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Voice of America, 9 February 1996

From: "Ioannis V. Bousnakis" <ivb19@nfi.com>

Voice of America Directory

CONTENTS

  • [01] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY DAN NOBLE (WASHINGTON)

  • [02] BOSNIA: PEACE AND JUSTICE BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

  • [03] BOSNIA/SARAJEVO (L ONLY) BY DAVID FOLEY ( SARAJEVO )

  • [04] U-N WEEK-IN-REVIEW BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)

  • [05] U-S / NATO / THREATS (S ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)


  • [01] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY DAN NOBLE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=2/09/96
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09421
    TELEPHONE=619-1014
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-S-T ON FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 9TH //

    INTRO: AMERICAN RELATIONS WITH CHINA, DEMOCRACY IN HAITI, AND THE ARREST IN SARAJEVO OF TWO SUSPECTED WAR CRIMINALS ARE AMONG THE SUBJECTS DISCUSSED ON THE EDITORIAL PAGES OF SOME OF AMERICA'S LEADING NEWSPAPERS. NOW, _________________ HAS A CLOSER LOOK AT THESE AND OTHER COMMENTS IN TODAY'S U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: ON ITS EDITORIAL PAGE TODAY (FRIDAY), THE NEW YORK TIMES TELLS READERS THAT "EVERY WEEK SEEMS TO BRING A NEW CHINESE CHALLENGE TO PRESIDENT CLINTON'S STEWARDSHIP OF AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY." THE PAPER NOTES THAT THERE HAVE BEEN CHINESE MILITARY THREATS AGAINST TAIWAN, REPRESSION OF DISSIDENTS, AND "INDIFFERENCE TO TRADE AGREEMENTS WITH THE UNITED STATES. NOW," CONTINUES THE TIMES, "COMES WORD FROM THE CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY THAT BEIJING HAS SECRETLY SOLD SENSITIVE NUCLEAR WEAPONS TECHNOLOGY TO PAKISTAN."

    VOICE: "THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION, IN ITS EAGERNESS TO PREVENT RELATIONS WITH CHINA FROM TAKING ANOTHER TUMBLE, HAS WATCHED THIS PATTERN WITH DISMAY BUT DONE LITTLE SO FAR TO MAKE CHINA PAY A PRICE. PASSIVITY IN THE FACE OF BELLIGERENCE IS A DANGEROUS COURSE. WASHINGTON MUST NOT LET THE LATEST CHINESE PROVOCATION GO UNANSWERED. UNDER UNITED STATES ANTI-PROLIFERATION LAW, THE SALE OF 500 MAGNETS TO PAKISTAN THAT CAN BE USED TO REFINE BOMB-GRADE URANIUM WOULD NORMALLY TRIGGER AN ECONOMIC PENALTY -- A CUTOFF OF NEARLY 10 BILLION DOLLARS IN LOAN GUARANTEES FOR AMERICAN CORPORATIONS DOING BUSINESS IN CHINA. THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION IS NOW DEBATING WHETHER IT SHOULD WAIVE THIS PENALTY, TO AVOID HURTING AMERICAN BUSINESSES AND DAMAGING RELATIONS WITH BEIJING. A WAIVER WOULD BE A MISTAKE."

    TEXT: ON THE SAME SUBJECT, THE WASHINGTON POST NOTES THAT THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION "IS DESCRIBED AS LEANING TOWARD WAIVING THE SANCTIONS." THE POST EDITORIAL OFFERS THIS OPINION:

    VOICE: "IT IS ALREADY ESTABLISHED THAT THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION IS PUTTING TRADE OVER HUMAN RIGHTS IN ITS CHINA POLICY, EVEN THOUGH THE MELLOWING THAT TRADE WAS EXPECTED TO BRING ABOUT IS SO FAR NOT IN SIGHT. NOW IT IS BEING ESTABLISHED THAT THE ADMINISTRATION IS PUTTING TRADE -- 'THERE ARE TREMENDOUS COMMERCIAL OPPORTUNITIES THERE', EXPORT CHIEF RON BROWN SAID THIS WEEK -- OVER NONPROLIFERATION AS WELL. THE ADMINISTRATION'S CHINA POLICY IS AT THE EDGE OF INCOHERENCE. THE CHINESE COULD BE FORGIVEN FOR THINKING THAT IN ANY GIVEN CASE THEY CAN PRESS AT THE MARGINS, PLAY ON THE DIFFERENCES AMONG THE ELEMENTS OF AMERICAN GOVERNMENT AND SOCIETY AND HAVE THEIR WAY BY STANDING FIRM."

    TEXT: THE BALTIMORE SUN TELLS READERS THAT "FOR THE FIRST TIME IN HAITI'S HISTORY, AN ELECTED PRESIDENT HAS HANDED HIS AUTHORITY OVER TO ANOTHER. THERE IS," CONTINUES THE PAPER, "SATISFACTION THAT THE U-S PEACEFUL INVASION TO RESTORE LEGITIMACY IN THE TROUBLED STATE HAS SO FAR SUCCEEDED." THE SUN ADDS THIS CAUTION:

    VOICE: "AND YET, PRESIDENT RENE GARCIA PREVAL IS NOT ASSURED OF MAKING IT. THE PEOPLE WHO ELECTED HIM REALLY WANTED HIS PREDECESSOR, JEAN-BERTRAND ARISTIDE, TO STAY ON. THOUGH A MILITARY COUP CHEATED MR. ARISTIDE OF THREE YEARS OF HIS PRESIDENCY, THE U-S INSISTED THAT HE STEP DOWN AS THE CONSTITUTIONAL TIMETABLE DECREED... MR. ARISTIDE HIMSELF IS A PROBLEM. HE REMAINS IN HAITI, DEFROCKED FROM THE PRIESTHOOD AND NEWLY MARRIED, HIS POPULARITY UNDIMINISHED, LOOMING LARGER THAN THE SUCCESSOR HE SUPPORTED. WERE A RIFT TO DEVELOP BETWEEN MR. PREVAL AND MR. ARISTIDE, THE STRENGTH OF DEMOCRATIC AUTHORITY IN HAITI WOULD BE SORELY TESTED."

    TEXT: AN EDITORIAL IN TODAY'S WASHINGTON TIMES MAKES THE POINT THAT, "NOTHING IS EASIER THAN TO FIND REASONS FOR SKEPTICISM ABOUT DEMOCRACY'S LONG-TERM PROGNOSIS IN HAITI."

    VOICE: "AND YET. THERE IS NO DOUBT THAT HAITIANS ARE BETTER OFF TODAY THAN THEY WERE A YEAR AND A HALF AGO, WHEN MR. CLINTON DISPATCHED JIMMY CARTER AND 20-THOUSAND AMERICAN TROOPS TO DRIVE THE GENERALS FROM POWER. THE DAILY TERROR OF KIDNAPPINGS AND MURDERS HAS ENDED, THOUGH THERE ARE STILL INSTANCES OF POLITICAL VIOLENCE, MOSTLY BY ARISTIDE SUPPORTERS. AS FAR AS U-S NATIONAL INTERESTS ARE CONCERNED, HAITI MAY BE BUT A BLIP ON THE INTERNATIONAL RADAR SCREEN, BUT IT WAS A CAUSE OF CONSIDERABLE DISTRESS JUST OFF AMERICAN SHORES. JUST ASK THE PEOPLE OF FLORIDA AND THE TROOPS WHO GUARDED THE ENCAMPMENTS OF BOAT PEOPLE IN GUANTANAMO BAY. IN ALL, HAITI REMAINS MISERABLE, BACKWARD AND WIDELY ILLITERATE, BUT AT LEAST IT HAS A CHANCE."

    TEXT: A FEW DAYS AGO, TWO SERBS SUSPECTED OF WAR CRIMES WERE ARRESTED IN SARAJEVO. THE UNITED NATIONS WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL IN THE HAGUE IS EXPECTED TO RULE IN THE NEXT FEW DAYS ON "WHETHER IT WANTS TO INDICT THEM." THE WALL STREET JOURNAL SAYS THAT THE SERBS "HAVE BALKED AT THE ARRESTS," AND THAT "RUSSIA PREDICTABLY WEIGHTED IN ON THE SIDE OF THE BOSNIAN SERBS, DEMANDING THE RELEASE OF THE TWO SOLDIERS."

    VOICE: "DIVIDED AND WEAKENED, BOSNIA'S MAIN HOPE IS THAT THE WEST WILL ENFORCE NOT JUST A SEPARATION OF THE WARRING SIDES, BUT A RESPECT FOR THE STANDARDS OF INTERNATIONAL LAW AND RESPECT FOR HUMAN RIGHTS THAT OSTENSIBLY BROUGHT US THERE IN THE FIRST PLACE. ENFORCING THOSE PRINCIPLES MIGHT BE CLASSIFIED AS MISSION CREEP, BUT WE DON'T SEE HOW YOU CAN BUILD A LASTING PEACE, MUCH LESS A VIABLE STATE, ON THE CURRENT QUICKSAND. BUT THEN, PERHAPS THAT GOAL WAS TOO AMBITIOUS FOR DAYTON."

    TEXT: THIS WEEK THE NORTH KOREAN GOVERNMENT "PRAISED THE UNITED STATES FOR GIVING TWP MILLION DOLLARS TO THE U-N WORLD FOOD PROGRAM FOR FAMINE RELIEF IN NORTH KOREA." THE LOS ANGELES TIMES EDITORIALIZES THAT "ANY TIME A REGIME AS ISOLATED AND SUSPICIOUS AS NORTH KOREA'S SAYS SOMETHING THAT DEPARTS FROM THE DOGMATIC NORM, ATTENTION SHOULD BE PAID."

    VOICE: "IT COULD BE, OF COURSE, THAT NORTH KOREA WAS SIMPLY OBSERVING CONVENTIONAL COURTESIES. BUT COURTESY ISN'T SOMETHING PYONGYANG IS FAMOUS FOR, LEAST OF ALL TOWARD THE UNITED STATES, AN UNFORGIVEN ENEMY SINCE IT LED THE INTERNATIONAL MILITARY EFFORT 46 YEARS AGO THAT TURNED BACK THE COMMUNIST NORTH'S EFFORT TO CONQUER SOUTH KOREA. COULD THERE BE A HIDDEN MOTIVE BEHIND THIS GRATITUDE? YES, AND IT'S NOT ALL THAT HIDDEN. NORTH KOREA KNOWS THAT ANY SIGN OF A THAW IN ITS RELATIONS WITH WASHINGTON SETS OFF NERVOUS TREMORS IN SEOUL. INDEED, EARLIER THIS WEEK ANTHONY LAKE, PRESIDENT CLINTON'S NATIONAL SECURITY ADVISOR, VISITED SOUTH KOREA TO GIVE ASSURANCES THAT THE MODEST FOOD AID IS NOT THE COVER FOR ANY SECRET DEAL. NORTH KOREA, WHICH HAS HAD SCANT SUCCESS IN ENLISTING HELP FROM ABROAD, SAYS THE U-S GESTURE WILL SERVE TO IMPROVE BILATERAL TIES. THAT WOULD BE WELCOME, BUT ONLY ACTIONS CAN PROVIDE THE PROOF OF A BETTER RELATIONSHIP."

    TEXT: AND WITH THOSE THOUGHTS FROM THE THE LOS ANGELES TIMES, WE CONCLUDE THIS SAMPLING OF COMMENT FROM THE EDITORIAL PAGES OF SOME OF THE LEADING U-S NEWSPAPERS.

    NEB/DN/PCH
    09-Feb-96 11:05 AM EST (1605 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [02] BOSNIA: PEACE AND JUSTICE BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

    DATE=2/9/96
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-32407
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: ATTEMPTS TO IMPLEMENT THE PEACE AGREEMENT FOR BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA HAVE ENCOUNTERED SOME MAJOR PROBLEMS. ONE OF THEM, AN AMBIVALENT INTERNATIONAL APPROACH TOWARD THE ISSUE OF WAR CRIMINALS, IS NOT NEW BUT HAS NOW BECOME ESPECIALLY SERIOUS. IT RAISES QUESTIONS ABOUT WHETHER PEACE WITH JUSTICE IS REALLY POSSIBLE IN BOSNIA. V-O-A'S CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT, WAYNE COREY, REPORTS.

    TEXT: SERB RETALIATION FOR THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT'S CAPTURE OF SUSPECTED SERB WAR CRIMINALS MAY HAVE BROUGHT THE CONTRADICTION IN BOSNIA BETWEEN PEACE AND JUSTICE TO A HEAD.

    THE BOSNIAN SERB ARMY HAS BROKEN OFF HIGH-LEVEL CONTACTS WITH THE NATO-LED INTERNATIONAL PEACE FORCE. NATO SAYS THIS VIOLATES THE BOSNIAN PEACE AGREEMENT.

    THE SERBS EARLIER SUSPENDED ALL CONTACTS WITH THE MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION UNTIL THE DETAINED SERBS ARE FREED. THIS MEANS AT LEAST A DELAY IN IMPLEMENTING CIVIL ASPECTS OF THE PEACE ACCORD.

    AMERICAN ENVOY RICHARD HOLBROOKE IS RETURNING TO THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA THIS WEEKEND TO, IN HIS WORDS, TRY TO CALM DOWN THE TENSION THAT HAS GROWN CONSIDERABLY IN RECENT DAYS.

    HE AND THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY FACE A FUNDAMENTAL DILEMMA. HOW CAN PEACE WITH JUSTICE BE ESTABLISHED IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA IF PEACE DEPENDS ON THE COOPERATION OF INDICTED OR SUSPECTED WAR CRIMINALS?

    UNITED NATIONS CIVILIAN AND MILITARY OFFICIALS AND PREVIOUS INTERNATIONAL MEDIATORS HAD NO QUALMS ABOUT DEALING DIRECTLY WITH THE BOSNIAN SERB POLITICAL AND MILITARY LEADERS WHO ARE BOTH INDICTED WAR CRIMINALS.

    THE NATO POLICY IN BOSNIA IS THAT ALLIANCE OFFICIALS WILL HAVE NO DIRECT CONTACT WITH EITHER MAN AND THAT NATO FORCES WILL NOT ACTIVELY HUNT DOWN THEM OR OTHER INDICTED OR SUSPECTED WAR CRIMINALS. BUT, WHILE NATO'S POLICY AT LEAST PARTLY REFLECTS TOLERANCE, THE INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL IN THE HAGUE IS KEEPING CONSTANT PRESSURE ON EVERYONE TO SUPPORT THE CAUSE OF JUSTICE IN BOSNIA.

    FOR THE TRIBUNAL'S CHIEF PROSECUTOR, RICHARD GOLDSTONE, THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT HAD THE RIGHT, INDEED THE OBLIGATION TO DETAIN SUSPECTED WAR CRIMINALS EVEN IF NATO WAS RELUCTANT TO DO IT.

    // GOLDSTONE ACT //

    AND THERE'S NOTHING IN THE DAYTON ACCORDS, NOR COULD THERE BE TO IN ANY WAY TAKE AWAY THAT DUTY AND POWER. IT GOES FURTHER, HOWEVER, WITH REGARD TO SERIOUS VIOLATIONS OF THE LAWS OF WAR, INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW BECAUSE...UNDER THE GENOCIDE CONVENTION AND UNDER THE GENEVA CONVENTIONS, GRAVE BREACHES ARE THE POSITIVE DUTY OF ALL NATIONAL STATES TO INVESTIGATE AND TO PROSECUTE. THERE'S AN INTERNATIONAL OBLIGATION ON EVERY PARTY WHO SIGNED THE GENEVA CONVENTIONS OR THE GENOCIDE CONVENTION, AND THAT APPLIES TO ALL OF THE PARTIES IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA.

    // END ACT //

    LAST YEAR, UNITED NATIONS OFFICIALS FAILED TO PERSUADE JUSTICE GOLDSTONE NOT TO ISSUE WAR CRIMES INDICTMENTS AT A TIME WHEN THE OFFICIALS THOUGHT THE BOSNIAN PEACE PROCESS WAS IN A CRUCIAL STAGE.

    THE WAR CRIMES PROSECUTOR NOW SAYS ANY INTERFERENCE WITH OR ANY CRITICISM OF LEGITIMATE ATTEMPTS TO INVESTIGATE WAR CRIMES IS UNJUSTIFIED.

    // GOLDSTONE ACT //

    AND IT WOULD BE COUNTER TO ALL ELEMENTS TO JUSTICE, OF ELEMENTARY JUSTICE, AND COUNTER TO THE WORK OF THE INTERNATIONAL TRIBUNAL, AND I WOULD STRESS WHAT WE'RE DOING, WE'RE DOING ON THE BRIEF AND AT THE REQUEST OF THE WHOLE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY. . .I WOULD REGRET ANY CRITICISM EITHER OF A NATIONAL STATE'S AUTHORITIES, LET ALONE OF THE TRIBUNAL, IN CARRYING OUT WHAT IS AN IMPORTANT, WHAT IS IMPORTANT WORK, AND I HAVE NO DOUBT IMPORTANT IN ENSURING THAT THERE'S AN ENDURING PEACE IN THE AREA.

    // END ACT //

    THE MAJOR WESTERN POWERS ALL PUBLICLY AGREE THAT THE PUNISHMENT OF WAR CRIMINALS IS ESSENTIAL TO A LASTING PEACE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. BUT, IT WAS THESE SAME POWERS, VOTING IN THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL, THAT GAVE THE INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL AND THE INTERNATIONAL PEACE FORCE IN BOSNIA MANDATES THAT MAY BE IRRECONCILABLE.

    BY REFUSING NOW TO ACTIVELY COOPERATE IN THE SEARCH FOR PEACE, THE SERBS MAY BE FORCING THE MAJOR POWERS TO FINALLY DECIDE WHETHER THERE MUST BE PEACE AND JUSTICE OR JUST PEACE IN BOSNIA. (SIGNED)

    NEB/WC/JWH/CF
    09-Feb-96 10:07 AM EST (1507 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [03] BOSNIA/SARAJEVO (L ONLY) BY DAVID FOLEY ( SARAJEVO )

    DATE=2/9/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-192503
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO COMMANDERS IN BOSNIA ARE TAKING PRECAUTIONS TO PREVENT THEIR SOLDIERS BEING TAKEN HOSTAGE BY THE BOSNIAN SERBS. THE MOVE COMES AFTER THE SERBS BROKE OFF ALL HIGH LEVEL CONTACTS WITH NATO AND THREATENED TO ARREST ANY MUSLIMS OR CROATS WHO CROSSED INTO THEIR TERRITORY. DAVID FOLEY REPORTS FROM SARAJEVO.

    TEXT: NATO SOURCES SAY THE NEW MEASURES TO PROTECT THEIR SOLDIERS INCLUDE INCREASING FORCES AT THE MOST EXPOSED POSITIONS ON SERB TERRITORY, AND KEEPING QUICK REACTION FORCES ON STAND-BY. THE CHAIRMAN OF THE AMERICAN JOINT CHIEFS OF STAFF, GENERAL JOHN SHALIKASHVILI, ON A VISIT TO BOSNIA, SAYS NATO WILL DEAL VERY RESOLUTELY WITH ANYONE THREATENING NATO PERSONNEL.

    THE NEW NATO POSTURE COMES AFTER BOSNIAN SERB OFFICIALS THREATENED TO ARREST MUSLIMS AND CROATS IF THEY ENTERED SERB TERRITORY. NATO SOURCES SAY STEPS ARE ALSO BEING TAKEN TO PREVENT CIVILIANS OR FOREIGN AID WORKERS BEING TAKEN HOSTAGE.

    NATO SOURCES SAY BOSNIAN SERB ARMY COMMANDERS HAVE BEEN WARNED NOT TO ATTEMPT AN ACTION AGAINST NATO, AND SPOKESMAN MAJOR SIMON HASELOCK SAYS NATO IS TRYING TO KEEP THINGS UNDER CONTROL.

    ///HASELOCK ACT///

    CLEARLY WE ARE CONCERNED ABOUT THE SITUATION AS IT PERTAINS AT THE MOMENT. ALL OUR CONTACTS, AND ALL THE CONTACTS WHICH WE WILL CONTINUE TO MAKE, (WILL BE) TO MAKE SURE THIS THING IS CALMED AND IT DOESN'T GET OUT OF HAND.

    ///END ACT///

    NATO SOURCES ALSO SAY STRONG FORCES ARE NOW PREPARED TO ENTER SERB TERRITORY TO SECURE KEY AREAS AND FACILITIES, SUCH AS ROADS AND COMMUNICATIONS SITES SHOULD IT BE NECESSARY.

    THE BOSNIAN SERBS SAY THEY HAVE BROKEN OFF ALL CONTACTS WITH NATO UNTIL TWO SENIOR SERB OFFICERS HELD BY THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT ON BEHALF OF THE INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL FOR SUSPECTED INVOLVEMENT IN WAR CRIMES ARE RELEASED. THE COMMANDER OF NATO GROUND FORCES IN BOSNIA, LIEUTENANT GENERAL MICHAEL WALKER, SAYS WHILE LOW-LEVEL CONTACTS WITH THE SERBS ARE CONTINUING, ALL HIGH-LEVEL CONTACTS WITH THE SERB ARMY HAVE HALTED. GENERAL WALKER DESCRIBED THE DEVELOPMENT AS OMINOUS AND A DIRECT BREACH OF THE DAYTON PEACE PLAN. HE ADDED THE CRISIS DOES HAVE THE PROSPECT OF TURNING BAD.

    THE COMMANDER OF ALL NATO FORCES IN BOSNIA, U-S ADMIRAL LEIGHTON SMITH, SAYS THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY MUST APPLY DIPLOMATIC, POLITICAL, AND ECONOMIC PRESSURE ON THE SERBS TO, AS HE PUT IT, GET THESE PEOPLE BACK IN LINE.

    THAT PRESSURE WILL LIKELY BE APPLIED BY THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT OF THE DAYTON ACCORD, DIPLOMAT RICHARD HOLBROOKE, WHO HAS BEEN SENT TO BOSNIA TO TRY TO PATCH UP THE FRACTURED PEACE AGREEMENT. MR HOLBROOKE SAID IN HUNGARY ON FRIDAY HE WILL TRY TO CALM THE TENSIONS IN THE AREA, BUT HE ADDED IT IS CLEAR THE PARTIES WILL HAVE TO BE MADE TO COMPLY WITH THE DAYTON AGREEMENT.

    THERE ARE SOME SIGNS NOT ALL SERBS ARE FOLLOWING THE LEAD OF THE BOSNIAN SERB ARMY. ON FRIDAY IN THE BOSNIAN CAPITAL SERB CIVILIANS WERE STILL CROSSING INTO GOVERNMENT TERRITORY AND THE MAYOR OF SERB HELD PARTS OF THE CITY SAYS HE WILL CONTINUE TO MEET WITH INTERNATIONAL MEDIATORS. IT IS NOT CLEAR IF THIS IS A SIGN OF DIVISION AMONG THE SERBS, OR MERELY AN ATTEMPT TO INDICATE A SOLUTION CAN BE NEGOTIATED IF CONCESSIONS ARE MADE TO THE SERBS. (SIGNED)

    NEB/DF/MH/JM
    09-Feb-96 10:17 AM EST (1517 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [04] U-N WEEK-IN-REVIEW BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)

    DATE=2/9/96
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-32415
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED NATIONS AND IRAQ START A NEW ROUND OF TALKS THAT COULD PUT IRAQ BACK INTO THE WORLD OIL MARKET AFTER A FIVE-YEAR BAN; THE SECURITY COUNCIL PRESSES ANGOLA'S REBELS TO ABIDE BY A 1994 PEACE AGREEMENT; AND, SECRETARY-GENERAL BOUTROS BOUTROS-GHALI ISSUES A DIRE WARNING ON THE STATE OF THE ORGANIZATION'S FINANCES. VOA CORRESPONDENT ELAINE JOHANSON REVIEWS THE MAIN DEVELOPMENTS OF THE PAST WEEK:

    TEXT: IRAQI AND UNITED NATIONS EXPERTS ARE WORKING ON DETAILS OF A PLAN THAT WOULD ALLOW IRAQ TO SELL TWO BILLION DOLLARS OF OIL EVERY SIX MONTHS -- WITH PART OF THE PROFITS USED TO BUY BADLY-NEEDED FOOD AND MEDICINE. IRAQ UNTIL RECENTLY HAD CATEGORICALLY REJECTED THE TERMS OF RESOLUTION 9-8-6 -- APPROVED BY THE SECURITY COUNCIL LAST YEAR -- ON GROUNDS THAT CLOSE U-N SUPERVISION OVER THE OIL SALES AND THE INTERNAL DISTRIBUTION OF HUMANITARIAN SUPPLIES WOULD VIOLATE ITS SOVEREIGNTY.

    BAGHDAD OFFICIALLY DOES NOT EVEN MENTION THE RESOLUTION -- DESPITE THE NEW TALKS -- AS IF THE SO-CALLED OIL-FOR-FOOD OFFER IS SOMEHOW A SEPARATE DEAL. A U-N STATEMENT ISSUED AFTER EACH DAY OF DISCUSSIONS THIS PAST WEEK ALSO FAILED TO MAKE NOTE OF THE RESOLUTION -- LEAVING REPORTERS TO WONDER IF U-N NEGOTIATORS WERE ABANDONING THE STRICT TERMS SET DOWN BY THE SECURITY COUNCIL. U-N SPOKESMAN AHMAD FAWZI EMPHATICALLY DENIED IT:

    //FAWZI ACT//

    9-8-6. 9-8-6. 9-8-6. LET ME REPEAT IT HERE AS OFTEN AS POSSIBLE. 9-8-6. THE SECRETARY-GENERAL HAS OVER THE PAST FEW MONTHS, SINCE THE RESOLUTION WAS ADOPTED IN APRIL, 1995, HAS EXERTED TIRELESS EFFORTS TO GET RESOLUTION 9-8-6 ACCEPTED AND IMPLEMENTED. AND THIS IS THE RESULT OF HIS EFFORTS TO GET THE IRAQI GOVERNMENT TO TALK ABOUT THE OIL-FOR-FOOD FORMULA.

    //END ACT//

    THE NEGOTIATORS HAVE TALKED ABOUT THE KEY ISSUES THAT MUST BE RESOLVED FOR THE DEAL TO BE ACCEPTABLE. AMONG THE TOPICS: HOW MUCH OIL IRAQ WILL BE ALLOWED TO SHIP THROUGH ITS OWN PORTS. THE COUNCIL HAD SPECIFIED THAT THE LARGER PORTION MUST GO THROUGH A TWIN-PIPELINE FROM NORTHERN IRAQ THROUGH TURKEY TO THE MEDITERRANEAN.

    THE TALKS RESUME MONDAY. THIS ROUND IS NOT LIKELY TO BE THE LAST. ULTIMATELY, THE POLITICAL DECISION ON WHETHER IRAQ CAN LIVE WITH THE DEAL WILL BE MADE BY PRESIDENT SADDAM HUSSEIN HIMSELF.

    IRAQ HAS BEEN UNDER U-N SANCTIONS -- INCLUDING AN OIL BAN -- SINCE IT INVADED KUWAIT IN 1990.

    -0-

    THE SECURITY COUNCIL HAS SIGNALLED REPEATEDLY IT WILL NOT ABIDE TOO MUCH STALLING ON PEACE AGREEMENTS IN COUNTRIES WHERE THE U-N HAS TROOPS. IT EXPRESSED ITS CONCERN THIS PAST WEEK OVER THE LONG OVERDUE QUARTERING OF UNITA REBEL FIGHTERS IN ANGOLA AND RENEWED ITS PEACEKEEPING OPERATION FOR ONLY THREE MONTHS -- INSTEAD OF THE RECOMMENDED SIX.

    U-S AMBASSADOR MADELEINE ALBRIGHT TELEPHONED UNITA LEADER JONAS SAVIMBI TO CONVEY TO HIM THE COUNCIL'S DISSATISFACTION. MR. SAVIMBI PROMISED HE WOULD MOVE HIS SOLDIERS INTO U-N ASSEMBLY POINTS AS FAST AS HE COULD. BUT HE MISSED THE FIRST DEADLINE OF FEBRUARY EIGHTH AND COUNCIL MEMBERS DID NOT EXUDE OVER-CONFIDENCE IN MR. SAVIMBI'S NEW PLEDGE.

    THE U-N HAS COMMITTED OVER 65-HUNDRED TROOPS TO ANGOLA TO UPHOLD A PEACE ACCORD AIMED AT ENDING NEARLY TWO DECADES OF WAR.

    -0-

    THE U-N'S FINANCIAL WOES ARE A RECURRING STORY. SECRETARY-GENERAL BOUTROS-GHALI THIS PAST WEEK AGAIN ISSUED A DIRE WARNING ABOUT BANKRUPTCY, AS THE ORGANIZATION'S BILLS CONTINUE TO PILE UP (ACCUMMULATE). HE CALLED FOR A SPECIAL SESSION OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY BEFORE NEXT SEPTEMBER TO DEAL WITH THE CRISIS.

    GOVERNMENTS OWE THE U-N OVER THREE BILLION DOLLARS, WITH THE UNITED STATES THE LARGEST DEBTOR. MR. BOUTROS-GHALI HAS SUGGESTED THE U-S CONTRIBUTION OF 25 PERCENT BE REDUCED TO 20 OR EVEN 15 PERCENT. HE SAID THE UNITED NATIONS SHOULD NOT BE SO DEPENDENT ON ANY ONE COUNTRY.

    THE REPUBLICAN-CONTROLLED U-S CONGRESS IS HOLDING UP PAYMENTS TO THE U-N WHILE IT FEUDS WITH PRESIDENT CLINTON OVER THE NATIONAL BUDGET. MEANWHILE, THE U-N IS CONTEMPLATING A 10 PERCENT CUT IN ITS STAFF WORLD-WIDE TO REDUCE EXPENDITURES. BUT UNLESS A LOT OF MONEY STARTS ROLLING IN -- U-N OFFICIALS SAY OPERATIONS COULD GROUND TO A HALT BEFORE THE YEAR IS OUT. (SIGNED)

    NEB/EJ/SKH

    09-Feb-96 5:25 PM EST (2225 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [05] U-S / NATO / THREATS (S ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

    DATE=2/9/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-192507
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: AMERICA'S TOP MILITARY OFFICER HAS ISSUED A NEW WARNING THAT NATO-LED FORCES IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA WILL REACT STRONGLY TO ANY THREATS AGAINST THEM. V-O-A'S CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT WAYNE COREY REPORTS.

    TEXT: REFERRING TO WHAT HE CALLS RUMORS OF THREATS, THE COMMANDER OF THE U-S JOINT CHIEFS OF STAFF, GENERAL JOHN SHALIKASHVILI, SAYS NATO FORCES IN BOSNIA WILL BE RESOLUTE WITH ANYONE WHO THREATENS THEM.

    DURING A VISIT TO AMERICAN TROOPS IN NORTHEASTERN BOSNIA, GENERAL SHALIKASHVILI ALSO SAID THE SERBS MUST COMPLY WITH THE BOSNIAN PEACE AGREEMENT.

    THE SERB ARMY HAS CUT OFF HIGH-LEVEL CONTACTS WITH THE NATO-LED INTERNATIONAL PEACE FORCE IN ITS LATEST RETALIATION FOR THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT'S CAPTURE OF SENIOR SERB SOLDIERS. THE DETAINED SERBS ARE ALLEGEDLY LINKED TO WAR CRIMES.

    ONE OF THE DETAINED SERBS IS A GENERAL WHO IS CLOSE TO THE SERB ARMY COMMANDER, GENERAL RATKO MLADIC. GENERAL MLADIC HIMSELF HAS ALREADY BEEN INDICTED FOR WAR CRIMES BY THE INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL.

    THE CIVILIAN ADMINISTRATOR FOR BOSNIA, CARL BILDT, INITIALLY CRITICIZED THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT'S DETENTION OF THE ALLEGED SERB WAR CRIMINALS.

    BUT THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL SUPPORTED THE GOVERNMENT MOVE, AND NATO NOW SAYS IT CAN _NOT_ INTERVENE IN THE CASE. (SIGNED)

    NEB/WC/JWH/ART
    09-Feb-96 11:08 AM EST (1608 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

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