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Voice of America, 15 December 1995

From: yanni@ix.netcom.com (Ioannis Bousnakis)

Voice of America Directory

CONTENTS

  • [01] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY DAN NOBLE (WASHINGTON)

  • [02] BOSNIA BY DAN NOBLE (WASHINGTON)

  • [03] BOSNIA / SARAJEVO (L) BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)

  • [04] BOSNIA SITREP (L) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

  • [05] CLINTON-BOSNIA MEDALS (S & L) BY DAVID BORGIDA (WHITE HOUSE)

  • [06] EUROPE / LATAM TRADE BY GEORGE MEEK (RIO DE JANEIRO)

  • [07] THE BOSNIAN PEACE PLAN

  • [08] THE BOSNIAN PEACE PLAN

  • [09] U-S / TURKEY MISSILES BY DAVID GOLLUST (PENTAGON)

  • [10] WORLD BANK / BOSNIA BY ANDREW BAIRD (WASHINGTON)


  • [01] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY DAN NOBLE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=12/15/95
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09334
    TELEPHONE=619-1014
    EDITOR=KLEINFELDT
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-S-T ON FRIDAY, DECEMBER 15TH //

    INTRO: ACCORDING TO NEWS REPORTS, HUNDREDS OF AMERICAN SOLDIERS ARE EXPECTED TO ARRIVE THIS WEEKEND IN BOSNIA. THEY ARE THE VANGUARD OF 20,000 U.S. PEACEKEEPERS. THE AMERICANS WILL BE JOINED BY 40,000 OTHER NATO TROOPS. THEIR MISSION IS THE SUBJECT OF EDITORIAL COMMENT IN SOME OF TODAY'S NEWSPAPERS ACROSS THE UNITED STATES. OTHER TOPICS INCLUDE THE POSSIBILITY OF FAMINE IN NORTH KOREA, AND POLITICAL REFORM IN RUSSIA. NOW, _________________ HAS A CLOSER LOOK IN TODAY'S U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: THE WASHINGTON POST NOTES THAT AFTER LENGTHY DEBATE, PRESIDENT CLINTON RECEIVED CONGRESSIONAL ENDORSEMENT FOR THE BOSNIAN MISSION. IN ITS LEAD EDITORIAL TODAY, THE POST SAYS THAT "THIS IS THE CONGRESS AND THESE ARE THE REPUBLICANS WHO, YOU WILL RECALL, LOUDLY INSISTED THAT PRESIDENT CLINTON SHOULD CONSULT THEM ON BOSNIA." THEN, THE NEWSPAPER POSES A QUESTION:

    VOICE: "SO HOW DID THESE WORTHIES RESPOND ONCE HE DID? THEY FINALLY CAME DOWN ON THE SIDE OF SUPPORTING, OR AT LEAST TOLERATING, HIS ALREADY-TAKEN DECISION TO ADD AMERICANS TO THE TROOPS OF 29 OTHER COUNTRIES TRYING TO KEEP THE PEACE. BUT THEY DID THIS AS MUCH BY DEFAULT AS BY DECISION AND IN A MANNER THAT MAKES CONGRESS LOOK EVEN LESS RESOLUTE THAN MANY LEGISLATORS THINK THE PRESIDENT HIMSELF HAS LOOKED IN THE PAST ON THIS ISSUE. IT'S ONE THING THAT SOME IN CONGRESS VOTED AGAINST THE DISPATCH OF AMERICAN FORCES. WE THINK THE TROOPS ARE BEING SENT TO SERVE IMPORTANT AMERICAN INTERESTS OF EUROPEAN STABILITY, ATLANTIC COHESION AND AMERICAN GLOBAL LEADERSHIP. BUT WE CAN UNDERSTAND OUTRIGHT OPPOSITION. THE BOSNIA ISSUE HAS BEEN TANGLED AND DIFFICULT FROM THE START, AND THERE WAS ALWAYS A CASE TO BE MADE -- IN OUR JUDGMENT A WRONG CASE -- FOR STAYING OUT. SENATOR PHIL GRAMM AND LIKE-MINDED OTHERS DESERVED TO LOSE ON THE MERITS. BUT AT LEAST THEY VOTED, PRESUMABLY, THE WAY THEY BELIEVED, AND THEY STAND TO PAY POLITICALLY IF THINGS WORK OUT MORE OR LESS WELL."

    TEXT: THE EDITORIAL VIEWS OF THE WASHINGTON POST. COMMENTING ON THE SIGNING YESTERDAY, IN PARIS, OF THE BOSNIA PEACE ACCORD, THE PORTLAND (MAINE) PRESS HERALD SAYS THAT "THIS IS A PEACE THAT HAS TO WORK."

    VOICE: "PRESIDENTS CLINTON AND JACQUES CHIRAC OF FRANCE APPROPRIATELY PAID HOMAGE TO THE SLAUGHTER OF THE INNOCENTS THAT OCCURRED BECAUSE THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY DID NOT ACT EARLIER. (MISTER) CLINTON, FOR HIS PART, SAID THAT 'IN THIS CHORUS FOR PEACE TODAY WE ALSO HEAR THE HALLOWED VOICES OF THE VICTIMS -- THE CHILDREN WHOSE PLAYGROUNDS WERE SHELLED IN THE KILLING, THE YOUNG GIRLS BRUTALIZED BY RAPE, THE MEN SHOT DOWN IN MASS GRAVES...THOSE WHO DIED IN BATTLE'. EARLIER, (MISTER) CHIRAC HAD SAID, IN LANGUAGE EQUALLY POETICAL: 'THIS RAMPAGE OF HORROR WILL LEAVE A DEEP WOUND IN THE HEART OF EUROPE. WE MUST PROVE OURSELVES TO BE WORTHY OF THEIR MEMORY, WORTHY OF THEIR SUFFERING'."

    TEXT: THEN, CONTINUES THE PORTLAND PRESS HERALD EDITORIAL:

    VOICE: "THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY IS NOT WORTHY, HOWEVER. HOW COULD IT BE, HAVING ALLOWED THE DEATHS OF AS MANY AS 250,000 PEOPLE THAT AN EARLY INTERVENTION COULD HAVE SAVED? YET THE U.S.-SPONSORED PEACE AGREEMENT IS ALL THE WORLD HAS, AND ALL THE LEADERS OF BOSNIA, CROATIA AND SERBIA HAVE, AND IT HAS TO BE IMPLEMENTED OR THE SLAUGHTER WILL BREAK OUT ALL OVER AGAIN."

    TEXT: ON THE SAME SUBJECT, THE MIAMI HERALD SAYS THAT NATO AND THE UNITED STATES "CAN RESTORE HOPE, BUT ONLY BOSNIA'S WARRING PARTIES CAN 'KEEP' THE PEACE."

    VOICE: "NATO FORCES ARE WELL ARMED, AND HAVE A CLEARER MISSION THAN THE U.N. PEACEKEEPERS WHO PRECEDED THEM. BUT NATO CANNOT IMPOSE PEACE IN THE BALKANS. IT CAN ONLY CREATE A NURTURING CLIMATE, A SENSE OF SECURITY FOR BOSNIA'S CIVILIANS. AS PRESIDENT CLINTON OBSERVED: 'NO ONE OUTSIDE CAN GUARANTEE THAT MUSLIMS, CROATS, AND SERBS IN BOSNIA WILL COME TOGETHER'. THAT TASK BELONGS TO PRESIDENTS ALIJA IZETBEGOVIC OF BOSNIA, SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC OF SERBIA, AND FRANJO TUDJMAN OF CROATIA, THEIR GOVERNMENTS, MILITARY LEADERS, AND PARTISANS WHO DID -- FOR MANY YEARS -- LIVE PEACEFULLY SIDE BY SIDE."

    TEXT: THE COMMENTS OF THE MIAMI HERALD. ON THE EDITORIAL PAGE TODAY IN THE LOS ANGELES TIMES THEY COMMENT ON A WARNING BY OFFICIALS OF THE WORLD FOOD PROGRAM, OF "IMMINENT FAMINE IN NORTH KOREA."

    VOICE: "ON-SITE OBSERVATIONS BY THE U.N. AGENCY INDICATES THAT UP TO HALF A MILLION LIVES IN THE TIGHTLY CLOSED STALINIST COUNTRY COULD BE AT RISK. IN AUGUST, AFTER FLOODS DEVASTATED FARMLAND IN THE NORTHWEST, PYONGYANG MADE AN UNPRECEDENTED APPEAL FOR HELP. IT HAS GOTTEN SOME AID, INCLUDING $225,000 FROM THE U.S. GOVERNMENT, BUT NOWHERE NEAR ENOUGH TO MAKE UP FOR RECENT LOSSES. THE AGENCY ESTIMATES THAT NORTH KOREA NEEDS 1.5 MILLION TONS OF GRAIN BEFORE THE NEXT HARVEST. KIM JONG IL'S REGIME LARGELY HAS ITSELF TO BLAME FOR THE APPARENT INTERNATIONAL INDIFFERENCE TO THE COUNTRY'S PLIGHT. PYONGYANG'S CHRONIC MISMANAGEMENT OF FOOD PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION HAS OFTEN PRODUCED REGIONAL SHORTAGES AND ACTUALLY LED TO A NATIONAL CAMPAIGN TO LIMIT MEALS TO TWO A DAY....HUMANITARIAN IMPULSES ASIDE, THE POLITICAL TEMPTATION WHEN CONFRONTED WITH A DESPOTIC REGIME IN TROUBLE IS TO LET IT SUFFER THE CONSEQUENCES OF ITS MISRULE. THE PROBLEM IS THAT THOSE CONSEQUENCES, APART FROM POSSIBILITY MEANING THE DEATHS OF THOUSANDS OF INNOCENT PEOPLE, COULD AFFECT SECURITY ACROSS THE KOREAN PENINSULA."

    TEXT: AN EDITORIAL FROM THE LOS ANGELES TIMES. IN THE FRIDAY EDITION OF THE NEW YORK TIMES, THEIR EDITORIAL POINTS OUT THAT "THE COURSE OF REFORM IN RUSSIA HAS BEEN DISORDERLY, AND THERE IS NO REASON TO THINK IT WILL BE LESS SO AFTER SUNDAY'S PARLIAMENTARY ELECTION."

    VOICE: "THIS IS NOT THE STRAIGHT LINE TO STABILITY THAT RUSSIANS MIGHT HAVE WISHED FOR WHEN THE SOVIET UNION DISINTEGRATED FOUR YEARS AGO, OR THAT AMERICANS MIGHT HAVE IMAGINED AS THEY WATCHED RUSSIA DISCARD CENTURIES OF AUTOCRATIC RULE. BUT AS SOME OF RUSSIA'S ERSTWHILE ALLIES IN CENTRAL EUROPE HAVE ALREADY SHOWN, THE PASSAGE FROM TYRANNY TO DEMOCRACY IS GOING TO BE LONG AND UNEVEN, AND DEMOCRATIC ELECTIONS WILL NOT ALWAYS PRODUCE DEMOCRATIC LEADERS. COMMUNISTS OF ONE STRIPE OR ANOTHER HAVE RETURNED TO POWER THROUGH ELECTIONS IN BULGARIA, HUNGARY AND, MOST RECENTLY, IN POLAND. RUSSIA COULD BE NEXT. THIS IS CAUSE FOR CONCERN, BUT NOT DESPAIR. RUSSIA IS NOT IN DANGER OF SLIPPING BACK TO STALINISM, NOR IS THE COLD WAR ABOUT TO RESUME, EVEN IF THE COMMUNISTS WIN THE LARGEST BLOC OF SEATS ON SUNDAY. POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC REFORM HAS ALREADY TRANSITED SUFFICIENT GROUND TO MAKE SOME CHANGE VIRTUALLY IRREVERSIBLE, INCLUDING THE TRANSFER TO PRIVATE OWNERSHIP OF MUCH OF RUSSIA'S ECONOMY AND PROPERTY."

    TEXT: THAT COMMENT FROM THE NEW YORK TIMES. THE BALTIMORE SUN TAKES A LOOK AT DOMESTIC POLITICS IN THE UNITED STATES AND THE UPCOMING PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION.

    VOICE: "IF THE REPUBLICAN PARTY IS TO DO WHAT IT HAS NEVER DONE BEFORE, ITS CANDIDATE FOR VICE PRESIDENT IN 1996 WILL BE A WOMAN, GOVERNOR CHRISTINE TODD WHITMAN OF NEW JERSEY. AND IF ANY PRESIDENTIAL NOMINEE IS TO MAKE SUCH A BOLD MOVE, THAT NOMINEE WILL BE SENATOR BOB DOLE. IN GETTING HIS EIGHTEENTH GUBERNATORIAL ENDORSEMENT THIS WEEK, THE SENATE MAJORITY LEADER (AND CURRENT FRONT RUNNER) MAY WELL HAVE BEGUN THE PROCESS OF MOVING BACK TOWARD THE POLITICAL CENTER WHERE HE USED TO BE AND WHERE THE VOTES ARE. CHRISTIE WHITMAN IS AS CONSERVATIVE AS THEY GET ON SUCH ECONOMIC ISSUES AS CUTTING TAXES, REDUCING FEDERAL REGULATION AND PRIVATIZING GOVERNMENT OPERATIONS WHEN THE OPPORTUNITY ARISES....BUT ON SOCIAL MATTERS -- THE HOT BUTTON ISSUES THAT MOTIVATE THE RELIGIOUS RIGHT -- MS. WHITMAN IS PRO-CHOICE, PRO-AFFIRMATIVE ACTION AND PRO-GAY RIGHTS....UNLIKE TOO MANY POLITICIANS, GOVERNOR WHITMAN DOES NOT WEASEL OR HEDGE."

    TEXT: AND WITH THOSE THOUGHTS FROM THE THE BALTIMORE SUN, WE CONCLUDE THIS SAMPLING OF COMMENT FROM THE EDITORIAL PAGES OF SOME OF THE LEADING U-S NEWSPAPERS. 15-Dec-95 10:03 AM EST (1503 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [02] BOSNIA BY DAN NOBLE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=12/15/95
    TYPE=U-S COLUMNISTS ROUNDUP: BOSNIA #12
    NUMBER=6-09335
    TELEPHONE=619-1014
    EDITOR=KLEINFELDT
    CONTENT=
    (ED. NOTE: THIS IS ONE OF A CONTINUING SERIES ON DEVELOPMENTS IN BOSNIA AND THE REACTION OF SELECTED AMERICAN NEWSPAPER COLUMNISTS)

    INTRO: ON THURSDAY, THE LEADERS OF BOSNIA, CROATIA AND SERBIA WERE IN PARIS TO SIGN A TREATY TO END WHAT IS DESCRIBED AS "EUROPE'S BLOODIEST CONFLICT SINCE WORLD WAR II." NEWSPAPER COLUMNISTS IN THE UNITED STATES OFFER A VARIETY OF OPINIONS ON THE SUBJECT, AS WE HEAR IN THIS SAMPLING OF COMMENTS APPEARING TODAY (FRIDAY) IN SOME OF THE COUNTRY'S LEADING DAILIES. OUR READER IS ______________________.

    TEXT: TRUDY RUBIN, WHOSE WORLDVIEW COLUMN APPEARS ON WEDNESDAYS AND FRIDAYS IN THE PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER, TELLS READERS THAT "THE NATO MILITARY MISSION, CONTRARY TO THE CLAIMS OF ITS CRITICS, IS CLEAR: GIVE THE WARRING SIDES WITHIN BOSNIA A ONE-YEAR BREATHER TO START IMPLEMENTING THE PEACE PLAN, THEN LEAVE. BUT CRITICS ARGUES THAT THE FIGHTING WILL BREAK OUT AS SOON AS THE YEAR ELAPSES. THE RISK OF RENEWED FIGHTING IS CERTAINLY SERIOUS," CONTINUES MS RUBIN, "BUT THE WORST CASE SCENARIO NEEDN'T HAPPEN -- IF CONGRESS BACKS THE PRESIDENT IN GIVING BOSNIA ARMS AND AID. AND THE BOSNIANS BELIEVE A FIXED TIME FRAME HAS REAL ADVANTAGES. IT WILL CONCENTRATE MINDS ON WHAT HAPPENS AFTER THE AMERICAN EXIT, AND WHETHER THAT WILL LEAD TO PEACE OR WAR."

    NEW YORK TIMES COLUMNIST A.M. ROSENTHAL ADVISES READERS THAT BOSNIAN SERBS' ATROCITIES BROUGHT WORLD OPINION AGAINST THEM. THEY HAD A GOOD POLITICAL CASE, BUT AMONG THE THROATS THEY CUT WAS THEIR OWN." ACCORDING TO MR. ROSENTHAL: "BOSNIAN SERBS WILL BE IN THE WARCRIMES DOCKS AND SO WILL SOME MUSLIMS AND CROATS. MY CANDIDATES," HE SAYS, "ARE TWO MEN HEAVILY RESPONSIBLE FOR THE CARNAGE -- PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC OF SERBIA AND PRESIDENT TUDJMAN OF CROATIA, OLD-TIME COMMUNIST HACKS WHO SHARE A TASTE FOR WHAT SMELLS AWFULLY LIKE FASCISM. BUT MR. MILOSEVIC IS OUR CHIEF NEGOTIATING PARTNER NOW, AND MR. TUDJMAN IS OUR ALLY, GATHERING IN THE CHIPS. THEY WON'T BE IN THE DOCK -- OR THE TRENCHES."

    AND, MARSHA VAN DE BERG, A SAN FRANCISCO-BASED JOURNALIST, WRITING FOR NEWSDAY, A LONG ISLAND, NEW YORK NEWSPAPER, COMMENTS ON THE GERMAN PARLIAMENT'S DECISION TO SEND 4,000 TROOPS TO THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. SHE NOTES THAT "FOR THE FIRST TIME SINCE THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC'S INCEPTION IN 1949, GERMAN FOREIGN POLICY IS USING ITS ARMED FORCES TO REALIZE NATIONAL INTERESTS, THIS TIME AS A PARTNER AND NOT AS AGGRESSOR. BUT, "SHE ADDS, "MORE THAN HISTORICAL IRONY IS AT PLAY HERE. BONN'S PARTICIPATION IN THE CAST OF 60,000 TROOPS FROM 29 DIFFERENT COUNTRIES -- FOLLOWING YESTERDAY'S SIGNING OF THE PEACE TREATY -- SIGNALS AN IMPORTANT STEP FORWARD IN HOW THE GERMANS SEE THEMSELVES. AND IT IS A WELCOME STEP IN GERMAN RELATIONS WITH THE WEST. BONN FAVORS MULTILATERAL FORMULAS, AS WITNESS THAT MOST OF ITS SOLDIERS IN THE NATO-LED MISSION WILL BE IN MULTINATIONAL CORPS. WHAT IS NEW IS THE GERMANS' ACCEPTANCE OF THEMSELVES AS A POWER WITH A LEGITIMATE, EFFICIENT ARMY CAPABLE OF DEFENDING BOTH THEM AND THEIR ALLIES."

    THOSE THOUGHTS, IN A COLUMN BY MARSHA VAN DE BERG, IN FRIDAY'S NEWSDAY NEWSPAPER, CONCLUDE ANOTHER ROUND-UP OF U-S PRESS OPINION ON AMERICA'S ROLE IN BOSNIA. 15-Dec-95 10:40 AM EST (1540 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [03] BOSNIA / SARAJEVO (L) BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)

    DATE=12/15/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-190112
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE BOSNIAN SERB LEADER, RADOVAN KARADZIC, SAYS HE HAS ENDED THE STATE OF WAR IN SERB-CONTROLLED BOSNIA EXCEPT FOR SERB AREAS AROUND SARAJEVO. AND A TEAM OF INTERNATIONAL DIPLOMATS IS IN THE BOSNIAN CAPITAL TO TRY TO BUILD CONFIDENCE IN THE PEACE PLAN. DAVID FOLEY REPORTS FROM SARAJEVO.

    TEXT: RADOVAN KARADZIC, THE LEADER OF THE BOSNIAN SERBS, HAS ISSUED A STATEMENT SAYING THE STATE OF WAR ON SERB TERRITORY WILL NOW BE DOWNGRADED TO WHAT HE CALLED A STATE OF WAR DANGER.

    THE ANNOUNCEMENT DID NOT INCLUDE SERB DISTRICTS OF SARAJEVO WHICH MUST BE TURNED OVER TO THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT, SAYING A DECISION ON THOSE AREA WILL BE MADE LATER. RESIDENTS OF THE SERB AREAS HAVE REJECTED THE PEACE PLAN AND SOME OF THEM SAY THEY WILL STAY AND FIGHT FOR THEIR HOMES.

    ON THURSDAY, AS THE PEACE AGREEMENT WAS SIGNED IN PARIS, SEVERAL RIFLE GRENADES AND SMALL MORTARS WERE FIRED INTO SARAJEVO FROM SERB POSITIONS. ALTHOUGH NO ONE WAS INJURED, IT WAS THE FIRST SUCH INCIDENT IN THE BOSNIAN CAPITAL IN ALMOST TWO MONTHS.

    THE U-N MILITARY SPOKESMAN LIEUTENANT COLONEL CHRIS VERNON ATTEMPTED TO DOWNPLAY THE ATTACKS.

    //VERNON ACT//

    THERE ARE CLEARLY THESE VIOLATIONS, BUT IF THE BOSNIAN SERBS HAD WISHED TO KILL ANYBODY WITH THESE RIFLE GRENADES THEY COULD HAVE EASILY DONE SO. THERE WERE CIVILIANS AROUND. THERE WERE BOSNIAN SOLDIERS CLEARLY IN VIEW AND THEY PROBABLY DELIBERATELY FIRED AT WALLS, HOUSES, THEY WERE NOT TRYING TO KILL PEOPLE.

    //END ACT//

    BUT RESISTANCE FROM THE SERB DISTRICTS OF SARAJEVO REPRESENTS THE LARGEST AND MOST IMMEDIATE DANGER TO THE AGREEMENT.

    TO TRY AND BUILD CONFIDENCE IN THE PLAN, A TEAM OF INTERNATIONAL DIPLOMATS IS IN SARAJEVO TO SPEAK TO ALL SIDES. THE TEAM IS LED BY MICHAEL STEINER, DEPUTY TO CARL BILDT, WHO HAS BEEN APPOINTED AS THE HIGH REPRESENTATIVE TO OVERSEE THE POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC RECONSTRUCTION OF BOSNIA. MR. STEINER PROMISES THE RESIDENTS OF SERB-HELD SARAJEVO WILL BE PROTECTED.

    //STEINER ACT//

    THE SERB POPULATION SHOULD NOT FEAR ANYTHING, NOBODY WILL BE CHASED OUT OF THE HOUSE WHERE HE LIVES.

    //END ACT//

    BUT HE ALSO HAD WHAT SEEMED TO BE A GENERAL WARNING FOR THE SERBS -- THAT THEY WERE NO LONGER DEALING WITH THE UNITED NATIONS.

    //STEINER ACT//

    WE WILL NOT BE NEUTRAL. OF COURSE, WE WILL BE IMPARTIAL, BUT WE WILL NOT BE NEUTRAL. WE WILL BE GOAL ORIENTED.

    //END ACT//

    THE SERBIAN PRESIDENT, SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC, HAS ALSO BEEN TRYING TO REASSURE THE SERB RESIDENTS OF THE CITY. SPEAKING ON SERBIAN TELEVISION, HE SAID THE WAR WAS CLEARLY OVER AND THERE WAS NO ROOM FOR FEAR AND WORRY. SO FAR, ALL EFFORTS TO REASSURE THE SERBS HAVE BEEN IN VAIN, AND A SENIOR U-N REFUGEE OFFICIAL DISMISSES EFFORTS TO CONVINCE THE SERBS TO STAY. HE SAYS IF THE BOSNIAN ARMY IS EVER ALLOWED INTO THE SERB DISTRICTS ALL THE SERBS WILL LEAVE AND EVEN THOSE THAT WANT TO STAY WILL BE FORCED TO GO BY OTHER SERBS. (SIGNED) NEB/DF/T-BP/BG 15-Dec-95 1:45 PM EST (1845 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [04] BOSNIA SITREP (L) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

    DATE=12/15/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-190095
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE BOSNIAN SERBS HAVE DOWNGRADED THEIR THREE-AND-A-HALF YEAR OLD DECLARATION OF A STATE OF WAR IN THEIR TERRITORY IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA - EXCEPT IN SERB-HELD SUBURBS OF SARAJEVO. THE MOVE FOLLOWS THE SIGNING OF THE BOSNIAN PEACE AGREEMENT. V-O-A'S CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT, WAYNE COREY, REPORTS.

    TEXT: IN AN IMPORTANT SYMBOLIC STEP, BOSNIAN SERB LEADER RADOVAN KARADZIC ORDERED THE SERB DECLARATION OF A STATE OF WAR IN BOSNIA TO BE DOWNGRADED. THE SERB NEWS AGENCY SAYS SERB FORCES NOW OPERATE ON THE BASIS OF A STATE OF IMMEDIATE WAR DANGER IN ALL TERRITORY THEY HOLD EXCEPT SARAJEVO. THE AGENCY SAYS SEPARATE REGULATIONS, DEALING WITH THE SITUATION IN SERB-HELD PARTS OF THE BOSNIAN CAPITAL, WILL BE ANNOUNCED LATER.

    SARAJEVO REMAINS A SPECIAL CASE. TENS OF THOUSANDS OF SERBS THERE DO NOT WANT TO LIVE UNDER THE CONTROL OF THE MUSLIM/CROAT FEDERATION. THE SERBS HAVE THREATENED TO CARRY OUT A MASS EXODUS FROM THEIR DISTRICTS RATHER THAN HAND OVER THESE AREAS AS REQUIRED BY THE NEW PEACE AGREEMENT FOR BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA.

    A SENIOR SERB LEADER, NIKOLA KOLJEVIC, SAYS THE SARAJEVO SERBS DO NOT HAVE TO LEAVE THE CITY. HE SAYS HE HAS INTERNATIONAL ASSURANCES THEY WILL BE PROTECTED IF THEY STAY. IF THEY WANT TO LEAVE, HE SAYS HE ALSO HAS ASSURANCES OF INTERNATIONAL HELP IN RESETTLING THEM ELSEWHERE.

    SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC ALSO SAYS THE SARAJEVO SERBS HAVE NOTHING TO FEAR ABOUT THE FUTURE. HE SAYS THEY AND EVERYONE ELSE IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA SHOULD STOP THINKING ABOUT WAR AND START THINKING ABOUT PEACE, RECONSTRUCTION AND MUTUAL COOPERATION.

    THE TRANSITION OF SERB-HELD DISTRICTS OF SARAJEVO TO MUSLIM -CROAT FEDERATION RULE COULD BE DELAYED WHILE NATO FORCES PROTECT THE PEOPLE IN THOSE SUBURBS.

    THERE IS ALSO TALK ABOUT THE POSSIBILITY OF BUILDING A NEW CITY FOR THE SARAJEVO SERBS. (SIGNED)

    NEB/WC/GPT
    15-Dec-95 10:24 AM EST (1524 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [05] CLINTON-BOSNIA MEDALS (S & L) BY DAVID BORGIDA (WHITE HOUSE)

    DATE=12/15/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-190123
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: PRESIDENT CLINTON -- HONORING THREE U-S DIPLOMATS KILLED IN BOSNIA IN AUGUST -- SAYS THEIR SACRIFICE UNDERSCORES THE IMPORTANCE OF AMERICAN LEADERSHIP IN THE PURSUIT OF PEACE AROUND THE WORLD. WHITE HOUSE CORRESPONDENT DAVID BORGIDA REPORTS.

    TEXT: THEY DIED IN THE SEARCH FOR PEACE. IT WAS AUGUST NINETEENTH. . . DIPLOMATS ROBERT FRASURE, JOSEPH KRUZEL, AND NELSON DREW WERE KILLED WHEN THE VEHICLE IN WHICH THEY WERE RIDING WENT OVER AN EMBANKMENT IN BOSNIA.

    ONE DAY AFTER ATTENDING THE BOSNIA PEACE SIGNING CEREMONY IN PARIS, PRESIDENT CLINTON POSTHUMOUSLY AWARDED THEM THE PRESIDENTIAL CITIZENS MEDAL. ESTABLISHED IN 1969, IT RECOGNIZES CITIZENS WHO HAVE PERFORMED EXEMPLARY DEEDS OF SERVICE FOR THEIR COUNTRY.

    ///CLINTON ACT///

    THE WORLD IS LOOKING FOR OUR LEADERSHIP FOR PEACE BECAUSE THEY KNOW AMERICA CAN BE TRUSTED. THE WORLD PLACES THAT FAITH IN OUR NATION BECAUSE OF THE WORK OF INDIVIDUAL AMERICAN CITIZENS--LIKE BOB, AND JOE AND NELSON. THEY EMBODY THE SPIRIT OF SERVICE THAT SETS OUR NATION APART. THEY STOOD FOR SOMETHING LARGER THAN THEMSELVES.

    ///END ACT///

    THE FAMILIES OF THE THREE DIPLOMATS ACCEPTED THE AWARDS ON THEIR BEHALF.

    ///REST OPT LONG///

    ///CLINTON ACT///

    TO THE FAMILY AND FRIENDS OF THESE THREE GOOD AND BRAVE MEN, LET ME SAY AGAIN, AS I HAVE SAID BEFORE, WE WILL NEVER FORGET THEM. THEIR SACRIFICE REMINDS US OF THE TRAGEDY THEY SOUGHT TO RELIEVE AND REINFORCES THE URGENCY OF THE SEARCH FOR A SOLUTION.

    ///END ACT///

    IN PARIS THURSDAY, PRESIDENT CLINTON URGED THE PRESIDENTS OF BOSNIA, CROATIA AND SERBIA TO SEIZE THE CHANCE THE PEACE SIGNING REPRESENTED AND HALT THE VIOLENCE THAT FOR SEVERAL YEARS BATTERED THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. HE REAFFIRMED HIS PLEDGE TO SEND 85.6 MILLION DOLLARS FOR BOSNIA'S RECONSTRUCTION.

    AT FRIDAY'S WHITE HOUSE EVENT HONORING THE THREE DIPLOMATS, HE DID NOT DISCUSS THE U-S TROOP DEPLOYMENT IN THE NATO PEACEKEEPING FORCE. (SIGNED)

    NEB/BORG/GPT
    15-Dec-95 4:38 PM EST (2138 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [06] EUROPE / LATAM TRADE BY GEORGE MEEK (RIO DE JANEIRO)

    DATE=12/15/95
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-31963
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    // PORTUGUESE ACTS SENT TO LANGUAGE BUBBLE //

    INTRO: THE EUROPEAN UNION WILL SIGN TODAY (OR HAS SIGNED, SEE LATEST C-N STORY) AN AGREEMENT IN MADRID TO WORK TOWARD A TRANS-ATLANTIC FREE TRADE AREA EMBRACING FOUR SOUTH AMERICAN COUNTRIES. CORRESPONDENT GEORGE MEEK REPORTS FROM RIO DE JANEIRO THAT THE SOUTH AMERICAN COUNTRIES HAVE HIGH HOPES FOR THE PARTNERSHIP.

    TEXT: THE COMMON MARKET OF THE SOUTH, KNOWN AS MERCOSUR, HAS LINKED ARGENTINA, BRAZIL, PARAGUAY, AND URUGUAY IN A CUSTOMS UNION SINCE JANUARY FIRST, WITH A COMMITMENT TO GRADUALLY CREATE A FULL COMMON MARKET.

    BY COMPARISON WITH EUROPE, THE MERCOSUR ECONOMIES ARE SMALL. THEIR COMBINED ANNUAL GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT IS 750-BILLION DOLLARS, WHEREAS EUROPE'S IS TEN TIMES GREATER -- SEVEN-POINT-FIVE TRILLION DOLLARS. EUROPE SENDS ONLY TWO PERCENT OF ITS EXPORTS TO MERCOSUR.

    THE MADRID ACCORD GIVES BOTH BLOCS NEW OPPORTUNITIES FOR TRADE AND INVESTMENT. IT ALSO OPENS TO THE DOOR TO CLOSER COOPERATION IN PROTECTION OF PATENTS, RESEARCH, TRANSPORTATION, AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION.

    THE SENIOR FOREIGN TRADE OFFICIAL IN BRAZIL'S TRADE MINISTRY, MAURICIO CORTES COSTA, SAYS MERCOSUR MEMBERS ARE GLOBAL TRADERS, WITH A WIDE VARIETY OF EXPORTS. HE SAYS THEY WANT TO STRENGTHEN TRADE TIES WITH OTHER AREAS WHILE MOVING TOWARD A FREE TRADE AREA WITHIN THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE.

    // COSTA ACTUALITY //

    EUROPE REPRESENTS, AS A DESTINATION, 27-PERCENT OF BRAZILIAN EXPORTS. SO WE ARE PURSUING THE KIND OF STRATEGY THAT DIVERSIFIES THE FREE TRADE AGREEMENTS AND INTEGRATION WITH DIFFERENT ECONOMIC BLOCS THROUGHOUT THE WORLD.

    // END ACTUALITY //

    THE MERCOSUR COUNTRIES' SHARE OF THE EUROPEAN MARKET HAS BEEN DECLINING IN RECENT YEARS, AND THEY WOULD LIKE TO REVERSE THE TREND.

    ALTHOUGH IT WILL TAKE YEARS TO HAMMER OUT (NEGOTIATE) A TRANS-ATLANTIC FREE TRADE ACCORD, MR. COSTA SAYS THERE MAY BE SOME BENEFITS OF THE NEW PARTNERSHIP BEFORE THEN.

    // COSTA ACTUALITY //

    IN TERMS OF UNDERSTANDINGS FOR REMOVAL OF TECHNICAL BARRIERS OR FITO-SANITARY (PLANT DISEASE CONTROL) MEASURES THAT MIGHT BE CORRECTED BECAUSE THEY HINDER SOME OF THE PRESENT TRADE FLOWS, THE RESULTS MAY APPEAR NEXT YEAR. THEY DO NOT HAVE TO WAIT TOO LONG TO HAPPEN. BUT IN TERMS OF WHAT WE CALL TARIFF PREFERENCE IN MARKET ACCESS, WE ARE ENVISAGING A PERIOD OF ABOUT FOUR YEARS TO NEGOTIATE A FREE TRADE AGREEMENT BETWEEN MERCOSUR AND THE EUROPEAN UNION.

    // END ACTUALITY //

    THE BRAZILIAN TRADE OFFICIAL SAYS THE MERCOSUR-EUROPE PARTNERSHIP WILL BE RECIPROCAL, UNLIKE EUROPE'S ARRANGEMENT WITH THE AFRICAN, CARIBBEAN AND PACIFIC COUNTRIES THAT OFFERS UNILATERAL TRADE BENEFITS.

    THE EUROPE-MERCOSUR ACCORD PROVIDES FOR A JOINT TRADE COMMISSION TO MEET ANNUALLY TO REVIEW TARIFFS AND TRADE RESTRICTIONS. THERE WILL ALSO BE A POLICY FORUM, THE COOPERATION COUNCIL, WHICH WILL MEET AT THE MINISTERIAL LEVEL. CHAIRMANSHIP WILL ROTATE BETWEEN EUROPE AND MERCOSUR.

    THE MADRID ACCORD IS ONLY A FRAMEWORK, BUT LATIN AMERICAN LEADERS SEE IT AS AN IMPORTANT STEP TOWARD CLOSER TIES ACROSS THE ATLANTIC. (SIGNED)

    NEB/GM/GO/ART
    15-Dec-95 11:52 AM EST (1652 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [07] THE BOSNIAN PEACE PLAN

    DATE=DECEMBER 16, 1995
    TYPE=ON THE LINE
    NUMBER=1-00383
    EDITOR=OFFICE OF POLICY - 619-0037
    CONTENT=
    THEME: UP, HOLD UNDER AND FADE ANNCR: ON THE LINE -- A DISCUSSION OF UNITED STATES POLICIES AND CONTEMPORARY ISSUES.

    THIS WEEK, "THE BOSNIAN PEACE PLAN." HERE IS YOUR HOST, ROBERT REILLY. HOST: HELLO AND WELCOME TO ON THE LINE.

    THE BREAKUP OF YUGOSLAVIA IN 1992 LED TO WAR IN THE NEW STATE OF BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. THE FIGHTING AMONG BOSNIAN MUSLIM, SERB AND CROAT FACTIONS HAS RESULTED IN OVER TWO-HUNDRED THOUSAND DEATHS AND THE WORST ATROCITIES IN EUROPE SINCE THE SECOND WORLD WAR. LAST MONTH, IN DAYTON, OHIO, THE WARRING PARTIES REACHED A PEACE AGREEMENT WHICH THEY SIGNED IN PARIS THIS WEEK. PRESIDENT BILL CLINTON HAS PLEDGED SOME TWENTY-THOUSAND AMERICAN TROOPS AS PART OF A LARGER NATO FORCE TO IMPLEMENT THE ACCORD. IN A SPEECH TO THE AMERICAN PEOPLE, MR. CLINTON SAID THE MISSION OF THE TROOPS WILL BE "TO HELP STOP THE KILLING OF INNOCENT CIVILIANS" AND "TO BRING STABILITY TO CENTRAL EUROPE, A REGION OF THE WORLD THAT IS VITAL TO [U.S.] NATIONAL INTERESTS."

    JOINING ME TODAY TO DISCUSS U.S. POLICY AND THE BOSNIAN PEACE AGREEMENT IS WALTER SLOCOMBE, U.S. UNDERSECRETARY OF DEFENSE FOR POLICY. MR. SLOCOMBE, WELCOME TO "ON THE LINE." LET ME BEGIN BY ASKING YOU WHY BOSNIA-HERZOGOVINA IS A VITAL STRATEGIC INTEREST OF THE UNITED STATES? SLOCOMBE: THIS WAR HAS GONE ON NOW FOR SEVERAL YEARS NOW. IF IT GOES ON LONGER, IF THIS PEACE AGREEMENT BREAKS DOWN, THERE'S A VERY REAL DANGER THAT IT WILL SPREAD. THAT WILL MEAN INSTABILITY AND THREATS, NOT JUST IN BOSNIA, NOT JUST A RESUMPTION OF THE TERRIBLE KILLING AND ATROCITIES THAT HAVE TAKEN PLACE, BUT A DANGER OF OTHER COUNTRIES BEING DRAWN IN, DRAWING IN NATO ALLIES AND GENERALLY CHALLENGING THE SYSTEM OF STABILITY AND SECURITY THAT'S VERY IMPORTANT IN THE UNITED STATES. WE HAVE CRITICAL NATIONAL INTERESTS IN EUROPE -- ECONOMIC INTERESTS, POLITICAL INTERESTS, STRATEGIC INTERESTS. THOSE CAN ONLY BE SERVED IF EUROPE IS SECURE AND STABLE. THE WAR IN BOSNIA IS A FUNDAMENTAL THREAT TO THAT STABILITY. HOST: LET ME ASK YOU, THEN, IF IT IS SUCH A VITAL INTEREST, WHY IS THERE A TIME LIMIT ON U.S. ENGAGEMENT? WHY ISN'T OUR PRESENCE THEIR DRIVEN BY THE ACCOMPLISHMENT OF THE MISSION, INSTEAD OF SAYING WE'RE GOING TO BE OUT IN AROUND TWELVE MONTHS? SLOCOMBE: BECAUSE WE THINK THE MILITARY MISSION, WHICH IS ALL THE NATO TROOPS WILL BE DOING, CAN BE ACCOMPLISHED IN TWELVE MONTHS. THE CIVILIAN IMPLEMENTATION, THE SUPPORT FOR ECONOMIC RECONSTRUCTION, THAT WILL GO ON WELL BEYOND THAT PERIOD OF TIME. HOST: LET ME ASK YOU THEN: WHAT IS THE MILITARY MISSION? SLOCOMBE: THE MILITARY MISSION IS TO HELP SEE THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE STRICTLY MILITARY PROVISIONS OF THE DAYTON AGREEMENT. THOSE INCLUDE SEPARATION OF FORCES, WITHDRAWAL TO AGREED LINES, PULLING THE FORCES OF THE WARRING PARTIES BACK FROM THE FRONT LINES INTO A NORMAL PEACETIME GARRISON TYPE OF STRUCTURE. THOSE KINDS OF THINGS ARE THE MILITARY MISSION. THERE ARE OTHER PARTS OF THE AGREEMENT THAT ARE VERY IMPORTANT: FREE ELECTIONS, ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND THEY'LL BE DONE BY OTHER PARTS OF THE INTERNATIONAL EFFORT, BUT NOT BY THE NATO IMPLEMENTATION FORCE. HOST: NOW WHAT ARE YOUR CONCERNS AS UNDERSECRETARY OF DEFENSE CONCERNING THIS MILITARY MISSION? SLOCOMBE: THE FIRST REQUIREMENT OF THE FORCE IS OF COURSE TO PROTECT ITSELF. WE ARE PLANNING THIS VERY CAREFULLY. THE TROOPS ARE HIGHLY TRAINED AND WELL-EQUIPPED, SO THAT ANY THREAT TO THE FORCE WILL BE MET WITH A STRONG AND EFFECTIVE RESPONSE. BUT IT'S ALSO TRUE THAT THEY'RE THERE TO PUT MILITARY MUSCLE BEHIND THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MILITARY PROVISIONS. SO THAT IF ONE FACTION, SOME LOCAL GROUP DOESN'T GET THE WORD, DECIDES THAT THEY'RE GOING TO TRY TO NOT WITHDRAW, DECIDES THAT THEY'RE GOING TO GO BACK TO THE PRACTICE OF FIRING ACROSS THE LINE, IF OTHER METHODS DO NOT SUCCEED, THE IMPLEMENTATION FORCE HAS THE CAPABILITY AND THE ROBUSTNESS AND THE AUTHORITY TO DEAL WITH THAT BY MILITARY FORCE. HOST: SO THE MESSAGE IS VERY CLEAR: NOBODY MOVES MILITARILY, EXCEPT THE NATO FORCES. SLOCOMBE: WELL, NOT STRICTLY SPEAKING. THE MILITARY FORCES ARE STILL FREE TO MOVE AROUND IN CERTAIN AREAS. NO ONE CAN TAKE ANY MILITARY ACTION EXCEPT THE NATO MILITARY FORCE. THAT'S RIGHT. AND THAT GOES BEYOND SOME OF THE THINGS WE'VE MENTIONED ALREADY. ALL THE RADARS HAVE TO BE TURNED OFF IN A FEW DAYS. THE FORCES HAVE TO PULL BACK. AIR TRAFFIC IS UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF THE IMPLEMENTATION FORCE COMMAND. HOST: NOW, ONE CONCERN EXPRESSED BY SOME CRITICS OF THIS AGREEMENT IS THAT THE UNITED STATES WON'T BE SEEN AS A NEUTRAL PRESENCE ON THE GROUND AMONG THESE CONTENDING FACTIONS BECAUSE IT'S ALREADY ENGAGED AS PART OF A NATO FORCE IN BOMBING BOSNIAN SERB POSITIONS, AND THAT THE UNITED STATES WILL BE ENGAGED SOMEWHAT INDIRECTLY IN ARMING THE BOSNIAN MUSLIMS. WHAT'S YOUR RESPONSE TO THAT? SLOCOMBE: THE U.S. FORCES, LIKE THE OTHER PARTS OF THE NATO FORCE, WILL ENFORCE THIS AGREEMENT EVENHANDEDLY AND IMPARTIALLY AGAINST ALL COMERS. IF THERE IS A THREAT TO THE FORCE, IF THERE'S A FAILURE TO COMPLY, THOSE WILL BE DEALT WITH IN THE SAME WAY REGARDLESS OF THE SOURCE OF THE TROUBLE. BUT THAT'S DIFFERENT FROM THE QUESTION OF A SORT OF NEUTRALITY OR AGNOSTICISM ABOUT WHO'S RESPONSIBLE FOR THE WAR. BUT THE POINT NOW IS NOT TO SORT OUT WHAT HAPPENED IN THE PAST OR WHO DID WHAT, BUT TO GET THE PEACE AGREEMENT WORKING. AND IN THAT RESPECT, WE'RE GOING TO BE COMPLETELY IMPARTIAL AND EVEN-HANDED. WITH RESPECT TO THE EQUIPPING AND TRAINING OF THE BOSNIAN ARMY, WE RECOGNIZE THAT ONE OF THE REASONS WHY THIS WAR STARTED, ONE OF THE REASONS WHY IT WENT ON AS LONG AS IT DID, WAS THAT THE BOSNIAN SERBS HAVE A SUBSTANTIAL ADVANTAGE, NOT IN NUMBERS BUT IN HEAVY WEAPONRY. THE AGREEMENT CONTAINS PROVISIONS FOR ARMS CONTROL, FOR REDUCTION OF THAT ADVANTAGE, TO CREATE A MILITARY BALANCE SO THAT NEITHER SIDE WILL THREATEN THE OTHER WHILE THE AGREEMENT IS BEING IMPLEMENTED. WE'RE REALISTIC ENOUGH TO UNDERSTAND THAT ARMS CONTROL CAN'T DO THE WHOLE JOB. FOR THAT REASON, THE PRESIDENT HAS COMMITTED TO THE PARTIES, COMMITTED TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS THAT WE WILL UNDERTAKE TO LEAD A COORDINATED INTERNATIONAL EFFORT SO THAT WHEN THE I-FOR LEAVES AT THE END OF THE YEAR, THERE WILL BE A MILITARY BALANCE SO THE BOSNIAN FEDERATION WILL BE ABLE TO DEFEND ITSELF. HOST: I-FOR BEING THE NATO FORCE. SLOCOMBE: EXACTLY. BUT I-FOR WILL NOT HAVE ANY ROLE IN THAT EQUIPMENT-TRAINED EFFORT, NEITHER WILL THE AMERICAN MILITARY AS SUCH. HOST: NOW, PRESIDENT CLINTON WAS VERY CLEAR IN STATING THAT THE UNITED STATES HAS REMAINED OUT OF THE CONFLICT MILITARILY, AND HAS UNDERTAKEN THIS ROLE ONLY BECAUSE THESE WARRING PARTIES, WITH U.S. ENCOURAGEMENT AND HELP, HAVE REACHED A PEACE AGREEMENT AMONG THEMSELVES. WHAT WOULD HAPPEN, HOWEVER, SHOULD HOSTILITIES AMONGST THESE WARRING PARTIES RESUME? SLOCOMBE: FIRST OF ALL, WE HAVE NO REASON TO BELIEVE THAT'S GOING TO HAPPEN. ALL THREE PARTIES HAVE REAFFIRMED REPEATEDLY AND MORE STRONGLY IN PARIS, IN FACT, THAN ANY OTHER PREVIOUS OCCASION, THEIR COMMITMENT TO MAKE THIS THING WORK. MOREOVER, WE HAVE SOME REASON TO BELIEVE ALREADY THAT THEY'RE TIRED OF WAR. NOBODY IS HAPPY ABOUT THIS AGREEMENT, BUT THAT THEY WILL ACCEPT IT AS A BETTER ALTERNATIVE THAN CONTINUING FIGHTING. IF THERE ARE ISOLATED INCIDENTS -- WE EXPECT THERE WILL BE -- THOSE WILL BE DEALT WITH AND RESPONDED TOO, NOT NECESSARILY BY MILITARY FORCE AT THE VERY BEGINNING, BUT IF IT'S NECESSARY TO GET COMPLIANCE, BY MILITARY FORCE. IF IT TURNS OUT THAT THERE IS A GENERAL BREAKDOWN OF THE AGREEMENT -- A LARGE-SCALE RESUMPTION OF FIGHTING -- OBVIOUSLY EVERYBODY WILL HAVE TO REASSESS THEIR POSITION AND THEIR DECISIONS. WE HAVE NOT SENT THIS FORCE, NATO HAS NOT SENT THIS FORCE TO BE A COMBATANT ON THE SIDE OF ANY PARTY, BUT TO ENFORCE AN AGREEMENT. IF THERE IS NOT AN AGREEMENT THAT IS BEING LIVED UP TO ENFORCE, WE HAVE TO MAKE FUNDAMENTAL REASSESSMENTS OF WHAT WE DO. AND WE WOULD NOT INTERVENE IN THE FIGHTING. ONE OF THE THINGS I SHOULD SAY IS THAT THIS FORCE WILL HAVE THE CAPABILITY TO PROTECT ITSELF WHATEVER THE CIRCUMSTANCES ARE, SO THAT IF IT SHOULD FOR WHATEVER REASON BECOME NECESSARY TO WITHDRAW UNDER ADVERSE CONDITIONS, THIS FORCE WOULD BE ABLE TO DO SO SUCCESSFULLY. HOST: LET ME ASK YOU ABOUT YOUR REACTION TO THE RESOLUTIONS THAT HAVE BEEN PASSED BY THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES AND THE SENATE, GIVING SOMEWHAT MIXED SUPPORT TO THE PRESIDENT'S DEPLOYMENT. WHAT IS YOUR REACTION TO THAT AND DO YOU THINK IT WILL HAMPER THIS MISSION IN ANY WAY? SLOCOMBE: AS SENATOR DOLE SAID AFTER BOTH HOUSES HAD ACTED, HE THOUGHT THE PRESIDENT COULD FAIRLY SAY THAT HE HAD THE SUPPORT OF CONGRESS. I THINK THAT IS ACCURATE. SENATOR DOLE AND A NUMBER OF OTHER REPUBLICANS AND OBVIOUSLY A LARGE NUMBER OF DEMOCRATS, TOOK A VERY STATESMAN-LIKE APPROACH IN SAYING THAT THEY HAD RESERVATIONS ABOUT THE POLICY. THEY HAD RESERVATIONS ABOUT THE DECISION. BUT THAT THEY UNDERSTOOD THAT THE PRESIDENT HAD MADE A COMMITMENT AND HE COULD FULFILL THAT COMMITMENT. THAT'S ROUGHLY THE TERMS OF THE SENATE VOTE. AND EVEN ON THE HOUSE SIDE, AN EFFORT TO STOP FUNDING FOR THE EFFORT WAS DEFEATED. SO THAT CERTAINLY THIS IS NOT AN ABSOLUTE ENDORSEMENT OF EVERY ASPECT OF THE POLICIES THAT GOT US HERE, BUT IT IS A RECOGNITION THAT THE UNITED STATES IS COMMITTED AND THAT ONCE THAT COMMITMENT IS MADE IT'S GOING TO BE CARRIED FORWARD FULLY AND EFFECTIVELY WITH THE SUPPORT OF THE MILITARY FORCES THERE TO DO THE JOB. HOST: CERTAINLY ADVERSARIES OF THE UNITED STATES HAVE TRIED TO TAKE ADVANTAGE OF PERCEIVED WEAKNESS IN RESOLVE TO CARRY OUT A MISSION IN THE PAST, PARTICULARLY WHEN THEY SUSPECT THE UNITED STATES HAS ENGAGED FORCES IN A PART OF THE WORLD WHERE WE DON'T HAVE A STRATEGIC INTEREST, WHERE OUR PRESENCE MAY BE PRIMARILY HUMANITARIAN, SUCH AS IN, OF COURSE, SOMALIA, WHERE AFTER A NUMBER OF TROOPS ARE KILLED, THE UNITED STATES THAN LEAVES. WHAT WILL BE THE REACTION OF THE UNITED STATES AND OUR MILITARY FORCES SHOULD SOME CASUALTIES BE TAKEN? SLOCOMBE: OBVIOUSLY, WE'VE TAKEN ALL KINDS OF STEPS TO MINIMIZE CASUALTIES. THE TROOPS ARE VERY CAREFULLY TRAINED, BOTH IN BASIC COMBAT SKILLS AND IN THE KIND OF SITUATION THEY'RE GOING TO ENCOUNTER WHEN THEY GET THERE. THAT'S TRUE OF THE OTHER NATO FORCES AS WELL, AND OF THE OTHER NON-NATO FORCES, I SHOULD SAY. A SUBSTANTIAL PART OF THE FORCE IS NOT NATO COUNTRIES. THEY WILL BE WELL-ARMED. THESE ARE POWERFULLY-EQUIPPED UNITS; THEY'RE NOT THE KIND OF LIGHT-INFANTRY THAT IS EASILY SUSCEPTIBLE TO HARASSING ATTACK. ALL THAT SAID, WE EXPECT THAT THEIR WILL BE CASUALTIES; THIS IS NOT A RISK-FREE OPERATION. BUT THE RISKS, THE COSTS INVOLVED IN THE KINDS OF CASUALTIES WHICH WE THINK ARE POSSIBLE ARE SMALLER THAN THE KINDS OF RISKS AND UNCERTAINTIES AND IN ALL PROBABILITY, FUTURE CASUALTIES THAT WOULD BE INVOLVED IF THE WAR STARTED UP AGAIN. I THINK PEOPLE SHOULD NOT MISTAKE AMERICAN WILL AND AMERICAN CAPACITY, OR INDEED NATO WILL AND NATO CAPACITY. ANYONE WHO CAUSES TROUBLE FOR THIS FORCE WILL THEMSELVES BE IN SEVERE TROUBLE. BUT WE COME AS PEACEMAKERS TO IMPLEMENT A PEACE THAT THE PARTIES THEMSELVES HAVE AGREED TO. THIS IS NOT A SITUATION -- AS WAS THE CASE IN SOMALIA IN ADDITION TO A MILLION OTHER DIFFERENCES -- THIS IS NOT A CASE AS IN SOMALIA, WHERE THERE IS NO LOCAL AUTHORITY, WHERE THERE IS NO AGREED BASIS FOR A RESOLUTION OF THE PROBLEMS. HOST: NOW THESE PARTIES HAVE BEFORE REACHED AGREEMENTS AMONG THEMSELVES, MOST SIGNIFICANTLY PERHAPS IN FEBRUARY OF 1992 IN LISBON, WHERE THEY AGREED TO A SUBDIVISION OF BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA UNDER SOME KIND OF LOOSE CONFEDERATION. THAT AGREEMENT FELL APART. WHAT'S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LISBON AND WHAT WAS ACHIEVED IN DAYTON, OHIO? SLOCOMBE: I THINK THERE ARE TWO IMPORTANT DIFFERENCES. ONE IS THIS IS AN AGREEMENT THAT HAS BEEN NEGOTIATED OUT IN GREAT DETAIL OVER A LONG PERIOD OF TIME. IT HAS IN EFFECT BEEN IMPLEMENTED ALREADY TO A CONSIDERABLE DEGREE ON A GRADUAL BASIS. WE'VE HAD A CEASE-FIRE FOR A COUPLE OF MONTHS NOW. WE'VE HAD AN END TO HARASSMENT AND INTERFERENCE WITH U-N MOVEMENTS; NOT PERFECT, BUT VASTLY BETTER THAN IT HAD BEEN IN THE PAST. HEAVY WEAPONS HAVE BEEN PULLED BACK. SO THERE IS A DEGREE OF POLITICAL COMMITMENT AND PAST COMPLIANCE TO BUILD A BASE TO WORK ON. FRANKLY, ANOTHER DIFFERENCE IS THAT THERE HAVE BEEN THREE YEARS OF FIGHTING; MORE THAN THREE YEARS OF FIGHTING SINCE 1992. AND I THINK THE PARTIES HAVE, AFTER THE HORRIBLE COSTS OF THIS WAR, REACHED THE CONCLUSION, AS ONE BOSNIAN LEADER SAID TO [U.S.] SECRETARY [OF DEFENSE WILLIAM] PERRY, "THE RISKS OF PEACE ARE ONES THAT ARE WORTH TAKING, RATHER THAN THE RISKS OF CONTINUED FIGHTING." WE THINK ALL OF THE PARTIES HAVE REACHED ESSENTIALLY THAT CONCLUSION NOW. HOST: NOW WOULD YOU CHARACTERIZE THE DAYTON AGREEMENT AS A DE FACTO PARTITION OF BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA? CAN IT SURVIVE AS A UNITARY STATE AFTER THIS HORRIBLE WAR AND THE ATROCITIES AND THE MUTUAL HATRED AND MISTRUST? SLOCOMBE: IT IS NOT A PARTITION. THEY CREATE THE BASIS FOR PEACE TO TAKE HOLD AND THEN TO TAKE ADVANTAGE OF THE PARTS OF DAYTON AGREEMENT WHICH DO PROVIDE FOR THE GRADUAL CONSTRUCTION OF A CONFEDERATION OF BOTH THE SERB AND THE FEDERATION, THAT IS THE MUSLIM AND CROAT PARTS OF THE COUNTRY. THAT'S OBVIOUSLY A PROCESS WHICH WILL TAKE TIME, BUT IT CREATES A CONTEXT WHERE IT IS POSSIBLE. IT IS NOT A PARTITION EITHER FORMAL OR DE FACTO OF THE COUNTRY INTO TWO OR MORE PARTS. HOST: NOW THIS IS A NEW ROLE FOR NATO. YOU MENTIONED THAT THE UNITED STATES IS NOT THE ONLY COUNTRY SENDING FORCES. THERE ARE OTHER NATO MEMBERS AS WELL AS NON-NATO COUNTRIES. IS THIS AN EXCEPTION TO PROVE THE RULE OR IS THIS SOMETHING THAT IS GOING TO SET A PRECEDENT THAT MAY BE FOLLOWED? SLOCOMBE: YOU ASKED ME AT THE BEGINNING OF PROGRAM ABOUT OUR VITAL INTERESTS. ONE OF THE REASONS WHY THIS IS IMPORTANT TO DO IS TO DEMONSTRATE THAT NATO CAN IN FACT BE AN EXTREMELY USEFUL INSTRUMENT FOR OUR SECURITY POLICIES COLLECTIVELY WITHIN THE ATLANTIC COMMUNITY IN THIS POST-COLD WAR ERA JUST AS IT WAS DURING THE COLD WAR. I THINK ALL OF US WHO WORKED ON THIS PROBLEM HAVE BEEN PLEASED AND PERHAPS SURPRISED AT THE DEGREE TO WHICH NATO HAS BEEN ABLE TO STEP UP TO THE CHALLENGE, TO GET ITSELF ORGANIZED, TO GET VERY LARGE CONTRIBUTIONS. MANY OF THE NATO COUNTRIES ARE MAKING PROPORTIONATELY LARGER CONTRIBUTIONS COMPARED TO THE SIZE OF THE MILITARIES OR THE SIZE OF THEIR POPULATIONS COMPARED TO WHAT THE UNITED STATES IS. HOST: INTERESTINGLY ENOUGH, YOU HAVE CONTRIBUTING TO THIS FORCE SOME MEMBERS OF THE PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE. SLOCOMBE: AND FOR THAT MATTER, WE EXPECT THERE WILL BE RUSSIAN FORCES PARTICIPATING AS WELL, AS WELL AS NON-EUROPEAN FORCES: PAKISTAN AND A NUMBER OF OTHER COUNTRIES FROM ENTIRELY OUTSIDE EUROPE. ONE OF THE THINGS THAT IS IMPORTANT ABOUT THIS EFFORT, ONE OF THE REASONS THAT WE BELIEVE IT WILL SUCCEED, BUT ALSO ONE OF THE REASONS IT'S IMPORTANT THAT IT SHOULD SUCCEED AND SHOULD HAVE OUR SUPPORT, IS THAT IT REPRESENTS A REMARKABLE DEGREE OF INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION TO BRING ABOUT AN EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF A PEACE AGREEMENT THAT THREATENS EVERYBODY'S SECURITY. HOST: TO THAT EXTENT SOME PEOPLE HAVE RAISED CONCERNS ABOUT THE PRESENCE OF RUSSIAN COMBAT TROOPS IN THE BALKANS BECAUSE IT IS AN AREA OF TRADITIONAL RUSSIAN INTEREST, AND THOSE INTERESTS MAY NOT NECESSARILY COINCIDE ACCORDING TO SOME. IS THAT AN AREA OF CONCERN FOR YOU AT ALL? SLOCOMBE: IT IS NOT AN AREA OF CONCERN. THE RUSSIANS HAVE AFTER ALL BEEN IN THE UNPROFOR, THE U-N FORCE, AS WELL. THERE HAVE BEEN TURKISH TROOPS, GERMAN TROOPS, THERE WILL BE ITALIANS. A LOT OF COUNTRIES WITH A HISTORY IN THE BALKANS WILL BE PARTICIPATING IN THIS EFFORT. THE RUSSIAN TROOPS WILL BE UNDER THE OPERATIONAL CONTROL OF THE SUPREME ALLIED COMMAND OF THE NATO COMMANDER. THEY WILL OPERATE WITH THE SAME MISSION AND THIS HAS BEEN AGREED WITH THE RUSSIANS. THEY WILL OPERATE WITH THE SAME MISSION, SAME RULES OF ENGAGEMENT AS THE OTHER TROOPS. ALL OF THESE TROOPS WILL BE OPERATING UNDER EVENHANDED, IMPARTIAL RULES SO THAT I THINK THAT THE RUSSIAN FORCES WILL BE ABLE TO MAKE A VERY POSITIVE CONTRIBUTION. HOST: I'M AFRAID THAT'S ALL THE TIME WE HAVE THIS WEEK. I'D LIKE TO THANK OUR GUEST, U.S. UNDERSECRETARY OF DEFENSE WALTER SLOCOMBE FOR JOINING ME THIS WEEK TO DISCUSS U.S. POLICY AND THE BOSNIAN PEACE PLAN. THIS IS ROBERT REILLY FOR ON THE LINE.

    15-Dec-95 3:49 PM EST (2049 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [08] THE BOSNIAN PEACE PLAN

    DATE=DECEMBER 16, 1995
    TYPE=ON THE LINE
    NUMBER=1-00383
    EDITOR=OFFICE OF POLICY - 619-0037
    CONTENT=
    THEME: UP, HOLD UNDER AND FADE ANNCR: ON THE LINE -- A DISCUSSION OF UNITED STATES POLICIES AND CONTEMPORARY ISSUES.

    THIS WEEK, "THE BOSNIAN PEACE PLAN." HERE IS YOUR HOST, ROBERT REILLY. HOST: HELLO AND WELCOME TO ON THE LINE.

    THE BREAKUP OF YUGOSLAVIA IN 1992 LED TO WAR IN THE NEW STATE OF BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. THE FIGHTING AMONG BOSNIAN MUSLIM, SERB AND CROAT FACTIONS HAS RESULTED IN OVER TWO-HUNDRED THOUSAND DEATHS AND THE WORST ATROCITIES IN EUROPE SINCE THE SECOND WORLD WAR. LAST MONTH, IN DAYTON, OHIO, THE WARRING PARTIES REACHED A PEACE AGREEMENT WHICH THEY SIGNED IN PARIS THIS WEEK. PRESIDENT BILL CLINTON HAS PLEDGED SOME TWENTY-THOUSAND AMERICAN TROOPS AS PART OF A LARGER NATO FORCE TO IMPLEMENT THE ACCORD. IN A SPEECH TO THE AMERICAN PEOPLE, MR. CLINTON SAID THE MISSION OF THE TROOPS WILL BE "TO HELP STOP THE KILLING OF INNOCENT CIVILIANS" AND "TO BRING STABILITY TO CENTRAL EUROPE, A REGION OF THE WORLD THAT IS VITAL TO [U.S.] NATIONAL INTERESTS."

    JOINING ME TODAY TO DISCUSS U.S. POLICY AND THE BOSNIAN PEACE AGREEMENT IS WALTER SLOCOMBE, U.S. UNDERSECRETARY OF DEFENSE FOR POLICY. MR. SLOCOMBE, WELCOME TO "ON THE LINE." LET ME BEGIN BY ASKING YOU WHY BOSNIA-HERZOGOVINA IS A VITAL STRATEGIC INTEREST OF THE UNITED STATES? SLOCOMBE: THIS WAR HAS GONE ON NOW FOR SEVERAL YEARS NOW. IF IT GOES ON LONGER, IF THIS PEACE AGREEMENT BREAKS DOWN, THERE'S A VERY REAL DANGER THAT IT WILL SPREAD. THAT WILL MEAN INSTABILITY AND THREATS, NOT JUST IN BOSNIA, NOT JUST A RESUMPTION OF THE TERRIBLE KILLING AND ATROCITIES THAT HAVE TAKEN PLACE, BUT A DANGER OF OTHER COUNTRIES BEING DRAWN IN, DRAWING IN NATO ALLIES AND GENERALLY CHALLENGING THE SYSTEM OF STABILITY AND SECURITY THAT'S VERY IMPORTANT IN THE UNITED STATES. WE HAVE CRITICAL NATIONAL INTERESTS IN EUROPE -- ECONOMIC INTERESTS, POLITICAL INTERESTS, STRATEGIC INTERESTS. THOSE CAN ONLY BE SERVED IF EUROPE IS SECURE AND STABLE. THE WAR IN BOSNIA IS A FUNDAMENTAL THREAT TO THAT STABILITY. HOST: LET ME ASK YOU, THEN, IF IT IS SUCH A VITAL INTEREST, WHY IS THERE A TIME LIMIT ON U.S. ENGAGEMENT? WHY ISN'T OUR PRESENCE THEIR DRIVEN BY THE ACCOMPLISHMENT OF THE MISSION, INSTEAD OF SAYING WE'RE GOING TO BE OUT IN AROUND TWELVE MONTHS? SLOCOMBE: BECAUSE WE THINK THE MILITARY MISSION, WHICH IS ALL THE NATO TROOPS WILL BE DOING, CAN BE ACCOMPLISHED IN TWELVE MONTHS. THE CIVILIAN IMPLEMENTATION, THE SUPPORT FOR ECONOMIC RECONSTRUCTION, THAT WILL GO ON WELL BEYOND THAT PERIOD OF TIME. HOST: LET ME ASK YOU THEN: WHAT IS THE MILITARY MISSION? SLOCOMBE: THE MILITARY MISSION IS TO HELP SEE THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE STRICTLY MILITARY PROVISIONS OF THE DAYTON AGREEMENT. THOSE INCLUDE SEPARATION OF FORCES, WITHDRAWAL TO AGREED LINES, PULLING THE FORCES OF THE WARRING PARTIES BACK FROM THE FRONT LINES INTO A NORMAL PEACETIME GARRISON TYPE OF STRUCTURE. THOSE KINDS OF THINGS ARE THE MILITARY MISSION. THERE ARE OTHER PARTS OF THE AGREEMENT THAT ARE VERY IMPORTANT: FREE ELECTIONS, ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND THEY'LL BE DONE BY OTHER PARTS OF THE INTERNATIONAL EFFORT, BUT NOT BY THE NATO IMPLEMENTATION FORCE. HOST: NOW WHAT ARE YOUR CONCERNS AS UNDERSECRETARY OF DEFENSE CONCERNING THIS MILITARY MISSION? SLOCOMBE: THE FIRST REQUIREMENT OF THE FORCE IS OF COURSE TO PROTECT ITSELF. WE ARE PLANNING THIS VERY CAREFULLY. THE TROOPS ARE HIGHLY TRAINED AND WELL-EQUIPPED, SO THAT ANY THREAT TO THE FORCE WILL BE MET WITH A STRONG AND EFFECTIVE RESPONSE. BUT IT'S ALSO TRUE THAT THEY'RE THERE TO PUT MILITARY MUSCLE BEHIND THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MILITARY PROVISIONS. SO THAT IF ONE FACTION, SOME LOCAL GROUP DOESN'T GET THE WORD, DECIDES THAT THEY'RE GOING TO TRY TO NOT WITHDRAW, DECIDES THAT THEY'RE GOING TO GO BACK TO THE PRACTICE OF FIRING ACROSS THE LINE, IF OTHER METHODS DO NOT SUCCEED, THE IMPLEMENTATION FORCE HAS THE CAPABILITY AND THE ROBUSTNESS AND THE AUTHORITY TO DEAL WITH THAT BY MILITARY FORCE. HOST: SO THE MESSAGE IS VERY CLEAR: NOBODY MOVES MILITARILY, EXCEPT THE NATO FORCES. SLOCOMBE: WELL, NOT STRICTLY SPEAKING. THE MILITARY FORCES ARE STILL FREE TO MOVE AROUND IN CERTAIN AREAS. NO ONE CAN TAKE ANY MILITARY ACTION EXCEPT THE NATO MILITARY FORCE. THAT'S RIGHT. AND THAT GOES BEYOND SOME OF THE THINGS WE'VE MENTIONED ALREADY. ALL THE RADARS HAVE TO BE TURNED OFF IN A FEW DAYS. THE FORCES HAVE TO PULL BACK. AIR TRAFFIC IS UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF THE IMPLEMENTATION FORCE COMMAND. HOST: NOW, ONE CONCERN EXPRESSED BY SOME CRITICS OF THIS AGREEMENT IS THAT THE UNITED STATES WON'T BE SEEN AS A NEUTRAL PRESENCE ON THE GROUND AMONG THESE CONTENDING FACTIONS BECAUSE IT'S ALREADY ENGAGED AS PART OF A NATO FORCE IN BOMBING BOSNIAN SERB POSITIONS, AND THAT THE UNITED STATES WILL BE ENGAGED SOMEWHAT INDIRECTLY IN ARMING THE BOSNIAN MUSLIMS. WHAT'S YOUR RESPONSE TO THAT? SLOCOMBE: THE U.S. FORCES, LIKE THE OTHER PARTS OF THE NATO FORCE, WILL ENFORCE THIS AGREEMENT EVENHANDEDLY AND IMPARTIALLY AGAINST ALL COMERS. IF THERE IS A THREAT TO THE FORCE, IF THERE'S A FAILURE TO COMPLY, THOSE WILL BE DEALT WITH IN THE SAME WAY REGARDLESS OF THE SOURCE OF THE TROUBLE. BUT THAT'S DIFFERENT FROM THE QUESTION OF A SORT OF NEUTRALITY OR AGNOSTICISM ABOUT WHO'S RESPONSIBLE FOR THE WAR. BUT THE POINT NOW IS NOT TO SORT OUT WHAT HAPPENED IN THE PAST OR WHO DID WHAT, BUT TO GET THE PEACE AGREEMENT WORKING. AND IN THAT RESPECT, WE'RE GOING TO BE COMPLETELY IMPARTIAL AND EVEN-HANDED. WITH RESPECT TO THE EQUIPPING AND TRAINING OF THE BOSNIAN ARMY, WE RECOGNIZE THAT ONE OF THE REASONS WHY THIS WAR STARTED, ONE OF THE REASONS WHY IT WENT ON AS LONG AS IT DID, WAS THAT THE BOSNIAN SERBS HAVE A SUBSTANTIAL ADVANTAGE, NOT IN NUMBERS BUT IN HEAVY WEAPONRY. THE AGREEMENT CONTAINS PROVISIONS FOR ARMS CONTROL, FOR REDUCTION OF THAT ADVANTAGE, TO CREATE A MILITARY BALANCE SO THAT NEITHER SIDE WILL THREATEN THE OTHER WHILE THE AGREEMENT IS BEING IMPLEMENTED. WE'RE REALISTIC ENOUGH TO UNDERSTAND THAT ARMS CONTROL CAN'T DO THE WHOLE JOB. FOR THAT REASON, THE PRESIDENT HAS COMMITTED TO THE PARTIES, COMMITTED TO THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS THAT WE WILL UNDERTAKE TO LEAD A COORDINATED INTERNATIONAL EFFORT SO THAT WHEN THE I-FOR LEAVES AT THE END OF THE YEAR, THERE WILL BE A MILITARY BALANCE SO THE BOSNIAN FEDERATION WILL BE ABLE TO DEFEND ITSELF. HOST: I-FOR BEING THE NATO FORCE. SLOCOMBE: EXACTLY. BUT I-FOR WILL NOT HAVE ANY ROLE IN THAT EQUIPMENT-TRAINED EFFORT, NEITHER WILL THE AMERICAN MILITARY AS SUCH. HOST: NOW, PRESIDENT CLINTON WAS VERY CLEAR IN STATING THAT THE UNITED STATES HAS REMAINED OUT OF THE CONFLICT MILITARILY, AND HAS UNDERTAKEN THIS ROLE ONLY BECAUSE THESE WARRING PARTIES, WITH U.S. ENCOURAGEMENT AND HELP, HAVE REACHED A PEACE AGREEMENT AMONG THEMSELVES. WHAT WOULD HAPPEN, HOWEVER, SHOULD HOSTILITIES AMONGST THESE WARRING PARTIES RESUME? SLOCOMBE: FIRST OF ALL, WE HAVE NO REASON TO BELIEVE THAT'S GOING TO HAPPEN. ALL THREE PARTIES HAVE REAFFIRMED REPEATEDLY AND MORE STRONGLY IN PARIS, IN FACT, THAN ANY OTHER PREVIOUS OCCASION, THEIR COMMITMENT TO MAKE THIS THING WORK. MOREOVER, WE HAVE SOME REASON TO BELIEVE ALREADY THAT THEY'RE TIRED OF WAR. NOBODY IS HAPPY ABOUT THIS AGREEMENT, BUT THAT THEY WILL ACCEPT IT AS A BETTER ALTERNATIVE THAN CONTINUING FIGHTING. IF THERE ARE ISOLATED INCIDENTS -- WE EXPECT THERE WILL BE -- THOSE WILL BE DEALT WITH AND RESPONDED TOO, NOT NECESSARILY BY MILITARY FORCE AT THE VERY BEGINNING, BUT IF IT'S NECESSARY TO GET COMPLIANCE, BY MILITARY FORCE. IF IT TURNS OUT THAT THERE IS A GENERAL BREAKDOWN OF THE AGREEMENT -- A LARGE-SCALE RESUMPTION OF FIGHTING -- OBVIOUSLY EVERYBODY WILL HAVE TO REASSESS THEIR POSITION AND THEIR DECISIONS. WE HAVE NOT SENT THIS FORCE, NATO HAS NOT SENT THIS FORCE TO BE A COMBATANT ON THE SIDE OF ANY PARTY, BUT TO ENFORCE AN AGREEMENT. IF THERE IS NOT AN AGREEMENT THAT IS BEING LIVED UP TO ENFORCE, WE HAVE TO MAKE FUNDAMENTAL REASSESSMENTS OF WHAT WE DO. AND WE WOULD NOT INTERVENE IN THE FIGHTING. ONE OF THE THINGS I SHOULD SAY IS THAT THIS FORCE WILL HAVE THE CAPABILITY TO PROTECT ITSELF WHATEVER THE CIRCUMSTANCES ARE, SO THAT IF IT SHOULD FOR WHATEVER REASON BECOME NECESSARY TO WITHDRAW UNDER ADVERSE CONDITIONS, THIS FORCE WOULD BE ABLE TO DO SO SUCCESSFULLY. HOST: LET ME ASK YOU ABOUT YOUR REACTION TO THE RESOLUTIONS THAT HAVE BEEN PASSED BY THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES AND THE SENATE, GIVING SOMEWHAT MIXED SUPPORT TO THE PRESIDENT'S DEPLOYMENT. WHAT IS YOUR REACTION TO THAT AND DO YOU THINK IT WILL HAMPER THIS MISSION IN ANY WAY? SLOCOMBE: AS SENATOR DOLE SAID AFTER BOTH HOUSES HAD ACTED, HE THOUGHT THE PRESIDENT COULD FAIRLY SAY THAT HE HAD THE SUPPORT OF CONGRESS. I THINK THAT IS ACCURATE. SENATOR DOLE AND A NUMBER OF OTHER REPUBLICANS AND OBVIOUSLY A LARGE NUMBER OF DEMOCRATS, TOOK A VERY STATESMAN-LIKE APPROACH IN SAYING THAT THEY HAD RESERVATIONS ABOUT THE POLICY. THEY HAD RESERVATIONS ABOUT THE DECISION. BUT THAT THEY UNDERSTOOD THAT THE PRESIDENT HAD MADE A COMMITMENT AND HE COULD FULFILL THAT COMMITMENT. THAT'S ROUGHLY THE TERMS OF THE SENATE VOTE. AND EVEN ON THE HOUSE SIDE, AN EFFORT TO STOP FUNDING FOR THE EFFORT WAS DEFEATED. SO THAT CERTAINLY THIS IS NOT AN ABSOLUTE ENDORSEMENT OF EVERY ASPECT OF THE POLICIES THAT GOT US HERE, BUT IT IS A RECOGNITION THAT THE UNITED STATES IS COMMITTED AND THAT ONCE THAT COMMITMENT IS MADE IT'S GOING TO BE CARRIED FORWARD FULLY AND EFFECTIVELY WITH THE SUPPORT OF THE MILITARY FORCES THERE TO DO THE JOB. HOST: CERTAINLY ADVERSARIES OF THE UNITED STATES HAVE TRIED TO TAKE ADVANTAGE OF PERCEIVED WEAKNESS IN RESOLVE TO CARRY OUT A MISSION IN THE PAST, PARTICULARLY WHEN THEY SUSPECT THE UNITED STATES HAS ENGAGED FORCES IN A PART OF THE WORLD WHERE WE DON'T HAVE A STRATEGIC INTEREST, WHERE OUR PRESENCE MAY BE PRIMARILY HUMANITARIAN, SUCH AS IN, OF COURSE, SOMALIA, WHERE AFTER A NUMBER OF TROOPS ARE KILLED, THE UNITED STATES THAN LEAVES. WHAT WILL BE THE REACTION OF THE UNITED STATES AND OUR MILITARY FORCES SHOULD SOME CASUALTIES BE TAKEN? SLOCOMBE: OBVIOUSLY, WE'VE TAKEN ALL KINDS OF STEPS TO MINIMIZE CASUALTIES. THE TROOPS ARE VERY CAREFULLY TRAINED, BOTH IN BASIC COMBAT SKILLS AND IN THE KIND OF SITUATION THEY'RE GOING TO ENCOUNTER WHEN THEY GET THERE. THAT'S TRUE OF THE OTHER NATO FORCES AS WELL, AND OF THE OTHER NON-NATO FORCES, I SHOULD SAY. A SUBSTANTIAL PART OF THE FORCE IS NOT NATO COUNTRIES. THEY WILL BE WELL-ARMED. THESE ARE POWERFULLY-EQUIPPED UNITS; THEY'RE NOT THE KIND OF LIGHT-INFANTRY THAT IS EASILY SUSCEPTIBLE TO HARASSING ATTACK. ALL THAT SAID, WE EXPECT THAT THEIR WILL BE CASUALTIES; THIS IS NOT A RISK-FREE OPERATION. BUT THE RISKS, THE COSTS INVOLVED IN THE KINDS OF CASUALTIES WHICH WE THINK ARE POSSIBLE ARE SMALLER THAN THE KINDS OF RISKS AND UNCERTAINTIES AND IN ALL PROBABILITY, FUTURE CASUALTIES THAT WOULD BE INVOLVED IF THE WAR STARTED UP AGAIN. I THINK PEOPLE SHOULD NOT MISTAKE AMERICAN WILL AND AMERICAN CAPACITY, OR INDEED NATO WILL AND NATO CAPACITY. ANYONE WHO CAUSES TROUBLE FOR THIS FORCE WILL THEMSELVES BE IN SEVERE TROUBLE. BUT WE COME AS PEACEMAKERS TO IMPLEMENT A PEACE THAT THE PARTIES THEMSELVES HAVE AGREED TO. THIS IS NOT A SITUATION -- AS WAS THE CASE IN SOMALIA IN ADDITION TO A MILLION OTHER DIFFERENCES -- THIS IS NOT A CASE AS IN SOMALIA, WHERE THERE IS NO LOCAL AUTHORITY, WHERE THERE IS NO AGREED BASIS FOR A RESOLUTION OF THE PROBLEMS. HOST: NOW THESE PARTIES HAVE BEFORE REACHED AGREEMENTS AMONG THEMSELVES, MOST SIGNIFICANTLY PERHAPS IN FEBRUARY OF 1992 IN LISBON, WHERE THEY AGREED TO A SUBDIVISION OF BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA UNDER SOME KIND OF LOOSE CONFEDERATION. THAT AGREEMENT FELL APART. WHAT'S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LISBON AND WHAT WAS ACHIEVED IN DAYTON, OHIO? SLOCOMBE: I THINK THERE ARE TWO IMPORTANT DIFFERENCES. ONE IS THIS IS AN AGREEMENT THAT HAS BEEN NEGOTIATED OUT IN GREAT DETAIL OVER A LONG PERIOD OF TIME. IT HAS IN EFFECT BEEN IMPLEMENTED ALREADY TO A CONSIDERABLE DEGREE ON A GRADUAL BASIS. WE'VE HAD A CEASE-FIRE FOR A COUPLE OF MONTHS NOW. WE'VE HAD AN END TO HARASSMENT AND INTERFERENCE WITH U-N MOVEMENTS; NOT PERFECT, BUT VASTLY BETTER THAN IT HAD BEEN IN THE PAST. HEAVY WEAPONS HAVE BEEN PULLED BACK. SO THERE IS A DEGREE OF POLITICAL COMMITMENT AND PAST COMPLIANCE TO BUILD A BASE TO WORK ON. FRANKLY, ANOTHER DIFFERENCE IS THAT THERE HAVE BEEN THREE YEARS OF FIGHTING; MORE THAN THREE YEARS OF FIGHTING SINCE 1992. AND I THINK THE PARTIES HAVE, AFTER THE HORRIBLE COSTS OF THIS WAR, REACHED THE CONCLUSION, AS ONE BOSNIAN LEADER SAID TO [U.S.] SECRETARY [OF DEFENSE WILLIAM] PERRY, "THE RISKS OF PEACE ARE ONES THAT ARE WORTH TAKING, RATHER THAN THE RISKS OF CONTINUED FIGHTING." WE THINK ALL OF THE PARTIES HAVE REACHED ESSENTIALLY THAT CONCLUSION NOW. HOST: NOW WOULD YOU CHARACTERIZE THE DAYTON AGREEMENT AS A DE FACTO PARTITION OF BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA? CAN IT SURVIVE AS A UNITARY STATE AFTER THIS HORRIBLE WAR AND THE ATROCITIES AND THE MUTUAL HATRED AND MISTRUST? SLOCOMBE: IT IS NOT A PARTITION. THEY CREATE THE BASIS FOR PEACE TO TAKE HOLD AND THEN TO TAKE ADVANTAGE OF THE PARTS OF DAYTON AGREEMENT WHICH DO PROVIDE FOR THE GRADUAL CONSTRUCTION OF A CONFEDERATION OF BOTH THE SERB AND THE FEDERATION, THAT IS THE MUSLIM AND CROAT PARTS OF THE COUNTRY. THAT'S OBVIOUSLY A PROCESS WHICH WILL TAKE TIME, BUT IT CREATES A CONTEXT WHERE IT IS POSSIBLE. IT IS NOT A PARTITION EITHER FORMAL OR DE FACTO OF THE COUNTRY INTO TWO OR MORE PARTS. HOST: NOW THIS IS A NEW ROLE FOR NATO. YOU MENTIONED THAT THE UNITED STATES IS NOT THE ONLY COUNTRY SENDING FORCES. THERE ARE OTHER NATO MEMBERS AS WELL AS NON-NATO COUNTRIES. IS THIS AN EXCEPTION TO PROVE THE RULE OR IS THIS SOMETHING THAT IS GOING TO SET A PRECEDENT THAT MAY BE FOLLOWED? SLOCOMBE: YOU ASKED ME AT THE BEGINNING OF PROGRAM ABOUT OUR VITAL INTERESTS. ONE OF THE REASONS WHY THIS IS IMPORTANT TO DO IS TO DEMONSTRATE THAT NATO CAN IN FACT BE AN EXTREMELY USEFUL INSTRUMENT FOR OUR SECURITY POLICIES COLLECTIVELY WITHIN THE ATLANTIC COMMUNITY IN THIS POST-COLD WAR ERA JUST AS IT WAS DURING THE COLD WAR. I THINK ALL OF US WHO WORKED ON THIS PROBLEM HAVE BEEN PLEASED AND PERHAPS SURPRISED AT THE DEGREE TO WHICH NATO HAS BEEN ABLE TO STEP UP TO THE CHALLENGE, TO GET ITSELF ORGANIZED, TO GET VERY LARGE CONTRIBUTIONS. MANY OF THE NATO COUNTRIES ARE MAKING PROPORTIONATELY LARGER CONTRIBUTIONS COMPARED TO THE SIZE OF THE MILITARIES OR THE SIZE OF THEIR POPULATIONS COMPARED TO WHAT THE UNITED STATES IS. HOST: INTERESTINGLY ENOUGH, YOU HAVE CONTRIBUTING TO THIS FORCE SOME MEMBERS OF THE PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE. SLOCOMBE: AND FOR THAT MATTER, WE EXPECT THERE WILL BE RUSSIAN FORCES PARTICIPATING AS WELL, AS WELL AS NON-EUROPEAN FORCES: PAKISTAN AND A NUMBER OF OTHER COUNTRIES FROM ENTIRELY OUTSIDE EUROPE. ONE OF THE THINGS THAT IS IMPORTANT ABOUT THIS EFFORT, ONE OF THE REASONS THAT WE BELIEVE IT WILL SUCCEED, BUT ALSO ONE OF THE REASONS IT'S IMPORTANT THAT IT SHOULD SUCCEED AND SHOULD HAVE OUR SUPPORT, IS THAT IT REPRESENTS A REMARKABLE DEGREE OF INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION TO BRING ABOUT AN EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF A PEACE AGREEMENT THAT THREATENS EVERYBODY'S SECURITY. HOST: TO THAT EXTENT SOME PEOPLE HAVE RAISED CONCERNS ABOUT THE PRESENCE OF RUSSIAN COMBAT TROOPS IN THE BALKANS BECAUSE IT IS AN AREA OF TRADITIONAL RUSSIAN INTEREST, AND THOSE INTERESTS MAY NOT NECESSARILY COINCIDE ACCORDING TO SOME. IS THAT AN AREA OF CONCERN FOR YOU AT ALL? SLOCOMBE: IT IS NOT AN AREA OF CONCERN. THE RUSSIANS HAVE AFTER ALL BEEN IN THE UNPROFOR, THE U-N FORCE, AS WELL. THERE HAVE BEEN TURKISH TROOPS, GERMAN TROOPS, THERE WILL BE ITALIANS. A LOT OF COUNTRIES WITH A HISTORY IN THE BALKANS WILL BE PARTICIPATING IN THIS EFFORT. THE RUSSIAN TROOPS WILL BE UNDER THE OPERATIONAL CONTROL OF THE SUPREME ALLIED COMMAND OF THE NATO COMMANDER. THEY WILL OPERATE WITH THE SAME MISSION AND THIS HAS BEEN AGREED WITH THE RUSSIANS. THEY WILL OPERATE WITH THE SAME MISSION, SAME RULES OF ENGAGEMENT AS THE OTHER TROOPS. ALL OF THESE TROOPS WILL BE OPERATING UNDER EVENHANDED, IMPARTIAL RULES SO THAT I THINK THAT THE RUSSIAN FORCES WILL BE ABLE TO MAKE A VERY POSITIVE CONTRIBUTION. HOST: I'M AFRAID THAT'S ALL THE TIME WE HAVE THIS WEEK. I'D LIKE TO THANK OUR GUEST, U.S. UNDERSECRETARY OF DEFENSE WALTER SLOCOMBE FOR JOINING ME THIS WEEK TO DISCUSS U.S. POLICY AND THE BOSNIAN PEACE PLAN. THIS IS ROBERT REILLY FOR ON THE LINE.

    15-Dec-95 3:49 PM EST (2049 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [09] U-S / TURKEY MISSILES BY DAVID GOLLUST (PENTAGON)

    DATE=12/15/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-190131
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION HAS DEFENDED PLANS TO SELL TURKEY A NEW VARIETY OF LONG-RANGE ATTACK MISSILES. CRITICS ARGUE THE WEAPONS COULD BE USED AGAINST KURDISH REBELS OR FUEL AN ARMS RACE BETWEEN TURKEY AND GREECE. V-O-A'S DAVID GOLLUST REPORTS FROM THE PENTAGON.

    TEXT: THE ADMINISTRATION SAYS TURKEY NEEDS THE WEAPONS TO COUNTER WHAT IT SAYS IS A VERY REAL MISSILE THREAT POSED BY OTHER COUNTRIES IN THE REGION INCLUDING IRAN AND IRAQ.

    AND IT INSISTS THAT THE ARMY TACTICAL MISSILE SYSTEM -- NICKNAMED "ATTACK-EM" -- WOULD NOT UPSET THE REGIONAL ARMS BALANCE OR BE AN APPROPRIATE WEAPON FOR USE IN TURKEY'S CAMPAIGN AGAINST KURDISH GUERRILLAS.

    THE ADMINISTRATION EARLIER THIS MONTH ANNOUNCED ITS INTENTION TO SELL TURKEY 120 OF THE MISSILES, WHICH ARE FIRED IN SALVOS FROM MULTIPLE LAUNCH VEHICLES AND ARE CAPABLE OF TRAVELLING MORE THAN 400 KILOMETERS. THE 132-MILLION DOLLAR SALE HAS DRAWN CRITICISM FROM SOME MEMBERS OF CONGRESS AND FROM THE FEDERATION OF AMERICAN SCIENTISTS, WHICH SAYS THE TRANSFER WOULD AGGRAVATE TURKEY'S RIVALRY WITH GREECE AND UNDERMINE EFFORTS TO CURB THE SPREAD OF BALLISTIC MISSILES. HOWEVER, A STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN SAID TURKEY IS IN WHAT HE CALLED A "TOUGH NEIGHBORHOOD" AND UNSTABLE AREA AND NEEDS THE SYSTEM TO IMPROVE ITS DEFENSE CAPABILITY. THE SALE OF THE CONVENTIONAL-WARHEAD MISSILES, WHICH HAVE ONLY RECENTLY BEEN DEPLOYED BY U-S ARMY UNITS, WOULD BE THE FIRST TO A FOREIGN COUNTRY. (SIGNED)

    NEB / DAG / BD / SKH
    15-Dec-95 5:46 PM EST (2246 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [10] WORLD BANK / BOSNIA BY ANDREW BAIRD (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=12/15/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-190120
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: IN THE HOPE THAT PEACE CAN BE SUSTAINED IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA, THE WORLD BANK HAS LAID OUT ITS VISION FOR REBUILDING THE NATION. V-O-A'S ANDREW BAIRD HAS THIS REPORT.

    TEXT: IN THE WAKE OF THE SIGNING OF A PEACE TREATY TO END THE WAR IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA, THE WORLD BANK HAS PUT FORWARD ITS IDEAS FOR HELPING TO REBUILD THE COUNTRY. IN A NEWS CONFERENCE FRIDAY, THREE WORLD BANK STAFF MEMBERS AND ONE FROM THE EUROPEAN BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT OUTLINED SOME OF THEIR GOALS FOR THE RECONSTRUCTION PROCESS.

    THE OFFICIALS WILL PRESENT THEIR IDEAS TO A BOSNIA DONORS MEETING SPONSORED BY THE WORLD BANK AND THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION TO TAKE IN PLACE IN BRUSSELS BEGINNING DECEMBER 20TH.

    KEMAL DERVIS, HEAD OF THE BANK'S CENTRAL EUROPEAN DEPARTMENT, SAID THE BANK ESTIMATES THAT BOSNIA NEEDS APPOXIMATELY FIVE BILLION DOLLARS OVER THREE YEARS TO REBUILD A BADLY DAMAGED CIVILIAN ECONOMY WHERE 90 PERCENT OF THE POPULATION IS AT LEAST PARTLY DEPENDENT ON HUMANITARIAN FOOD AID. THAT AID, HE SAID, MUST CONTINUE THROUGH THE WINTER AND BEYOND, BUT AT SOME POINT SOON MUST INTEGRATED INTO EFFORTS TO REVITALIZE THE PRIVATE ECONOMY.

    // DERVIS ACT //

    IN A PEACETIME SITUATION, WHAT YOU REALLY WANT IS DOMESTIC PRODUCTION TO BEGIN AGAIN. AND THEREFORE, THE WAY YOU DISTRIBUTE FOOD AID, THE WAY YOU USE FOOD AID HAS TO KIND OF FIT THE RECOVERY STRATEGY. AND INCREASINGLY IT'S MORE IMPORTANT PERHAPS TO PROVIDE AGRICULTURAL IMPUTS IN EQUIPMENT, SO THAT DOMESTIC PRODUCTION CAN START, THAN JUST FOOD TO FEED THE PEOPLE.

    // END ACT //

    ANOTHER PRIORITY IS TO CREATE EFFECTIVE ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS, ESPECIALLY A NEW CENTRAL BANK FOR THE ENTIRE REPUBLIC WHICH IS DUE TO BE ESTABLISHED IN SIX TO NINE MONTHS UNDER THE DAYTON ACCORDS.

    CHRISTINE WALLICH, AN ECONOMIST WITH THE WORLD BANK WHO LED A RECENT MISSION TO BOSNIA, SAYS THE MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION'S CENTRAL BANK -- TO HELP HOLD DOWN INFLATION -- IS CURRENTLY USING A CURRENCY BOARD SYSTEM, WHERE ONE BOSNIAN DINAR IS BACKED UP BY ONE GERMAN MARK IN RESERVES. SHE EXPECTS THAT SYSTEM TO CONTINUE. IT IS ALSO IMPORTANT, SHE SAYS, TO CREATE AN EFFECTIVE NATIONAL CUSTOMS AUTHORITY.

    // WALLICH ACT //

    THE REVENUE BASE FOR THE COUNTRY IN THE INITIAL PERIOD WOULD PROBABLY COME FROM CUSTOMS REVENUES, FROM TARIFFS FROM OUTSIDE. THE PRODUCTION LEVEL IS SO LOW THAT PROFITS, TAXES, AND RETAIL SALES TAXES ARE NOT GOING TO BE VERY SIGNIFICANT, AND OF COURSE THE WAGE LEVEL IS SO LOW THAT PAYROLL TAXES WHICH SUPPORT PENSIONS AND SOCIAL SAFETY NETS ARE NOT GOING TO BE VERY SIGNIFICANT IN THE EARLY YEARS.

    // END ACT //

    OTHER PRIORITIES INCLUDE MEDICAL AID AND REPAIR OF BASIC PUBLIC SERVES AND UTILITIES, SUCH AS TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS AND POWER GENERATION FACILITIES. AN ESTIMATED 70 PERCENT OF THE COUNTRY'S ELECTRICAL GENERATING CAPACITY HAS BEEN DAMAGED OR IS OUT OF OPERATION DUE TO DESTROYED TRANSMISSION LINES.

    NEW AND RECONSTRUCTED HOUSING IS NEEDED, SINCE 63 PERCENT OF HOUSING UNITS HAVE SUSTAINED SOME DAMAGE, WHILE 18 PERCENT HAVE BEEN DESTROYED. IT WILL ALSO BE NECESSARY TO CLEAR SOME OF THE MILLIONS OF LANDMINES PLANTED IN MANY AREAS OF THE COUNTRY. THE WORLD BANK ALSO CALLS FOR RAPID PRIVATIZATION TO MAKE BETTER USE OF STATE-CONTROLLED RESOURCES IDLED DURING THE WAR.

    THE WORLD BANK OFFICIALS SAID THEY WOULD NOT DISCUSS IN BRUSSELS THE TENS, AND PERHAPS HUNDREDS OF MILLIONS OF DOLLARS IN PAYMENTS WHICH BOSNIA OWES ON LOANS FROM THE WORLD BANK AND THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND. BUT THEY ADDED THAT THIS PROBLEM NEEDED TO BE ADDRESSED SOON, LEST IT HUNDER THE REBUILDING EFFORT. (SIGNED)

    NEB/AB/CF

    15-Dec-95 3:17 PM EST (2017 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

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