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Voice of America, 22 December 1995

From: "Ioannis V. Bousnakis" <ivb19@nfi.com>

Voice of America Directory

CONTENTS

  • [01] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [02] BOSNIA / GERMANY (S ONLY) BY DAGMAR BREITENBACH ( BONN )

  • [03] BOSNIA INCIDENT (S) BY KYLE KING (SARAJEVO)

  • [04] BOSNIA / NATO (L) BY KYLE KING (SARAJEVO )

  • [05] CLINTON / BOSNIA (S) BY DAVID GOLLUST (PENTAGON)

  • [06] TURKEY / ELECTION (L) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (ISTANBUL)

  • [07] TURKEY / KURDS (L ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (DIYARBAKIR)

  • [08] U-N WEEK-IN-REVIEW BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)


  • [01] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=12/22/95
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09346
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-S-T ON FRIDAY, DECEMBER 22ND //

    INTRO: A WIDE VARIETY OF TOPICS ARE DISCUSSED ON THE EDITORIAL PAGES OF THE LEADING U-S NEWSPAPERS THIS FRIDAY, AT THE BEGINNING OF THE CHRISTMAS WEEKEND. THE SUBJECTS INCLUDE: THE PLANE CRASH IN COLOMBIA; A LETTER TO U-S TROOPS IN BOSNIA; U-S REACTION TO RUSSIA'S ELECTION; TIME MAGAZINE'S MAN OF THE YEAR, AND TALK OF A ROYAL DIVORCE IN BRITAIN. NOW, ___________________ HAS A CLOSER LOOK IN TODAY'S U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: THURSDAY'S PLANE CRASH IN COLOMBIA, WHICH CLAIMED 150 LIVES, IS THE SUBJECT OF THE LEAD EDITORIAL IN "THE MIAMI HERALD," WHICH REMINDS READERS THAT DEATH DOES NOT TAKE HOLIDAYS.

    VOICE: "THUS IT CAME TO PASS THAT IN THIS MOST FESTIVE OF SEASONS, MANY HEARTS ARE HEAVY -- IN SOUTH FLORIDA, IN COLOMBIA, AND ELSEWHERE -- BECAUSE OF THE TRAGIC CRASH OF AMERICAN AIRLINES FLIGHT 995 ON WEDNESDAY NIGHT... OTHER CAUSES OF DEATH -- CARS, WARS, DISEASE, EVEN HOMICIDE -- MAY CLAIM MORE LIVES EACH DAY THAN THE WORST PLANE CRASH EVER. YET TRAVELING BY AIR, THOUGH DEMONSTRABLY SAFER AND EVEN MORE COMMON IN THIS SHRINKING WORLD, IS STILL A LEAP OF FAITH FOR MANY WHO FLY."

    TEXT: THE FRONG PAGE OF "USA TODAY", THE NATIONAL WEEKDAY PAPER, TODAY HAS AN EDITORAL OPEN LETTER TO U-S TROOPS IN BOSNIA, ALONGSIDE A PICTURE OF A NEW YORK SOLDIER IN THE BOSNIAN SNOW. IT READS, IN PART:

    VOICE: "WE KNOW BOSNIA IS NO HOLIDAY INN [COMFORTABLE HOTEL]. INSTEAD OF SWAPPING GIFTS AND SHARING GROANING DINNER TABLES WITH LOVING FAMILY AND FRIENDS, YOU'RE WORRYING ABOUT SNIPERS AND LAND MINES AND TRYING TO STAY ALIVE IN A COUNTRY WHERE DYING IS SO EASY... YOU PREPARED FOR THIS MISSION KNOWING A MAJORITY OF AMERICANS REMAIN CONFLICTED ABOUT ITS WISDOM... SOME OF YOU STILL MAY BE ASKING, 'WHY?' THE SIMPLEST EXPLANATION MAY BE: HERE YOU MIGHT MAKE A DIFFERENCE... IF SOMEHOW, SOME WAY, YOU CAN HOLD TOGETHER THIS EVER-SO-FRAGILE TRUCE, PEACE MAY HAVE ITS FIRST REAL CHANCE IN BOSNIA... A GIGANTIC, EXTENDED FAMILY OF CONCERNED AMERICANS WILL NEVER STOP THINKING OF YOU AND YOUR DANGEROUS MISSION -- WISHING YOU SUCCESS AND A SAFE RETURN."

    TEXT: CONCERNED REACTION IN SOME U-S NEWSPAPERS TO THE COMMUNIST PARTY RESURGENCE IN RUSSIA'S DUMA, OR PARLIAMENTARY, ELECTION HAS PROMPTED A NEW WAVE OF EDITORIAL COMMENT. IN GEORGIA, A HEADLINE IN "THE ATLANTA CONSTITUTION" DECLARES: THE "GREAT RED SCARE TWO IS OVERBLOWN."

    VOICE: "THE STRONG SHOWING OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY IN THE RUSSIAN ELECTIONS LAST WEEKEND HAS REVIVED THE SPECTRE OF A RESURGENT SOVIET UNION, ARISING LIKE THE GHOST OF CHRISTMAS PAST TO HAUNT US ONCE AGAIN. BUT THAT PROBABLY ISN'T GOING TO HAPPEN... UNDER THE RUSSIAN CONSTITUTION, THE PRESIDENCY IS THE SEAT OF REAL POWER, NOT THE DUMA [LOWER HOUSE OF PARLIAMENT]. THE OCCUPANT OF THAT OFFICE, BORIS YELTSIN, MUST RUN FOR RE-ELECTION TO ANOTHER FIVE-YEAR-TERM IN JUNE. THAT WILL BE THE IMPORTANT RACE, THE RACE THAT DETERMINES RUSSIA'S DIRECTION FOR THE NEXT FEW YEARS."

    TEXT: THAT SENTIMENT IS ECHOED IN FLORIDA BY "THE ORLANDO SENTINEL", WHICH SAYS IN ITS EDITORIAL HEADLINE: "NO CAUSE FOR ALARM IN RUSSIA."

    VOICE: "A POINT WORTH EMPHASIZING IS THAT AMERICANS SHOULDN'T JUMP TO CONCLUSIONS BASED ON THE RESULTS OF THIS WEEK'S VOTE. WHILE IT'S WORRISOME THAT OPPONENTS AND CRITICS OF REFORM MADE A STRONG SHOWING, THAT RESULT IS TEMPERED BY MANY FACTORS... IN MANY RESPECTS THE MOST CRITICAL ELEMENT, THE MAIN POWER IN RUSSIA RESIDES IN THE PRESIDENCY. THAT'S A POTENT CHECK ON THE AMBITIONS OF A PARLIAMENT STRONGLY INFLUENCED BY ANTI-REFORMISTS OR THOSE WHO WOULD SLOW THE PACE OF CHANGE. IN OTHER WORDS, THE SYSTEM OF REFORMS ISN'T THREATENED AT THE MOMENT."

    TEXT: "TIME" MAGAZINE THIS WEEK PUBLISHED ITS MAN-OF-THE-YEAR HOLIDAY ISSUE, AND NAMED HOUSE SPEAKER NEWT GINGRICH TO THAT HONOR. THE CHOICE DREW THIS RESPONSE FROM MAINE'S "PORTLAND PRESS HERALD."

    VOICE: "NEWT GINGRICH IS A REMARKABLE GUY... THE QUINTESSENTIAL MAN OF THE YEAR, HAVING CHANGED THE POLITICAL COURSE OF THE NATION MORE PROFOUNDLY THAN ANYONE SINCE FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT... EVEN SIX MONTHS AGO A BALANCED BUDGET WAS A DREAM, AND THE IDEA OF ACCOMPLISHING IT ... A FANTASY. TODAY, A BALANCED BUDGET IN SEVEN YEARS MAY NOT BE A CERTAINTY, BUT BORDERS ON IT."

    TEXT: SEVERAL PAPERS ARE REACTING IN THEIR EDITORIAL COLUMNS TO THE SUGGESTION BY BRITAIN'S QUEEN ELIZABETH'S THAT CHARLES, THE PRINCE OF WALES, AND HIS ESTRANGED WIFE, PRINCESS DIANA, GET A DIVORCE. IN PENNSYLVANIA, "THE PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER'S" EDITORIAL HEADLINE READS: "CONTEMPLATING DI [HYPHEN] VOICE."

    VOICE: "YOU'VE GOT TO HAND IT TO [RESPECT] PRINCESS DIANA. SHE IS OBVIOUSLY NOT ONE TO GO QUIETLY INTO THE NIGHT -- OR IN THIS CASE, OUT OF THE PALACE. EVEN THOUGH HER MOTHER-IN-LAW, THE RICHEST AND MOST POWERFUL WOMAN OF THE REALM, IS URGING AN 'EARLY DIVORCE' ON THE SEPARATED ROYAL COUPLE, DIANA SEEMS INTENT ON TAKING HER SWEET TIME TO FIGURE OUT WHAT SHE WILL DO WITH HER UNIQUELY MESSY LIFE... GOODWILL AMBASSADOR? TALK SHOW HOST? HEAD OF A SINGLE MOTHERS' SUPPORT GROUP? FOR BETTER AND FOR WORSE, SHE'S AHEAD OF THE CURVE [HERE: "HAS A BETTER GRASP OF REALITY"]. PERHAPS THE ONLY MEMBER OF HER FAMILY WHO IS."

    [ OPT ]

    TEXT: IN A MORE SEDATE MANNER, "THE NEW YORK TIMES" OFFERS THIS COMMENT ON WHAT IT CALLS THE BRITISH "ROYAL MESS":

    VOICE: "QUEEN ELIZABETH THE SECOND, LACKING SOME OF THE POWERS AFFORDED EARLIER ENGLISH MONARCHS, HAS SETTLED FOR DIVORCE TO RID THE HOUSE OF WINDSOR OF THE BEDEVILING MARRIAGE OF THE PRINCE AND PRINCESS OF WALES. THERE WAS A TIME WHEN THE ENGLISH SOVEREIGN DEALT MORE DECISIVELY WITH ROYALS WHO MADE TROUBLE OR OUTLIVED THEIR WELCOME. THE MOST COMMON PUNISHMENTS SINCE HENRY THE EIGHTH'S DAY WERE EXECUTION ... INCARCERATION ... AND EXILE... ENDING THE MARRIAGE WILL NOT END THE ROYAL MESS. THERE IS, FOR INSTANCE, THE QUESTION OF WHETHER PRINCE CHARLES, THE 47-YEAR-OLD HEIR TO THE THRONE, MIGHT WISH BOTH TO REMARRY AND TO BE KING. BRITISH MONARCHS ARE DEFENDERS OF A FAITH THAT DOES NOT SANCTION THE REMARRIAGE OF DIVORCED PERSONS. THERE IS NO TIDY SOLUTION."

    [ END OPT ]

    TEXT: AND FINALLY, CITING THE EMERGENCE OF PEACE IN MANY OF THE WORLD'S TROUBLE-SPOTS, "USA TODAY" SAYS MANY PEOPLE HAVE MORE TO BE THANKFUL THIS CHRISTMAS THAN IN SEVERAL RECENT HOLIDAYS.

    VOICE: "BOSNIA IS NOT THE ONLY PLACE IN THE WORLD WHERE HOPE IS BURNING BRIGHTER THIS YEAR. IN THE MIDDLE EAST, ISRAELIS AND PALESTINIANS CONTINUE TO RESOLVE DIFFERENCES AFTER 50 YEARS OF STRIFE. A TRUCE HAS ENDED 25 YEARS OF GUERRILLA WARFARE IN NORTHERN IRELAND. A SIX-YEAR-CIVIL WAR IN LIBERIA IS OVER. EVEN THE U-S AND ITS OLD NEMESIS VIETNAM NORMALIZED RELATIONS THIS FALL. AND ON THE HOME FRONT, THERE'S A STOCKINGFUL OF TRENDS THAT MAY ... CHEER YOU. CRIME: DOWN... LEISURE: YOU'VE GOT MORE THAN YOU THINK ... INCOME: UP FOR THOSE WITH EDUCATION, AND ESPECIALLY FOR AFRICAN-AMERICANS... COMPETITIVENESS: THE USA'S GETTING BETTER, NOT WORSE... KINDNESS: DESPITE TOUGH TALK ABOUT BELT-TIGHTENING, AMERICANS REMAIN AS GENEROUS AS EVER... THE WORLD REMAINS FAR FROM PERFECT, BUT PROGRESS TOWARD PEACE AND PROSPERITY IS BEING MADE."

    TEXT: AND ON THAT HOPEFUL HOLIDAY NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS SAMPLING OF U-S EDITORIALS FOR THE FRIDAY BEFORE CHRISTMAS 1995.

    NEB/ANG/PCH
    22-Dec-95 10:53 AM EST (1553 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] BOSNIA / GERMANY (S ONLY) BY DAGMAR BREITENBACH ( BONN )

    DATE=12/22/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-190408
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: GERMAN TROOPS HAVE BEGUN HEADING TO THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA TO TAKE UP THEIR MISSION WITH NATO IN BOSNIA AND CROATIA. FROM BONN, V-O-A'S DAGMAR BREITENBACH REPORTS ON THE BEGINNING OF THE LARGEST-EVER FOREIGN DEPLOYMENT OF THE GERMAN ARMED FORCES, THE BUNDESWEHR.

    TEXT: THE FIRST GROUP OF 116 GERMAN SOLDIERS BOARDED A PLANE IN POURING RAIN AT THE BONN-COLOGNE AIRPORT TO FLY TO THE CITY OF SPLIT IN CROATIA. DEFENSE MINISTER VOLKER RUEHE SAW THE GROUP OF PILOTS AND LOGISTIC UNITS OFF, SAYING THEIRS IS A DIFFICULT MISSION. MR. RUEHE SAID THE BUNDESWEHR HAD MORE VOLUNTEERS THAN NECESSARY FOR THE BOSNIA PEACE MISSION. EACH AND EVERY ONE OF YOU, THE DEFENSE MINISTER TOLD THE TROOPS, IS CONTRIBUTING TO THE FIRST PEACEFUL CHRISTMAS IN FOUR YEARS FOR THE PEOPLE IN BOSNIA-HERCEGOVINA. THE DEFENSE MINISTRY EXPECTS THE DEPLOYMENT OF THE PLANNED CONTINGENT OF FOUR-THOUSAND GERMAN TROOPS TO BE COMPLETED BY MID-FEBRUARY. GERMAN TROOPS, AND TRANSPORT, LOGISTICS AND MEDICAL UNITS ARE TO BE STATIONED BETWEEN THE CROATIAN CITIES OF SPLIT AND ZADAR. THE GERMAN MISSION IS TO LAST ONE YEAR WITH COSTS ESTIMATED AT ABOUT 500-MILLION DOLLARS. (SIGNED)

    NEB/DB/MH/WJK
    22-Dec-95 5:39 AM EST (1039 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] BOSNIA INCIDENT (S) BY KYLE KING (SARAJEVO)

    DATE=12/22/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-190414
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO OFFICIALS IN BOSNIA SAY THEIR TROOPS ARE ALREADY MOVING OUT INTO THE COUNTRYSIDE, TAKING DOWN ROADBLOCKS AND ESTABLISHING A MILITARY PRESENCE. THEY SAY THE MISSION HAS BEEN PROCEEDING SMOOTHLY. BUT V-O-A'S KYLE KING IN SARAJEVO REPORTS THERE HAVE BEEN SOME SMALL INDICATIONS OF POSSIBLE PROBLEMS TO COME.

    TEXT: NATO OFFICIALS SAY THEIR TROOPS HAVE ALREADY MOVED INTO BANJA LUKA AND OTHER SERB HELD DISTRICTS OF THE COUNTRY WITHOUT MEETING ANY MAJOR RESISTANCE.

    BUT COLONEL MARK RAYNER, A NATO SPOKESMAN IN SARAJEVO, SAYS ONE PATROL IN THE SOUTH EASTERN SECTION WAS BRIEFLY DELAYED.

    // RAYNER ACT //

    HIS MOVEMENT WASN'T DENIED, VERY BRIEF, AS A WARRIOR VEHICLE APPROACHED, THE PEOPLE HOLDING THEM UP DISPERSED.

    // END ACT //

    NATO OFFICIALS SAY THERE HAVE ALSO BEEN SCATTERED SHOOTING INCIDENTS IN SARAJEVO. BUT THEY DISMISS THAT AS A LACK OF DISCIPLINE. HOWEVER, THE SERB DISTRICTS OF THE BOSNIAN CAPITAL COULD WELL PROVE TO BE NATO'S BIGGEST CHALLENGE. IT IS STILL NOT CLEAR IF SERB FIGHTERS WILL TRY TO RESIST THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PEACE AGREEMENT, OR TRY TO ENCOURAGE A MASS EXODUS OF THE SERB POPULATION. (SIGNED)

    NEB/KBK/JWH/CF
    22-Dec-95 8:01 AM EST (1301 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] BOSNIA / NATO (L) BY KYLE KING (SARAJEVO )

    DATE=12/22/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-190423
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: JUST THREE-DAYS AFTER TAKING CHARGE OF IMPLEMENTING THE BOSNIAN PEACE AGREEMENT, NATO TROOPS ARE FANNING OUT ACROSS THE COUNTRY, REMOVING UNAUTHORIZED ROADSIDE CHECKPOINTS AND ESTABLISHING A MILITARY PRESENCE. NATO OFFICIALS IN SARAJEVO SAY THE OPERATION HAS GONE SMOOTHLY. BUT AS V-O-A'S KYLE KING REPORTS, THERE ARE ALREADY INDICATIONS IT WILL NOT BE AN EASY JOB.

    TEXT: NATO NOW SAYS IT HAS MORE THAN 21-THOUSAND GROUND TROOPS IN BOSNIA, INCLUDING 16-THOUSAND FORMER U-N PEACEKEEPERS WHO TOOK OFF THEIR U-N BLUE HELMETS WEDNESDAY.

    COLONEL MARK RAYNER, THE SPOKESMAN FOR THE NEW IMPLEMENTATION FORCE, SAYS PATROLS HAVE ALREADY ENTERED THE SERB STRONGHOLDS OF BANJA LUKA AND PALE AND TAKEN DOWN CHECKPOINTS ALONG A KEY ROAD INTO SARAJEVO.

    /// RAYNER ACT ///

    THERE HAS BEEN NO RESISTANCE TO IFOR MOVEMENT AND NO SIGNIFICANT RESISTANCE TO FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT. THE SIGNS ARE OF GENERAL COMPLIANCE WITH THE PEACE AGREEMENT.

    /// END ACT ///

    ONE PATROL WAS MOMENTARILY HELD UP, BUT THERE HAVE NOT BEEN ANY REPORTS OF RESISTANCE TO THE NEW NATO FORCE, WHICH IS EXPECTED TO RESPOND DECISIVELY TO ANY THREAT.

    SOME SCATTERED SHOOTING INCIDENTS IN SARAJEVO HAVE ALSO BEEN REPORTED. BUT THE NATO SPOKESMAN SAID HE DID NOT CONSIDER THEM A THREAT TO THE PEACE.

    /// RAYNER ACT ///

    THIS IS MORE A CASE OF ILL DISCIPLINE THAN ANYTHING AIMED TO KILL OR CAUSE DAMAGE.

    /// END ACT ///

    BUT NATO WILL LIKELY FACE ITS BIGGEST CHALLENGE IN SARAJEVO, WHERE BOSNIAN-SERB LEADERS HAVE REJECTED PARTS OF THE DAYTON PEACE AGREEMENT AND MAY BE PLANNING TO FORCE A MASS EXODUS OF THE SERB POPULATION IF THE PEACE PLAN IS NOT MODIFIED.

    U-N RELIEF OFFICIALS SAY PRIVATELY THE SERBS HAVE ASKED FOR THOUSANDS OF CONTAINERS AND EVEN COFFINS SO THEY CAN TAKE THEIR DEAD WITH THEM IF THEY LEAVE THE CITY.

    /// OPT ///

    IN ANOTHER INDICATION OF PROBLEMS TO COME, THE MAYOR OF SARAJEVO HAS WRITTEN AN ANGRY LETTER, OBJECTING TO NATO PLANS TO RENT HOTEL SPACE FROM OFFICIALS IN THE SERB SECTOR OF THE CITY. BY RENTING THE HOTEL SPACE FROM LOCAL SERB LEADERS, MAYOR TARIK KUPOSOVIC SAYS NATO IS IN EFFECT RECOGNIZING THE BOSNIAN-SERB GOVERNMENT OF RADOVAN KARADZIC.

    /// OPT // MAYOR ACT ///

    IFOR IS HERE TO IMPLEMENT THE DAYTON AGREEMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION MEANS FOR SARAJEVO REINTEGRATION, NOT CONTRACTS, OFFICIALS CONTRACTS WITH PEOPLE OF THE KARADZIC GOVERNMENT.

    /// END ACT ///

    WITH MANY OF ITS STAFF SLEEPING IN POORLY HEATED AREAS WITH SPORADIC SUPPLIES OF RUNNING WATER AND ELECTRICITY, NATO SPOKESMAN SIMON HAZELOCH SAYS OFFICIALS HAVE LITTLE CHOICE BUT TO DEAL WITH FACTS AS THEY ARE ON THE GROUND.

    /// OPT // HAZELOCH ACT ///

    ONE CAN UNDERSTAND THE CONCERNS OF ALL SECTIONS OF THE COMMUNITY. I THINK THAT THIS, FROM OUR POINT OF VIEW IS THE SORT OF THING WE MIGHT HAVE TO DEAL WITH BUT I DON'T THINK ITS SERIOUS.

    /// END ACT ///

    /// END OPT ///

    NATO COMMANDERS HAVE TRIED TO REASSURE THE WARRING FACTIONS THE NEW IMPLEMENTATION FORCE WILL BE EVEN-HANDED IN ITS ENFORCEMENT OF THE PEACE TREATY.

    BUT JUST A FEW DAYS INTO THE MISSION, THEY ARE ALREADY GETTING A GOOD INDICATION IT WILL NOT BE AN EASY JOB. (SIGNED)

    NEB/KBK/JWH/RAE
    22-Dec-95 9:53 AM EST (1453 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] CLINTON / BOSNIA (S) BY DAVID GOLLUST (PENTAGON)

    DATE=12/22/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-190429
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: PRESIDENT CLINTON WENT TO THE PENTAGON FRIDAY FOR A BRIEFING FROM TOP MILITARY OFFICIALS ON THE PEACEKEEPING DEPLOYMENT IN BOSNIA. HE STRESSED TO REPORTERS THAT THE ULTIMATE SUCCESS OF THE MISSION DEPENDS NOT ON NATO, BUT THE BOSNIAN PARTIES THEMSELVES. VOA'S DAVID GOLLUST HAS DETAILS.

    TEXT: MR. CLINTON WAS BRIEFED BY U-S GENERALS IN EUROPE IN A VIDEO TELECONFERENCE, AND TOLD REPORTERS THAT DESPITE SOME LOGISTICAL PROBLEMS THE MISSION IS PRETTY MUCH ON SCHEDULE. THE PRESIDENT SAID COMPLIANCE WITH THE PEACE ACCORDS BY THE BOSNIAN PARTIES HAS BEEN VERY GOOD THUS FAR AND THAT FULL-SCALE PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS SHOULD BE ABLE PROCEED BY MID-JANUARY AS PLANNED.

    THE PRESIDENT STRESSED THAT IN THE END IT WILL BE PARTIES TO THE CONFLICT AND NOT NATO WHO WILL DETERMINE IF PEACE PREVAILS IN THE COUNTRY A YEAR FROM NOW:

    // CLINTON ACT //

    WE CANNOT GUARANTEE FOR THEM A FUTURE WITHOUT WAR. WHAT WE CAN GUARANTEE FOR THEM IS YEAR WITHOUT WAR DURING WHICH THEY CAN IMPLEMENT THEIR OWN AGREEMENT. AND IN WHICH TIME THEY CAN HAVE ELECTIONS. THEY CAN BEGIN THE ECONOMIC RECONSTRUCTION. THEY CAN BEGIN TO SEE THE BENEFITS OF PEACE.

    // END ACT //

    MR. CLINTON SAID HE HAS LITTLE TO GAIN POLITICALLY IN HIS RE-ELECTION CAMPAIGN IF THE OPERATION GOES WELL, BUT MUCH TO LOSE IF U-S CASUALTIES IN BOSNIA ARE HIGH. HE ALSO SAID WE WOULD HAVE LIKED TO HAVE JOINED U-S TROOPS IN BOSNIA FOR CHRISTMAS BUT WAS ADVISED BY COMMANDERS THAT HIS PRESENCE WOULD HAVE BEEN TOO DISRUPTIVE. (SIGNED)

    NEB/DAG/CF
    22-Dec-95 12:35 PM EST (1735 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] TURKEY / ELECTION (L) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (ISTANBUL)

    DATE=12/22/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-190426
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: TURKISH VOTERS GO TO THE POLLS SUNDAY TO ELECT A NEW 550-SEAT PARLIAMENT. OPINION POLLS SHOW PRIME MINISTER TANSU CILLER'S TRUE PATH PARTY BEHIND HER TOP COMPETITOR FROM THE CENTER RIGHT. BUT ANALYSTS WILL BE WATCHING TO SEE JUST HOW WELL THE PRO-ISLAMIST WELFARE PARTY DOES IN ITS STEADY CLIMB IN POPULARITY. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT LAURIE KASSMAN IN ISTANBUL REPORTS IT APPEARS THERE WILL BE NO CLEAR WINNER, SO A COALITION BATTLE IS SURE TO FOLLOW.

    TEXT: MORE THAN FIVE-THOUSAND CANDIDATES FROM 14 PARTIES ARE RUNNING FOR 550 SEATS IN THE NEW PARLIAMENT. ONLY SIX OR SEVEN PARTIES ARE EXPECTED TO TOP THE TEN PERCENT MINIMUM OF VOTES REQUIRED FOR ENTERING PARLIAMENT.

    THE TOUGHEST BATTLE APPEARS TO FOCUS ON THE TWO CENTER RIGHT PARTIES -- PRIME MINISTER TANSU CILLER'S TRUE PATH PARTY AND HER ARCH RIVAL, MESUT YILMAZ OF THE MOTHERLAND PARTY.

    UNOFFICIAL POLLS SHOW A DROP IN POPULARITY FOR MRS. CILLER AFTER TWO-AND-ONE-HALF YEARS IN POWER. THE QUESTION NOW IS WHAT KIND OF COALITION COULD BE FORMED TO WIN A VOTE OF CONFIDENCE IN THE NEW PARLIAMENT.

    THE PRO-ISLAMIST WELFARE PARTY IS EXPECTED TO WELL IN THE POLLS, PERHAPS TAKING AS MUCH AS 20 PERCENT. THAT WOULD GIVE IT LEVERAGE IN THE FORMATION OF A NEW GOVERNMENT. BUT IN THIS COMMITTED SECULAR STATE, NO OTHER PARTY WANTS TO BE IDENTIFIED WITH IT.

    WELFARE PARTY LEADER NECMETIN ERBEKAN (NECH-MET-TIN ER-BEH-KAN) FINISHED HIS CAMPAIGN WITH A MASSIVE RALLY IN A WELFARE PARTY STRONGHOLD IN THE SHANTYTOWNS ON THE OUTSKIRTS OF ISTANBUL. PRIME MINISTER CILLER FINISHES HER CAMPAIGN SATURDAY WITH A BUS TOUR OF ISTANBUL'S WORKING-CLASS NEIGHBORHOODS.

    TURKEY'S KURDISH COMMUNITY FEELS ALIENATED FROM THE POLITICAL SYSTEM AND DOES NOT EXPECT THIS ELECTION WILL CHANGE THAT FEELING.

    MOST OF THE MORE THAN 30 MILLION REGISTERED VOTERS SAY THE ECONOMY IS THEIR MAIN CONCERN. MANY SAY THEY ARE FED UP WITH SEEING THE SAME POLITICAL FACES AND WILL NOT VOTE FOR PRIME MINISTER CILLER THIS TIME AROUND. BUT THEY SAY THEY STILL DO NOT KNOW WHO THEY WILL VOTE FOR AND ARE WAITING UNTIL THE LAST MINUTE TO MAKE UP THEIR MINDS. (SIGNED)

    NEB/LK/JWH/MMK
    22-Dec-95 11:44 AM EST (1644 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] TURKEY / KURDS (L ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (DIYARBAKIR)

    DATE=12/22/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-190412
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE KURDISH PROBLEM HAS EMERGED AS ONE OF THE MAIN ISSUES OF POLITICAL DEBATE AS TURKEY HEADS TOWARD NATIONWIDE PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS SUNDAY. ELEVEN YEARS OF FIGHTING BETWEEN TURKISH SECURITY FORCES AND REBELS OF THE KURDISTAN WORKERS' PARTY HAVE LEFT 18-THOUSAND PEOPLE DEAD AND MORE THAN TWO-MILLION KURDISH VILLAGERS HOMELESS. AMBERIN ZAMAN REPORTS FROM DIYARBAKIR THE COUNTRY'S MAIN POLITICAL PARTIES ARE ALL PROMISING A SOLUTION. BUT FEW KURDS BELIEVE THEM.

    TEXT:

    /// BACKGROUND SOUND WITH MUSIC ///

    FADE UNDER

    IN A SMOKY MAKESHIFT COFFEE SHOP ON THE OUTSKIRTS OF DIYARBAKIR, A MAN, WHO WOULD IDENTIFY HIMSELF ONLY AS MUSTAFA, AND HIS FRIENDS GATHER AROUND A SMALL STOVE TO DISCUSS THE LATEST POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS IN TURKEY. THEY HAVE NOTHING ELSE TO DO.

    LIKE NEARLY 60-PERCENT OF THE LABOR FORCE IN THIS MOSTLY-KURDISH TOWN THEY ARE ALL UNEMPLOYED. AND LIKE NEARLY TWO-THIRDS OF DIYARBAKIR'S ONE-AND-ONE-HALF-MILLION INHABITANTS THEY ARE VILLAGERS WHO WERE FORCED OUT OF THEIR HOMES BY THE TURKISH ARMY IN ITS FIGHT AGAINST REBELS OF THE KURDISTAN WORKERS' PARTY -- THE P-K-K.

    MUSTAFA SAYS HE WILL VOTE IN SUNDAYS GENERAL ELECTION. BUT LIKE MANY PEOPLE HERE, WHO HAVE NO JOBS, NO PROPER HOMES, AND NO HEALTH CARE, OR EDUCATION, HE SAYS HE HAS LITTLE HOPE FOR THE FUTURE.

    /// BEGIN MUSTAFA ACT, FADE UNDER ///

    HE SAYS NONE OF THE POLITICAL PARTIES RUNNING IN SUNDAY'S POLL CAN CHANGE THE SITUATION HERE. THE ONLY PARTY THAT -- IN HIS WORDS -- SERIOUSLY ADDRESSES THE PROBLEMS OF THE KURDS, IS THE PRO-KURDISH PEOPLE'S DEMOCRACY PARTY -- HADEP.

    SEDAT YURTTAS IS ONE OF HADEP'S BEST KNOWN CANDIDATES IN DIYARBAKIR. HE AND SEVEN OTHER KURDISH MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT WERE STRIPPED OF THEIR PARLIAMENTARY IMMUNITY LAST YEAR AND SENT TO PRISON FOR ALLEGED LINKS WITH THE P-K-K.

    MR YURTTAS WAS RELEASED AFTER SERVING 15-MONTHS IN PRISON BECAUSE THE COURT WAS UNABLE TO PROVE HE WAS A P-K-K MEMBER -- A CHARGE FOR WHICH HE FACED THE DEATH PENALTY.

    DESPITE HIS BAD EXPERIENCE MR YURTTAS SAYS IT IS ABSOLUTELY CRUCIAL THE KURDS CONTINUE WITH THEIR STRUGGLE FOR A VOICE IN THE COUNTRY'S AFFAIRS.

    /// YURTTAS ACT, FADE UNDER ///

    MR YURTTAS SAYS HE BELIEVES THE KURDISH ISSUE REMAINS TURKEY'S NUMBER-ONE PROBLEM. HE SAYS THERE ARE ENCOURAGING SIGNS THE TURKISH PUBLIC, IF NOT THE TURKISH STATE, IS BEGINNING TO REALIZE IT CANNOT BE SOLVED THROUGH PURELY MILITARY MEANS.

    MR. YURTTAS SAYS A UNILATERAL CEASEFIRE ANNOUNCED LAST WEEK BY P-K-K LEADER ABDULLAH OCALAN HAS HELPED EASE TENSIONS AHEAD OF THE POLL.

    BUT THERE ARE THOSE IN DIYARBAKIR WHO BELIEVE THE ULTIMATE SOLUTION FOR THE KURDS LIES IN ISLAM. THEY ARE THE KURDS FROM WHICH THE PRO-ISLAMIC WELFARE PARTY -- REFAH -- IS HOPING TO DRAW VOTES.

    A MAN WHO WOULD IDENTIFY HIMSELF ONLY AS AHMET, A CONSTRUCTION WORKER ATTENDING A REFAH RALLY, SAYS HE WILL VOTE FOR THE ISLAMISTS.

    /// AHMET ACT, FADING UNDER ///

    HE SAYS REFAH IS DIFFERENT FROM THE OTHER PARTIES BECAUSE IT IS PROMISING A JUST, UNCORRUPT SYSTEM WHERE ISLAM WILL TRANSCEND ETHNIC DIFFERENCES AND WHERE ALL MUSLIMS, BE THEY TURKS OR KURDS, WILL BE ALLOWED TO FREELY PRACTICE THEIR FAITH.

    UNTIL RECENTLY, THE ISLAMISTS WERE WIDELY EXPECTED TO GARNER THE GREATEST SHARE OF VOTES IN THE MAINLY KURDISH SOUTH-EAST REGION, JUST AS THEY ARE ELSEWHERE ACROSS THE COUNTRY. BUT REFAH'S CALCULATIONS HAVE BEEN UPSET BY HADEP'S DECISION TO PARTICIPATE IN THE ELECTIONS.

    ALTHOUGH HADEP IS EXPECTED TO SWEEP THE POLLS IN THE KURDISH PROVINCES, FEW ANALYSTS BELIEVE IT WILL BE ABLE TO SECURE THE MINIMUM 10-PERCENT SHARE OF THE NATIONAL VOTE REQUIRED FOR A PARTY TO BE REPRESENTED IN THE 550-MEMBER TURKISH PARLIAMENT.

    MR YURTTAS REMAINS UNDAUNTED BY SUCH PREDICTIONS. HE SAYS IF HADEP REMAINS UN-REPRESENTED IN PARLIAMENT THE PARTY CAN STILL PLAY AN ACTIVE ROLE IN BRINGING ABOUT PEACE BETWEEN TURKS AND KURDS. BUT SO LONG AS THE TURKISH STATE REMAINS COMMITTED TO A MILITARY SOLUTION TO THE KURDISH PROBLEM, HE SAYS PEACE WILL REMAIN ELUSIVE AS EVER. (SIGNED)

    NEB/AZ/MH/RAE
    22-Dec-95 7:32 AM EST (1232 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] U-N WEEK-IN-REVIEW BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)

    DATE=12/22/95
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-32059
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL APPROVES SENDING A CIVILIAN POLICE FORCE TO BOSNIA; COUNCIL MEMBERS REJECT NEW BOSNIAN SERB CLAIMS RELATED TO THE FALL OF SREBRENICA LAST JULY; THE U-N EXPRESSES CONCERN ABOUT DELAYS IN THE ANGOLAN PEACE PROCESS; SECRETARY-GENERAL BOUTROS BOUTROS-GHALI VISITS THE MIDDLE EAST; AND, THE 50TH SESSION OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY BREAKS FOR THE HOLIDAYS -- LATE. VOA CORRESPONDENT ELAINE JOHANSON REVIEWS THE MAIN DEVELOPMENTS OF THE PAST WEEK:

    TEXT: THE SECURITY COUNCIL HAS AUTHORIZED A CIVILIAN POLICE FORCE OF MORE THAN 17-HUNDRED FOR BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA TO RECRUIT AND TRAIN LOCAL POLICE. THIS IS ONE OF TWO OPERATIONS ALLOCATED TO THE UNITED NATIONS UNDER THE DAYTON PEACE ACCORD. THE U-N WILL ALSO SUPERVISE HUMANITARIAN ACTIVITIES IN THE COUNTRY.

    AS NATO ASSUMED CONTROL OF PEACEKEEPING IN BOSNIA THIS PAST WEEK -- U-N SPOKESMEN WERE BUSY DEFENDING THE U-N'S RECORD. THEY BRISTLED AT MEDIA REPORTS REFERRING TO THE U-N OPERATION AS A FAILED MISSION, ARGUING THE SECURITY COUNCIL HAD NOT PROVIDED EITHER A STRONG ENOUGH MANDATE IN BOSNIA OR ADEQUATE RESOURCES. MEANWHILE, THE COUNCIL UNANIMOUSLY CONDEMNED THE BOSNIAN SERBS FOR THE ALLEGED KILLING OF THOUSANDS OF MUSLIM MEN DURING THE CAPTURE OF SREBRENICA LAST JULY. IT DEMANDED IMMEDIATE ACCESS TO GRAVE SITES AND TO SUSPECTED DETENTION CENTERS ON BOSNIAN SERB TERRITORY WHERE THOUSANDS OF MISSING PERSONS MAY BE HELD.

    THE SERBS CAUSED A MINOR FUROR IN THE COUNCIL THIS PAST WEEK BY ALLEGING THAT THE MUSLIMS KILLED THEIR OWN PEOPLE DURING THE JULY SIEGE. IN A LETTER DELIVERED BY BELGRADE, THE BOSNIAN SERBS SAID THE MUSLIM ARMY -- EAGER TO CONTINUE FIGHTING -- MASSACRED THOSE WHO WANTED TO SURRENDER.

    THE COUNCIL REJECTED THE ALLEGATION. U-S AMBASSADOR MADELEINE ALBRIGHT ACCUSED THE SERBS OF PROPAGATING LIES.

    ALSO THIS PAST WEEK -- THE SECURITY COUNCIL REJECTED A CROATIAN DEADLINE OF DECEMBER 27TH FOR REBEL SERBS TO RECLAIM THEIR PROPERTY. LOCAL SERBS FLED A MILITARY OFFENSIVE BY THE CROATIAN ARMY TO RE-TAKE TERRITORY OCCUPIED IN THE 1991 WAR.

    THE COUNCIL SAID THE DEADLINE CONSTITUTES AN INSURMOUNTABLE OBSTACLE FOR MOST SERB REFUGEES.

    -0-

    THE SECURITY COUNCIL THIS PAST WEEK PRODDED UNITA (REBEL) FIGHTERS AND THE GOVERNMENT IN ANGOLA TO SPEED UP IMPLEMENTATION OF THEIR PEACE ACCORD.

    TENSION ROSE AGAIN IN THE COUNTRY AFTER GOVERNMENT FORCES TOOK SEVERAL TOWNS IN UNITA-CONTROLLED AREAS LAST MONTH. UNITA RESPONDED BY HALTING THE DEMOBILIZATION OF ITS FIGHTERS.

    DIPLOMATS ARE STILL HOPEFUL THAT THE RIVAL GROUPS WILL ACT IN GOOD FAITH. ANGOLA THIS YEAR MOVED DECISIVELY TOWARD NATIONAL RECONCILIATION -- FOLLOWING A 1994 PEACE ACCORD TO END 20 YEARS OF CIVIL WAR.

    -0-

    SECRETARY-GENERAL BOUTROS-GHALI WILL VISIT ERITREA AND YEMEN DURING A COMING VISIT TO THE MIDDLE EAST. THE TWO COUNTRIES HAVE BEEN INVOLVED IN A CLASH OVER TWO RED SEA ISLANDS. MR. BOUTROS-GHALI HAS URGED BOTH SIDES TO SHOW RESTRAINT AND OFFERED HIS SERVICES TO HELP RESOLVE THE DISPUTE.

    A U-N SPOKESMAN SAYS THE SECRETARY-GENERAL WILL CONSULT WITH THE TWO GOVERNMENTS BUT WILL NOT START MEDIATION UNLESS ASKED.

    MR. BOUTROS-GHALI IS EXPECTED TO VISIT KUWAIT AROUND DECEMBER 26TH -- WHERE OVER ONE-THOUSAND U-N OBSERVERS PATROL THE BORDER WITH IRAQ. HE WILL ALSO TAKE A BRIEF VACATION IN HIS HOME COUNTRY, EGYPT. HIS PRECISE ITINERARY HAS NOT BEEN MADE AVAILABLE.

    -0-

    THE U-N GENERAL ASSEMBLY RUSHED TOWARD ADJOURNMENT THIS PAST WEEK -- WITH ITS FINAL MEETINGS GOING WELL INTO THE NIGHT FRIDAY. IT POUNDED THE GAVEL ON MANY LAST-MINUTE RESOLUTIONS TO ADD TO THE SCORES ALREADY ADOPTED.

    GENERAL ASSEMBLY RESOLUTIONS ARE NOT LEGALLY BINDING. BUT DIPLOMATS BELIEVE THEY HAVE A MORAL FORCE OF THEIR OWN BECAUSE THEY EXPRESS THE MAJORITY OPINION OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY.

    AMONG THE ASSEMBLY'S FINAL ITEMS -- A CONDEMNATION OF NIGERIA FOR HANGING NINE MINORITY RIGHTS ACTIVISTS LAST MONTH DESPITE INTERNATIONAL APPEALS. NIGERIA ARGUED IN VAIN AGAINST WHAT IT CALLED INTERFERENCE IN ITS DOMESTIC AFFAIRS. (SIGNED)

    UN/EJ/CF
    22-Dec-95 3:16 PM EST (2016 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

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