOUSEWIFE FROM DAYTON, OHIO. ....... THERE'S A REASON WHY THESE PEACE TALKS CAME FROM BOSNIA TO AMERICA. IF TROOPS ARE GOING FROM AMERICA TO BOSNIA, AMERICANS NEED TO HEAR THOSE REASONS, TOO." [END OPT]

    TEXT: WHILE THE PEACE TALKS ARE BEING HELD, THE UNITED NATIONS WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL IS NOW SITTING IN THE HAGUE. SOME PAPERS BELIEVE WAR CRIMES ISSUES SHOULD BE A MAJOR PART OF THE DAYTON PEACE TALKS, WHILE OTHERS FEEL THE TRIBUNAL COULD DISRUPT AND EVEN SHUT DOWN THE DAYTON CONFERENCE. HERE IS WHAT LONG ISLAND'S "NEWSDAY" SAYS:

    VOICE: "THE INTERNATIONAL TRIBUNAL ON WAR CRIMES IN BOSNIA [HERZEGOVINA] IS ABOUT TO THROW A GIANT MONKEY WRENCH (MAKE DIFFICULT) IN THE CLANKING GEARS OF THE BALKAN PEACE PROCESS NOW UNDERWAY IN DAYTON, OHIO. THE ABSURDITY OF IT IS BREATHTAKING. THE UNITED NATIONS TRIBUNAL HAS MADE A FORMAL REQUEST ... THAT ANY PEACE ACCORD ... BE MADE CONTINGENT ON THE SURRENDER OF WAR-CRIMES SUSPECTS. ONE SUCH SUSPECT -- ... NOT YET INDICTED -- IS SERB PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC, A KEY PLAYER IN THE NEGOTIATIONS. WITHOUT [MR.] MILOSEVIC'S COOPERATION, EVERYONE MAY AS WELL PACK UP AND GET THE FIRST FLIGHT FROM DAYTON."

    TEXT: TAKING ESSENTIALLY THE OPPOSITE VIEW IS "THE WASHINGTON POST" WHICH EDITORIALIZES:

    VOICE: "OF THE PROSPECTIVE PROVISIONS OF A BOSNIAN PEACE ACCORD, NONE IS MORE URGENT THAN A CONSTITUTIONAL MANDATE FOR THE PROSECUTION OF WAR CRIMES. ..... A WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL SET UP BY THE UNITED NATIONS IN THE HAGUE HAS NOW INDICTED 40 BOSNIAN SERBS AND ONE BOSNIAN CROAT. FOR MAXIMUM EFFECT, HOWEVER, THE CALL FOR JUSTICE NEEDS TO BE EMBEDDED IN THE STRUCTURE OF A BOSNIAN STATE. IT NEEDS TO BE TREATED NOT SIMPLY AS A FOREIGN IMPOSITION BUT AS AN OBLIGATION THE RELUCTANT PARTNERS IN A NEW BOSNIA HAVE TAKEN UPON THEMSELVES."

    TEXT: RETURNING TO THE THEME THAT THE U-S MUST PLAY A KEY ROLE IN ASSURING ANY PEACE ACCORD WHICH EMERGES FROM DAYTON, WE REPEAT THIS FROM A RECENT EDITORIAL IN "THE ATLANTA CONSTITUTION."

    VOICE: "IF THE DAYTON NEGOTIATIONS ARE TO SUCCEED, PARTICIPANTS MUST HAVE A REASONABLE EXPECTATION THAT A SETTLEMENT WILL BE ENFORCED. [OPT] THROUGH PAINFUL EXPERIENCE, WASHINGTON AND ITS ALLIES HAVE CONCLUDED THAT A PASSIVE, PEACE-KEEPING OPERATION SUCH AS THAT CONDUCTED BY THE UNITED NATIONS IN THE PAST FOUR YEARS SIMPLY WON'T WORK. WHAT THEY ENVISION INSTEAD IS A 'ROBUST' NATO CONTINGENT OF 60-THOUSAND-PLUS TROOPS PREPARED TO DISCOURAGE CONCENTRATIONS OF COMBATANTS AND PUNISH TRUCE INFRACTIONS. [END OPT] [PRESIDENT] CLINTON HAS PROMISED 25-THOUSAND U-S TROOPS TO PROTECT THE PEACE IN BOSNIA. ... IT IS HARDLY INAPPROPRIATE FOR AMERICA, AS NATO'S PREMIER POWER, TO HELP ENSURE STABILITY ON THE ALLIANCE'S SOUTHEASTERN FLANK. [OPT] OF COURSE, THE ADMINISTRATION NEEDS TO MAKE CAREFUL PREPARATIONS ABOUT RULES OF ENGAGEMENT, LENGTH OF STAY, ZONES TO BE GUARDED, ETC; BUT IT SHOULDN'T SHY FROM THE NATION'S ROLE AS THE ULTIMATE GUARANTOR OF PEACE." [END OPT]

    TEXT: TURNING TO THE FAR NORTHEAST, "THE PORTLAND [MAINE] PRESS HERALD" SAYS WHATEVER HAPPENS AT DAYTON, "WITHOUT JUSTICE, THERE IS NO PEACE IN BOSNIA." THE PAPER CONTINUES:

    VOICE: "TRUE JUSTICE WON'T COME UNTIL THOSE WHO ARE GUILTY OF MASS MURDER OR EVEN WORSE ARE PUNISHED FOR THEIR MISDEEDS. FOR NOW, HOWEVER, CERTAIN BROAD CONDITIONS FOR A JUST SETTLEMENT EXIST. THESE INCLUDE: THE RETENTION OF BOSNIA AS A SINGLE INDEPENDENT SATE WITHIN ITS CURRENT BOUNDARIES. IF BOSNIA DOES NOT SURVIVE AS A NATION, THEN THE FORCES OF AGGRESSION WILL HAVE WON COMPLETELY, AND THERE IS NO NEED FOR PEACE TALKS. SURRENDER IS ALL THAT IS LEFT. [OPT] BOTH SERBIA ... AND CROATIA MUST RECOGNIZE AND RESPECT BOSNIA'S INDEPENDENCE. ...... SARAJEVO MUST BE, IN ITS ENTIRETY, THE UNCONTESTED CAPITAL OF BOSNIA. ..... FINALLY, EASTERN SLAVONIA, CAPTURED AND DECIMATED BY [SLOBODAN] MILOSEVIC'S FORCES IN THE EARLY MONTHS OF THE SERBIAN AGGRESSION, MUST BE RETURNED TO CROATIA. [END OPT] ..... IT IS NOT ENOUGH THAT THE THREE BALKAN PRESIDENTS IMPLEMENT A PEACE IN THEIR TALKS AT DAYTON. THE SOULS OF MORE THAN 200-THOUSAND SLAUGHTERED INNOCENTS DEMAND THEY IMPLEMENT JUSTICE AS WELL."

    TEXT: IN THE SOUTHWEST, "THE DALLAS MORNING NEWS" CRITCIZED CONGRESS ON THE EVE OF THE DAYTON TALKS FOR VOTING TO IMPOSE CONDITIONS ON THE PRESIDENT FOR THE DISPATCH OF ANY U-S FORCES TO THE REGION.

    IT CAUSED THE DALLAS PAPER TO REACT THIS WAY:

    VOICE: "THE NONBINDING STATUS [OF THE RESOLUTION] NOTWITHSTANDING, THE IN-YOUR-FACE [COMBATIVE] RESOLUTION WAS UNNECESSARY. IT SENT ALL THE WRONG SIGNALS. IT WAS GOING TO BE A DIFFICULT ENOUGH TASK FOR U-S NEGOTIATOR RICHARD HOLBROOKE TO BRIDGE ALL THE GAPS SEPARATING CROATS, MUSLIMS AND SERBS. ...THE HOUSE MOVE SEVERELY WEAKENS THE ADMINISTRATION'S HAND IN GETTING AN AGREEMENT. THE ACTION WAS PREMATURE AT BEST AND AN INFRINGEMENT ON THE PRESIDENT'S ABILITY TO CONDUCT FOREIGN POLICY AT WORST."

    TEXT: AND WITH THOSE COMMENTS FROM "THE DALLAS MORNING NEWS", WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF EDITORIAL COMMENT ON THE BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA PEACE TALKS UNDERWAY IN DAYTON.

    ANG/NL 08-Nov-95 1:19 PM EST (1819 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [04] BOSNIA / JOURNALIST (S UPDATE) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

    DATE=11/8/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-188196
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    /// EDS: UPDATES -- JOURNALIST FREED ///

    INTRO: BOSNIAN SERBS HAVE FREED A DETAINED AMERICAN JOURNALIST WHO REPORTED A SERB MASSACRE OF BOSNIAN MUSLIMS EARLIER THIS YEAR. THE SERBS SAY HE HAS BEEN RELEASED AS A GOODWILL GESTURE. V-O-A'S CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT, WAYNE COREY, REPORTS.

    TEXT: BOSNIAN SERB LEADER RADOVAN KARADZIC PARDONED THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR'S EASTERN EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT, DAVID ROHDE.

    THE SERBS HELD THE JOURNALIST FOR ALLEGEDLY ENTERING SERB TERRITORY ILLEGALLY ON OCTOBER 29TH AND FOR CARRYING A FALSE PASSPORT.

    MR. KARADZIC SAYS THE AMERICAN REPORTER HAS BEEN RELEASED AS A SIGN OF SERB GOODWILL AND AS A CONTRIBUTION TO THE SUMMIT TALKS ON PEACE IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA.

    MR. ROHDE WAS THE FIRST AMERICAN JOURNALIST TO REVEAL THE SERBS' MASSACRE OF MUSLIMS AFTER THE FALL OF THE MUSLIM ENCLAVE OF SREBRENICA LAST JULY.

    HE WAS DETAINED LAST MONTH WHEN HE RE-ENTERED SERB TERRITORY ON HIS OWN TO, APPARENTLY, TRY TO GET MORE INFORMATION ABOUT THE MASS KILLINGS.

    DURING HIS DETENTION, THE SERBS ARE SAID TO HAVE TREATED HIM PROPERLY.

    THE UNITED STATES REJECTED THE CHARGES AGAINST HIM AND REPEATEDLY DEMANDED HIS RELEASE. (SIGNED)

    NEB/WC/JWH/JM
    08-Nov-95 11:55 AM EST (1655 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [05] BOSNIAN SERBS MUST RELEASE ROHDE

    DATE= NOVEMBER 9, 1995
    TYPE= EDITORIAL
    NUMBER= 0-06571
    CONTENT=THIS IS THE ONLY EDITORIAL BEING RELEASED FOR BROADCAST
    NOVEMBER 9, 1995. ANNCR: THE VOICE OF AMERICA PRESENTS DIFFERING POINTS OF VIEW ON A WIDE VARIETY OF ISSUES. NEXT, AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT.

    VOICE:

    BOSNIAN SERB FORCES HAVE DETAINED AMERICAN JOURNALIST DAVID ROHDE OF THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR. HE IS BELIEVED TO HAVE BEEN ABDUCTED ON OCTOBER 28TH AND IS BEING HELD IN THE NORTHEAST BOSNIAN TOWN OF BIJELJINA. UNITED NATIONS AND AMERICAN EMBASSY OFFICIALS WERE ABLE TO MEET WITH MR. ROHDE EARLY THIS WEEK. THEY DESCRIBED HIM AS BEING IN GOOD HEALTH BUT FATIGUED. THE AMERICAN JOURNALIST IS BEING HELD FOR ALLEGEDLY FALSIFYING HIS PRESS CREDENTIALS AND ENTERING BOSNIAN SERB TERRITORY ILLEGALLY. NEITHER THE UNITED STATES NOR THE U-N RECOGNIZES THE BOSNIAN SERB REPUBLIC AS A COUNTRY THAT HAS A RIGHT TO DEMAND DOCUMENTS. THE U.S. DEMANDS THE IMMEDIATE RELEASE OF MR. ROHDE. HE HAS BEEN UNJUSTLY DETAINED AND NO HARM SHOULD COME TO HIM.

    LAST AUGUST, MR. ROHDE WAS THE FIRST WESTERN REPORTER TO CONFIRM THE EXISTENCE OF MASS GRAVES OF MUSLIMS MASSACRED BY BOSNIAN SERBS AFTER THE FALL OF THE U-N-DECLARED SAFE AREA OF SREBRENICA. LATER, HE TALKED WITH EYEWITNESSES AND SURVIVORS WHO CONFIRMED THAT THE MASSACRES OF MORE THAN EIGHT-THOUSAND MUSLIM MEN AND BOYS HAD TAKEN PLACE. THE U-N HAS SINCE CONFIRMED THE REPORTS.

    U.S. OFFICIALS HAVE RAISED THE ISSUE OF MR. ROHDE'S RELEASE WITH BOSNIAN SERB DEPUTY LEADER NIKOLA KOLJEVIC. HE IS ONE OF THE PARTICIPANTS IN THE PEACE TALKS AT WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE NEAR DAYTON, OHIO. THE MATTER HAS ALSO BEEN RAISED WITH SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC. THE U.S. BELIEVES THERE IS NO JUSTIFICATION FOR HOLDING DAVID ROHDE. IF THE BOSNIAN SERBS ARE SERIOUS ABOUT PEACE, THEY MUST RELEASE MR. ROHDE IMMEDIATELY. ANNCR:

    THAT WAS AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO BE HEARD ON THIS ISSUE, PLEASE WRITE TO EDITORIALS, VOICE OF AMERICA, WASHINGTON, D-C, 20547, U-S-A. YOU MAY ALSO SEND US A FAX AT (202) 619-1043. YOUR COMMENTS MAY BE USED ON THE AIR. 08-Nov-95 3:07 PM EST (2007 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [06] U-S/BOSNIA WAR CRIMES (S ONLY) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)

    DATE=11/8/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-188216
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: PRESIDENT CLINTON HAS RECEIVED A TELEPHONE REPORT FROM CHIEF AMERICAN NEGOTIATOR RICHARD HOLBROOKE ON THE STATUS OF BOSNIA PEACE TALKS IN OHIO. RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT, THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION HAS CHANGED ITS EMPHASIS ABOUT AMERICAN COOPERATION WITH THE INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL.

    TEXT: THE WHITE HOUSE AND THE STATE DEPARTMENT, STUNG BY NEWSPAPER HEADLINES CLAIMING THAT THE UNITED STATES IS WITHHOLDING DATA FROM THE INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL, HAS MADE A PLEDGE TO MEET ALL REQUESTS FROM THE PANEL'S CHIEF PROSECUTOR.

    WHITE HOUSE SPOKESMAN MIKE MCCURRY ORIGINALLY SAID NATIONAL SECURITY PREVENTS THE U-S GOVERNMENT FROM SHARING CERTAIN TYPES OF INTELLIGENCE INFORMATION WITH THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY. HOWEVER, NOW MR. MCCURRY SAYS THE UNITED STATES WILL FIGURE OUT A WAY TO GET THE INFORMATION TO THE TRIBUNAL.

    STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN NICHOLAS BURNS SAYS THE UNITED STATES WILL MEET ALL 25 REQUESTS MADE BY THE CHIEF PROSECUTOR.

    /// BURNS ACT ///

    WHAT I'M SAYING TODAY IS, IF WE BELIEVE THAT WE HAVE INFORMATION THAT IS PERTINENT TO THE CHARGE OF A WAR CRIME, EVEN IF THAT INFORMATION IS IN THE INTELLIGENCE REALM, WE WILL FIND A WAY TO SUPPLY IT TO HIM.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. BURNS ADMITS THE AMERICAN DEMAND TO EXCLUDE INDICTED WAR CRIMINALS FROM A FUTURE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT IS A DIFFICULT ISSUE FOR SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC TO ACCEPT AT THE BOSNIA PEACE TALKS. (SIGNED)

    NEB/RP/LWM
    08-Nov-95 3:10 PM EST (2010 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [07] U-S/BOSNIA (L ONLY) BY GARY THOMAS (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=11/8/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-188205
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: AS THE BOSNIAN PEACE TALKS CONTINUE IN DAYTON, OHIO, U-S MILITARY OFFICIALS ARE DRAWING UP PLANS FOR THE EVENTUAL DEPLOYMENT OF SOME 20-THOUSAND U-S TROOPS TO BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA IN SUPPORT OF THE PEACEKEEPING EFFORT. CLINTON ADMINISTRATION PROPOSALS TO SEND TROOPS HAVE CAUSED CONTROVERSY, PARTICULARLY AMONG REPUBLICAN MEMBERS OF CONGRESS. V-O-A'S GARY THOMAS REPORTS, SENIOR MILITARY OFFICERS -- BOTH ACTIVE DUTY AND RETIRED -- ARE CALLING FOR CAREFUL PLANNING AND A CLEAR OBJECTIVE ABOUT THE U-S PRESENCE THERE.

    TEXT: AT A HEARING OF THE HOUSE COMMITTEE ON NATIONAL SECURITY, RETIRED GENERAL DAVID MADDOX WARNED OFFICIALS TO READ ANY PEACE AGREEMENT CAREFULLY BEFORE COMMITING TROOPS TO PEACEKEEPING.

    GENERAL MADDOX -- WHO UNTIL LATE LAST YEAR WAS THE COMMANDER OF U-S FORCES IN EUROPE -- SAID ALL PARTIES TO THE CONFLICT MUST CLEARLY WANT PEACE. HE SAID THE OBJECTIVE OF A PEACEKEEPING EFFORT SHOULD BE TO HELP BUILD A PEACE, AND NOT TO SIMPLY ACT AS A WALL BETWEEN TWO WARRING PARTIES.

    // MADDOX ACT //

    I KNOW VERY WELL HOW TO PICK A GUY I DON'T LIKE AND FIGHT WITH HIM. THAT'S EASY. I KNOW HOW TO SUPPORT ONE GUY. I KNOW HOW TO GO IN WITH A GROUP OF PEOPLE WHO HAVE BEEN FIGHTING EACH OTHER AND WANT TO STOP IT, AND ASSIST -- AND THERE ARE SOME CLEAR DANGERS IN THAT. I DO NOT KNOW HOW THE HECK TO GET BETWEEN TWO PEOPLE WHO ARE CONVINCED THEY'RE GOING TO KILL EACH OTHER, AND TRY TO STAND BETWEEN THEM, AND STOP THAT.

    // END ACT //

    GENERAL ANTHONY ZINNI, COMMANDER OF THE FIRST MARINE EXPEDITIONARY FORCE, AGREED, SAYING ALL PARTIES MUST BE FIRMLY COMMITTED TO A PEACE AGREEMENT. HE ALSO WARNED THAT U-S FORCES MUST BE CAREFUL TO BE FIRMLY NEUTRAL AND NOT TO TAKE SIDES OR MAKE ENEMIES -- EVEN THOUGH THE UNITED STATES WAS IN THE FOREFRONT OF URGING NATO AIR STRIKES AGAINST THE BOSNIAN SERBS. GENERAL ZINNI SAID PUNISHMENT FOR VIOLATIONS OF THE ANY PEACE AGREEMENT SHOULD BE DECIDED UPON IN ADVANCE, AND BE APPLIED EQUALLY TO ANY VIOLATOR.

    // ZINNI ACT //

    // OPT //

    IF WE DO MAKE AN ENEMY, WE HAVE TO BE CLEAR THAT HE'S AN ENEMY AND HAS DONE SOMETHING WRONG AND TREAT HIM AS SUCH. WE CAN'T DELUDE OURSELVES TO THINK WE STILL MAINTAIN NEUTRALITY WHEN IN FACT OUR ACTIONS AND HOW WE'RE PERCEIVED LEAD TO SOMETHING COMPLETELY DIFFERENT. // END OPT // WE HAVE TO BE CLEAR ON WHO THE ENEMY IS -- IF THERE IS ONE -- OR WHO HAS VIOLATED SOMETHING THAT IS UNACCEPTABLE TO US. BUT AT ALL COSTS, WE SHOULD ATTEMPT IN THE BEGINNING TO MAINTAIN THE PERCEPTION OF NEUTRALITY.

    // END ACT //

    // OPT //

    GENERAL ZINNI PARTICIPATED IN THE U-S DEPLOYMENT TO SOMALIA AND COMMANDED THE U-S FORCE THAT OVERSAW THE WITHDRAWAL OF U-N FORCES THERE. HE DREW UPON HIS EXPERIENCE IN SOMALIA TO URGE A CLEAR UNDERSTANDING OF THE ROOTS OF THE BOSNIAN CONFLICT.

    // OPT // ZINNI ACT //

    WE HAVE TO GO IN KNOWING THE CULTURE AND KNOWING THE ISSUES. OFTENTIMES, AS IN SOMALIA, ONE OF THE BIGGEST PROBLEMS IS THAT WE DON'T UNDERSTAND A CULTURE THAT IS REMARKABLY DIFFERENT THAN OURS. WE DON'T UNDERSTAND THE HISTORY OF THE CONFLICT. WE DON'T UNDERSTNAD THE ROOT CAUSES OF THE PROBLEM. THIS WILL AFFECT HOW WE CONDUCT OPERATIONS, IT AFFECTS HOW WE DEAL WITH PEOPLE ON SCENE, AND IT AFFECTS HOW WE NOT MAKE ENEMIES AND MAINTAIN A DEGREE OE NEUTRALITY.

    // END ACT // END OPT //

    ASSUMING A PEACE AGREEMENT IS REACHED, PRESENT PLANS CALL FOR 20-THOUSAND U-S TROOPS TO BE DEPLOYED IN BOSNIA AS PART OF A ROUGHLY 60-THOUSAND MEMBER INTERNATIONAL PEACEKEEPING FORCE.

    // REST OPT //

    THREE DIVISIONS -- U-S, BRITISH, AND FRENCH, WOULD BE DEPLOYED, ALONG WITH SMALLER FORCES FROM OTHER NATIONS, INCLUDING -- UNDER AN AGREEMENT ANNOUNCED WEDNESDAY -- RUSSIA. THE DEPLOYMENT WOULD BE FOR ONE YEAR.

    BUT GENERAL MADDOX SAID HE IS CONCERNED THAT A YEAR MAY NOT BE LONG ENOUGH -- EVEN THOUGH KEEPING A FORCE THERE LONGER MAY PRESENT POLITICAL PROBLEMS FOR THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION.

    // MADDOX ACT //

    PERSONALLY, I CANNOT THINK THROUGH -- GIVEN WHAT YOU READ ABOUT THE PEACE AGREEMENT -- WHAT YOU CAN ACCOMPLISH AND BE OUT OF THERE IN A YEAR. SO THE TIME LIMIT ISSUE -- WHILE GOING LONGER THAN A YEAR MAY CREATE POLITICAL PROBLEMS -- FROM A MILITARY POINT OF VIEW, I DON'T KNOW WHAT YOU'RE GOING TO GET DONE IN A YEAR. AND TO SIMPLY SAY, I WENT THERE, I WAS THERE A YEAR, AND I LEFT -- I DON'T THINK IS SOMETHING I WANT TO WRITE DOWN IN MY MEMOIRS AS TO WHAT I ACCOMPLISHED. THE YEAR BOTHERS ME.

    // END ACT //

    GENERAL ZINNI SAID, HOWEVER, THAT A FINITE TIME HELPS IN PLANNING THE MISSION, AS IT GIVES THE PLANNERS A CLEAR SET OF GOALS FOR THE PEACEKEEPERS TO ACCOMPLISH WITH THAT TIME. (SIGNED)

    NEB/GPT/MMK
    08-Nov-95 1:47 PM EST (1847 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [08] U-S/RUSSIA/BOSNIA (L-UPDATE) BY DAVID GOLLUST (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=11/8/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-188213
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED STATES AND RUSSIA HAVE WORKED OUT A COMPROMISE TO ALLOW FOR RUSSIAN PARTICIPATION IN THE PEACEKEEPING FORCE BEING ASSEMBLED BY NATO FOR DUTY IN BOSNIA. RUSSIAN SOLDIERS WILL TAKE PART -- BUT AT LEAST TECHNICALLY -- WILL NOT TAKE ORDERS DIRECTLY FROM NATO. VOA'S DAVID GOLLUST HAS DETAILS FROM NATO HEADQUARTERS IN BRUSSELS.

    TEXT: THE AGREEMENT APPROVED BY U-S DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM PERRY AND RUSSIAN DEFENSE MINISTER PAVEL GRACHEV WILL ALLOW RUSSIANS TO JOIN IN BOSNIA PEACEKEEPING -- WHILE NEITHER SIDE WILL LOSE FACE IN PUTTING ASIDE THEIR LONG-RUNNING DISPUTE OVER COMMAND OF THE RUSSIAN CONTINGENT.

    RUSSIA HAD RESISTED THE U-S DEMAND THAT ANY FORCES IT CONTRIBUTES BE UNDER NATO COMMAND. UNDER THE ARRANGEMENT ANNOUNCED HERE, A BRIGADE OF ONE THOUSAND OR MORE RUSSIAN TROOPS WILL SERVE IN BOSNIA AS PART OF A U-S DIVISION.

    THE COMMANDING OFFICER OF THE RUSSIAN TROOPS WILL TAKE HIS ORDERS FROM U-S ARMY GENERAL GEORGE JOULWAN, THE COMMANDER OF NATO FORCES -- BUT, IN THIS CASE, IN HIS CAPACITY AS U-S COMMANDER IN EUROPE.

    AT A JOINT NEWS CONFERENCE, MR. PERRY AND GENERAL GRACHEV INSISTED THAT NEITHER SIDE HAD GIVEN IN TO REACH THE DEAL -- WHICH MR. PERRY SAID WAS AN IMPORTANT TEST OF WHETHER THE TWO POWERS CAN WORK TOGETHER AS PARTNERS IN THE POST COLD-WAR ERA.

    THE TWO DEFENSE CHIEFS SAID THEY WOULD MEET AGAIN IN A FEW WEEKS TO TRY TO WORK OUT THE MOST SERIOUS REMAINING PROBLEM ISSUE -- THAT OF POLITICAL CONTROL OF THE IMPLEMENTATION FORCE.

    WHILE RUSSIA WANTS THE FORCE TO BE UNDER THE UNITED NATIONS FLAG, THE UNITED STATES AND ITS ALLIES PREFER THAT IT, IN LEGAL TERMS, BE A NATO UNDERTAKING, OPERATING WITH THE APPROVAL OF THE SECURITY COUNCIL.

    PROVIDED THAT MATTER CAN BE SETTLED, U-S OFFICIALS SAY THE TWO POWERS MAY ABANDON A PLAN APPROVED LAST MONTH FOR CREATION OF A JOINT UNIT OF SEVERAL THOUSAND U-S AND RUSSIAN MILITARY ENGINEERS AND OTHERS WHO WOULD SUPPORT THE IMPLEMENTATION FORCE.

    A SENIOR U-S OFFICIAL WHO SPOKE TO REPORTERS HERE INSISTED THAT THE RUSSIAN COMMANDER IN BOSNIA COULD NOT VETO ORDERS RECEIVED THROUGH THE CHAIN OF COMMAND -- AND THAT THE ARRANGEMENT MERELY MEANS THAT THE RUSSIAN TROOPS WILL NOT RECIEVE THEIR ORDERS, AS HE PUT IT, ON A NATO LETTERHEAD.

    THE U-S SIDE WANTED A CLEAR CHAIN OF COMMAND -- WHICH THE SENIOR OFFICIAL SAID IS PRESERVED BY THE PERRY / GRACHEV AGREEMENT -- IN ORDER TO AVOID THE SO-CALLED DUAL KEY ARRANGEMENT AND DISAGREEMENTS BETWEEEN THE U-N AND NATO THAT HAMPERED THE PREVIOUS BOSNIA PEACE FORCE. ABOUT 60-THOUSAND TROOPS -- ONE THIRD OF THEM AMERICAN -- ARE TO MAKE UP THE IMPLEMENTATION FORCE, WHICH IS TO DEPLOY IN BOSNIA QUICKLY, IF AND WHEN AN AGREEMENT IS REACHED IN THE BOSNIAN PEACE TALKS IN DAYTON, OHIO. (SIGNED)

    NEB/DAG/CF
    08-Nov-95 2:36 PM EST (1936 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [09] YUGO SITREP (L ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

    DATE=11/8/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-188200
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    // REISSUE: CHANGES IDENTIFICATION IN 7TH GRAF OF TEXT //

    INTRO: THE CROATIAN PRESIDENT, FRANJO TUDJMAN, IS FLYING TO THE UNITED STATES TO REJOIN PEACE TALKS ON THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. INTERNATIONAL MEDIATORS ARE REMAINING IN CROATIA TO TRY TO NEGOTIATE A PEACE AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT AND REBEL CROATIAN SERBS. V-O-A'S CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT, WAYNE COREY, REPORTS.

    TEXT: PRESIDENT TUDJMAN WAS HEADING FROM ZAGREB TO AN AMERICAN AIR FORCE BASE IN OHIO WHERE SUMMIT TALKS ARE BEING HELD ON PEACE IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA.

    MR. TUDJMAN'S RETURN TO THE PEACE TALKS MEANS THE FUTURE OF THE CROATIAN SERB-HELD TERRITORY OF EASTERN SLAVONIA WILL AGAIN BE HIGH ON THE AGENDA.

    THE CROATIAN PRESIDENT HAS THREATENED TO RETAKE EASTERN SLAVONIA BY FORCE AFTER NOVEMBER 30TH UNLESS THE REBEL SERBS AGREE ON THE TERRITORY'S REINTEGRATION WITH THE REST OF CROATIA.

    THE AMERICAN AMBASSADOR TO CROATIA, PETER GALBRAITH, AND UNITED NATIONS ENVOY THORVALD STOLTENBERG HAVE BEEN MEDIATING PEACE TALKS BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT AND THE SERBS. MR. GALBRAITH WAS EXPECTED TO FLY TO OHIO AFTER THE SERBS REJECTED REVISED PEACE PROPOSALS. BUT, HE AND MR. STOLTENBERG ARE BOTH STAYING IN CROATIA TO CONTINUE THEIR NEGOTIATIONS WITH THE SERBS.

    A NEWS BLACKOUT, SIMILAR TO THE ONE IMPOSED AT THE SUMMIT TALKS IN OHIO, IS BEING IMPOSED ON THE DISCUSSIONS IN CROATIA. SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC SAYS HIS PROXIMITY TALKS WITH BOSNIAN PRESIDENT ALIJA IZETBEGOVIC ARE GOING WELL. HE GAVE NO DETAILS.

    MR. MILOSEVIC SPOKE BRIEFLY TO REPORTERS WHEN HE AND THE BOSNIAN PRESIDENT LEFT THE AUSTERE WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE TO ATTEND A DINNER, HOSTED BY AMERICAN ENVOY RICHARD HOLBROOKE.

    IN A SEPARATE COMMENT, THE PRIME MINISTER OF THE YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MONTENEGRO, MILO DJUKANKOVIC, SAYS MR. MILOSEVIC'S REPRESENTATIVE TOLD HIM THE PEACE TALKS SHOULD CONCLUDE BY THE END OF THIS WEEK.

    DESPITE THE REPORTED PROGRESS IN THE PEACE TALKS ON BOSNIA, THE PEOPLE OF SARAJEVO ARE SHIVERING IN EARLY WINTER WEATHER. THERE IS NOT ENOUGH NATURAL GAS TO HEAT HOMES THROUGHOUT THE CITY. AND, IN CROATIA, UNITED NATIONS OFFICIALS FEAR HUNDREDS OF ELDERLY SERBS IN GOVERNMENT-CONTROLLED TERRITORY COULD DIE THIS WINTER BECAUSE OF DELIBERATE NEGLECT. A U-N SPOKESMAN IN ZAGREB REFERRED TO THE DEATH OF AN 82-YEAR-OLD DEHYDRATED AND MALNOURISHED SERB MAN. THE MAN WAS NOT TAKEN TO A HOSPITAL TO BE TREATED. (SIGNED)

    NEB/WC/JWH/CF
    08-Nov-95 12:29 PM EST (1729 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

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