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Voice of America, 1 December 1995

From: yanni@ix.netcom.com (Ioannis Bousnakis)

Voice of America Directory

CONTENTS

  • [01] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [02] BOSNIA BY DAN NOBLE (WASHINGTON)

  • [03] BOSNIA / NATO FORCES BY WAYNE COREY ( VIENNA)

  • [04] CLINTON / BOSNIA (S&L UPDATE) BY DAVID BORGIDA (DUBLIN)

  • [05] GERMAN POLITICS BY DAGMAR BREITENBACH (BONN)

  • [06] NATO/BOSNIA (L UPDATE) BY JOHN FRASER ( BRUSSELS )

  • [07] NATO BOSNIA MISSION (1 0F 4: DEPLOYMENT) BY ERICA BENIS (WASHINGTON)

  • [08] PERRY/BOSNIA REARM (S-ONLY) BY DAVID GOLLUST (PENTAGON)

  • [09] SENATE / BOSNIA (L) BY DAVID SWAN (SENATE)

  • [10] TURKEY/WRITER (L-ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)

  • [11] U-N WEEK-IN-REVIEW BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)

  • [12] U-S TROOPS / BOSNIA BY KYLE KING (MANNHEIM)

  • [13] YUGO SITREP (L ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)


  • [01] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=12/01/95
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09305
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-S-T ON FRIDAY, DECEMBER FIRST //

    INTRO: THERE ARE TWO RECURRING TOPICS IN EDITORIALS ACROSS THE UNITED STATES THIS FRIDAY, THE FIRST DAY OF DECEMBER. ONE IS NEW PROBLEMS FOR THE OUTSPOKEN REPUBLICAN LEADER OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, GEORGIA CONGRESSMAN NEWT GINGRICH, AND THE OTHER IS THE EVOLVING POLITICAL SITUATION IN HAITI AS THAT NATION'S PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION DRAWS CLOSER. OTHER TOPICS INCLUDE: THE U-S CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT AT MIDLIFE; THE PENTAGON'S DISCREDITED USE OF PSYCHICS TO GATHER INTELLIGENCE, AND THE SCOURGE OF AIDS. NOW, HERE IS _______________________ WITH A CLOSER LOOK IN TODAY'S U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: THE FLAMBOYANT CONGRESSMAN FROM GEORGIA, HOUSE SPEAKER NEWT GINGRICH, ARCHITECT OF THE REPUBLICAN "CONTRACT WITH AMERICA", IS AGAIN BEING CRITICIZED FOR ALLEGATIONS OF IMPROPER CAMPAIGN ACTIVITIES. HERE IS WHAT THE DOMINANT PAPER IN HIS HOME STATE, "THE ATLANTA CONSTITUTION", SAYS IN ITS LEAD EDITORIAL:

    VOICE: "THIS YEAR, HOUSE SPEAKER NEWT GINGRICH MUSED IN PUBLIC ABOUT THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN WHAT HE CALLED 'LAWS THAT MATTER - - MURDER, RAPE - - AND LAWS THAT DON'T MATTER.' HE WENT ON TO REVEAL AN ATTITUDE ABOUT LAWBREAKING THAT SEEMED RATHER CAVALIER FOR SOMEONE WHO STYLES HIMSELF THE LEADER OF A MORAL RENAISSANCE IN THIS COUNTRY. ..... JUDGING FROM ALLEGATIONS RAISED THIS WEEK, [MR.] GINGRICH MAY HAVE BEEN DESCRIBING HIS OWN DAILY THOUGHTS WHEN HE MADE THOSE COMMENTS. THE FEDERAL ELECTIONS COMMISSION CHARGED ... THAT GOPAC, THE POLITICAL ACTION COMMITTEE THAT [MR.] GINGRICH HEADED UNTIL RECENTLY, SECRETLY SPENT AS MUCH AS 250-THOUSAND DOLLARS TO HELP THE CONGRESSMAN WIN RE-ELECTION IN 1990. IF THAT'S TRUE -- AND THE COMMISSION SAYS IT HAS DOCUMENTS TO SUPPORT ITS ALLEGATION -- [MR.] GINGRICH STOLE THAT RACE BY BREAKING THE RULES. [OPT] ... AS THE .... OUTRAGES MOUNT, IT GETS MORE AND MORE DIFFICULT TO SEE [SPEAKER] GINGRICH STILL HOLDING PUBLIC OFFICE IN A FEW YEARS, AND ALMOST IMPOSSIBLE TO SEE HIM STILL SITTING IN THE SPEAKER'S CHAIR."

    TEXT: PICKING UP WHERE "THE ATLANTA CONSTITUTION" LEAVES OFF, TODAY'S "NEW YORK TIMES" OFFERS THIS:

    VOICE: "THIS IS A SERIOUS MATTER DESERVING INVESTIGATION BY THE HOUSE ETHICS COMMITTEE... MR. GINGRICH CALLS THE ALLEGATIONS 'TOTALLY PHONY.' WHAT DOES SEEM PHONY IS GOPAC'S ASSERTION THAT IT DEVOTED RESOURCES ONLY TO STATE AND LOCAL CANDIDATES, AND WAS THUS EXEMPT FROM FEDERAL CAMPAIGN REGISTRATION AND DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS."

    TEXT: ANOTHER MAN VERY MUCH IN THE NEWS, AND THEREFORE DISCUSSED IN THE EDITORIAL COLUMNS, IS JEAN-BERTRAND ARISTIDE, PRESIDENT OF HAITI. THE QUESTION OF WHETHER HE WILL STEP DOWN AFTER THE NATION'S PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION LATER THIS MONTH IS ON THE MINDS OF SEVERAL EDITORIAL WRITERS, INCLUDING "THE DENVER POST." TODAY'S LEAD EDITORIAL BEARS THE HEADLINE: "NOW IS NOT A GOOD TIME FOR UNCERTAINTY IN HAITI."

    VOICE: "THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION WAS WISE IN MOVING QUICKLY OVER THE LAST WEEK TO HEAD OFF WHAT COULD HAVE PROVED TO BE A VERY EMBARRASSING PROBLEM IN HAITI. [OPT] ... THE U-S DEPARTMENT OF STATE QUICKLY REMINDED [PRESIDENT] ARISTIDE THAT THE TIME FOR SECOND THOUGHTS IS LONG PAST AND THAT A PRINCIPAL CONDITION OF HIS RETURN TO POWER LAST YEAR WAS THAT HE ABIDE BY THE HAITIAN CONSTITUTION, WHICH PROHIBITS HIM FROM RUNNING FOR A NEW TERM. [END OPT] ... THE LAST THING THE ADMINISTRATION NEEDS IS TO GIVE CONGRESSIONAL CRITICS FRESH AMMUNITION TO USE AGAINST [PRESIDENT] CLINTON'S POLICY IN BOSNIA. IF [MR.] ARISTIDE BEHAVES HIMSELF, AS HE HAS PROMISED, THEY WON'T GET IT."

    TEXT: HAITI IS ALSO AN EDITORIAL TOPIC IN TODAY'S LONG ISLAND "NEWSDAY" IN NEW YORK.

    VOICE: "UNLESS [MR.] ARISTIDE FULFILLS HIS PLEDGE TO HOLD A PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION AND VOLUNTARILY RELINQUISHES HIS OFFICE TO THE WINNER, HAITI COULD SPIRAL BACK ALL TOO QUICKLY INTO THE ABYSS OF AUTHORITARIAN RULE. .......[PRESIDENT] ARISTIDE SHOULD REALIZE IT'S TIME TO STEP DOWN."

    TEXT: AND LASTLY, ON THIS TOPIC, "THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR" SUGGESTS:

    VOICE: "... [MR.] ARISTIDE'S FRIENDS IN THE U-S ... SHOULD REMIND THE HAITIAN PRESIDENT THAT IF HE REALLY WANTS TO HELP HIS PEOPLE PROGRESS ECONOMICALLY AND POLITICALLY, HE WILL RESIST TEMPTATION TO RENEGE ON PROMISES HE MADE WHEN HE WAS HELPED TO RETURN."

    TEXT: THIS IS A MOST IMPORTANT ANNIVERSARY IN THE UNITED STATES, ONE "THE BOSTON GLOBE" WILL NOT ALLOW TO PASS WITHOUT A COMMENT:

    VOICE: "CIVIL RIGHTS ACTIVISM IS 40 YEARS OLD TODAY, AND THE MOVEMENT IS IN A MIDLIFE CRISIS. MANY OF THOSE DEDICATED TO RACIAL EQUALITY ARE SEARCHING FOR NEW THEMES AND PROGRAMS TO ACHIEVE THAT GOAL EVEN AS THE TIDE OF PUBLIC OPINION TURNS AGAINST THEM. [OPT] WHEN ROSA PARKS MADE HER COURAGEOUS STAND BY SITTING IN THE FRONT OF A MUNICIPAL BUS IN MONTGOMERY, ALABAMA, ON DECEMBER 1ST, 1955, SHE COULD HARDLY HAVE IMAGINED THAT IN 1995 A NATIONAL POLL WOULD SHOW A MAJORITY OF WHITE AMERICANS BELIEVING THAT BLACKS ARE ON AVERAGE AT LEAST AS WELL OFF AS WHITES. THAT SO MANY COULD BELIEVE SOMETHING SO FALSE IS A BRUTALLY IRONIC TESTAMENT TO THE IMPRESSIVE GAINS IN BOTH OPPORTUNITY AND ACHIEVEMENT AMERICAN MINORITIES HAVE MADE OVER THE PAST FOUR DECADES." [END OPT]

    TEXT: THERE IS BOTH HUMOR AND SARCASIM FOR THE NATION'S MILITARY HEADQUARTERS, THE PENTAGON, IN SEVERAL PAPERS TODAY, AFTER DISCLOSURE THAT FOR YEARS THE GOVERNMENT HAS BEEN PAYING PSYCHICS TO TRY TO GATHER INTELLIGENCE. "THE LOS ANGELES TIMES" RESPONDS THIS WAY:

    VOICE: "NOT CONTENT WITH SPENDING BILLIONS (OF DOLLARS) ON RECONNAISSANCE SATELLITES, COMMUNICATIONS INTERCEPTS AND SECRET AGENTS, THE U-S GOVERNMENT FOR NEARLY TWO DECADES HAS ALSO FUNDED A PROGRAM TO TRY TO DIVINE INFORMATION USING PEOPLE WHO CLAIM TO HAVE PSYCHIC POWERS. THE NEGLIGIBLE RESULTS SHOULD HAVE BEEN, WELL, FORESEEN... THE MILITARY'S PSYCHICS ARE SAID TO HAVE BEEN RIGHT ONLY 15 PERCENT OF THE TIME, MEANING THEY WERE WRONG 85 PERCENT OF THE TIME. SOMETIMES CRYSTAL BALLS ARE LESS THAN CRYSTAL-CLEAR."

    TEXT: "USA TODAY" IS EVEN MORE UPSET OVER THE PSYCHIC SLEUTHING, SUGGESTING THAT EVEN ORDINARY PEOPLE CAN ASSESS THE PROJECT'S WORTH:

    VOICE: "DRAW THE SHADES AND CONCENTRATE ON THE FACTS: 20 YEARS, 20-MILLION DOLLARS, NO MEANINGFUL CONTROLS, NO SIGNIFICANT RESULTS. DO YOU SEE LETTERS EMERGING FROM THE MIST? THEY READ: B-O-O-N-D-O-G-G-L-E (SLANG FOR A SILLY, USELESS EXERCISE INVOLVING SOME WORK, AND OFTEN SOME GRAFT).

    [OPT]

    TEXT: IN "THE NEW YORK POST" THERE IS RENEWED CRITICISM OF PALESTINIAN LEADER YASSER ARAFAT:

    VOICE: "YASSER ARAFAT HAS A CURIOUS SENSE OF MORAL EQUIVALENCE. NOT TO MENTION A DISTORTED PERCEPTION OF WHAT CONSTITUTES A THREAT TO THE MIDDLE EAST PEACE PROCESS. IN A MESSAGE ... TO CEREMONIES MARKING THE UNITED NATIONS' ANNUAL CELEBRATION OF 'SOLIDARITY' WITH THE PALESTINIAN PEOPLE, [MR.] ARAFAT COMPARED CONGRESS' RECENT VOTE TO MOVE AMERICA'S EMBASSY IN ISRAEL FROM TEL AVIV TO JERUSALEM WITH THE ASSASSINATION OF PRIME MINISTER YITZHAK RABIN... THE PLO LEADER'S ATTEMPT TO EQUATE A CONGRESSIONAL POLICY RESOLUTION ... WITH THE HEINOUS MURDER OF ISRAEL'S LEADER IS OFFENSIVE AND INSIDIOUS."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: AND LASTLY, COMMENTING ON THE LATEST FIGURES REGARDING THE AIDS PROBLEM IN THE UNITED STATES, ON THIS, WORLD AIDS AWARENESS DAY, TODAY'S "BOSTON GLOBE" NOTES:

    VOICE: "NEARLY 15 YEARS INTO THE AIDS PANDEMIC ALMOST EVERYTHING ABOUT THE ISSUE SEEMS TIRED OUT EXCEPT FOR THE VIRUS ITSELF... WHEN HIV GETS INTO THE BLOODSTREAM IT HAS ONLY ONE AGENDA: TO KILL ITS HOST WITH A PAINFUL, WASTING DISEASE. THIS ILLNESS IS NO METAPHOR, AND ON WORLD AIDS DAY AND EVERY DAY, THAT IS WORTH REMEMBERING."

    TEXT: AND WITH THOSE SOBERING WORDS, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF SOME OF THE EDITORIALS APPEARING IN PAPERS ACROSS THE UNITED STATES ON THIS FIRST DAY OF DECEMBER. NEB/ANG/PCH

    01-Dec-95 11:14 AM EST (1614 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [02] BOSNIA BY DAN NOBLE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=12/01/95
    TYPE=U-S COLUMNISTS ROUNDUP: BOSNIA #5
    NUMBER=6-09304
    TELEPHONE=619-1014
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    (ED. NOTE: THIS IS ONE OF A CONTINUING SERIES ON DEVELOPMENTS IN BOSNIA AND THE REACTION OF SELECTED AMERICAN NEWSPAPER COLUMNISTS)

    INTRO: ON THURSDAY, ROBERT DOLE, THE SENATE MAJORITY LEADER, WHO IS ALSO SEEKING THE REPUBLICAN PARTY'S 1996 PRESIDENTIAL NOMINATION, GAVE HIS SUPPORT TO PRESIDENT CLINTON'S PLAN TO SEND AMERICAN GROUND TROOPS TO BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. BUT, SOME REPUBLICANS -- AND DEMOCRATS, AS WELL -- ARE NOT CONVINCED THAT THE POLICY IS A CORRECT ONE. WITH A SAMPLING OF HOW SOME COLUMNISTS IN AMERICAN NEWSPAPERS VIEW CONGRESSIONAL REACTION, HERE IS _________________________.

    TEXT: SENATOR DOLE SAID THURSDAY THAT HE IS DRAFTING A RESOLUTION TO APPROVE, WITH CERTAIN PROVISIONS, THE USE OF 20-THOUSAND AMERICAN SOLDIERS FOR ONE YEAR, TO LEAD NATO PEACEKEEPING EFFORTS IN BOSNIA. WHILE THE PRESIDENT DOESN'T NEED CONGRESSIONAL APPROVAL FOR HIS ACTION, WILLIAM PERRY, THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE, SAYS THAT SUPPORT IS CRITICAL FOR THE IMAGE OF THE UNITED STATES AS "THE PREMIER MILITARY POWER."

    IN A COLUMN HEADED "CLINTON NEEDS CONGRESS ON BOSNIA," PUBLISHED IN FRIDAY'S EDITION OF THE WALL STREET JOURNAL, ABRAHAM SOFAER OFFERS SOME OTHER U-S OPTIONS IN THE BALKANS. MISTER SOFAER, NOW A SENIOR FELLOW AT THE HOOVER INSTITUTION, IS A FORMER FEDERAL JUDGE AND STATE DEPARTMENT LEGAL ADVISOR FROM 1985 TO 1990. HE NOTES THAT CONGRESS CANNOT REDO THE RECENT DAYTON, OHIO, AGREEMENT. "BUT," MISTER SOFAER MAINTAINS, "THERE IS NO NEED FOR LAWMAKERS TO ACCEPT PRESIDENT CLINTON'S EITHER/OR APPROACH -- EITHER SUPPORT HIS PLAN TO IMPLEMENT THE AGREEMENT, OR PULL OUT ENTIRELY." HE SAYS, "IF THE AGREEMENT REPRESENTS A GENUINE DESIRE FOR PEACE AMONG THE WARRING PARTIES, THEN PRESUMABLY THE ACCORD IS NOT SO FRAGILE AS TO DEPEND ON THE ORAL COMMITMENT OF U-S TROOPS MADE BY THE ADMINISTRATION (AND WHICH ISN'T EVEN PART OF THE AGREEMENT)." ABRAHAM SOFAER CONTENDS "CONGRESS CAN AND SHOULD CONSIDER OTHER OPTIONS. THE U-S, FOR EXAMPLE, COULD ASSIST EUROPEAN FORCES IN DEMARCATING THE BOUNDARY LINES, AND COULD ENFORCE PEACE IN THE AREA THROUGH THE THREAT OF AIR STRIKES ON IMPORTANT TARGETS. OR," HE SAYS, "THE U-S COULD OFFER GREATER MONETARY AND DIPLOMATIC SUPPORT FOR THE AGREEMENT BUT NOT ANY GROUND TROOPS. WHATEVER HAPPENS WITH THE TROOP COMMITMENT, CONGRESS SHOULD INSIST THAT THE AGREEMENT'S PROVISIONS ALLOWING THE TRAINING AND ARMING OF THE BOSNIAN MUSLIMS BE RIGOROUSLY ADHERED TO."

    ABRAHAM SOFAER, WRITING IN THE WALL STREET JOURNAL, CONCLUDES HIS COLUMN BY SAYING THAT "A BALANCE OF POWER AMONG THE HOSTILE PARTIES IS ULTIMATELY THE ONLY BASIS FOR THE LONG-TERM STABILITY IN THE REGION. AND IF AMERICAN TROOPS ARE SENT TO BOSNIA, THEY WILL BE UNABLE TO LEAVE RESPONSIBLY UNTIL SUCH A BALANCE HAS BEEN DEVELOPED. THAT WOULD CERTAINLY TAKE LONGER THAN THE YEAR-LONG LIMIT IMPOSED BY THE ADMINISTRATION."

    CHARLES KRAUTHAMMER, WRITING IN THE WASHINGTON POST, SAYS THAT: "FOR ALL THE MOANING AND GROANING, THERE IS ABSOLUTELY NO CHANCE THAT THIS CONGRESS WILL MOVE TO PREVENT (WHAT HE CALLS PRESIDENT) CLINTON'S BOSNIA ADVENTURE." IN MR. KRAUTHAMMER'S WORDS: "THE PLAIN FACT IS THAT ON BOSNIA, CONGRESS DOES NOT HAVE THE STOMACH TO SAY NO AND MAY NOT HAVE THE COURAGE TO SAY YES. IT WILL NOD AND DODGE, AND THE DEPLOYMENT WILL GO AHEAD." ACCORDING TO THIS WASHINGTON POST COLUMNIST, "(MR.) CLINTON HAS SUCCEEDED IN TAKING AN ISSUE OF LITTLE INTRINSIC NATIONAL INTEREST AND TURNING IT, BY COMMITMENTS MADE ON HIS OWN, INTO AN ISSUE OF SIGNIFICANT NATIONAL INTEREST. HE HAS DONE SO BY STACKING ALL THE CHIPS ON THE TABLE ON A SPOT MARKED BOSNIA. IT IS THE KIND OF BET INFLATION ONLY PRESIDENTS CAN EFFECT. WHEN THEY DO, HOWEVER, THEY HAD BETTER MAKE SURE THEY WIN."

    ACCORDING TO ANTHONY LEWIS, OF THE NEW YORK TIMES, "THERE IS A CURIOUS ASPECT TO THE DEBATE ABOUT SENDING AMERICAN TROOPS TO BOSNIA." MISTER LEWIS TELLS READERS THAT "MEMBERS OF CONGRESS OPPOSED TO THE IDEA OF HELPING TO CARRY OUT THE DAYTON PEACE AGREEMENTS ARE SOME OF THE SAME PEOPLE WHO ADDED SEVEN BILLION DOLLARS TO PRESIDENT CLINTON'S DEFENSE BUDGET. THEY WANT TO MAINTAIN THE LARGEST, MOST POWERFUL MILITARY FORCE ON EARTH. BUT WHAT FOR? THE SOVIET CHALLENGE IS NO MORE." MISTER LEWIS ADDS THAT, "TO NOTICE THIS ANOMALY IS TO UNDERSTAND THAT MUCH MORE THAN THE FATE OF BOSNIA HANGS ON THE CURRENT DEBATE. WHAT CONGRESS DOES WILL DECIDE WHETHER THE UNITED STATES AND ITS EUROPEAN ALLIES HAVE AN EFFECTIVE WAY TO MAINTAIN PEACE AND SECURITY IN THE POST-COLD-WAR-PERIOD."

    AND, FINALLY, JACK GERMOND AND JULES WITCOVER, OF THE BALTIMORE SUN'S WASHINGTON BUREAU, EXAMINE THE IMPLICATIONS OF THE BOSNIA POLICY ON THE UPCOMING PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN. THEY WRITE THAT: "FOR PRESIDENT CLINTON, THE HARD REALITY IS THAT IF THE BOSNIA OPERATION SUCCEEDS, HE CAN EXPECT LITTLE LASTING CREDIT FROM THE ELECTORATE. THE EXPERIENCE OF PRESIDENT BUSH IN SUCCESSFULLY PROMULGATING THE WAR IN THE PERSIAN GULF ONLY TO BE BURIED IN THE 1992 ELECTION MAKES CLEAR THAT VOTERS HAVE LITTLE INTEREST IN FOREIGN POLICY QUESTIONS THAT DO NOT INVOLVE SOME DIRECT THREAT TO THE SECURITY OF THE UNITED STATES. AND IF THE CLINTON INITIATIVE FAILS, THE PRESIDENT IS GOING TO TAKE THE BLAME. INDEED, IF THE FAILURE IS SPECTACULAR, PLAYING OUT ON TELEVISION SCREENS SHOWING THOSE ROWS OF FLAG-DRAPED COFFINS AT DOVER AIR FORCE BASE (IN DELAWARE), HIS CHANCE FOR RE-ELECTION MAY BE LOST." THE TWO BALTIMORE SUN WRITERS SAY, "THE NOTION THAT SUPPORT FOR PRESIDENT CLINTON ON BOSNIA WILL BE A DETERMINATIVE ISSUE IN THE REPUBLICAN CONTEST ALSO IS LAUGHABLE." IN THEIR VIEW, "IT IS IMPOSSIBLE TO IMAGINE MANY PRIMARY VOTERS TURNING AGAINST SENATOR DOLE BECAUSE HE BACKED THE PRESIDENT. TOO MANY OTHER ISSUES -- TAX POLICY, FOR EXAMPLE -- CAN BE USED AS LITMUS TESTS AND HAVE SOME DIRECT MEANING FOR VOTERS."

    THIS CONCLUDES ANOTHER EDITION OF A SPECIAL VOICE OF AMERICA SERIES ON THE VIEWS OF AMERICAN NEWSPAPER COLUMNISTS WRITING ON DEVELOPMENTS IN BOSNIA AND THE PLANNED DEPLOYMENT OF U-S TROOPS THERE.

    NEB/DN/PCH
    01-Dec-95 10:33 AM EST (1533 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [03] BOSNIA / NATO FORCES BY WAYNE COREY ( VIENNA)

    DATE=12/1/95
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-31801
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO IS ABOUT TO BEGIN ITS BIGGEST MILITARY OPERATION EVER BY SENDING 60-THOUSAND TROOPS TO HELP IMPLEMENT THE NEW PEACE AGREEMENT FOR BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. THE OPERATION WILL INVOLVE NOT JUST THE 16 NATO MEMBER-STATES, THOUGH. MANY NON-MEMBERS WILL BE INVOLVED, DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY. V-O-A'S CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT, WAYNE COREY, REPORTS.

    TEXT: THE NATO OPERATION IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA WILL BE AN AMERICAN-LED MISSION. THE OVERALL COMMANDER WILL BE AMERICAN GENERAL GEORGE JOULWAN, NATO'S SUPREME COMMANDER. HIS THEATER COMMANDER WILL BE ANOTHER AMERICAN, ADMIRAL LEIGHTON SMITH. ALTHOUGH THERE HAVE BEEN, BASICALLY, NO AMERICAN PEACEKEEPERS IN BOSNIA UNDER THE OUTGOING UNITED NATIONS COMMAND, THE LARGEST CONTINGENT OF TROOPS IN THE NATO FORCE WILL BE FROM THE UNITED STATES. ABOUT 20-THOUSAND AMERICAN TROOPS WILL BE ON THE GROUND IN NORTHERN BOSNIA. THEY AND THE OTHER 40-THOUSAND TROOPS INVOLVED IN THE MISSION WILL BE SUPPORTED BY NATO WARPLANES IN THE SKIES OVER BOSNIA. SOME OF THE PLANES WILL FLY FROM AN AMERICAN AIRCRAFT CARRIER IN THE ADRIATIC SEA. OTHERS ARE BASED IN ITALY. THE AMERICAN SOLDIERS WILL ALSO BE BACKED BY THOUSANDS OF SUPPORT TROOPS AT LOGISTICS BASES TO BE SET UP IN HUNGARY AND CROATIA. SOUTHERN HUNGARY IS TO BE THE STAGING AREA FOR THE AMERICAN DEPLOYMENT. ABOUT 14-THOUSAND BRITISH SOLDIERS WILL BE RESPONSIBLE FOR SECURITY IN CENTRAL AND WESTERN BOSNIA. FRANCE IS EXPECTED TO HAVE BETWEEN SEVEN-AND-ONE-HALF THOUSAND AND 10-THOUSAND SOLDIERS IN SARAJEVO AND IN SOUTHERN BOSNIA. MANY OF THE BRITISH AND FRENCH SOLDIERS OR THEIR UNITS HAVE BEEN IN BOSNIA UNDER THE UNITED NATIONS FLAG. THESE SOLDIERS WILL TURN IN THEIR BLUE U-N BERETS OR BLUE HELMETS AND CONTINUING TO DO WHAT THEY HAVE BEEN DOING. ABOUT FOUR THOUSAND GERMAN MILITARY PERSONNEL ARE GOING TO BOSNIA, ALONG WITH AT LEAST TWO THOUSAND DUTCH AND TWO THOUSAND ITALIAN SOLDIERS.

    ///OPT///

    THE NETHERLANDS IS DETERMINED TO MAINTAIN ITS PRESENCE IN BOSNIA DESPITE THE DISASTROUS AND HUMILIATING EXPERIENCE OF DUTCH U-N PEACEKEEPERS IN CONNECTION WITH THE SERB CAPTURE OF THE MUSLIM ENCLAVE OF SREBRENICA. ///END OPT/// OTHER NATO MEMBERS, SUCH AS BELGIUM, CANADA, DENMARK, SPAIN, AND TURKEY WILL EACH HAVE AT LEAST A THOUSAND SOLDIERS IN BOSNIA. PORTUGAL, LUXEMBOURG, AND NORWAY WILL MAKE SMALLER TROOP CONTRIBUTIONS. THE GREEK CONTRIBUTION IS NOT YET KNOWN. ASIDE FROM THE NATO MEMBERS, RUSSIA, BANGLADESH, AND PAKISTAN WILL CONTINUE TO HAVE SIZEABLE PEACEKEEPING OR PEACE-IMPLEMENTATION FORCES IN BOSNIA. THE U-S DEFENSE DEPARTMENT ESTIMATES THERE WILL BE BETWEEN 15-HUNDRED AND TWO THOUSAND RUSSIANS IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC. FOR POLITICAL REASONS, THE RUSSIANS WILL, TECHNICALLY, NOT BE UNDER NATO COMMAND. THE NATO FORCE WILL ALSO INCLUDE TROOPS FROM AUSTRIA, SWEDEN, FINLAND, POLAND, NEW ZEALAND, THE CZECH REPUBLIC, AND HUNGARY, IF THE HUNGARIAN PARLIAMENT AGREES. A NUMBER OF OTHER COUNTRIES, INCLUDING EGYPT, LATVIA, LITHUANIA, ESTONIA, SLOVAKIA, AND UKRAINE HAVE EXPRESSED INTEREST IN BEING INVOLVED, IN SOME WAY, IN THE NATO OPERATION. SO, THE WESTERN ALLIANCE'S ATTEMPT TO BRING ABOUT A LASTING PEACE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA WILL AFFECT MOST COUNTRIES IN EUROPE. IF THE OPERATION IS SUCCESSFUL, IT WILL NOT ONLY RESTORE STABILITY IN THE BALKANS, BUT IT COULD ALSO CHANGE THE GEOPOLITICAL FACE OF THE EUROPEAN CONTINENT BY BREAKING DOWN LINGERING EAST-WEST BARRIERS. THERE ARE HUGE RISKS, THOUGH, NOT JUST THE RISK OF CASUALTIES, THAT COULD AFFECT SUPPORT IN THE UNITED STATES AND ELSEWHERE FOR THE UNPRECEDENTED MISSION. IF THE OPERATION SHOULD FAIL, NATO'S FUTURE WOULD BE IN QUESTION. AND WITHOUT A COHESIVE NATO, THE SITUATION IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA WOULD AGAIN BE EXPLOSIVE. NATO KNOWS IT MUST SUCCEED IN THE BALKANS. NO MATTER WHAT HAPPENS, THOUGH, A NEW CHAPTER IS ABOUT TO BE WRITTEN IN THE HISTORY OF MODERN EUROPE. (SIGNED)

    NEB/WC/MH/BG
    01-Dec-95 2:31 PM EST (1931 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [04] CLINTON / BOSNIA (S&L UPDATE) BY DAVID BORGIDA (DUBLIN)

    DATE=12/1/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-189421
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    // NEW DETAILS THROUGHOUT TEXT //

    INTRO: PRESIDENT CLINTON, PREPARING TO VISIT U-S TROOPS GOING TO BOSNIA TO ENFORCE THE PEACE AGREEMENT, SAYS HE WILL TELL THEM THAT WHILE THERE IS NO SUCH THING AS A RISK-FREE MISSION, THEIR SAFETY IS FOREMOST IN HIS MIND. HIS COMMENTS WERE MADE IN DUBLIN, IRELAND, AFTER MEETING WITH IRISH PRIME MINISTER JOHN BRUTON. V-O-A'S WHITE HOUSE CORRESPONDENT DAVID BORGIDA REPORTS FROM DUBLIN.

    TEXT: PRESIDENT CLINTON ADDRESSES A TOTAL OF 11-THOUSAND SOLDIERS AND THEIR FAMILIES AT THE U-S ARMY BASE IN BAUMHOLDER, GERMANY.

    UNITS OF THE FIRST ARMOR DIVISION HAVE BEEN IN THE SPOTLIGHT BEFORE, MOST RECENTLY IN KUWAIT DURING THE GULF WAR. NOW THEY WILL BE DEPLOYED IN WHAT IS BEING CALLED "TASK FORCE EAGLE."

    AND WHAT THE TROOPS CALL THE "IRON-IN-MESS HALL," THE BASE CAFETERIA, THE PRESIDENT WILL ALSO HAVE LUNCH WITH A FEW AND EXPLAINED WHY HE BELIEVES IN THEIR MISSION AND IN THEM.

    // CLINTON ACT. //

    I WILL TELL THEM THAT WE HAVE DONE EVERYTHING WE CAN TO MINIMIZE THE RISKS. WE HAVE GUARANTEED FOR THEM THE VERY ROBUST RULES OF ENGAGEMENT SO THAT IF ANYONE ATTEMPTS TO INTERFERE WITH THEIR MISSION, OR TAKE ACTION AGAINST THEM, THEY CAN RESPOND WITH DECISIVE, INDEED WITH OVERWHELMING FORCE, AND THAT THEIR PEACE AND THEIR SECURITY, THEIR SAFETY, IS UPPERMOST IN MY MIND.

    // REST ACT OPT FOR LONG //

    AND IN THE MIND OF THEIR GENERAL OFFICERS WHO HAVE DONE ALL THE PLANNING FOR THIS MISSION, BUT THAT THIS IS A MISSION VERY MUCH IN AMERICA'S INTEREST, WHERE WE CAN MAKE A HUGE DIFFERENCE, AND STOP THE WORST SLAUGHTER IN EUROPE SINCE WORLD WAR TWO, AND I'M VERY PROUD OF THEM FOR DOING IT.

    // END OPT; END CLINTON ACT. //

    PRESIDENT CLINTON IS COMMITTING 20-THOUSAND TROOPS TO THE SIXTY-THOUSAND NATO PEACEKEEPING FORCE, DESPITE CONGRESSIONAL SKEPTICISM. HE SAID HE IS HOPING FOR WHAT HE CALLED A DRAMATIC IMPROVEMENT IN BOSNIA, AFTER THE BOSNIA PEACE AGREEMENT IS SIGNED IN PARIS DECEMBER 14TH.

    // END OF SHORT; REST OPT. FOR LONG //

    FOR HIS PART, IRISH PRIME MINISTER BRUTON TOLD REPORTERS THE BOSNIA PROBLEM IS NOT JUST A EUROPEAN PROBLEM, BUT A WORLD PROBLEM.

    // BRUTON ACT. //

    I THINK IT'S IMPORTANT TO RECOGNIZE THAT IF YOU HAVE GENOCIDE OF THE KIND THAT WAS OCCURRING IN BOSNIA, THAT'S NOT JUST A EUROPEAN PROBLEM, THAT'S A PROBLEM FOR THE WORLD AT LARGE. IT'S A PROBLEM FOR THE COMMON CIVILIZATION, WHICH WE ALL SHARE. IT'S A COMMON PROBLEM FOR ALL OF US, WHO HAVE DEMOCRATIC VALUES, DEMOCRATIC VALUES WHICH STEM IN EUROPE, CHIEFLY FROM THE INSPIRATION OF THE AMERICAN WAR OF INDEPENDENCE, THE UNITED STATES DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE. THOSE VALUES ARE UNIVERSAL, AND, THEREFOR, THERE IS A UNIVERSAL RESPONSIBILITY, IN MY VIEW, FOR ALL OF US TO DO WHATEVER WE CAN IN PROPORTION TO OUR MEANS TO FACILITATE THE MAKING OF PEACE.

    // END BRUTON ACT. //

    PRESIDENT CLINTON LEAVES GERMANY AFTER MEETING WITH THE TROOPS AT DAY'S END SO HE CAN ATTEND A EUROPEAN UNION MEETING IN MADRID, SPAIN.

    THE PRESIDENT AND HIS AIDS BELIEVE THEY HAVE MADE PROGRESS IN CONVINCING THE U-S CONGRESS THE U-S TROOPS' COMMITMENT IS IN THE NATIONAL INTEREST.(SIGNED) NEB / DB / BD-T/PT 01-Dec-95 5:35 PM EST (2235 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [05] GERMAN POLITICS BY DAGMAR BREITENBACH (BONN)

    DATE=12/1/95
    TYPE=YEAREND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-31788
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT: 7:04 A.M. 11/30

    INTRO: A REVIEW OF THE POLITICAL YEAR IN GERMANY SHOWS THAT CHANCELLOR HELMUT KOHL -- IN HIS 13TH YEAR OF POWER IN BONN -- STANDS STRONGER THAN EVER BEFORE, WHILE HIS LIBERAL COALITION PARTNER IN BONN IS ON THE DECLINE. THE SOCIAL DEMOCRATS, GERMANY'S MAJOR OPPOSITION PARTY, ARE EXPERIENCING A POSTWAR LOW IN POPULARITY -- BUT ARE LOOKING TOWARD THEIR NEW PARTY LEADER FOR AN UPSWING. FROM BONN, V-O-A'S DAGMAR BREITENBACH HAD A LOOK AT GERMANY'S POLITICAL SCENE.

    TEXT: IN NATIONAL ELECTIONS A YEAR AGO, CHANCELLOR HELMUT KOHL AND HIS CHRISTIAN DEMOCRATS WON RE-ELECTION BY A VERY NARROW MARGIN. TODAY, THE CHANCELLOR AND CHRISTIAN DEMOCRATIC PARTY CHAIRMAN IS AS POPULAR AS NEVER BEOFRE. ADMIRERS HAVE CALLED HIM THE PILLAR OF STABILITY IN GERMAN POLITICS.

    PROFESSOR WICHARD WOYKE FROM THE MUENSTER INSTITUTE FOR POLITICAL SCIENCE SAYS THE CHANCELLOR'S STRENGTH IS NOT ONLY DUE TO THE OPPOSITION'S WEAKNESS.

    // ACT WOYKE //

    KOHL IS NOW IN EUROPE THE STATESMAN WITH THE HIGHEST REPUATION. KOHL HAS ALWAYS GOT MUCH SUPPORT IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS, KOHL WAS DOMINATING INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN AFFARIS SINCE THE MID- '80S, SINCE1986, 1987...BUT HE DIDN'T RECEIVE SUCH RESPECT AND REPUTATION AT HOME...AFTER UNIFICATION HE HAS GOT MUCH RESPECT IN GERMANY, TOO....HE HAS DONE A GOOD JOB.

    // END ACT //

    BY CONTRAST, GERMANY'S MAJOR OPPOSITION PARTY HAS REACHED A POSTWAR LOW IN POPULARITY: THE S-P-D OR SOCIAL DEMOCRATS WOULD GAIN ONLY ABOUT 30 PERCENT OF THE VOTE IF ELECTIONS WERE TO BE HELD NOW. BUT LAST MONTH, THE PARTY CHOSE THE CHARISMATIC AND ENERGETIC GOVERNOR OF SAARLAND STATE, OSKAR LAFONTAINE, AS ITS NEW LEADER, GIVING HIM THE TOUGH TASK OF REBUILDING THE DISORIENTED PARTY. THE PARTY'S FORMER CHAIRMAN, RUDOLF SCHARPING, HAD FOR MONTHS BEEN CRITICIZED AS TOO UNISPIRING TO UNITE AND LEAD THE FRAYED PARTY.

    CHANCELLOR HELMUT KOHL'S LONGTIME COALITION PARTNERS IN BONN, THE LIBERAL FREE DEMOCRATS, ARE IN A DISMAL STATE. IN THE 1994 NATIONAL ELECTIONS, THE PARTY JUST BARELY MANAGED TO WIN ENOUGH VOTES TO ENTER PARLIAMENT, AND TO CONTINUE ITS GOVERNMENT COALITION WITH THE CHRISTIAN DEMOCRATS. THAT DOWNWARD TREND HAS CONTINUED. THE FREE DEMOCRATS HAVE DONE POORLY IN STATE ELECTIONS OVER THE PAST TWO YEARS, AND ARE NOW ONLY PRESENT IN FOUR OF THE 16 GERMAN STATE PARLIAMENTS. THE FREE DEMOCRATS, WHO HAVE BEEN PART OF ALMOST EVERY GOVERNMENT IN BONN SINCE 1949, ARE BUSINESS-ORIENTED, VIEWING THEMSELVES AS ADVOCATS OF LOW TAXES AND CIVIL RIGHTS. BUT PROFESSOR WOYKE SAYS THE PARTY MUST REVIEW ITS POLICIES AND ITS LEADERS IN ORDER TO SAVE ITSELF FROM POLITICAL OBLIVION.

    IN THE MEANTIME, THE ENVIRONMENTALIST PARTY, GREENS, APPEARS TO HAVE TAKEN ON THE FREE DEMOCRATS' ROLE OF KINGMAKER, THAT IS GOVERNMENT COALITION PARTNER. THE PARTY, FOUNDED IN 1980, BECAME BONN'S THIRD-STRONGEST PARTY IN LAST YEAR'S NATIONAL ELECTIONS, AND HAS GAINED STRENGTH EVER SINCE IN LOCAL AND STATE PARLIAMENTS THROUGHOUT THE COUNTRY. PROFESSOR WOYKE SAYS THE GREENS ARE DOING A GOOD JOB IN STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS.

    // ACT WOYKE //

    BUT ON THE FEDERAL LEVEL YOU WILL FIND THEY WILL ONLY BE ABLE TO COME TO POWER WITH THE SOCIAL DEMOCRATS, AND THEREFORE IT IS ABSOLUTELY NECESSARY THAT THE GREENS HAVE TO DO SO-CALLED REALISTIC POLICIES OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS, AND IF I LOOK AT THE LEADER OF THE GREENS PARLIAMENTARY FACTION, JOSCHKA FISCHER, I SEE THAT HE IS MARCHING DIRECTLY IN 1998 TO A COALITION WITH THE SPD...

    // END ACT //

    ANOTHER PARTY THAT HAS GAINED IN STRENGTH IS THE PARTY OF DEMOCRATIC SOCIALISM, P-D-S, FORMER EAST GERMANY'S REFORMED COMMUNISTS. WHILE THE PARTY IS NEGLIGIBLE IN WESTERN GERMANY, IT HOLDS A LARGE SHARE OF THE VOTE IN EASTERN GERMANY -- MAKING IT THE THIRD-LARGEST PARTY THERE.

    WITH GERMANY'S NEXT NATIONAL ELECTIONS STILL THREE YEARS AWAY, IT IS FAR TOO EARLY TO FORECAST WHO WILL LEAD GERMANY INTO THE NEXT MILLENIUM. BUT THE GROUNDWORK FOR POSSIBLE CHANGE HAS BEEN LAID. (SIGNED)

    NEB/DB/CF
    01-Dec-95 8:52 AM EST (1352 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [06] NATO/BOSNIA (L UPDATE) BY JOHN FRASER ( BRUSSELS )

    DATE=12/1/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-189415
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: AFTER A MONTH OF SEARCHING, THE NATO ALLIES HAVE SELECTED A NEW SECRETARY GENERAL. HE IS IS THE SPANISH FOREIGN MINISTER JAVIER SOLANA, WHO WAS IRONICALLY ONCE AN ARDENT OPPONENT OF NATO. JOHN FRASER REPORTS FOR V-O-A NEWS FROM BRUSSELS.

    TEXT: THE CHOICE WAS CONFIRMED AT A MEETING OF NATO AMBASSADORS IN BRUSSELS, AND WILL BE FORMALLY AGREED BY NATO FOREIGN MINISTERS AT TALKS IN BRUSSELS NEXT WEEK. MR. SOLANA REPLACES BELGIAN WILLY CLAES, WHO WAS FORCED TO RESIGN A MONTH AGO AFTER HIS COUNTRY'S PARLIAMENT ORDERED THAT HE SHOULD FACE CHARGES RELATING TO A BRIBERY SCANDAL IN THE LATE 1980'S.

    THE SPANISH FOREIGN MINISTER WAS A LATE CHOICE AFTER THE TWO FRONT-RUNNERS WERE BLOCKED. FORMER DUTCH PRIME MINISTER RUUD LUBBERS WAS VETOED BY THE AMERICANS, AFTER A VISIT TO WASHINGTON FOR TALKS WITH THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION.

    THEN FRANCE BLOCKED THE APPOINTMENT OF THE OTHER FAVORITE, FORMER DANISH FOREIGN MINISTER UFFE ELLEMANN-JENSEN, BECAUSE OF HIS OPPOSITION TO THE FRENCH NUCLEAR TESTS IN THE SOUTH PACIFIC.

    MR SOLANA WAS NO ONE'S FIRST CHOICE, BUT NOBODY HAS OBJECTED STRONGLY TO HIS APPOINTMENT, AND SO HE HAS WON THE JOB.

    NATO OFFICIALS SAY HE SEEMS TO HAVE CONVINCED THE ALLIES THAT HE HAS CHANGED HIS STANCE FROM THE TIME WHEN HE CAMPAIGNED ACTIVELY AGAINST HIS COUNTRY'S MEMBERSHIP OF NATO, AND OPPOSED AMERICAN MILITARY BASES IN SPAIN.

    HE WILL TAKE UP HIS JOB AS THE ALLIANCE PREPARES FOR THE MOST AMBITIOUS OPERATION IT HAS EVER HAD TO UNDERTAKE -- THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PEACE DEAL IN BOSNIA. NATO AMBASSADORS HAVE GIVEN THE GO-AHEAD FOR AN INITIAL ENABLING FORCE OF 26-HUNDRED TROOPS TO BE SENT TO BOSNIA, TO PREPARE FOR THE OPERATION. THEY WILL ENSURE THAT COMMUNICATIONS, TRANSPORT, LOGISTICS AND ACCOMODATION ARE PREPARED FOR THE FULL NATO-LED FORCE, WHICH WILL NUMBER 60-THOUSAND.

    ONE OF THE MAJOR ACHIEVEMENTS OF THIS WEEK WAS AN AGREMEENT ON THE CONDITIONS UNDER WHICH RUSSIA WILL PARTICIPATE IN THE BOSNIA OPERATION, WITHOUT NATO SURRENDERING ITS LEADERSHIP ROLE. NATO'S OTHER MAJOR CHALLENGE, ASIDE FROM THE BOSNIAN OPERATION, WILL BE TO BUILD ON THIS NEW SPIRIT OF COOPERATION WITH MOSCOW, WHICH WILL BE TESTED AS NATO PREPARES TO TAKE IN NEW MEMBERS FROM EASTERN EUROPE.

    THIS IS A PROCESS WHICH IS OF DEEP CONCERN TO RUSSIA, WHICH FEELS THREATENED BY A SHIFTING OF NATO INFLUENCE INTO THE FORMER SATELLITES OF THE FORMER SOVIET UNION. (SIGNED)

    NEB/JF/MH/MMK
    01-Dec-95 2:01 PM EST (1901 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [07] NATO BOSNIA MISSION (1 0F 4: DEPLOYMENT) BY ERICA BENIS (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=12/01/95
    TYPE=CLOSEUP
    NUMBER=4-08754
    TELEPHONE=619-0934
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT= // INSERTS AVAILABLE IN AUDIO SERVICES //
    ANNCR: THE INITIALING OF THE DAYTON ACCORDS ON NOVEMBER 21ST, AND THE FORMAL SIGNING OF A BOSNIA PEACE TREATY SCHEDULED IN PARIS ON DECEMBER 14TH, HAVE SHIFTED THE MOMENTUM OF THE PEACE EFFORTS FROM DIPLOMACY TO MILITARY CHALLENGE. UP TO 60-THOUSAND NATO TROOPS WILL SOON BE DEPLOYED IN THE BALKANS TO BEGIN RESTORING PEACE IN A REGION RAVAGED BY ALMOST FOUR YEARS OF WAR. THE U-S-LED IMPLEMENTATION FORCE -- OR IFOR -- WILL START DEPLOYING IN BOSNIA ON DECEMBER 15TH. ______________ HAS A PREVIEW OF THE MILITARY OPERATION IN THIS REPORT PREPARED BY

    VOA'S ERICA BENIS.

    TEXT: PEACE IMPLEMENTATION IS NOT A NEW CONCEPT. OVER THE YEARS, THE UNITED NATIONS HAS UNDERTAKEN PEACE IMPLEMENTATIONS IN NAMIBIA, EL SALVADOR, CAMBODIA AND MOZAMBIQUE, ALL WITH A LARGE DEGREE OF SUCCESS. IN EACH OF THOSE PLACES, THE PRESENCE OF FOREIGN TROOPS AND CIVILIANS HELPED PUSH THE WARRING PARTIES TO CARRY OUT THEIR PROMISES.

    DAVID EVANS IS A DEFENSE EXPERT WITH BUSINESS EXECUTIVES FOR NATIONAL SECURITY, A WASHINGTON-BASED PUBLIC INTEREST ORGANIZATION THAT FAVORS A STRONG NATIONAL DEFENSE. HE SAYS THE NATO PEACE IMPLEMENTATION IN BOSNIA WILL BE DIFFERENT.

    TAPE: CUT ONE EVANS "I THINK WHAT WE'RE GETTING READY TO DO IN BOSNIA COULD BE CALLED PEACE IMPLEMENTATION ON STEROIDS. WITH ALL THIS TALK ABOUT THE U-S AND NATO FORCES BEING THE MEANEST DOG IN TOWN, THERE'S CLEARLY A HIGH-LEVEL CONCERN ABOUT THE POTENTIAL DANGER IN THIS OPERATION."

    TEXT: ALL EXPERTS AGREE THAT THE NATO TROOPS HEADED FOR BOSNIA WILL HAVE TO SURMOUNT MAJOR CHALLENGES. THREATS COULD COME FROM BOSNIAN SERB ELEMENTS WHO OPPOSE THE PEACE DEAL REACHED ON NOVEMBER 21ST IN DAYTON, OHIO; DISGRUNTLED WAR-PROFITEERS; AND FOREIGN ISLAMIC MERCENARIES WHO'VE FOUGHT ON THE SIDE OF THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT FORCES. DIFFERENT, BUT EQUALLY REAL, IS THE DANGER THE TROOPS WILL FACE FROM MILLIONS OF SNOW-COVERED LANDMINES, UNPAVED AND OFTEN MUDDY ROADS, AND BOSNIA'S SOMETIMES SEVERE WINTER WEATHER.

    PAUL BEAVER IS THE EDITOR OF "JANE'S BALKAN SENTINEL," A LONDON-BASED SECURITY PUBLICATION THAT SPECIALIZES IN THE CONFLICT IN BOSNIA. HE SAYS THERE WAS ALSO A CONCERN ABOUT THE PREPAREDNESS OF THE U-S TROOPS WHO -- UNLIKE THE BRITISH, THE FRENCH, OR THE DANISH -- NEVER SET FOOT IN BOSNIA. BUT THIS HAS CHANGED NOW, SAYS MR. BEAVER, BECAUSE THE U-S TROOPS HAVE TRAINED EXTENSIVELY.

    TAPE: CUT TWO BEAVER "THEY BUILT AN IMITATION YUGOSLAV VILLAGE IN GERMANY AND THEY'VE BEEN TRAINING IN THAT. AMERICAN SOLDIERS HAVE BEEN TAUGHT HOW TO WALK THROUGH A VILLAGE, HOW TO GUARD THEIR FLANKS, HOW TO WATCH OUT FOR SNIPERS AND THIS SORT OF ACTIVITY. FOR THE FIRST TIME, WE BELIEVE, TROOPS HAVE BEEN TRAINED IN VIRTUAL REALITY TRAINING AREAS, WHERE THEY ARE SEEING JUST WHAT A SNIPER WOULD LOOK LIKE OR WHAT AN ENEMY TANK MIGHT LOOK LIKE -- AND BY ENEMY I MEAN EITHER A BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT OR A BOSNIAN SERB AGGRESSOR'S TANK."

    TEXT: WITH 20-THOUSAND COMBAT TROOPS EVENTUALLY ON THE GROUND, THE UNITED STATES IS THE BIGGEST CONTRIBUTOR TO THE NATO BOSNIA MISSION. THE GERMANY-BASED U-S FIRST ARMORED DIVISION -- WHICH FORMS THE BULK OF THE U-S PEACEKEEPING FORCE -- WILL GATHER AT A STAGING POINT IN SOUTHERN HUNGARY, AHEAD OF THE FORMAL PEACE SIGNING CEREMONY IN PARIS. PAUL BEAVER SAYS THEY WILL BRING SOME OF THEIR SUPERPOWER ARSENAL WITH THEM, SUCH AS ARMORED VEHICLES, ARTILLERY, ATTACK HELICOPTERS, FIGHTER-BOMBERS, AND EVEN ANTI-AIRCRAFT MISSILES. WITHIN HOURS OF THE SIGNING OF THE PARIS AGREEMENT, BOTH TROOPS AND MATERIEL WILL BEGIN TO POUR INTO NORTH-CENTRAL BOSNIA BY ROAD, RAIL, WATER AND AIR.

    TAPE: CUT THREE BEAVER "WE'RE GOING TO SEE EVERY AVAILABLE PIECE OF SHIPPING AND EVERY AVAILABLE FREIGHT AIRPLANE, EVERY MILITARY TRANSPORT AIRPLANE; LOTS OF RAIL TRAFFIC COMING THROUGH GERMANY AND AUSTRIA AND HUNGARY THROUGH SLOVENIA AND CROATIA. WE'LL SEE THE PORTS OF SPLIT AND PLOCE BEING USED. WE'LL SEE THE AIRPORTS AT TUZLA, AT SARAJEVO, AT ZAGREB, AT SPLIT, EVEN BELGRADE BEING USED. IT'S GOING TO BE A HUGE OPERATION. THERE ARE GOING TO BE TROOPS ALL OVER THE PLACE; THERE'S GOING TO BE VEHICLES, THERE'S GOING TO BE EQUIPMENT -- THINGS ARE GOING TO GET LOST, OF COURSE, AND I WOULDN'T BE AT ALL SURPRISED IF A FEW PEOPLE DIDN'T GET HURT IN IT -- BUT IT'S GOING TO BE A MAJOR OPERATION."

    TEXT: THE 1ST ARMORED DIVISION WILL ESTABLISH ITS HEADQUARTERS AT AN AIRBASE, ABOUT TEN MILES SOUTHEAST OF TUZLA. PENTAGON OFFICIALS EXPECT U-S AND NATO AIRCRAFT TO BEGIN FLYING OUT ABOUT TWO-THIRDS OF THE 30- THOUSAND UNITED NATIONS PEACEKEEPERS IN BOSNIA AT SOON AS THE NATO FORCES ARRIVE. THIS, SAYS MR. BEAVER, WILL FURTHER COMPLICATE THINGS.

    TAPE: CUT FOUR BEAVER "JUST AS THE LOGISTICAL SUPPLY AIRCRAFT FLY IN, EQUIPMENT AND PERSONNEL WILL BE FLYING OUT WITH THE BLUE BERETS OF THE UNITED NATIONS. THEY WILL GO PROBABLY TO ITALY AND TO SURROUNDING COUNTRIES LIKE TURKEY, FOR EXAMPLE, TO HUNGARY, TO ROMANIA. THEY'LL BE FLOWING BACK TO THEIR OWN COUNTRIES FROM THOSE LOCATIONS. IT'S GOING TO BE A HUGE AIRLIFT. IT'S GOING TO BE QUITE AN AMAZING OPERATION."

    TEXT: THE FULL COMPLEMENT OF 60-THOUSAND NATO TROOPS IS EXPECTED TO BE ON THE GROUND IN BOSNIA BY EARLY FEBRUARY. THAT'S WHEN THE REAL WORK BEGINS, SAYS DEFENSE EXPERT DAVID EVANS.

    TAPE: CUT FIVE EVANS "TO ESTABLISH ZONES OF SEPARATION, TO DISARM, TO RETRAIN, TO ESTABLISH CONFIDENCE BUILDING MEASURES FOR ALL SIDES. THERE IS A LONG MENU OF TASKS. THESE OPERATIONS HAVE A DIPLOMATIC, A MILITARY, AND AN ECONOMIC ELEMENT TO THEM. THERE'S A MILITARY COMPONENT TO GIVE IT EFFECTIVENESS AND CREDIBILITY ON THE GROUND AND THERE'S AN ECONOMIC COMPONENT WITH THE COMMITMENT TO PROVIDE SUBSTANTIAL FUNDING TO REBUILD THIS WAR-TORN AREA."

    TEXT: UNLIKE THE U-N FORCES IN BOSNIA, NATO TROOPS WILL HAVE THE POWER TO IMPOSE COMPLIANCE WITH THE PEACE PACT BY FORCE IF ANY OF THE WARRING SIDES SHOULD TRY TO DISRUPT THE PEACE OPERATIONS OR RESUME HOSTILITIES. (SIGNED) [EDS NOTE: THIS IS THE FIRST IN A SERIES OF FOUR REPORTS ON THE NATO BOSNIA MISSION. PART TWO WILL DISCUSS DEFINING THE MIISION]

    NEB/EB/PCH
    01-Dec-95 4:09 PM EST (2109 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [08] PERRY/BOSNIA REARM (S-ONLY) BY DAVID GOLLUST (PENTAGON)

    DATE=12/1/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-189424
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION ASSURED CONGRESS FRIDAY IT WILL SEE TO IT THAT THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT ARMY IS REARMED -- IF THE ARMS CONTROL PROVISIONS OF THE DAYTON PEACE ACCORD DO NOT PRODUCE A MILITARY BALANCE WITH THE BOSNIAN SERBS. DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM PERRY SAYS DIPLOMATIC CONTACTS ON THE ISSUE ARE ALREADY UNDERWAY. VOA'S DAVID GOLLUST REPORTS FROM THE PENTAGON.

    TEXT: MR. PERRY SAYS THE NATO-LED PEACE FORCE WOULD NOT WANT TO LEAVE BOSNIA A YEAR FROM NOW WITH THE CURRENT MILITARY IMBALANCE FAVORING THE BOSNIAN SERBS STILL IN PLACE. AND HE SAYS TALKS ARE UNDERWAY WITH COUNTRIES WHO MIGHT HELP RE-ARM AND TRAIN GOVERNMENT FORCES. THE DEFENSE SECRETARY, TESTIFYING AT SENATE HEARINGS, SAID HE HOPES THE IMBALANCE CAN BE REDRESSED THROUGH THE ARMS BUILD-DOWN PROVISIONS OF THE PEACE TREATY TO BE SIGNED DECEMBER 14TH. BUT IF THAT DOES NOT OCCUR, HE SAID THE UNITED STATES IS PREPARED TO WORK WITH OTHER COUNTRIES TO ENSURE THAT THE PROPER BALANCE IS OBTAINED:

    /// PERRY ACT ///

    WE FEEL STRONGLY ABOUT THAT BECAUSE WE BELIEVE THAT AN IMPORTANT CAUSATIVE FACTOR IN THIS WAR, IN THE FIRST PLACE WAS THE DRAMATIC IMBALANCE IN ARMS BETWEEN THE BOSNIANS AND THE BOSNIAN SERBS. AND WE DO NOT WANT TO LEAVE THE COUNTRY UNTIL THAT IMBALANCE IS CORRECTED.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. PERRY SAID A TEAM OF U-S EXPERTS IS ALREADY IN BOSNIA TO ASSESS THE NEEDS OF GOVERNMENT FORCES AND RECOMMEND HOW PARITY IS TO BE ACHIEVED. OFFICIALS HERE WOULD NOT NAME COUNTRIES BEING SOUNDED OUT AS POSSIBLE ARMS SUPPLIERS, BUT TURKEY HAS ALREADY DECLARED ITS READINESS TO HELP THE MUSLIM-LED GOVERNMENT. (SIGNED)

    NEB/DAG/SKH
    01-Dec-95 5:43 PM EST (2243 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [09] SENATE / BOSNIA (L) BY DAVID SWAN (SENATE)

    DATE=12/1/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-189416
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: CLINTON ADMINISTRATION OFFICIALS HAVE RETURNED TO CAPITOL HILL TO PRESS THE CASE FOR SENDING 20-THOUSAND TROOPS TO BOSNIA- HERZEGOVINA, AS PART OF A 60-THOUSAND STRONG NATO PEACEKEEPING FORCE. V-O-A'S DAVID SWAN REPORTS, MANY LAWMAKERS AND VOTERS ARE STILL SKEPTICAL ABOUT THE PLAN, DESPITE PRESIDENT CLINTON'S EFFORTS.

    TEXT: THE WHITE HOUSE CONCEDES THE MISSION IS RISKY BUT SAYS BY DOING NOTHING, THE WEST COULD ALLOW THE WAR TO RE-IGNITE AND PERHAPS SPREAD. AT A SENATE FOREIGN RELATIONS COMMITTEE HEARING, DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM PERRY TESTIFIED THIS IS NOT AN IDLE CONCERN.

    // PERRY ACT //

    AT LEAST THREE OR FOUR TIMES IN THE LAST YEAR, WE WERE FEARFUL OF THE WAR SPREADING, MOST RECENTLY THE DANGER OF WAR BETWEEN SERBIA AND CROATIA. THAT HAS BEEN AS RECENTLY AS THE LAST MONTH OR TWO, THAT SEEMED LIKE A VERY REAL DANGER. I WOULD HAVE PUT IT AT 50-50.

    // END ACT //

    MR. PERRY SAYS THE NATO IMPLEMENTATION FORCE, OR I-FOR, HAS THE OPTION OF PULLING OUT OF BOSNIA SHOULD THE PEACE AGREEMENT BREAK DOWN. AND OFFICIALS SAY WHILE THE TROOPS ARE THERE, THEY WILL STICK TO THE GOAL OF KEEPING THE FACTIONS APART. GENERAL JOHN SHALIKASHVILI, THE CHAIRMAN OF THE JOINT CHIEFS, SOUGHT TO ASSURE SENATORS AMERICAN SOLDIERS WILL NOT BE DRAGGED INTO NON-MILITARY ROLES.

    // SHALI ACT //

    THE I-FOR WILL NOT BE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE CONDUCT OF HUMANITARIAN MISSIONS, WILL NOT BE A POLICE FORCE, WILL NOT CONDUCT NATION-BUILDING, WILL NOT HAVE THE MISSION OF DISARMING OR CHASING AFTER INDIVIDUAL WEAPONS AND WILL NOT MOVE REFUGEES.

    // END ACT //

    MANY REPUBLICAN LAWMAKERS ARE RESIGNED TO THE FACT THAT TROOPS WILL BE SENT TO BOSNIA. BUT OTHERS REMAIN UNCONVINCED, SAYING THE PEACE PLAN IS TOO SHAKY AND THE RISK TO THE TROOPS TOO HIGH. THE POWERFUL FOREIGN RELATIONS COMMITTEE CHAIRMAN, JESSE HELMS, SAYS HE CAN NOT UNDERSTAND THE LOGIC BEHIND THE DEPLOYMENT.

    // HELMS ACT //

    I CAN NOT, I DO NOT AND I WILL NOT SUPPORT SENDING AMERICAN SOLDIERS TO FIGHT AND DIE FOR THE SAKE OF AN AGREEMENT WHICH MAY OFFER NO MORE THAN THE PROMISE OF A BRIEF PAUSE WHILE ALL SIDES REARM FOR THE NEXT ROUND OF BALKAN WARS.

    // END ACT //

    CONGRESS WILL VOTE IN THE NEXT FEW WEEKS ON A RESOLUTION OF SUPPORT FOR THE MISSION. THOUGH SENATE MAJORITY LEADER BOB DOLE IS BACKING THE MEASURE, THE OUTCOME OF THE VOTE IS UNCERTAIN, ESPECIALLY IN THE MORE CONSERVATIVE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.

    MR. CLINTON HAS AUTHORITY TO SEND THE TROOPS ON HIS OWN, BUT SUPPORT FROM THE LAWMAKERS IS CONSIDERED POLITICALLY CRUCIAL. THE LATEST OPINION POLL SHOWS A MAJORITY OF AMERICANS STILL OPPOSE THE PLAN -- AND SUPPORT FOR THE PRESIDENT'S BOSNIAN POLICY HAS DECLINED SINCE HIS TELEVISED SPEECH MONDAY NIGHT. (SIGNED)

    NEB/DS/JM
    01-Dec-95 2:01 PM EST (1901 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [10] TURKEY/WRITER (L-ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)

    DATE=12/1/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-189395
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: A TURKISH COURT HAS ACQUITTED THE COUNTRY'S BEST KNOWN LIVING AUTHOR, YASAR KEMAL, OF CHARGES OF PROVOKING HATRED BETWEEN TURKS AND KURDS IN AN ARTICLE HE WROTE FOR GERMANY'S DER SPIEGEL MAGAZINE. AMBERIN ZAMAN HAS DETAILS FROM ANKARA.

    TEXT: YASAR KEMAL, WHO HAS BEEN NOMINATED FOR THE NOBEL PRIZE FOR LITERATURE SEVERAL TIMES, WAS FACING UP TO THREE YEARS IN JAIL, BECAUSE OF THE ARTICLE IN WHICH HE CONDEMNED THE ELEVEN YEAR LONG MILITARY CAMPAIGN AGAINST THE OUTLAWED KURDISTAN WORKERS' PARTY OR P-K-K. MR KEMAL, HIMSELF AN ETHNIC KURD, IS A VOCAL PROPONENT OF SEEKING A POLITICAL SETTLEMENT TO THE KURDISH PROBLEM. AT THE SAME TIME HE IS STRONGLY OPPOSED TO ANY SOLUTION WHICH WOULD UNDERMINE TURKEY'S UNITY AND DESCRIBES HIMSELF AS A TURKISH PATRIOT.

    HIS TRIAL HAS PROVOKED STRONG CRITICISM IN TURKEY AND IN EUROPE AS WELL, WHERE HE HIS BEST KNOWN FOR HIS AWARD WINNING BOOK "MEHMED MY HAWK", WHICH DEPICTS RURAL LIFE IN ANATOLIA.

    HIS ACQUITTAL IS LIKELY TO MAKE A FAVORABLE IMPRESSION ON THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, WHICH IS DUE TO VOTE LATER THIS MONTH ON A FREE TRADE AGREEMENT BETWEEN ANKARA AND THE EURPOPEAN UNION. THE PARLIAMENT HAS MADE ITS APPROVAL CONTINGENT ON IMPROVEMENT OF THE HUMAN RIGHTS SITUATION IN TURKEY.

    TURKEY HAS RECENTLY TAKEN A SERIES OF STEPS TO IMPROVE ITS POOR HUMAN RIGHTS IMAGE. THESE INCLUDE THE REFORM OF ARTICLE EIGHT OF THE ANTI-TERROR LAW UNDER WHICH MR KEMAL WAS BEING CHARGED. THE REVISED JUDGEMENTS AS A RESULT OF THE REFORMS HAS SECURED THE ACQUITTAL OF AT LEAST 131 POLITICAL DETAINEES OF A TOTAL 146 TURKS SENTENCED UNDER ARTICLE EIGHT.

    HOPES AMONG TURKEY'S WESTERN ALLIES ARE THAT THE GOVERNMENT WILL TAKE DEMOCRATIC REFORMS EVEN FURTHER, IN RELEASING FOUR ETHNIC KURDISH DEPUTIES EACH SERVING 15 YEAR JAIL SENTENCES FOR THEIR ALLEGED LINKS WITH THE P-K-K.

    THE CASE OF THE KURDISH DEPUTIES HAS COME BEFORE THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS. TURKISH PRIME MINISTER TANSU CILLER RECENTLY TOLD WESTERN REPORTERS SHE WOULD RESPECT THE COURT'S DECISION WITH RESPECT TO THE MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT. (SIGNED)

    NEB/AZ/MH/MMK
    01-Dec-95 8:23 AM EST (1323 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [11] U-N WEEK-IN-REVIEW BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)

    DATE=12/1/95
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-31804
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED NATIONS PREPARES TO END ITS MILITARY INVOLVEMENT IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA; A NEW U-N REPORT ASCRIBES BRUTAL VIOLATIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS TO THE SERBS OF BOSNIA DURING THEIR FINAL OFFENSIVES; THE U-N GENERAL ASSEMBLY CONSIDERS SETTING UP A PERMANENT TRIBUNAL FOR WAR CRIMES; AND SECRETARY-GENERAL BOUTROS BOUTROS-GHALI TRAVELS IN AFRICA. V-O-A'S CORRESPONDENT ELAINE JOHANSON REVIEWS THE MAIN DEVELOPMENTS OF THE PAST WEEK:

    TEXT: AS OF JANUARY 31ST -- THE U-N MILITARY OPERATION IN BOSNIA WILL BE NO MORE. THE SECURITY COUNCIL RENEWED ITS MANDATE FOR TWO FINAL MONTHS WHILE A NATO-LED FORCE PREPARES TO TAKE OVER.

    THE U-N HAS BEEN SEVERELY CRITICIZED FOR ALLOWING THE WAR TO CONTINUE AS LONG AS IT HAS. BUT DIPLOMATS ADMIT IT WAS THE SECURITY COUNCIL THAT LIMITED THE U-N MISSION, GIVING PEACEKEEPERS NO REAL POWER TO STOP THE SERBS FROM ADVANCING AGAINST MUSLIM ENCLAVES.

    THE SECURITY COUNCIL , HOWEVER, WAS LESS SURE WHAT TO DO ABOUT CROATIA. THE FORCE THERE EVENTUALLY WILL HAVE TO SUPERVISE A PEACE ACCORD IN EASTERN SLAVONIA -- A SERB-HELD TERRITORY IN CROATIA THAT WILL BE UNDER U-N ADMINISTRATION . CROATIA WANTS NATO INSTEAD OF U-N TROOPS . NATO IS RELUCTANT TO GET INVOLVED.

    IN A COMPROMISE MOVE -- THE COUNCIL RENEWED THE U-N FORCE IN CROATIA FOR SIX WEEKS ONLY. MEANTIME, SECRETARY-GENERAL BOUTROS-GHALI WILL SUBMIT PROPOSALS FOR A NEW OPERATION BY MID-DECEMBER.

    OVER ONE THOUSAND PEACEKEEPERS IN MACEDONIA WILL STAY IN PLACE UNTIL THE END OF MAY . THE FORCE WAS SENT TO MAKE SURE MACEDONIA STAYS OUT OF THE BALKAN FIGHTING.

    -0-

    THE UNITED NATIONS -- NOT KNOWN FOR TAKING STRONG STANDS IN A WARRING SITUATION -- ISSUED A NEW REPORT THIS PAST WEEK BLAMING THE BOSNIAN SERBS FOR RAPES, SUMMARY EXECUTIONS, TORTURE AND OTHER ATROCITIES DURING THEIR FINAL OFFENSIVES ON MOSTLY MUSLIM TOWNS.

    THE U-N CALLED ON GOVERNMENTS TO INSIST THE SERBS ALLOW INSPECTIONS OF SUSPECTED GRAVE SITES AROUND SREBRENICA -- WHICH FELL TO THE BOSNIAN SERBS LAST JULY. THE U-N SAYS SEVERAL THOUSAND MUSLIMS -- MOSTLY MEN -- ARE STILL MISSING.

    -0-

    SOME OF THOSE BLAMED FOR HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS DURING THE BALKAN WARS HAVE BEEN INDICTED BY THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL IN THE HAGUE -- SPECIALLY SET UP TO DEAL WITH THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. THE WORLD COMMUNITY NOW MAY BE MOVING TOWARD ESTABLISHING A PERMANENT COURT TO TRY HUMANITARIAN CRIMES WHEREVER THEY OCCUR.

    A GENERAL ASSEMBLY COMMITTEE THIS PAST WEEK ADOPTED A RESOLUTION AUTHORIZING ANOTHER COMMITTEE TO START DRAFTING A CONVENTION TO CREATE SUCH A COURT.

    THE PROCESS MAY TAKE A FEW YEARS, BUT ITS PROPONENTS ARE OPTIMISTIC. THE U-N HAS ONLY ONE PERMANENT JUDICIAL ARM -- THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE -- WHICH RULES ONLY ON DISPUTES BETWEEN GOVERNMENTS. THE PROPOSED NEW TRIBUNAL WOULD TRY INDIVIDUALS, IF NATIONAL COURTS ARE UNWILLING DO TO SO.

    THE IDEA IS TO ELIMINATE THE NEED TO SET UP AD HOC TRIBUNALS AS THOSE THE SECURITY COUNCIL ESTABLISHED IN THE LAST TWO YEARS FOR THE BALKANS AND RWANDA.

    -0-

    SECRETARY-GENERAL BOUTROS-GHALI HAS URGED THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY TO GIVE MORE MONEY TO SUPPORT A WEST AFRICAN PEACEKEEPING OPERATION IN LIBERIA. HE SAID THE FUNDS RAISED DURING A RECENT PLEDGING CONFERENCE -- SOME 145 MILLION DOLLARS -- FALL SHORT OF WHAT IS NEEDED.

    THE U-N HAS ONLY A HANDFUL OF OBSERVERS IN LIBERIA. THE BULK OF PEACEKEEPING IS BEING SHOULDERED BY TROOPS FROM THE REGION. THE LATEST LIBERIAN PEACE ACCORD -- SIGNED LAST AUGUST -- AIMS AT ENDING SIX YEARS OF WAR.

    MR. BOUTROS-GHALI IS ON A TWO-WEEK VISIT TO AFRICA. HE ALSO STOPPED BRIEFLY IN SIERRA LEONE, WHERE THE U-N HOPES ELECTIONS EARLY NEXT YEAR WILL ESTABLISH DEMOCRACY AND END YEARS OF CIVIL STRIFE. (SIGNED) NEB/PT

    01-Dec-95 5:19 PM EST (2219 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [12] U-S TROOPS / BOSNIA BY KYLE KING (MANNHEIM)

    DATE=12/1/95
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-31798
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: WHEN U-S FORCES IN GERMANY ARE FINALLY GIVEN THEIR ORDERS TO MOVE INTO BOSNIA FOR A NATO PEACEKEEPING MISSION, ONE OF THE FIRST UNITS TO DEPLOY WILL BE THE MEMBERS OF THE 28TH TRANSPORTATION BATTALION, BASED IN MANNHEIM. THE UNIT, WITH ITS FLEET OF DARK GREEN TRACTOR TRAILERS, IS THE LARGEST OF ITS KIND IN THE U-S ARMY. V-O-A'S KYLE KING HAS SPENT SOME TIME WITH THE SOLDIERS OF THE BATTALION, AND SAYS THEY ARE ANXIOUS TO GET ON WITH THE MISSION.

    TEXT: THE COMMANDER OF THE 28TH TRANSPORTATION BATTALION LIKES TO COMPARE HIS OUTFIT TO A LARGE COMMERCIAL TRUCKING COMPANY BACK IN THE UNITED STATES. BUT THE LOOK OF THE HUGE GREEN TRUCKS AND THE DEAFENING SOUND OF THE POWERFUL DIESEL ENGINES MAKES THE COMPARISON DIFFICULT.

    // TRUCK ACTUALITY AND FADE //

    THE WAY THE MEN TALK TO EACH OTHER IS ALSO UNLIKE ANYTHING BUT A STRICT MILITARY OPERATION.

    // SOLDIER ACT //

    WE CAN DO THAT SIR, WE CAN SQUARE THAT AWAY.

    // END ACT //

    LIEUTENANT COLONEL JAMES SHARPE AND THE MEN AND WOMEN UNDER HIS COMMAND ARE EXPECTING TO ESTABLISH A FORWARD STAGING BASE IN SOUTHERN HUNGARY AS SOON AS FINAL NATO ORDERS ARE GIVEN.

    THE BATTALION'S TRUCKS AND TRAILERS WILL SUPPLY THE 20-THOUSAND U-S TROOPS TO BE DEPLOYED IN BOSNIA WITH EVERYTHING FROM FOOD AND CLOTHES TO AMMUNITION. COLONEL SHARPE SAYS HIS MEN SOME APPREHENSIONS ABOUT THE MISSION, BUT THEIR MORALE IS GOOD AND THEY ARE EXCITED.

    // BEGIN ACT //

    THERE IS THAT MIXED BAG OF EXCITEMENT DOING SOMETHING DIFFERENT. YOU KNOW, A SOLDIER COMES IN (TO THE MILITARY) FOR VARIOUS REASONS, BUT A SOLDIER REALLY WANTS TO DO THINGS. REALLY WANTS, COMES INTO THE ARMY BECAUSE THEY REALLY WANT TO DO SOMETHING DIFFERENT THAT WHAT THEY DO BACK HOME IN THE STREETS. AND CERTAINLY THIS OPPORTUNITY GIVES THEM SOMETHING DIFFERENT. SOMETHING TO SORT OF...GO BACK AND TELL THEIR BROTHERS, TELL THE KIDS BACK ON THE BLOCK, THAT YOU KNOW, YEAH, I WAS PART OF THAT, SO YEAH, THERE IS SOME EXCITEMENT RELATED TO THAT.

    // END ACT //

    OVER IN THE SERVICE AREA WHERE THE BATTALION'S EQUIPMENT IS BEING CAREFULLY INSPECTED FOR THE MISSION, THERE IS AN ATMOSPHERE OF BUSINESS AS USUAL.

    // BEGIN MUSIC ACT AND FADE //

    WITH COUNTRY MUSIC PLAYING IN THE BACKGROUND, SOLDIERS PREPARE THE HUGE GREEN TRUCKS AND TRAILERS FOR DEPLOYMENT.

    FOR SERGEANT MICHAEL DAVIS THE SENDING OF AMERICAN TROOPS TO BOSNIA IS THE RIGHT THING TO DO.

    // DAVIS ACT //

    I THINK IT'S A GOOD CAUSE, (WE'RE) GONNA DO WHAT WE CAN DO AND COME BACK.

    // END ACT //

    OUTSIDE, WHERE ROWS AND ROWS OF TRUCKS ARE READY TO BE LOADED ON RAIL CARS AND SHIPPED TO THE INTERMEDIATE STAGING AREA, THERE ARE SOME DIFFERENCES OF OPINION ABOUT THE MISSION.

    ONE SOLDIER, WHO ASKED NOT TO BE IDENTIFIED, SAYS HE WILL FOLLOW HIS ORDERS, BUT IS OPPOSED TO THE IDEA OF SENDING TROOPS TO BOSNIA.

    // SOLDIER ACT //

    I'M READY TO GO, BUT I THINK ITS TOTALLY WRONG THAT WE ARE GOING DOWN THERE. I DON'T THINK WE HAVE NO BUSINESS DOWN THERE. IT'S NOT OUR FIGHT, THAT'S THEIR WAR. BUT IF I HAVE TO GO, I HAVE TO GO. THAT'S MY JOB. BUT YOU KNOW, THAT'S THEIR WAR. I THINK WE NEED TO STAY OUT OF THAT.

    // END ACT //

    OTHER MEN IN THE UNIT SEEM TO SHARE THE SENSE OF APPREHENSION ABOUT THE MISSION, BUT MOST SAY IT WILL BE WORTH THE COST.

    // OTHER SOLDIER ACT //

    I REALLY DON'T WANT TO GO. BUT, YOU KNOW, WE AS A UNIT, IF WE HAVE TO DEPLOY TO SAVE THE LIFE OF THE LITTLE KIDS, THEN YEA, I'M READY. I'D LIKE TO GO.

    // END ACT //

    DESPITE THE MISGIVINGS OF SOME OF THE YOUNGER TROOPS, THE MORALE OF THE UNIT IS SAID TO BE HIGH, AND THEY SAY THEY ARE FULLY PREPARED FOR THE MISSION. (SIGNED)

    NEB/KBK/MH/MMK
    01-Dec-95 1:33 PM EST (1833 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [13] YUGO SITREP (L ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

    DATE=12/1/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-189404
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: AS NATO TROOPS PREPARE TO GO TO BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA, THE FRENCH UNITED NATIONS COMMANDER IN SARAJEVO HAS STRONGLY CRITICIZED THE NEW BOSNIAN PEACE AGREEMENT. THE FRENCH GENERAL CLAIMS AMERICAN MEDIATOR RICHARD HOLBROOKE'S MAIN OBJECTIVE IN GETTING THE AGREEMENT WAS TO HELP PRESIDENT CLINTON WIN RE-ELECTION NEXT YEAR. V-O-A'S CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT, WAYNE COREY, REPORTS.

    TEXT: JUST AS NATO FORMALLY APPROVED THE DEPLOYMENT OF 60-THOUSAND ALLIANCE TROOPS TO BOSNIA, THE PEACE AGREEMENT THEY WILL HELP IMPLEMENT HAS BEEN CRITICIZED BY THE UNITED NATIONS COMMANDER IN SARAJEVO.

    THE COMMANDER, FRENCH GENERAL JEAN RENE BACHELET, FOCUSED HIS CRITICISM IN AN INTERVIEW WITH A FRENCH NEWSPAPER (OUEST FRANCE) ON THE AGREEMENT'S PROVISION FOR A UNITED SARAJEVO.

    GENERAL BACHELET SAYS SERBS IN THE BOSNIAN CAPITAL NEED ASSURANCES ABOUT THEIR SAFETY WHEN THE AREAS WHERE THEY LIVE COME UNDER GOVERNMENT CONTROL.

    WITHOUT THESE ASSURANCES, HE SAYS THE SERBS WILL LEAVE AFTER CARRYING OUT A SCORCHED EARTH POLICY IN THE BOSNIAN CAPITAL'S SERB-HELD SUBURBS.

    THESE ARE NOT VERY CONTROVERSIAL REMARKS. BUT, THE FRENCH GENERAL MAKES ANOTHER COMMENT THAT MAY NOT GO DOWN WELL IN WASHINGTON.

    HE CLAIMS AMERICAN MEDIATOR RICHARD HOLBROOKE'S MAIN OBJECTIVE IN GETTING THE NEW BOSNIAN PEACE AGREEMENT WAS TO TRY TO HELP PRESIDENT CLINTON WIN RE-ELECTION NEXT YEAR.

    A U-N SPOKESMAN IN SARAJEVO TOLD V-O-A GENERAL BACHELET'S CONCERN ABOUT ASSURANCES FOR SERBS IN SARAJEVO IS UNDERSTANDABLE. FRENCH FORCES IN THE CITY WOULD HAVE TO DEAL WITH ANY HUGE EXODUS OF SERBS. BUT, THE SPOKESMAN SAYS GENERAL BACHELET WILL HAVE TO BE RESPONSIBLE FOR HIS CONTROVERSIAL REMARKS ABOUT WHY THE U-S GOVERNMENT WANTED THE BOSNIAN PEACE AGREEMENT.

    FRANCE APPEARS TO BE QUESTIONING THE SAME PROVISIONS IN THE AGREEMENT TO WHICH BOSNIAN SERBS HAVE OBJECTED. OBSERVERS SAY THE FRENCH CONCERN IS POSSIBLY LINKED TO AN ATTEMPT TO WIN THE RELEASE OF TWO FRENCH PILOTS.

    THE SERBS CAPTURED THE PILOTS WHEN A FRENCH PLANE WAS SHOT DOWN OVER SERB TERRITORY LAST AUGUST.

    BOSNIAN SERB LEADER RADOVAN KARADZIC DOES NOT ADMIT THAT THE SERBS STILL HOLD THE PILOTS. BUT, HE SAYS, IF FRANCE DOES SOMETHING IMPORTANT FOR THE SERBS, THAT GESTURE WILL HELP OBTAIN THE PILOTS' RELEASE. (SIGNED)

    NEB/WC/JWH/GPT
    01-Dec-95 9:48 AM EST (1448 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

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