Browse through our Interesting Nodes for Financial Services in Greece Read the Convention Relating to the Regime of the Straits (24 July 1923) Read the Convention Relating to the Regime of the Straits (24 July 1923)
HR-Net - Hellenic Resources Network Compact version
Today's Suggestion
Read The "Macedonian Question" (by Maria Nystazopoulou-Pelekidou)
HomeAbout HR-NetNewsWeb SitesDocumentsOnline HelpUsage InformationContact us
Tuesday, 24 May 2022
 
News
  Latest News (All)
     From Greece
     From Cyprus
     From Europe
     From Balkans
     From Turkey
     From USA
  Announcements
  World Press
  News Archives
Web Sites
  Hosted
  Mirrored
  Interesting Nodes
Documents
  Special Topics
  Treaties, Conventions
  Constitutions
  U.S. Agencies
  Cyprus Problem
  Other
Services
  Personal NewsPaper
  Greek Fonts
  Tools
  F.A.Q.
 

Voice of America, 14 November 1995

From: yanni@ix.netcom.com (Ioannis Bousnakis)

Voice of America Directory

CONTENTS

  • [01] TUESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [02] BALKAN REFUGEES BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (GENEVA)

  • [03] CHRISTOPHER-BOSNIA TALKS (L) BY RON PEMSTEIN (DAYTON, OHIO)

  • [04] E-U / NIGERIA (L ONLY) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)

  • [05] KURDS PEACE TALKS (S ONLY) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (CAIRO)

  • [06] YUGO SITREP (L UPDATE) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)


  • [01] TUESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=11/14/95
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09270
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=NEAL LAVON
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-S-T ON TUESDAY NOVEMBER 14TH //

    INTRO: ALL NON ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT ARE IN THE PROCESS OF SHUTTING DOWN TODAY, AND THE NATION'S EDITORIAL WRITERS ARE IN THE PROCESS OF CRITICIZING BOTH THE PRESIDENT AND THE REPUBLICAN LEADERS OF CONGRESS FOR ALLOWING IT TO HAPPEN. IN ADDITION, EDITORIALS IN MAJOR U-S PAPERS COVER SUCH TOPICS AS THE HANGING OF KEN SARO-WIWA IN NIGERIA; A FATAL BOMBING NEAR A U.S. MILITARY INSTALLATION IN SAUDI ARABIA; SOME HOPEFUL SIGNS OF DEMOCRATIC REFORMS IN GUATEMALA; AND THE STATE OF RUSSIA'S NASCENT DEMOCRACY. NOW, ________________ HAS A CLOSER LOOK FOR US IN TODAY'S U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: DOZENS OF PAPERS ARE RUNNING EDITORIALS WHICH ARE CRITICAL OF WASHINGTON POLITICAL LEADERS FOR ALLOWING A BUDGETARY IMPASSE TO SHUT DOWN THE GOVERNMENT. WE BEGIN THIS SURVEY WITH "THE NEW YORK POST."

    VOICE: "JUST IN CASE YOU HAVEN'T NOTICED, THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT IS PARTIALLY SHUTTERED THIS MORNING; PRESIDENT CLINTON YESTERDAY VETOED LEGISLATION AIMED AT PREVENTING THE SHUTDOWN AND PROMISED TO STAND HIS GROUND UNTIL CONGRESS SENDS HIM A BUDGET THAT'S TO HIS LIKING. THE PRESIDENT CHANGES HIS MIND A LOT, BUT HE MAY MEAN IT THIS TIME. IF SO, THE NATION WILL LIKELY WITNESS A DRAMATIC STRUGGLE BETWEEN THE FORCES OF BUDGETARY BUSINESS-AS-USUAL AND A GOP CONGRESSIONAL LEADERSHIP DETERMINED TO SET AMERICA ON THE PATH TO FISCAL SOLVENCY."

    TEXT: ON LONG ISLAND, "NEWSDAY" CALLS THE CRISIS "AVOIDABLE" AND ADDS READERS CAN "BLAME THE GOVERNMENT SHUT-DOWN ON BOTH SIDES, BUT [PRESIDENT] CLINTON MAKES THE BETTER CASE." AND IN "THE NEW YORK DAILY NEWS," THIS OBSERVATION:

    VOICE: "... THE GOVERNMENT PREPARED TO TELL 800-THOUSAND PERSONNEL DEEMED NONESSENTIAL TO STAY HOME. A QUESTION: IF THEY'RE NONESSENTIAL, HOW COME THOSE 800-THOUSAND PEOPLE ARE ON THE PAYROLL IN THE FIRST PLACE?"

    TEXT: IN NEW ENGLAND, "THE BOSTON GLOBE" CALLS THE SITUATION "THE REPUBLICANS' FAULT," ADDING:

    VOICE: "CONGRESSIONAL REPUBLICANS HAVE NO BUSINESS TRYING TO LINK THEIR BUDGET PRIORITIES TO THE U-S DEBT CEILING. THIS IS BLACKMAIL PURE AND SIMPLE - - SPEAKER NEWT GINGRICH AND SENATOR BOB DOLE CYNICALLY THREATENING TO MAKE HOSTAGES OF THE GOVERNMENT AND THOSE DEPENDENT ON IT. PRESIDENT CLINTON WAS RIGHT TO USE HIS VETO ..... THIS CYNICAL BRINKSMANSHIP HURTS THE REPUBLICANS PARTICULARLY. THEY SHOULD RAISE THE DEBT CEILING, PROVIDE TEMPORARY FUNDING FOR THE AGENCIES AND THEN ENGAGE [MR.] CLINTON IN A HEAD-ON BUDGET BATTLE. IF THEY DO NOT, THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR CRISIS WILL BE ENTIRELY THEIRS."

    [BEGIN OPT]

    TEXT: IN CALIFORNIA, "THE LOS ANGELES TIMES" CALLS IT "POLITICS AMOK," AND SUGGESTS:

    VOICE: " ONCE AGAIN, VOTERS HAVE BEEN TREATED TO SHAMELESS THREATS OF A GOVERNMENT SHUT-DOWN. ....... NO WONDER THE PUBLIC IS ANGRY, FRIGHTENED AND CONFUSED. THIS PUBLIC CONSTERNATION COULD WELL BE THE MOST DAMAGING ASPECT OF THE BLUSTER THAT HAS TAKEN PLACE IN WASHINGTON. AMERICANS ARE TIRED OF SUCH POLITICAL MACHINATIONS, AND NEITHER POLITICAL PARTY HAS CLEAN HANDS [IS WITHOUT RESPONSIBILITY FOR THIS SITUATION.]"

    TEXT: "THE PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER" IS EQUALLY CRITICAL, CALLING THE SITUATION "WASHINGTON FOLLIES," AND TELLING READERS: "THE HIGH ART OF DEBATING THE FEDERAL BUDGET SOUNDS MORE LIKE A B [SECOND RATE] MOVIE WITH NO HERO." AND IN "THE WASHINGTON POST" THERE IS THIS COMMENT:

    VOICE: "ON THE BUDGET, THE PRESIDENT AND THE CONGRESSIONAL REPUBLICANS ARE BOTH INDULGING IN THEATER AT THE EXPENSE OF SUBSTANCE. IF THE PUBLIC IS PUT OFF [UPSET] BY IT, WELL, IT [THE PUBLIC] OUGHT TO BE. ....... BUT THERE'S A CERTAIN RISK IN IT. THEY [THE PRESIDENT AND CONGRESSIONAL LEADERS] MAY DISCOVER THAT VOTERS INTERPRET THIS EASILY AVOIDABLE SHUT-DOWN OF GOVERNMENT .... AS A DEMONSTRATION NOT OF DEVOTION TO PRINCIPLE BUT OF INCOMPETENCE."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: ANOTHER COMMON TOPIC IS THE CONTROVERSIAL EXECUTION IN NIGERIA LATE LAST WEEK OF WORLD-FAMOUS PLAYWRIGHT, ENVIRONMENTALIST AND TRIBAL LEADER KEN SARO-WIWA, AND EIGHT OF HIS COLLEAGUES, FOUND GUILTY OF TAKING PART IN A MURDER. THE GOVERNMENT OF GE. SANI ABACHA WAS ROUNDLY CRITICIZED AS IN THIS COMMENT FROM "THE BOSTON GLOBE":

    VOICE: "THE TIME FOR MAJOR INTERNATIONAL SANCTIONS AGAINST NIGERIA IS NOW. THE WORLD'S DEMOCRACIES SHOULD FIND THE MOST EFFECTIVE WAYS TO MAKE THE LIVES OF NIGERIA'S MILITARY OVERLORDS MORE DIFFICULT, INCLUDING CONSIDERATION OF A COMPREHENSIVE OIL EMBARGO. THE GRINDING OPPRESSION IN AFRICA'S MOST POPULOUS COUNTRY CANNOT BE ALLOWED TO CONTINUE ...."

    TEXT: WHILE IN CALIFORNIA, THAT STATE'S LARGEST DAILY, "THE LOS ANGELES TIMES" SAYS "SHAME ON NIGERIA."

    VOICE: "THE MILITARY REGIME'S HANGING OF KEN SARO-WIWA ..... SHALL NOT GO UNPUNISHED. WITHIN DAYS OF THE OUTRAGE, AN ALREADY SHUNNED NATION FINDS ITSELF EVEN MORE OSTRACIZED. IT STANDS WITH BLOOD ON ITS HANDS BEFORE AN ACCUSING WORLD. ..... AN EMBARGO, OR A RESTRICTION ON SALES OF OIL-RELATED EQUIPMENT, WOULD CRIPPLE NIGERIA. OIL IS AN APPROPRIATE TARGET BECAUSE IT PLAYED A ROLE IN THE EXECUTIONS OF THE NINE MEN LAST WEEK."

    TEXT: "THE BALTIMORE SUN" LEAD EDITORIAL TODAY CALLS IT A "NIGERIAN NIGHTMARE"ADDING:

    VOICE: "HE WHO LIVES BY THE SWORD DIES BY THE SWORD. GENERAL ABACHA KNOWS THIS BUT THINKS HE CAN POSTPONE HIS FATE OR CHEAT DEATH. HE IS WRONG."

    TEXT: COMMENTING ON YESTERDAY'S BOMBING IN RIYADH, SAUDI ARABIA, THAT KILLED AT LEAST FIVE AMERICANS AND WOUNDED DOZENS MORE SAUDIS AND AMERICANS AT THE NATION'S NATIONAL GUARD TRAINING CENTER, "THE NEW YORK TIMES" SAYS:

    VOICE: "THE ATTACK IS A REMINDER OF THE INHERENT VULNERABILITY OF THE AMERICAN POSITION IN SAUDI ARABIA, THE WORLD'S LEADING OIL PRODUCER AND THE LARGEST PRO-WESTERN STATE IN THE PERSIAN GULF REGION. ...... TO REDUCE THE RISK OF FUTURE UPHEAVALS WASHINGTON NEEDS TO ENCOURAGE A MORE OPEN POLITICAL SYSTEM AND MORE PRUDENT ECONOMIC MANAGEMENT, ... YET .... KEEP ITS ADVICE AND ITS PRESENCE LOW-KEY."

    TEXT: TUESDAY'S "WASHINGTON POST" IS PLEASED ABOUT WHAT IT SEES AS PROGRESS IN GUATEMALA, LONG THE SCENE OF A BLOODY CIVIL WAR.

    VOICE: "A RAGGED BUT HOPEFUL DRAMA IS UNFOLDING IN GUATEMALA AS THE COUNTRY WHERE THE COLD WAR STARTED IN THIS HEMISPHERE STRUGGLED TO PUT ITS ORDEAL BEHIND. THE ELECTIONS NOW UNDERWAY ARE THE FIRST IN WHICH ALL PARTIES TO LATIN AMERICA'S LONGEST WAR HAVE JOINED IN A COMMON POLITICAL ENTERPRISE. BUT FREE AND FAIR ELECTIONS, IT TURNS OUT, ARE A NECESSARY BUT NOT SUFFICIENT CONDITION FOR MAKING DEMOCRACY WORK. "

    TEXT: FINALLY, SOME THOUGHTS FROM "THE MIAMI HERALD" ON YET ANOTHER INFANT DEMOCRACY THAT IS FRAUGHT WITH PROBLEMS:THE ONE IN RUSSIA.

    VOICE: "RUSSIA IS PREPARING FOR PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS IN DECEMBER, AND THE PROSPECTS LOOK ALMOST AS DIM FOR MR. YELTSIN AND HIS ALLIES AS THEY DID FOR MR. GORBACHEV IN 1991. IN FACT, MANY OF THE SAME PREHISTORIC CHARACTERS WHO BACKED THE 1991 PUTSCHE [ITALICS FOR A FOREIGN WORD] [THAT IS, THE ATTEMPTED COUP AGAINST MR. GORBACHEV] ARE NOW LEADING PARTIES THAT PROMISE TO TAKE RUSSIA BACK TO THE PREDICTABLE 'ORDER' OF SOVIET SOCIETY. ..... WHATEVER THE MOTIVES AND BYZANTINE MANEUVERS OF RUSSIA'S POLITICAL LEADERSHIP, IT APPEARS THAT THE COUNTRY'S ADOLESCENT DEMOCRACY HAS ESCAPED STILL ANOTHER CLOSE BRUSH WITH THE NATION'S AUTHORITARIAN PAST."

    TEXT: AND ON THAT NOTE FROM "THE MIAMI HERALD," WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF U-S EDITORIAL OPINION FOR TUESDAY, THE MID-POINT OF NOVEMBER.

    ANG/NL

    14-Nov-95 9:51 AM EST (1451 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [02] BALKAN REFUGEES BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (GENEVA)

    DATE=11/14/95
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-31654
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE U-N HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES AND OTHER HUMANITARIAN AGENCIES ARE BEGINNING TO MAKE PLANS FOR THE RETURN OF PEOPLE DISPLACED BY CONFLICTS IN BOSNIA AND CROATIA. BUT OFFICIALS ACKNOWLEDGE MANY OF THE NEARLY THREE-MILLION BALKAN REFUGEES MAY NEVER BE ABLE TO GO BACK TO THEIR ORIGINAL HOMES. V-O-A'S DOUGLAS ROBERTS FILED THIS BACKGROUND REPORT FROM OUR GENEVA BUREAU.

    TEXT: THE FINAL SHAPE OF A BALKAN PEACE IS EXPECTED TO INCLUDE PROVISIONS FOR THE RETURN OF SOME OF THE ESTIMATED TWO-POINT-NINE-MILLION PEOPLE WHO HAVE FLED OR BEEN FORCED OUT OF THEIR HOMES DURING THE FOUR-YEARS OF CONFLICT.

    THE U-N HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES, SADAKO OGATA, HAS BEEN MEETING THIS WEEK IN GENEVA WITH SENIOR U-N OFFICIALS AND REPRESENTATIVES OF PRIVATE HUMANITARIAN AGENCIES, TO DISCUSS REPATRIATION OF THE REFUGEES.

    SPOKESMAN RON REDMOND SAYS IT WILL BE AN EXTREMELY COMPLEX AND FRAGILE OPERATION -- NO MATTER WHAT AGREEMENT EMERGES FROM THE PEACE TALKS IN OHIO. HE SAYS CAREFUL PLANNING IS THE FIRST PRE-REQUISITE, ADDING THE U-N-H-C-R WANTS TO AVOID A SUDDEN, MASS RETURN OF REFUGEES.

    /// REDMOND ACT ///

    WE HOPE THAT ANY PEACE AGREEMENT WILL NOT PROVOKE A LARGE, SPONTANEOUS MOVEMENT (OF REFUGEES) WHICH COULD BE A RECIPE FOR DISASTER, AND UNDERMINE THE WHOLE PEACE PROCESS.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE U-N-H-C-R CURRENTLY PLANS A THREE-PHASE PROCESS. IT WOULD FOCUS FIRST ON THE ONE-POINT-TWO-MILLION PEOPLE DISPLACED INSIDE BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA; THEN ON THE MORE THAN 800-THOUSAND REFUGEES IN SURROUNDING COUNTRIES, PRINCIPALLY CROATIA AND SERBIA, AND FINALLY ON THE 700-THOUSAND BALKAN REFUGEES LIVING OUTSIDE THE REGION, MAINLY IN WEST EUROPEAN NATIONS.

    MR. REDMOND SAYS THE ENTIRE PROCESS IS EXPECTED TO TAKE ABOUT TWO YEARS, AT A COST TO U-N-H-C-R OF 300-MILLION TO 500-MILLION DOLLARS.

    THE SPOKESMAN SAYS U-N-H-C-R WILL COMPILE DETAILED LISTS OF THE REFUGEES AND DISPLACED, NOTING THEIR ORIGINAL PLACES OF RESIDENCE AND WHETHER THEY WISH TO RETURN TO THEIR HOMES. HE SAYS THE EXPECTATION IS MOST WILL WANT TO GO BACK.

    /// REDMOND ACT ///

    THE INTERESTING THING ABOUT THESE REFUGEES FROM FORMER YUGOSLAVIA IS THAT MOST OF THEM DEARLY LOVE THEIR HOMELAND, AND THEY DO WANT TO GO BACK. WHETHER THEY ARE GOING TO BE ABLE TO GO BACK TO THEIR ORIGINAL HOMES, HOWEVER, IS ANOTHER STORY.

    /// END ACT ///

    MANY ANALYSTS QUESTION WHETHER REPATRIATION WILL BE FEASIBLE FOR SOME OF THE LARGEST GROUPS OF REFUGEES. FOR EXAMPLE, THE HUNDREDS-OF-THOUSANDS OF MUSLIMS AND CROATS EXPELLED IN OFTEN BRUTAL CIRCUMSTANCES FROM THE SERB STRONGHOLDS OF NORTHERN AND EASTERN BOSNIA, TERRITORY THAT WOULD REMAIN UNDER SERB CONTROL IN THE PEACE PLAN UNDER DISCUSSION.

    /// REDMOND ACT ///

    WE ARE CERTAINLY NOT GOING TO FORCE PEOPLE TO GO BACK THERE. IF PEOPLE WISH TO GO BACK, AND IT IS SAFE TO GO BACK, THEN WE WILL HELP THEM TO RETURN. BUT IT HAS GOT TO BE SAFE. THESE PEOPLE HAVE GOT TO BE ABLE TO GO BACK TO AN AREA WHERE THEY CAN RESUME THEIR LIVES, WHERE THEY CAN GET A JOB, WHERE THEY ARE NOT GOING TO BE HARASSED BY LOCAL AUTHORITIES.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. REDMOND ACKNOWLEDGES REPATRIATION MAY ALSO PROVE DIFFICULT, IF NOT IMPOSSIBLE FOR THE BULK OF THE 200-THOUSAND CROATIAN SERBS WHO FLED THE KRAJINA REGION AFTER IT WAS RETAKEN BY CROATIAN GOVERNMENT TROOPS LAST AUGUST. MOST OF THESE REFUGEES ARE IN SERBIA, AND MANY SAY THEY WILL NEVER RETURN TO LIVE UNDER CROATIAN RULE.

    /// OPT ///

    IN ADDITION, THERE HAS BEEN WIDESPREAD LOOTING AND DESTRUCTION OF SERB-OWNED PROPERTY IN KRAJINA SINCE THE ZAGREB GOVERNMENT REGAINED CONTROL OF THE AREA, AND CROAT REFUGEES FROM BOSNIA HAVE MOVED INTO WHAT WERE ONCE SERB VILLAGES. /// END OPT ///

    LEADERS OF BOSNIA'S MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION HAVE AGREED TO BEGIN REPATRIATING THOSE DISPLACED DURING THE MUSLIM-CROAT WAR OF 1993. NEWS REPORTS INDICATE SOME CROATS HAVE BEEN ALLOWED TO RETURN TO LARGELY MUSLIM AREAS, BUT FEW MUSLIMS HAVE BEEN ABLE TO RECLAIM HOMES IN CROAT-CONTROLLED TERRITORY.

    MR. REDMOND SAID DURING THE PAST FEW WEEKS CROATIAN AND BOSNIAN AUTHORITIES HAVE RESETTLED MORE THAN 10-THOUSAND MUSLIM AND CROAT REFUGEES -- SOMETIMES AGAINST THEIR WILL -- IN TOWNS AND VILLAGES RECENTLY CAPTURED FROM SERBS IN NORTHWESTERN BOSNIA.

    /// OPT // REDMOND ACT ///

    THE PATTERN OF THESE FORCIBLE RELOCATIONS WOULD CLEARLY INDICATE THAT THEY ARE MOTIVATED BY POLITICAL CONSIDERATIONS, AND THE CONSIDERATION AND CONSOLIDATION OF MILITARY CONQUESTS. MOREOVER, THE RETURN OF MINORITIES HAS BEEN LARGELY PROHIBITED.

    /// END OPT ACT ///

    MR. REDMOND SAYS U-N-H-C-R IS APPEALING TO ALL SIDES IN THE BALKAN WARS TO COOPERATE IN THE REPATRIATION PROCESS, TO ENSURE IT IS SAFE AND VOLUNTARY, AND THERE IS ADEQUATE SUPPORT FOR ALL THOSE WHO WISH TO RETURN TO THEIR HOMES. (SIGNED)

    NEB/DBR/JWH/RAE
    14-Nov-95 12:29 PM EST (1729 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [03] CHRISTOPHER-BOSNIA TALKS (L) BY RON PEMSTEIN (DAYTON, OHIO)

    DATE=11/14/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-188546
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: SECRETARY OF STATE WARREN CHRISTOPHER IS HOLDING THREE ROUNDS OF INTENSIVE TALKS WITH THE LEADERS OF BOSNIA, SERBIA AND CROATIA AT WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE NEAR DAYTON, OHIO. V-O-A'S CORRESPONDENT RONPEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM DAYTON, HE IS TRYING TO RESOLVE THE MOST DIFFICULT ISSUES.

    TEXT: THE ISSUES OF SARAJEVO, ELECTIONS, TERRITORY AND THE BOSNIAN CONSTITUTION ARE STILL CONSIDERED SO DIFFICULT THAT NO FINAL AGREEMENT IS EXPECTED HERE BEFORE EARLY NEXT WEEK. SECRETARY OF STATE CHRISTOPHER WORKED INTENSIVELY IN SEPARATE MEETINGS WITH ALL THREE BALKAN PRESIDENTS TO TRY TO BRING THEM CLOSER TOGETHER TOWARD A COMPREHENSIVE BOSNIA PEACE AGREEMENT.

    STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN NICHOLAS BURNS, BRIEFING REPORTERS AFTER THE INITIAL ROUND OF TALKS, SAYS IMPORTANT DIFFERENCES REMAIN.

    /// BURNS ACT ///

    NO CLOSURE ON ANY OF THE ISSUES SINCE WE ARRIVED THIS MORNING. I WON'T EVEN TERM IT PROGRESS, I'LL TELL YOU WHY. AFTER THIS INITIAL ROUND OF CONVERSATIONS, THREE VERY GOOD, VERY INTENSIVE, VERY SUBSTANTIVE, VERY DETAILED MEETING WITH EACH OF THE LEADERS, PART OFTHE INITIATIVE HERE WAS TO TAKE STOCK OF WHERE WE ARE AND PART OF THE INITIATIVE IN THE MEETINGS WAS TO SUGGEST WAYS TO MOVE FORWARD ON A NUMBER OF THE MAJOR ISSUES.

    ///END ACT///

    THE SPOKESMAN RULES OUT TRYING TO GET A PARTIAL AGREEMENT BEFORE THE SECRETARY OF STATE FLIES TO OSAKA, JAPAN AT THE END OF THE DAY TO PREPARE THE APEC ECONOMIC SUMMIT CONFERENCE. MR. BURNS SAYS THE OBJECTIVE REMAINS A COMPREHENSIVE PEACE AGREEMENT. HE SUGGESTS THE DIFFERENCES MAY PERSIST UNTIL EARLY NEXT WEEK WHEN MR. CHRISTOPHER IS SCHEDULED TO RETURN TO THE UNITED STATES.

    AMONG THE MOST DIFFICULT ISSUES IS THE STATUS OF SARAJEVO. THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT WANTS A UNIFIED CAPITAL WHILE THE BOSNIAN SERBS INSIST ON KEEPING THE AREAS OF THE CITY THEY HOLD NOW. THERE IS ALSO NO AGREEMENT ON THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT'S DEMAND TO HAVE A CORRIDOR THROUGH SERBIAN-HELD TERRITORY TO THE EASTERN ENCLAVE OF GORAZDE.

    THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT OBJECTS TO THE BOSNIAN SERBS HAVING A LARGER CORRIDOR CONNECTING THE NORTHWEST CITY OF BANJA LUKA WITH SERBIA.

    ON THE CONSTITUTION THERE ARE DIFFERENCES ABOUT THE POWERS OF THECENTRAL BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT AND THOSE THAT WILL BE RESERVED FOR THE SERBIAN ENTITY IN BOSNIA.

    THE TALKS HERE AT WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE HAVE FOCUSSED ON THE CENTRAL ISSUES OF TERRITORY AND POWER THAT HAVE DIVIDED BOSNIAAND SERBIA SINCE THE FIRST DAYS OF THE BOSNIAN WAR. (SIGNED) NEB/PT 14-Nov-95 5:53 PM EST (2253 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [04] E-U / NIGERIA (L ONLY) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=11/14/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-188533
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE EUROPEAN UNION IS PREPARING A PACKAGE OF SANCTIONS AGAINST NIGERIA TO PROTEST THE HANGINGS FRIDAY OF NINE OPPOSITION ACTIVISTS, INCLUDING THE WRITER KEN SARO-WIWA. JOHN FRASER REPORTS FROM BRUSSELS.

    TEXT: REPRESENTATIVES OF THE 15 EUROPEAN UNION GOVERNMENTS HAVE DRAWN UP A LIST OF SANCTIONS AGAINST NIGERIA, WHICH WILL BE PROPOSED AT A MEETING OF E-U FOREIGN MINISTERS MONDAY. THEY ALSO EXPRESSED WHAT THEY CALL THEIR OUTRAGE AT THE BEHAVIOR OF THE NIGERIAN AUTHORITIES.

    IF ADOPTED, THE MEASURES WILL MEAN ANY E-U GOVERNMENT WHICH HAS NOT YET RECALLED ITS AMBASSADOR FROM NIGERIA WILL DO SO, AND THE ACT OF RECALLING AMBASSADORS WILL BE GIVEN THE FULL SUPPORT OF THE EUROPEAN UNION.

    THERE WILL ALSO BE A TIGHTENING OF VISA RESTRICTIONS AGAINST MEMBERS OF THE NIGERIAN GOVERNMENT AND THEIR FAMILIES. EXISTING E-U CONTROLS ON ARMS SALES TO NIGERIA WILL BE STRENGTHENED AND TRANSFORMED INTO A FULL-SCALE ARMS EMBARGO.

    E-U AID FOR NIGERIA IS ALREADY SUSPENDED. BUT IT WILL BE FORMALLY FROZEN, EXCEPT FOR MONEY WHICH GOES TO PROGRAMS TO DIRECTLY DEAL WITH POVERTY AND SUFFERING OF THE NIGERIAN PEOPLE. BUT, IT DOES NOT LOOK AS IF THERE IS CONSENSUS INSIDE THE E-U FOR AN EMBARGO AGAINST EXPORTS OF NIGERIAN OIL. IF SUCH A MEASURE IS ADOPTED, IT WOULD PROBABLY BE IN THE UNITED NATIONS, NOT THE EUROPEAN UNION.

    OFFICIALS ALSO SAID FUTURE ACTION MIGHT INCLUDE A DECISION TO SUSPEND NIGERIA'S MEMBERSHIP IN THE LOME' CONVENTION -- THE E-U TRADE, AID, AND COOPERATION FRAMEWORK FOR DEALING WITH THE NATIONS OF SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA. SUCH A STEP WOULD END PREFERENTIAL TRADE ACCESS FOR NIGERIAN EXPORTS TO EUROPE.

    WHATEVER MEASURES ARE FINALLY AGREED TO BY THE EUROPEAN UNION, THERE IS CONSENSUS THE GROUP'S FOREIGN MINISTERS MUST FORMALLY CONDEMN THE NIGERIAN GOVERNMENT'S HUMAN RIGHTS RECORD, AND EXPRESS EUROPE'S OUTRAGE AT THE HANGINGS OF THE NINE ACTIVISTS. (SIGNED)

    NEB/JF/JWH/RAE
    14-Nov-95 2:31 PM EST (1931 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [05] KURDS PEACE TALKS (S ONLY) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (CAIRO)

    DATE=11/14/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-188510
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: U-S OFFICIALS ARE TRYING TO PUSH PEACE TALKS FORWARD BETWEEN RIVAL KURDISH FACTIONS IN NORTHERN IRAQ. V-O-A'S LAURIE KASSMAN REPORTS A U-S STATE DEPARTMENT DIPLOMAT, ROBERT DEUTCH, IS IN SALAHUDDIN TO MEET WITH LEADERS OF THE KURDISTAN DEMOCRATIC PARTY AND IS ALSO EXPECTED TO TALK TO THE HEAD OF THE PATRIOTIC UNION OF KURDISTAN.

    TEXT: THE STATE DEPARTMENT OFFICIAL IS TRYING TO BRIDGE THE GAP BETWEEN THE RIVAL FACTIONS, KNOWN AS THE K-D-P AND THE P-U-K. THE LAST ROUND OF PEACE TALKS IN DUBLIN, IRELAND, DID NOT RESOLVE THEIR DIFFERENCES.

    THE HEAD OF THE STATE DEPARTMENT'S NORTH GULF OFFICE, ROBERT DEUTCH HAS BROUGHT NEW PROPOSALS FOR BOTH SIDES TO STUDY. AN EMBASSY SPOKESWOMAN IN ANKARA SAYS HE IS ALSO DISCUSSING HOW TO MAINTAIN STABILITY IN THE AREA.

    A FRAGILE CEASEFIRE HAS BEEN HOLDING FOR SEVERAL MONTHS, BUT FACTIONAL FIGHTING THAT ERUPTED IN EARNEST IN MAY OF 1994 HAS CLAIMED MORE THAN TWO-THOUSAND VICTIMS. THE TWO GROUPS HAVE SHARED POWER IN A SHAKY POLITICAL MARRIAGE ESTABLISHED AFTER THEIR 1992 PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS. BUT A POWER FEUD BROKE OUT SOON AFTER.

    TURKEY HAS EXPRESSED CONCERN THE POWER VACUUM IN NORTHERN IRAQ HAS ALLOWED TURKISH KURD REBELS TO MOVE FREELY BACK AND FORTH ACROSS THE BORDER. AFTER A SIX-WEEK CROSS-BORDER MILITARY OPERATION TO CUT OFF THE REBELS' SUPPLIES, TURKISH OFFICIALS TALKED ABOUT THE NEED FOR THE IRAQI KURDS TO TAKE MORE RESPONSIBILITY FOR SECURITY IN THE BORDER AREA. (SIGNED)

    NEB/LK/JWH/RAE
    14-Nov-95 10:10 AM EST (1510 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [06] YUGO SITREP (L UPDATE) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

    DATE=11/14/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-188530
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:
    /// EDS: ADDS COMMENTS BY WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL PROSECUTOR IN LAST FOUR GRAPHS OF TEXT ///

    INTRO: BOSNIAN SERBS HAVE DENIED THAT THEIR POLITICAL AND MILITARY LEADERS WILL RESIGN ONCE A PEACE AGREEMENT IS REACHED FOR BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. THE SERB LEADERS ARE UNDER PRESSURE TO GIVE UP POWER BECAUSE THEY ARE CHARGED WITH INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES. V-O-A'S CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT, WAYNE COREY, REPORTS.

    TEXT: IN A STATEMENT REPORTED BY THEIR NEWS AGENCY, THE BOSNIAN SERBS SAY THEIR POLITICAL LEADER, RADOVAN KARADZIC, AND THEIR MILITARY COMMANDER, GENERAL RATKO MLADIC, WILL NOT VOLUNTARILY RESIGN.

    THE SERB NEWS AGENCY REJECTS WHAT IT CALLS SPECULATION THAT THE TWO MEN WILL STEP DOWN AS PART OF A DEAL WITH THE SERBIAN PRESIDENT, SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC.

    THE GOVERNMENT-CONTROLLED YUGOSLAV PRESS IN BELGRADE EARLIER REPORTED THAT MR. KARADZIC AND GENERAL MLADIC AGREED TO QUIETLY GIVE UP POWER ONCE A PEACE AGREEMENT IS REACHED FOR BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA.

    PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC WAS SAID TO HAVE PROMISED NOT TO HAND OVER THE SERB LEADERS TO THE INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL IN THE HAGUE. THE TRIBUNAL CHARGED THEM WITH WAR CRIMES EARLIER THIS YEAR.

    THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT HAS SAID IT WOULD NOT ACCEPT A PEACE AGREEMENT UNLESS WAR CRIMINALS ARE BANNED FROM HOLDING IMPORTANT POSITIONS.

    THE UNITED STATES HAS RAISED THE POSSIBILITY IT WOULD NOT SEND TROOPS TO HELP MONITOR A PEACE AGREEMENT IF MR. KARADZIC AND GENERAL MLADIC RETAIN THEIR POSITIONS.

    THE ISSUE OF WAR CRIMINALS HAS BEEN DISCUSSED AT THE YUGOSLAV PEACE TALKS IN THE UNITED STATES. REPORTS OF PROGRESS IN THE DISCUSSIONS SUGGEST THERE MAY BE AN UNDERSTANDING CONCERNING THE FUTURE OF MR. KARADZIC AND GENERAL MLADIC.

    IN THE HAGUE, THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL'S CHIEF PROSECUTOR, RICHARD GOLDSTONE OF SOUTH AFRICA, SAYS HE MIGHT RESIGN IF MR. KARADZIC AND GENERAL MLADIC AVOID PROSECUTION IN RETURN FOR ACCEPTING A BOSNIAN PEACE AGREEMENT.

    MR. GOLDSTONE TOLD REPORTERS POLITICIANS DO NOT HAVE THE MORAL, LEGAL, OR POLITICAL RIGHT TO FORGIVE PEOPLE CHARGED WITH GENOCIDE AND CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY WITHOUT THE VICTIMS' CONSENT.

    MR. GOLDSTONE SAYS HE MUST ACCEPT ASSURANCES FROM THE UNITED STATES THAT THE INDICTMENTS OF THE SERB POLITICAL AND MILITARY LEADERS ARE NOT NEGOTIABLE.

    BUT THE CHIEF PROSECUTOR ADDS THAT IF A PERMANENT MEMBER OF THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL WAS INVOLVED IN SUCH A TRADEOFF, ALL THOSE AT THE TRIBUNAL WOULD QUESTION WHETHER IT WAS WORTHWHILE TO PURSUE THEIR WORK. (SIGNED)

    NEB/WCJWH/BG
    14-Nov-95 1:55 PM EST (1855 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    Back to Top
    Copyright © 1995-2022 HR-Net (Hellenic Resources Network). An HRI Project.
    All Rights Reserved.

    HTML by the HR-Net Group / Hellenic Resources Institute, Inc.
    voa2html v1.01 run on Thursday, 16 November 1995 - 2:29:49