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Voice of America, 17 November 1995

From: yanni@ix.netcom.com (Ioannis Bousnakis)

Voice of America Directory

CONTENTS

  • [01] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [02] BOSNIA/REFUGEES (L ONLY) BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS ( GENEVA )

  • [03] CHRISTOPHER / BOSNIA TALKS (S) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)

  • [04] EUROPEAN ARMS TREATY (L) BY WAYNE COREY ( VIENNA )

  • [05] PERRY / BOSNIA TALKS (S ONLY) BY DAVID GOLLUST (PENTAGON)

  • [06] TURKEY EASES SPEECH RESTRICTIONS

  • [07] U-N WEEK-IN-REVIEW BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)

  • [08] YUGO SITREP (L) BY WAYNE COREY ( VIENNA )


  • [01] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=11/17/95
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09277
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-S-T ON FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 17TH //

    INTRO: THE PARTIAL SHUTDOWN OF GOVERNMENT HAS SPARKED CONSIDERABLE EDITORIAL DEBATER IN THE U-S PRESS. TODAY, THE FOCUS IS ON HOUSE SPEAKER NEWT GINGRICH'S STATEMENT THAT THE CRISIS DEVELOPED, AT LEAST IN PART, BECAUSE HE AND SENATE MAJORITY LEADER BOB DOLE WERE RUDELY TREATED ON AIR FORCE ONE WHEN THEY ACCOMPANIED PRESIDENT CLINTON TO ISRAEL FOR PRIME MINISTER YITZAK RABIN'S FUNERAL. MANY PAPERS ARE EDITORIALIZING EITHER ABOUT MR. GINGRICH'S CHARGES OR ABOUT THE GOVERNMENT STAND-DOWN IN GENERAL. OTHER TOPICS THIS FRIDAY INCLUDE WHETHER TO BOYCOTT NIGERIAN OIL; A CRITICISM OF ACOLLEGE PRANK ON THE INTERNET; CORRUPTION IN SOUTH KOREA, AND REPRESSION IN TIBET. NOW, _______________ HAS A CLOSER LOOK IN TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: HOUSE SPEAKER NEWT GINGRICH, WHO WAS PORTRAYED AS A WIMPERING BABY ON THE COVER OF THURSDAY'S NEW YORK DAILY NEWS, IS RECEIVING MORE CRITICISM FOR COMPLAINING ABOUT HIS TREATMENT ABOARD THE PRESIDENT'S PLANE FLIGHT TO ISRAEL AND BACK. "THE DAILY NEWS" SUGGESTS HE, IN ITS WORDS, "GET A GRIP, [ON HIMSELF, THAT IS TO SAY REIGN IN HIS EMOTIONS] BIG BOY"

    VOICE: "THANKS TO YESTERDAY'S CLASSIC DAILY NEWS FRONT PAGE ... THE WORD IS OUT THAT THE GOVERNMENT HAS BEEN SHUT DOWN OVER A PETTY TANTRUM. SO MUCH FOR LOFTY PRINCIPLE. THE REVELATION SHOULD NOT COME AS A TOTAL SURPRISE... THE PROBLEM IS THAT [MR.] GINGRICH, FOR ALL HIS BRILLIANCE AND ENERGY, SEEMS NOT YET TO HAVE GRASPED THAT HE'S NO LONGER A BACKBENCHER (MINORITY PARTY MEMBER) WHO CAN SAFELY SAY SILLY THINGS THAT CAN BE IGNORED. WHEN HE GOES FLYING OFF THE EARTH [MAKES SOME OUTLANDISH COMMENT] AS SPEAKER, THERE ARE CONSEQUENCES -- AS THE GOVERNMENT SHUTDOWN SHOWS."

    TEXT: THE LARGEST DAILY IN THE CONGRESSMAN'S OWN STATE OF GEORGIA, "THE ATLANTA CONSTITUTION" COMMENTS:

    VOICE: "YES, IT IS PETTY THAT [MR.] GINGRICH WOULD LET PERSONAL PIQUE OVER PERCEIVED SNUBS BY THE PRESIDENT CONTRIBUTE TO A CRISIS THAT HAS SENT HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF FEDERAL WORKERS OFF THE JOB AND INCONVENIENCED MILLIONS OF AMERICANS.... THIS [AIRPLANE] EPISODE CAN ONLY ADD TO THE PUBLIC'S DISGUST WITH THE WHOLE PROCESS. [OPT] WHO DOESN'T CRINGE AS [MESSERS] CLINTON, DOLE AND GINGRICH TURN BUDGET-MAKING INTO BLOOD SPORT? NOT A STEP CAN BE TAKEN IN THIS PARTISAN SHOWDOWN WITHOUT NAME CALLING AND JOCKEYING FOR POLITICAL ADVANTAGE. GINGRICH SOUNDS LIKE A CRYBABY, BUT HE DEFINITELY ISN'T THE ONLY ONE WHO'S BEING CHILDISH." [END OPT]

    TEXT: IN CONNECTICUT, "THE HARTFORD COURANT" ALSO IS NOT AMUSED AT SPEAKER GINGRICH'S REVELATIONS:

    VOICE: "A PERCEIVED SNUB PLAYED A PART IN FURLOUGHING 800-THOUSAND GOVERNMENT WORKERS AND JEOPARDIZING THE NATION'S CREDIT! ... THIS IS CHILDISH BEYOND BELIEF. THE SPEAKER SHOULD REMEMBER THE MAXIM THAT LEADERS WHO BECOME OBSESSED WITH LITTLE THINGS ARE INCAPABLE OF GREAT THINGS."

    TEXT: ONE OF THE NATION'S MOST RESPECTED PAPERS, "THE NEW YORK TIMES", OFFERS THESE OBSERVATIONS ABOUT THE BUDGETARY IMPASSE ITSELF:

    VOICE: "PRESIDENT CLINTON PROMISES TO VETO A SECOND TEMPORARY SPENDING BILL PASSED BY CONGRESS YESTERDAY, THEREBY SHUTTING DOWN MOST GOVERNMENT OFFICES FOR AT LEAST ANOTHER DAY. THE PRESIDENT SHOULD KEEP ON VETOING THESE BILLS UNTIL THE REPUBLICANS STOP TRYING TO TRAP HIM INTO RENEGING ON EVERY IMPORTANT PROMISE HE HAS MADE TO VOTERS OVER THE PAST THREE YEARS."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: ONE FINAL THOUGHT ON MR. GINGRICH'S COMPLAINT ABOUT HIS TREATMENT ON AIR FORCE ONE FROM LONG ISLAND'S "NEWSDAY":

    VOICE: "FOR ONCE, NEWT GINGRICH IS RIGHT. THE HOUSE SPEAKER'S COMPLAINT ABOUT ALLEGED MISTREATMENT ABOARD AIR FORCE ONE IS PETTY, AS HE HIMSELF ACKNOWLEDGED. ... AS ANY TODDLER'S PARENT KNOWS, WHEN YOU PAY ATTENTION TO TEMPER TANTRUMS, BAD BEHAVIOR JUST GETS WORSE."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: TURNING TO INTERNATIONAL TOPICS, THE SITUATION IN NIGERIA, IN THE AFTERMATH OF THE HINGING OF PLAYWRIGHT AND ENVIRONMENTALIST KEN SARO-WIWA CONTINUES TO DRAW ATTENTION IN THE U-S PRESS, AS IN TODAY'S "MIAMI HERALD," WHICH SUGGESTS:

    VOICE: "THUS AN ALL TOO FAMILIAR STORY UNFOLDS ANEW IN NIGERIA. ITS JUNTA INDULGES IN CRUELTY AND USURPS ITS AUTHORITY BY BRUTE FORCE, ADDING GROSS HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS TO NIGERIA'S ALREADY WITHERING REPUTATION AS A NATION OF MASTER SCAM, PUBLIC CORRUPTION, AND ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION. PITY NIGERIA."

    TEXT: HOWEVER, TO THOSE CRITICS WHO SAY THE U-S AND OTHER NATIONS SHOULD BOYCOTT NIGERIAN OIL, "NEWSDAY" ON LONG ISLAND SAYS ITS TOO SOON.

    VOICE: "THERE IS NO QUESTION THAT THE WORLD MUST RESPOND FIRMLY IN PUNISHING AFRICA'S MOST NOTORIOUS DESPOTS FOR THEIR FLAGRANT DISREGARD OF CIVILIZED NORMS. THE QUESTION IS WHETHER A WORLD BOYCOTT OF NIGERIAN OIL WOULD ULTIMATELY RESULT IN THE RESTORATION OF NIGERIAN DEMOCRACY -- OR WOULD BACKFIRE [PRODUCE UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES] ON OIL CONSUMERS AND ORDINARY NIGERIAN CITIZENS ALIKE... ALTHOUGH THERE IS NO WORLD OIL SHORTAGE NOW, AN EFFECTIVE EMBARGO COULD CAUSE WIDESPREAD SHORTAGES, AS WELL AS INCREASING POVERTY IN NIGERIA... AND NO EMBARGO WILL WORK WITHOUT GLOBAL SUPPORT. OTHER OPTIONS MUST BE EXPLORED FIRST..."

    TEXT: THE LATEST REVELATIONS INVOLVING THE FINANCIAL DEALINGS OF THE PAST PRESIDENT OF SOUTH KOREA, WHO HAS BEEN ARRESTED, PROMPTED THESE OBSERVATIONS BY "THE NEW YORK TIMES":

    VOICE: "SOUTH KOREA'S FORMER PRESIDENT ROH TAE WOO NOW SITS IN A PRIVATE CALL IN SEOUL'S DETENTION HOUSE, AWAITING PROSECUTION IN THE BIGGEST POLITICAL CORRUPTION CASE IN HIS COUNTRY'S HISTORY. HIS ARREST ... WAS A TEST OF THE GOVERNMENT'S COMMITMENT TO CLEANING UP KOREAN POLITICS, WHICH HAVE LONG BEEN INFECTED WITH BRIBERY AND OTHER CORRUPT PRACTICES. BUT MR. ROH SHOULD NOT HAVE TO PAY THE PRICE ALONE FOR A SCANDAL THAT REACHED DEEP INTO THE KOREAN POLITICAL AND BUSINESS WORLDS. ... IF KOREANS ARE TO HAVE FAITH IN THEIR NEW DEMOCRATIC SYSTEM, THE INVESTIGATIONS AND PROSECUTIONS MUST GO FORWARD."

    TEXT: ON THE ISSUE OF HUMAN RIGHTS -- OR LACK OF THEM -- IN TIBET, "THE BOSTON GLOBE" COMMENTS:

    VOICE: "AS IF TO PROVE TO THE WORLD THAT A TOTALITARIAN REGIME CANNOT CHANGE ITS SPOTS, THE HEIRS OF MAO ZEDONG ARE TRAMPLING ON A CHERISHED RELIGIOUS PRACTICE OF TIBETAN BUDDHISM. FOR POLITICAL REASONS, THE BOSSES OF BEIJING ARE TRYING TO NULLIFY THE TRADITIONAL TIBETAN CHOICE OF A SUCCESSOR TO THE PANCHEN LAMA, THE SECOND-MOST-REVERED RELIGIOUS AND POLITICAL FIGURE IN TIBET AFTER THE DALAI LAMA... THEIR HEAVY-HANDED, TOTALITARIAN METHOD FOR COERCING THE TIBETANS INTO COMPLIANCE WITH BEIJING'S WILL WOULD BE LAUGHABLE WERE IT NOT SO EXPRESSIVE OF THEIR CONTEMPT FOR THE SENSIBILITIES OF THE CONQUERED TIBETAN NATION."

    TEXT: AND LASTLY, "USA TODAY" QUESTIONS THE SINCERITY OF SEVERAL CORNELL UNIVERSITY STUDENTS WHO APOLOGIZED FOR A STRONGLY-WORDED ANTI-FEMALE MESSAGE THEY SENT ON THE GLOBAL INTERNET PERSONAL COMPUTER NETWORK:

    VOICE: "IN AN APOLOGY PUBLISHED IN THE CAMPUS NEWSPAPER, THEY INSISTED THEY DIDN'T MEAN ANY OF THE THINGS THEY WROTE. PLEASE [HERE AN EXPRESSION OF EXTREME DISBELIEF.] IF THEY DIDN'T MEAN TO TRASH [DISPARAGE] WOMEN, WHY WAS THEIR LIST SO DEMEANING, DEGRADING AND THREATENING? [OPT] ... AS THE STUDENTS' BAD TASTE BECAME PUBLIC, THE E-MAIL [ELECTRONIC-MAIL] RESPONSE WAS SO LOUD AND LARGE THAT IT BROUGHT A PROMPT RESPONSE FROM THE UNIVERSITY. THE STUDENTS NOW HAVE 'OFFERED' TO ATTEND GENDER-SENSITIVITY TRAINING, PERFORM COMMUNITY SERVICE AND APOLOGIZE IN PERSON TO SENIOR CORNELL ADMINISTRATORS." [END OPT]

    TEXT: AND ON THAT CULTURAL NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF THE DAY'S EDITORIALS FROM ACROSS THE UNITED STATES. NEB/ANG/PCH

    17-Nov-95 11:47 AM EST (1647 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [02] BOSNIA/REFUGEES (L ONLY) BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS ( GENEVA )

    DATE=11/17/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-188721
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT IS STEPPING UP THE PRESSURE ON A LARGE GROUP OF BOSNIAN MUSLIM REFUGEES, WHO ARE RESISTING EFFORTS TO RETURN THEM TO THEIR HOMES IN THE NORTHWESTERN REGION OF BIHAC. MORE THAN 20 THOUSAND FOLLOWERS OF REBEL MUSLIM LEADER FIKRET ABDIC FLED TO CROATIA LAST AUGUST AFTER BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT TROOPS RECAPTURED THEIR STRONGHOLD AROUND THE TOWN OF VELIKA KLADUSA. U-N OFFICIALS IN GENEVA FEAR CROATIAN AUTHORITIES MAY BE PREPARING TO FORCIBLY REPATRIATE THE REFUGEES. FROM GENEVA, V-O-A'S DOUGLAS ROBERTS REPORTS.

    TEXT: THE MUSLIM REFUGEES HAVE BEEN CONFINED TO A MAKESHIFT CAMP NEAR THE CROATIAN TOWN OF VOJNIC SINCE THEY FLED BOSNIA MORE THAN THREE MONTHS AGO.

    THEIR LEADERS WERE DE-FACTO ALLIES OF BOSNIAN AND CROATIAN SERB FORCES DURING THE PAST THREE AND A HALF YEARS OF WARFARE. AND THE REFUGEES SAY THEY FEAR RETRIBUTION IF THEY RETURN TO THEIR HOMES IN THE BIHAC REGION.

    THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT HAS REFUSED TO GRANT THEM REFUGEE STATUS, AND INSISTS THAT THEY LEAVE. BOSNIAN AUTHORITIES SAY THEY ARE WELCOME TO RETURN TO THEIR HOMES, AND HAVE OFFERED THEM SECURITY GUARANTEES.

    EARLIER THIS WEEK, ON THE SIDELINES OF THE BALKAN PEACE CONFERENCE IN THE U-S STATE OF OHIO, BOSNIAN AND CROATIAN LEADERS CONCLUDED A FORMAL AGREEMENT ON THE REPATRIATION OF THE REFUGEES.

    U-N AND RED CROSS OFFICIALS HERE INDICATE THAT CROATIAN GOVERNMENT PRESSURE ON THE REFUGEES HAS INTENSIFIED SINCE THE ACCORD WAS SIGNED.

    RON REDMOND, SPOKESMAN FOR THE U-N HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES, SAYS CROATIAN POLICE REINFORCEMENTS HAVE BEEN DEPLOYED IN AND AROUND THE CAMP OVER THE PAST 48 HOURS, AND SECURITY MEASURES HAVE BEEN TIGHTENED.

    ///REDMOND ACT///

    THERE HAVE ALSO BEEN THE SETTING UP OF FOUR CHECKPOINTS INSIDE THE CAMP WITH SANDBAGS AND ANTI-TANK BARRIERS. THERE IS NOW THE PRESENCE OF PIECES OF SMALL ARTILLERY AND ROCKET LAUNCHERS IN THE HILLS AROUND THE CAMP. THERE HAS BEEN A DOUBLING OF OBSERVATION POSTS AND THE DIGGING OF TRENCHES ALL AROUND THE CAMP.

    ///END ACT///

    U-N AND RED CROSS OFFICIALS SAY CROATIAN AUTHORITIES HAVE ALSO BEGUN TO LIMIT HUMANITARIAN AID DELIVERIES TO THE CAMP. FUEL AND FIREWOOD SHIPMENTS HAVE BEEN BANNED. AND U-N-H-C-R WAS NOT ALLOWED TO DELIVER OTHER SUPPLIES INTENDED TO PREPARE THE CAMP FOR WINTER.

    RED CROSS OFFICIALS SAY CROATIAN AUTHORITES HAVE ALSO DENIED HOSPITAL TREATMENT TO SOME SERIOUSLY ILL REFUGEES.

    U-N-H-C-R OFFICIALS HAVE BEEN URGING THE REFUGEES TO RETURN TO THEIR HOMES. THE AGENCY HAS BEEN PROVIDING TRANSPORT FOR ANY WHO WISH TO LEAVE THE CAMP. SO FAR, ABOUT 700 HAVE GONE BACK, AND MR. REDMOND SAID NONE HAS SUFFERED ILL TREATMENT.

    BUT THE SPOKESMAN MADE IT CLEAR THE U-N WILL OPPOSE ANY CROATIAN ATTEMPT TO FORCIBLY REPATRIATE THE REFUGEES. (SIGNED)

    NEB/DBR/MH/MMK
    17-Nov-95 10:43 AM EST (1543 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [03] CHRISTOPHER / BOSNIA TALKS (S) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)

    DATE=11/17/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-188741
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: SECRETARY OF STATE WARREN CHRISTOPHER RETURNS TO DAYTON, OHIO, SHORTLY (6:10 PM) AFTER A BRIEF VISIT TO JAPAN. RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT MR. CHRISTOPHER PLANS TO STAY AT WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE UNTIL THE SUCCESS OR FAILURE OF THE BOSNIA TALKS THERE.

    TEXT: THE SECRETARY OF STATE PLANS NO MORE THAN A CONSULTATION WITH THE AMERICAN NEGOTIATING TEAM AFTER HIS 16 HOUR FLIGHT FROM OSAKA, JAPAN. THE STATE DEPARTMENT SAYS MR. CHRISTOPHER PLANS A FULL DAY OF TALKS WITH THE PRESIDENTS OF SERBIA AND BOSNIA ON SATURDAY.

    STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN NICHOLAS BURNS SAYS MR. CHRISTOPHER WILL STAY IN DAYTON AS LONG AS NECESSARY TO GET A COMPREHENSIVE BOSNIA PEACE AGREEMENT.

    // BURNS ACT //

    WE CERTAINLY HOPE THAT THE PARTIES CAN MAKE THE PROGRESS THAT THEY NEED TO MAKE TO CROSS THE FINISH LINE, TO HAVE A COMPREHENSIVE PEACE AGREEMENT BUT THE PARTIES ARE STILL SEPARATED IN FAIRLY SUBSTANTIAL WAYS ON SEVERAL OF THE MAJOR ISSUES. IT IS FAIR TO SAY THIS IS CERTAINLY A DEFINING MOMENT IN THE DAYTON PEACE TALKS.

    // END ACT //

    MR. BURNS SAYS MAJOR ISSUES OF TERRITORY AND THE STATUS OF SARAJEVO REMAIN TO BE RESOLVED WHILE THE SECRETARY OF STATE IS IN DAYTON FOR AN AGREEMENT TO BE INITIALED THERE. (SIGNED)

    NEB/RP/CF
    17-Nov-95 3:06 PM EST (2006 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [04] EUROPEAN ARMS TREATY (L) BY WAYNE COREY ( VIENNA )

    DATE=11/17/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-188717
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: RUSSIA HAS FAILED TO MEET A FRIDAY DEADLINE TO REDUCE ITS CONVENTIONAL MILITARY FORCES UNDER AN INTERNATIONAL TREATY, SIGNED IN 1990. BUT, THIS IS NOT CONSIDERED A MAJOR PROBLEM, AND NEGOTIATIONS ARE CONTINUING ON WAYS TO OBTAIN RUSSIAN COMPLIANCE. V-O-A'S WAYNE COREY REPORTS FROM VIENNA.

    TEXT: FRIDAY WAS THE DEADLINE FOR FORCE REDUCTIONS BY THE 30 SIGNATORY COUNTRIES OF THE TREATY ON CONVENTIONAL FORCES IN EUROPE. RUSSIA IS STILL, TECHNICALLY, NOT COMPLYING WITH ITS TREATY OBLIGATIONS.

    IF THIS HAD HAPPENED DURING THE COLD WAR, IT WOULD, PROBABLY, HAVE RESULTED IN INCREASED INTERNATIONAL TENSION. NOW, IT IS CAUSING HARDLY A STIR.

    DEFENSE MINISTER PAVEL GRACHEV SAID, EARLIER THIS WEEK, RUSSIA WOULD FAIL TO MEET FORCE REDUCTION TARGETS BECAUSE OF ITS DEFENSE NEEDS ALONG ITS BORDERS.

    HE SAID THESE BORDERS ARE, OBVIOUSLY, DIFFERENT, FROM THOSE OF THE FORMER SOVIET UNION WHICH SIGNED THE C-F-E TREATY.

    AN AMERICAN DIPLOMAT REGRETS THAT RUSSIA IS NOT COMPLYING WITH ITS TREATY OBLIGATIONS. BUT, HE SAYS NEGOTIATIONS ON THE ISSUE ARE CONTINUING, HERE IN VIENNA, IN THE HOPE THAT A SOLUTION CAN BE FOUND.

    RUSSIA IS NOT THE ONLY LAGGARD. BELARUS NEEDS MORE TIME AND MONEY TO MEET ITS TREATY COMMITMENTS. UKRAINE HAS HAD PROBLEMS WITH COMPLIANCE BECAUSE OF ITS DISPUTE WITH RUSSIA OVER THE BLACK SEA FLEET. BUT, THE AMERICAN DIPLOMAT SAYS THE C-F-E TREATY IS STILL ALIVE AND WELL. HE SAYS IT HAS PRODUCED REMARKABLE CUTS IN CONVENTIONAL FORCES AMONG ITS SIGNATORIES.

    ACCORDING TO AMERICAN FIGURES, 18-AND-A-HALF THOUSAND BATTLE TANKS, 17-AND-A-HALF THOUSAND ARMORED VEHICLES, NEARLY 12-THOUSAND ARTILLERY PIECES, TWO THOUSAND COMBAT AIRCRAFT AND 280 ATTACK HELICOPTERS HAVE BEEN DELIBERATELY DESTROYED IN JUST THREE YEARS.

    ANOTHER BENEFIT OF THE C-F-E TREATY IS SAID TO BE A LEVEL OF OPENNESS AND MILITARY COOPERATION BETWEEN NATO AND FORMER WARSAW PACT ADVERSARIES NOT BELIEVED POSSIBLE A FEW YEARS AGO.

    THE TREATY WAS ORIGINALLY INTENDED TO ESTABLISH A BALANCE OF CONVENTIONAL MILITARY POWER BETWEEN NATO AND THE WARSAW PACT.

    WARSAW PACT MEMBERS HAD A HUGE ADVANTAGE IN CONVENTIONAL WEAPONS. THAT HAD FORCED NATO TO RELY ON THE THREAT OF NUCLEAR RETALIATION IF WESTERN EUROPE WAS ATTACKED. (SIGNED)

    NEB/WC/MH/MMK
    17-Nov-95 10:13 AM EST (1513 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [05] PERRY / BOSNIA TALKS (S ONLY) BY DAVID GOLLUST (PENTAGON)

    DATE=11/17/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-188720
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM PERRY HAS JOINED OTHER SENIOR CLINTON ADMINISTRATION IN DAYTON, OHIO, WHERE NEGOTIATIONS FOR A BOSNIA PEACE ACCORD MAY BE NEARING A CLIMAX. THE UNITED STATES WOULD BE THE LEAD CONTRIBUTOR IN A MULTINATIONAL FORCE TO IMPLEMENT AN ACCORD. VOA'S DAVID GOLLUST REPORTS FROM THE PENTAGON.

    TEXT: MR. PERRY AND THE COMMANDER OF NATO FORCES -- U-S ARMY GENERAL GEORGE JOULWAN -- FLEW TO THE NEGOTIATING SITE AT WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE NEAR DAYTON AMID REPORTS THE TALKS HAVE REACHED A DECISIVE STAGE.

    SENIOR DEFENSE OFFICIALS SAID THE SECRETARY AND GENERAL JOULWAN WOULD STRESS THE URGENCY OF SETTLING WHAT HAS BEEN EUROPE'S BLOODIEST CONFLICT SINCE WORLD WAR TWO -- AND THE U-S COMMITMENT TO HELPING ENFORCE ANY BOSNIAN PEACE SETTLEMENT.

    GENERAL JOULWAN WILL HAVE OVERALL COMMAND OF THE 60-THOUSAND MEMBER PEACEKEEPING FORCE NATO IS ASSEMBLING TO GO INTO BOSNIA ONCE AN ACCORD IS SIGNED. AND THE OFFICIALS HERE SAY HE AND SECRETARY PERRY WANT FIRST-HAND INFORMATION ON THE MILITARY ASPECTS OF THE DEAL TAKING SHAPE.

    WHITE HOUSE NATIONAL SECURITY ADVISER ANTHONY LAKE WENT TO DAYTON LATE THURSDAY AND SECRETARY OF STATE WARREN CHRISTOPHER -- WHO HAS CUT SHORT A VISIT TO JAPAN -- IS DUE THERE LATER TODAY. MR. CHRISTOPHER SAID AS HE LEFT JAPAN THE TALKS ARE AT A VERY SENSITIVE STAGE WITH CHANCES FOR PROGRESS, BUT WITH DIFFICULT AND COMPLEX ISSUES REMAINING. (SIGNED)

    NEB/DAG/CF
    17-Nov-95 10:21 AM EST (1521 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [06] TURKEY EASES SPEECH RESTRICTIONS

    DATE= NOVEMBER 20, 1995
    TYPE= EDITORIAL
    NUMBER= 0-06583
    CONTENT=THIS IS THE ONLY EDITORIAL BEING RELEASED FOR BROADCAST
    NOVEMBER 20, 1995. ANNCR: THE VOICE OF AMERICA PRESENTS DIFFERING POINTS OF VIEW ON A WIDE VARIETY OF ISSUES. NEXT, AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT.

    VOICE:

    IN ADDITION TO STRONGLY SUPPORTING TURKEY'S ROLE IN EUROPE, CENTRAL ASIA AND THE MIDDLE EAST, THE U.S. HAS LONG BEEN CONCERNED ABOUT TURKEY'S ECONOMIC, POLITICAL AND SOCIAL PROGRESS. IN RECENT MONTHS, THE TURKISH GOVERNMENT HAS MADE A MAJOR EFFORT TO IMPROVE ITS HUMAN RIGHTS RECORD. IN JULY, A NUMBER OF CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS WERE ENACTED. THE MEASURES ELIMINATED RESTRICTIONS ON POLITICAL PARTICIPATION BY ASSOCIATIONS, TRADE UNIONS AND COOPERATIVES; GRANTED CIVIL SERVANTS THE RIGHT TO FORM UNIONS; LOWERED THE VOTING AGE TO EIGHTEEN; AND INCREASED THE NUMBER OF PARLIAMENTARIANS.

    LAST MONTH, THE TURKISH PARLIAMENT MODIFIED ARTICLE EIGHT OF THE ANTI-TERROR LAW. THIS LAW ALLOWS CHARGES TO BE BROUGHT FOR ACTS, WORDS, OR IDEAS WHICH PROMOTE SEPARATISM OR THREATEN THE INDIVISIBILITY OF THE STATE. MANY TURKISH WRITERS AND OTHERS HAVE BEEN IMPRISONED UNDER THIS LAW, ESPECIALLY FOR SPEAKING OUT IN BEHALF OF TURKEY'S LARGE KURDISH COMMUNITY. THE REFORM REDUCES PENALTIES FOR VIOLATIONS OF THE ANTI-TERROR LAW AND REQUIRES PROSECUTORS TO PROVE THAT A DEFENDANT'S REMARKS WERE INTENDED TO UNDERMINE THE TURKISH STATE. THE REFORM ALSO REQUIRES A REVIEW OF ALL PRIOR CONVICTIONS UNDER THIS LAW. SO FAR, MORE THAN NINETY PEOPLE HAVE BEEN RELEASED FROM PRISON AS A RESULT.

    JOHN SHATTUCK, U.S. ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE FOR DEMOCRACY, HUMAN RIGHTS AND LABOR, HAS TWICE VISITED TURKEY. IN A STATEMENT TO MEMBERS OF THE U.S. CONGRESS, HE SAID THAT "SIGNIFICANT ABUSES HAVE BEEN AND ARE TAKING PLACE." BUT THANKS TO THE VIBRANCY OF TURKEY'S CIVIL SOCIETY AND ITS BASIC COMMITMENT TO DEMOCRATIC PROCESSES, SAID MR. SHATTUCK, "WE ARE SEEING THE POSSIBILITY OF MEANINGFUL CHANGE. WE WILL CONTINUE TO ENCOURAGE THAT CHANGE IN THE INTEREST OF HUMAN RIGHTS, DEMOCRACY AND THE STRENGTHENING OF GOOD RELATIONS BETWEEN TURKEY AND THE UNITED STATES." ANNCR:

    THAT WAS AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO BE HEARD ON THIS ISSUE, PLEASE WRITE TO EDITORIALS, VOICE OF AMERICA, WASHINGTON, D-C, 20547, U-S-A. YOU MAY ALSO SEND US A FAX AT (202) 619-1043. YOUR COMMENTS MAY BE USED ON THE AIR. 17-Nov-95 11:14 AM EST (1614 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [07] U-N WEEK-IN-REVIEW BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)

    DATE=11/17/95
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-31696
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED NATIONS PONDERS THE SCOPE OF FUTURE TROOP DEPLOYMENTS IN EASTERN SLAVONIA, FOLLOWING A RECENT CROAT-SERB AGREEMENT ON THE FRINGES OF THE BOSNIAN PEACE TALKS; THE SECURITY COUNCIL WARNS AGAINST VIOLENCE IN HAITI AS IT PREPARES TO DISCONTINUE A U-N MISSION THERE EARLY NEXT YEAR; AND, SECRETARY-GENERAL BOUTROS BOUTROS-GHALI COMMUNICATES WITH OUTER SPACE. VOA CORRESPONDENT ELAINE JOHANSON REVIEWS THE MAIN DEVELOPMENTS OF THE PAST WEEK:

    TEXT: UNITED NATIONS PEACEKEEPING OFFICIALS HAVE DRAWN UP PRELIMINARY FIGURES FOR DEPLOYMENT IN CROATIA'S LAST REMAINING SERB-HELD TERRITORY. ZAGREB STRUCK A DEAL WITH REBELS SERBS IN EASTERN SLAVONIA LAST WEEK FOR THE PEACEFUL TRANSITION OF THE ENCLAVE TO CROATIA.

    U-N OFFICIALS SPECULATE SOME NINE-THOUSAND PEACEKEEPERS WOULD BE NEEDED FOR THE INITIAL 12-MONTH TRANSITION PERIOD. THIS WOULD INCLUDE SETTING UP A CIVILIAN ADMINISTRATION AND MONITORING HUMAN RIGHTS. SOME SECURITY COUNCIL DIPLOMATS BELIEVE FOUR TO FIVE-THOUSAND TROOPS WOULD BE SUFFICIENT.

    THE COUNCIL EVENTUALLY HAS TO AUTHORIZE THE FORCE. BUT NO IMMEDIATE DECISIONS ARE EXPECTED. IT IS NOT EVEN CLEAR AT THIS POINT WHETHER THE UNITED NATIONS WOULD BE IN CHARGE. CROATIA IS PRESSING FOR NATO TO TAKE COMMAND.

    MUCH OF THE SECURITY COUNCIL'S REMAINING WORK THIS MONTH ON THE BALKANS DEPENDS ON WHAT HAPPENS IN DAYTON, OHIO -- WHERE THE UNITED STATES IS LEADING TALKS TO SETTLE THE WAR IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. SERB-LED YUGOSLAVIA WAS PROMISED A LIFTING OR AT LEAST SUSPENSION OF THE U-N TRADE EMBARGO IF THE TALKS ARE SUCCESSFUL. THE RUSSIANS -- TRADITIONAL ALLIES OF THE SERBS -- HAVE PREPARED A RESOLUTION FOR THE SECURITY COUNCIL THAT WOULD FULFILL THAT PLEDGE.

    -0-

    THE UNITED NATIONS ANTICIPATES A RAPID PHASE-DOWN OF ITS MISSION IN HAITI SOON AFTER A NEW PRESIDENT IS INSTALLED -- PROBABLY NEXT FEBRUARY. THE SECURITY COUNCIL THIS PAST WEEK CALLED ON THE HAITIAN POLITICAL PARTIES TO REMAIN FULLY COMMITTED TO FREE AND FAIR ELECTIONS NEXT MONTH -- WHEN A SUCCESSOR TO PRESIDENT JEAN-BERTRAND ARISTIDE WILL BE CHOSEN.

    PRESIDENT ARISTIDE WAS USHERED BACK TO POWER LAST YEAR AFTER THE UNITED STATES NEGOTIATED THE DEPARTURE OF HAITI'S MILITARY RULERS.

    THE SECURITY COUNCIL EXPRESSED CONCERN ABOUT RECENT VIOLENCE IN HAITI AND STRESSED THE URGENCY OF HELPING THE COUNTRY ESTABLISH A CREDIBLE, WELL-EQUIPPED NATIONAL POLICE FORCE.

    -0-

    FRANCE LOST A VOTE IN A KEY GENERAL ASSEMBLY COMMITTEE THIS PAST WEEK. THE COMMITTEE VOTED 95 TO 12 FOR AN END TO FRENCH, AS WELL AS CHINESE, NUCLEAR TESTING. FRENCH DIPLOMATS HAD WAGED A RELENTLESS CAMPAIGN TO SWAY VOTES THEIR WAY, ARGUING FRANCE HAS A RIGHT TO CONTINUE NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS UNTIL IT SIGNS A COMPREHENSIVE TEST BAN TREATY NEXT YEAR.

    THE RESOLUTION WAS SPONSORED MOSTLY BY PACIFIC AND LATIN AMERICAN COUNTRIES. PACIFIC NATIONS HAVE BEEN MOST ARDENT ABOUT STOPPING THE FRENCH TESTS IN THEIR REGION -- WHICH ARE SCHEDULED UNTIL MAY.

    THE RESOLUTION IS EXPECTED TO BE EASILY APPROVED WHEN IT GOES TO THE FLOOR OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY NEXT MONTH. BUT ASSEMBLY RESOLUTIONS ARE NOT LEGALLY BINDING AND FRANCE HAS INDICATED IT WILL NOT CHANGE ITS MIND.

    FRENCH OFFICIALS CLEARLY WERE MIFFED WITH THEIR EUROPEAN PARTNERS -- 10 OF WHOM VOTED FOR THE RESOLUTION -- AND CANCELLED PLANNED SUMMIT MEETINGS WITH ITALY AND BELGIUM. BRITAIN SUPPORTED FRANCE ON THE VOTE, WHILE THE UNITED STATES AND RUSSIA ABSTAINED.

    -0-

    SECRETARY-GENERAL BOUTROS-GHALI EXCHANGED GREETINGS FRIDAY WITH THE CREWS OF THE U-S SPACE SHUTTLE ATLANTIS AND THE RUSSIAN SPACE STATION MIR AS THEIR DOCKED CRAFT ORBITED ACROSS AFRICA. HE SAID HE WAS GRATEFUL THE MISSION WAS UNDERTAKEN DURING THE U-N'S 50TH ANNIVERSARY AND NOTED WITH APPRECIATION THAT MIR WAS FLYING A U-N FLAG. THE FLAG WILL BE RETURNED TO EARTH ABOARD THE AMERICAN CRAFT -- TOGETHER WITH DOCUMENTS RELATED TO A 30-YEAR OLD U-N TREATY ON THE PEACEFUL USES OF OUTER SPACE.

    ATLANTIS DOCKED WITH MIR EARLIER IN THE WEEK -- THE SECOND OF SEVEN SUCH LINK-UPS TO PREPARE FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF AN INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION IN 1997. (SIGNED) NEB/PT 17-Nov-95 4:00 PM EST (2100 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [08] YUGO SITREP (L) BY WAYNE COREY ( VIENNA )

    DATE=11/17/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-188731
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: CROATIAN PRESIDENT FRANJO TUDJMAN HAS ANNOUNCED AN AGREEMENT TO NORMALIZE RELATIONS BETWEEN CROATIA AND SERBIA. BUT, HE SAYS THE ACCORD WILL NOT BE SIGNED UNTIL THERE ARE AGREEMENTS ON TWO OTHER ISSUES. V-O-A'S CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT, WAYNE COREY, REPORTS.

    TEXT: ADDRESSING THE CROATIAN PARLIAMENT, PRESIDENT TUDJMAN SAYS CROATIA AND SERBIA AGREED AT THE YUGOSLAV PEACE TALKS TO COMPLETELY NORMALIZE THEIR RELATIONS.

    MR. TUDJMAN MADE THE ANNOUNCEMENT HOURS AFTER HE RETURNED TO ZAGREB FROM THE PEACE TALKS BEING HELD AT AN AIR FORCE BASE IN THE UNITED STATES. MR. TUDJMAN MET THERE WITH THE SERBIAN PRESIDENT, SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC.

    ALTHOUGH THE AGREEMENT TO NORMALIZE RELATIONS BETWEEN ZAGREB AND BELGRADE HAS BEEN REACHED, IT WILL NOT BE SIGNED UNTIL TWO CONDITIONS ARE MET. PRESIDENT TUDJMAN SAYS THERE MUST FIRST BE A PEACE AGREEMENT FOR BOSNIA HERZEGOVINA AND A DECISION TO LIFT INTERNATIONAL SANCTIONS AGAINST SERBIA.

    THE UNITED STATES HAS SAID SANCTIONS AGAINST BELGRADE WILL NOT BE COMPLETELY LIFTED UNTIL THE SERBIAN PRESIDENT COOPERATES WITH THE INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL.

    THE U-S GOVERNMENT WANTS MR. MILOSEVIC TO HELP ENSURE THAT INDICTED SERB WAR CRIMINALS ARE PROSECUTED. THE BOSNIAN SERB POLITICAL AND MILITARY LEADERS FACE TWO SEPARATE INDICTMENTS. THERE IS NO INDICATION THEY WILL ALLOW THEMSELVES TO FACE TRIAL.

    IN ADDITION, FRANCE HAS SAID IT MIGHT NOT AGREE TO LIFT ALL SANCTIONS AGAINST SERBIA UNLESS PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC ACCOUNTS FOR TWO MISSING FRENCH AIR FORCE PILOTS. THE PILOTS WERE CAPTURED BY THE BOSNIAN SERBS AFTER THEIR PLANE WAS SHOT DOWN AT THE BEGINNING OF NATO AIR ATTACKS ON SERB MILITARY POSITIONS EARLIER THIS YEAR. THE SERBS HAVE SAID UNIDENTIFIED KIDNAPPERS LATER ABDUCTED THE PILOTS.

    NORMAL RELATIONS BETWEEN BELGRADE AND ZAGREB ARE, OBVIOUSLY, VITAL IF THERE IS TO BE PEACE IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC AND PRESIDENT TUDJMAN HAVE MAJOR INTERESTS IN WHAT HAPPENS TO ETHNIC SERBS AND ETHNIC CROATS IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA.

    IN HIS SPEECH TO THE CROATIAN PARLIAMENT, PRESIDENT TUDJMAN ALSO SAYS CROATIA WILL COOPERATE WITH THE INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL. BUT, HE SAYS THERE MUST BE AN OBJECTIVE INVESTIGATION OF ALLEGED WAR CRIMES COMMITTED BY BOSNIAN CROATS.

    ONE OF THE INDICTED MEN IS THE BOSNIAN CROAT ARMY'S CHIEF OF STAFF, GENERAL TIHOMIR BLASKIC. HE HAS BEEN APPOINTED TO THE CROATIAN ARMY'S OFFICE OF INSPECTORS.

    THE APPOINTMENT HAS DRAWN STRONG CRITICISM FROM THE UNITED STATES. U-S OFFICIALS HAVE SAID THE GENERAL'S ONLY APPOINTMENT SHOULD BE WITH THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL. (SIGNED)

    NEB/WC/MH/CF
    17-Nov-95 12:51 PM EST (1751 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

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