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Voice of America, 2 April 1996 (1 of 2)

From: "Ioannis V. Bousnakis" <ivb19@nfi.com>

Voice of America Directory

CONTENTS

  • [01] TUESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY DAN NOBLE (WASHINGTON)

  • [02] BILDT ON BOSNIA (L-ONLY) BY JENNIFER O'NEIL (WASHINGTON)

  • [03] BOSNIA/SMITH (L-ONLY) BY NICK SIMEONE (WASHINGTON )

  • [04] BOSNIA BY DAN NOBLE (WASHINGTON)

  • [05] BOSNIA SITREP (L) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

  • [06] E-U/IRAN (L ONLY-CORRECTION) BY LAURIE KASSMAN ( CAIRO )


  • [01] TUESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY DAN NOBLE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=04/02/96
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09507
    TELEPHONE=619-1014
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-S-T ON TUESDAY, APRIL 2ND //

    INTRO: NEWSPAPERS ACROSS AMERICA THIS TUESDAY ARE COMMENTING ON A WIDE RANGE OF INTERNATIONAL AND DOMESTIC MATTERS. AMONG THEM ARE CONTINUED FIGHTING IN CHECHNYA, AND VIEWS ON ABORTION LEGISLATION PASSED BY THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS. NOW, HERE WITH A CLOSER LOOK IS _______________ WITH TODAY'S U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: THE LEAD EDITORIAL IN TODAY'S NEW YORK TIMES IS HEADLINED: "LESSONS OF A RUINOUS WAR." THE NEWSPAPER SAYS THAT 15 MONTHS AFTER RUSSIAN PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN LAUNCHED A WAR HE ASSUMED WOULD BE WON QUICKLY, "MR. YELTSIN IS DESPERATELY TRYING TO UNTANGLE HIS PRESIDENCY AND RE-ELECTION HOPES FROM A CONFLICT THAT HAS GRAVELY DAMAGED BOTH."

    VOICE: "AS HE LUNGES TOWARD AN EXIT, MR. YELTSIN SHOWS LITTLE SIGN THAT HE RECOGNIZES THE MISTAKES THAT BROUGHT HIM TO THIS JUNCTURE. THEY WERE WORTH RECALLING BECAUSE THEY COULD BE REPEATED BY HIM OR ANOTHER RUSSIAN LEADER WHO FAILS TO UNDERSTAND THE POLITICAL AND MILITARY MISCALCULATIONS THAT PRODUCED THIS VIOLENT CONFRONTATION IN THE CAUCASUS. LIKE MIKHAIL GORBACHEV, THE LAST SOVIET LEADER, MR. YELTSIN BADLY MISREAD THE INTENSITY OF ETHNIC NATIONALISM IN RUSSIA AND ITS ENVIRONS. THAT MAY BE DUE IN PART TO A NASTY INTOLERANCE AMONG RUSSIANS TOWARD THE MANY MINORITY PEOPLES IN THEIR MIDST. MR. GORBACHEV FAILED TO APPRECIATE THE POWER OF LONG-SUPPRESSED NATIONALIST SENTIMENT IN THE REPUBLICS, A FORCE THAT RIPPED APART THE SOVIET UNION WHEN HE LOOSENED THE KREMLIN STRAITJACKET. MR. YELTSIN MISTOOK THE ETHNIC PRIDE OF CHECHENS AS AN EMOTIONAL IMPULSE THAT COULD BE EASILY EXTINGUISHED BY MILITARY MIGHT."

    TEXT: TODAY'S BOSTON GLOBE ALSO COMMENTS ON MR. YELTSIN'S "NEW PLAN TO WITHDRAW TROOPS FROM CHECHNYA AND PERMIT INDIRECT PEACE TALKS WITH CHECHEN PRESIDENT DZHOKAR DUDAYEV..."

    VOICE: "THE CRUCIAL ASPECT OF [MR.] YELTSIN'S DECISION TO ABJURE HIS WAR AGAINST CHECHNYA IS NOT ITS HYPOCRISY BUT THE SPECTACLE OF A RECIDIVIST AUTOCRAT CEDING TO THE NECESSITY OF DEMOCRATIC ACCOUNTABILITY. THE CARNAGE YELTSIN LOOSED 16 MONTHS AGO ON CHECHNYA HAS NOT ONLY PRODUCED ENORMOUS SUFFERING AND CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY COMPARABLE TO THOSE COMMITTED IN THE BALKANS. THE WAR HAS ALSO BECOME ABHORRENT TO MOST RUSSIANS, A CALAMITY FOR THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND A PRINCIPAL CAUSE OF YELTSIN'S PLUMMETING POPULARITY."

    TEXT: AND, COMMENTING ON THE SAME SUBJECT, THE WASHINGTON POST SEES WHAT THE NEWSPAPER CALLS "A FAINT HOPE OF PEACE."

    VOICE: "THERE ARE AMPLE REASONS FOR SKEPTICISM ABOUT RUSSIAN PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN'S LATEST PEACE OVERTURE TOWARD CHECHNYA, BUT GROUNDS FOR WARY OPTIMISM ALSO EXIST. MR. YELTSIN HAS ORDERED A CEASEFIRE IN THE DEVASTATED PROVINCE ON RUSSIA'S SOUTHERN BORDER, WHICH -- AFTER THE BRUTAL EXCESSES OF RUSSIAN TROOPS DURING THE PAST WEEKS -- IS IN ITSELF CAUSE FOR CHEER. AND FOR THE FIRST TIME, THE PRESIDENT HAS ACKNOWLEDGED THE NEED TO DEAL WITH CHECHEN LEADER DZHOKHAR DYDAYEV. UNTIL NOW, MR. YELTSIN AND HIS AIDES HAVE INSISTED THAT MR. DUDAYEV SHOULD SIMPLY BE SHOT, WHICH WAS NOT EXACTLY WHAT YOU WOULD CALL CONDUCIVE TO PEACE TALKS."

    TEXT: A MILITANT ANTI-GOVERNMENT GROUP, KNOWN AS THE FREEMEN, IS NOW IN THE SECOND WEEK OF A STANDOFF WITH LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENTS AT A RANCH NEAR JORDAN, MONTANA. THE MEMBERS, NOTES THE PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER, "ARE SAID TO BE HEAVILY ARMED, AND DEFIANTLY INSISTENT THAT THEY'RE NOT SUBJECT TO THE SAME RULES AS THE REST OF US."

    VOICE: "THAT FAMILIAR, ANTI-GOVERNMENT RAP COMES WITH POISONOUS DOSES OF WHITE SEPARATISM, RACISM AND ANTI-SEMITISM. NOT TO MENTION TALK OF KILLING, AND OLD-FASHIONED BANK FRAUD, AUTHORITIES SAY. FORTUNATELY, FOR THE LAST WEEK OR SO THE FREEMEN HAVEN'T BEEN AS FREE AS THEY MIGHT LIKE. SURROUNDING THEIR...RANCH ARE A CROWD OF F-B-I AGENTS AND LOCAL LAW OFFICERS. THE HOPE IS THAT THE GOVERNMENT'S HANDLING OF THE FREEMEN STANDOFF WILL NOT COME TO BEAR THE ALL-TOO-FAMILIAR HALLMARKS OF OTHER ENCOUNTERS BETWEEN EXTREMISTS AND LAW ENFORCEMENT."

    TEXT: THE BALTIMORE SUN TELLS READERS THAT "THE SELF-STYLED FREEMEN OF MONTANA, HOLDING OFF LAW ENFORCEMENT, ARE IN AN AMERICAN TRADITION AS OLD AS THE REPUBLIC."

    VOICE: "BUT SO IS THE AUTHORITY THAT MUST IN THE END PREVAIL... THE FREEMEN HAVE A RECORD OF INTIMIDATING NEIGHBORS AND LOCAL LAW OFFICERS. THEY ALLEGEDLY BROKE FEDERAL LAW, FORGING CHECKS TO BUY WEAPONS AND SUPPLIES, SOMETIMES SENDING A CHECK FOR TOO MUCH AND GETTING A REFUND BEFORE THE CHECK BOUNCED. THE DEBTORS WHO JOINED THE FREEMEN SUCCUMBED TO THE HATE-FILLED CRACKPOT PREACHING OF ANARCHIC GROUPS THAT RATIONALIZED CRIMINAL ACTION. THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT CANNOT AFFORD TO LOSE THIS ONE, IF LAWS THAT GOVERN SOCIETY ARE TO BE UPHELD. IT ALSO MUST AVOID RECKLESS BLOODSHED ALIENATING MORE PEOPLE, HENCE THE PATIENT RESPONSE SO FAR."

    TEXT: IN A SIMILAR VEIN, THE LOS ANGELES TIMES, ON ITS EDITORIAL PAGE, SAYS THAT "AT DAY'S END, THE RULE OF LAW MUST BE UPHELD."

    VOICE: "THE OVERWHELMING MAJORITY OF AMERICANS REJECT THE NUTTY NOTIONS AND BULLYING BEHAVIOR OF THESE EXTREMISTS. AS A LOCAL OFFICIAL IN JORDAN (MONTANA) PUT IT, 'WE HAVE BEEN OPPRESSED BY THE FREEMEN AND NOT THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT'. THE GOVERNMENT'S TASK NOW IS TO END THAT OPPRESSION, PEACEFULLY BY PREFERENCE, BUT IF NEED BE BY USING THE LAW'S FULL FORCE AGAINST THOSE WHO CLAIM TO RESPECT ONLY THEIR OWN WARPED AND INTOLERABLE RULES OF BEHAVIOR."

    TEXT: THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS HAS APPROVED LEGISLATION TO MAKE IT A CRIME FOR PHYSICIANS "TO PERFORM A LATE-TERM ABORTION KNOWN MEDICALLY AS 'INTACT DILATION AND EXTRACTION'." THE BOSTON GLOBE SAYS THAT "OPPONENTS OF ABORTION CALL THIS PROCEDURE 'PARTIAL-BIRTH ABORTION'".

    VOICE: "PHYSICIANS RIGHTLY DISPUTE THAT DEFINITION, AND THEY, NOT CONGRESS KNOW OF WHAT THEY SPEAK. SAY A WOMAN IN HER SECOND OR THIRD TRIMESTER OF PREGNANCY LEARNS THAT THE FETUS IS SO ABNORMAL THAT IT WILL NOT LIVE OUTSIDE THE WOMB. ADDING TO HER ANGUISH, HER PHYSICIAN RECOMMENDS THAT THE FETUS BE REMOVED TO PROTECT HER FUTURE CHANCES OF CONCEIVING AND TO PREVENT INFECTION. IF CONGRESS HAD ITS WAY, THIS WOMAN'S DOCTOR COULD NOT PERFORM AN INTACT DILATION AND EXTRACTION."

    TEXT: NEWSDAY, A SUBURBAN NEW YORK NEWSPAPER, URGES PRESIDENT CLINTON TO VETO THE ABORTION LEGISLATION.

    VOICE: "THIS BILL WOULD PROSECUTE PHYSICIANS FOR EXERCISING THEIR BEST JUDGMENT. THERE IS NO OTHER MEDICAL TREATMENT ABOUT WHICH POLITICIANS HAVE DECIDED THEY KNOW BETTER THAN DOCTORS. IT'S WRONG, AND SHOULD BE SEEN FOR WHAT IT IS: ANOTHER ASSAULT ON A WOMAN'S RIGHT TO MAKE HER OWN REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH-CARE DECISIONS."

    TEXT: JEFFREY BOUTWELL IS ASSOCIATE EXECUTIVE OFFICER OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF ARTS AND SCIENCES IN CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS. IN A COLUMN PUBLISHED IN TODAY'S EDITION OF THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR, MR. BOUTWELL NOTES THAT "THE PERIOD BETWEEN THE END OF THE MUSLIM HOLIDAY OF RAMADAN IN LATE FEBRUARY AND THE BEGINNING OF PASSOVER AND THE EASTER SEASON IN EARLY APRIL HAS SEEN SOME OF THE MOST SERIOUS CHALLENGES TO THE ISRAELI-PALESTINIAN PEACE PROCESS SINCE ITS INCEPTION IN 1993." AMONG THEM IS THE FATE OF JERUSALEM, A CITY MR. BOUTWELL SAYS "HAS BEEN THE APOTHEOSIS OF SPIRITUAL LONGING AND THE CRUCIBLE OF RELIGIOUS INTOLERANCE."

    VOICE: "THE COMPLEXION AND CHARACTER OF JERUSALEM HAVE CHANGED MANY TIMES THROUGH THE CENTURIES AND THEY CAN CHANGE AGAIN. ETYMOLOGICALLY DERIVED FROM BOTH 'SALAAM' AND 'SHALOM', THE ARABIC AND HEBREW WORDS FOR PEACE, JERUSALEM HAS A HISTORIC OPPORTUNITY TO CONQUER ITS PAST AND REALIZE ITS FULL POTENTIAL. DESPITE THE CURRENT TURMOIL, TO MISS THE OPPORTUNITY WILL CONDEMN JERUSALEM TO BEING A VICTIM OF CONTINUED NATIONALIST CONFLICT, ECONOMIC IMPOVERISHMENT, AND RELIGIOUS INTOLERANCE."

    TEXT: AND WITH THAT COMMENT APPEARING IN THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR, WE CONCLUDE THIS LOOK AT SOME OF THE ISSUES AND CONCERNS ADDRESSED TODAY ON THE EDITORIAL PAGES OF LEADING NEWSPAPERS ACROSS THE UNITED STATES.

    NEB/DN/PCH
    02-Apr-96 10:55 AM EST (1555 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [02] BILDT ON BOSNIA (L-ONLY) BY JENNIFER O'NEIL (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/2/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-195214
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE INTERNATIONAL ADMINISTRATOR FOR BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA SAYS NOW THAT THE FIGHTING HAS STOPPED, IT IS TIME TO PUSH AHEAD WITH CIVILIAN ASPECTS OF THE DAYTON ACCORDS. FORMER SWEDISH PRIME MINISTER CARL BILDT TOLD WASHINGTON REPORTERS THERE IS MUCH THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY MUST DO TO FOSTER PEACE. V-O-A'S JENNIFER O'NEIL REPORTS ON WHAT MR. BILDT CALLED THE IMMENSE TASKS THAT LIE AHEAD.

    TEXT: CARL BILDT SAYS THE MILITARY PHASE OF PEACE IMPLEMENTATION IN BOSNIA HAS GONE QUITE WELL, BUT THAT THE ABSENCE OF WAR IS JUST NOT ENOUGH. HE SAYS 42 MONTHS OF SAVAGERY, DEVASTATION AND DESTRUCTION IS GOING TO TAKE LONG TIME TO REPAIR, AND WILL REQUIRE A UNIFIED COMMITMENT FROM THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY TO REBUILD BOSNIA ECONOMICALLY, POLITICALLY AND SOCIALLY.

    THE FORMER SWEDISH PRIME MINISTER SAYS THE MAIN TASKS FALL INTO THREE KEY CATEGORIES: RECONSTRUCTION, REINTEGRATION, AND RECONCILIATION.

    HE SAYS ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT ELEMENTS OF RECONSTRUCTION IS FUNDING. HE SAYS DONOR NATIONS HAVE BEGUN MAKING GOOD ON PROMISED CONTRIBUTIONS, BUT THAT MORE OF THE ESTIMATED FIVE BILLION DOLLARS NEEDED OVER THE NEXT FOUR YEARS MUST BE RELEASED QUICKLY.

    /// BILDT ACT ONE ///

    I'M, OF COURSE, CONCERNED THAT WE GET AS MUCH OF THIS MONEY AS EARLY AS POSSIBLE. AND THE NEEDS THAT WE ASSESS [FOR] THIS YEAR IS IN THE ORDER ONE ONE-POINT-EIGHT BILLION U-S DOLLARS. WE'VE GOT ROUGHLY 600 MILLION OF THAT COMMITTED IN PLEDGES.... MOST OF THAT MONEY HAS ALSO BEEN DELIVERED BY GOVERNMENTS, ALTHOUGH NOT ALL YET. AND NOT ALL OF THAT HAS STARTED TO BE EFFECTIVE ON THE GROUND IN BOSNIA.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. BILDT SAYS HE IS CURRENTLY FOCUSING MUCH OF HIS ATTENTION ON MOBILIZING GOVERNMENTS TO TRANSFER THE FUNDS.

    ON THE ISSUE OF REINTEGRATION, THE SWEDISH DIPLOMAT SAYS IT IS CRUCIAL TO HELP THE PARTIES -- PARTICULARLY REFUGEES -- FEEL SAFE IN POST-WAR BOSNIA.

    /// BILDT ACT TWO ///

    THERE IS NO FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT, MAINLY BECAUSE OF THE FEAR.... EVERY SINGLE STEP THAT WE [THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY] TAKE BRINGING THEM TOGETHER -- ORGANIZING MEETINGS, REMOVING CHECKPOINTS, FACILITATING THE RETURN OF THE REFUGEES -- CONTRIBUTES TO THE GRADUAL REINTEGRATION OF THE COUNTRY. THIS IS BY NO MEANS GOING TO BE A PROCESS THAT IS FAST, SWIFT AND EASY. BUT THAT MUST BE OUR AIM. ...

    // END ACT //

    MR. BILDT SAYS RECONCILIATION IS THE MOST DIFFICULT BUT CRUCIAL ELEMENT IN OVERCOMING THE OBSTACLE OF FEAR.

    /// BILDT ACT THREE ///

    PEOPLE MUST UNDERSTAND THAT THE ENEMIES OF YESTERDAY ARE GOING TO BE THE PARTNERS OF TOMORROW. A CENTRAL ELEMENT OF RECONCILIATION IS TO BRING TO JUSTICE THOSE THAT ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE WAR CRIMES. THAT IS ESSENTIAL, BECAUSE OTHERWISE THERE IS A RISK OF GUILT BEING ASSOCIATED WITH NATIONS.

    /// END OPT ///

    MR. BILDT SAYS IN ORDER TO ACCOMPLISH ALL THESE TALKS -- THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY MUST NOT LET ITSELF BE DIVIDED, AS IT WAS THROUGH MUCH OF THE WAR, BUT MUST COORDINATE EFFORTS AND REMAIN UNITED.

    // REST OPT //

    MR.BILDT SUGGESTS THAT NATO'S PRESENCE WILL MOST LIKELY NOT BE NEEDED BEYOND ITS DECEMBER MANDATE. IN RECENT WEEKS, WESTERN DEFENSE OFFICIALS HAVE WARNED THAT FIGHTING IN BOSNIA MAY RESUME NEXT YEAR IN THE ABSENCE OF NATO POWER. BUT MR. BILDT EXPLAINS WHY EXTENDING NATO'S MISSION WILL NOT BE THE KEY TO ACHIEVING A LONG TERM POLITICAL SETTLEMENT IN BOSNIA.

    /// BILDT ACT FOUR ///

    I'M A FIRM BELIEVER IN MILITARY FORCE, AND THE UTILITY OF MILITARY FORCE IS IN ORDER TO ACHIEVE POLITICAL OBJECTIVES. BUT I'M ALSO RATHER SKEPTICAL TOWARDS THE USE OF MILITARY FORCE WHEN IT'S NOT ABSOLUTELY NECESSARY.

    // END ACT //

    FOR YEARS, THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY TOLD BOSNIA THAT THE USE OF FORCE WAS NOT THE WAY TO RESOLVE THEIR CONFLICTS. MR. BILDT SAYS THE WORLD SHOULD BE REMINDED THAT IN HELPING BOSNIANS CREATE A LASTING PEACE, THERE ARE NO MILITARY SOLUTIONS TO WHAT ARE ESSENTIALLY COMPLEX POLITICAL PROBLEMS. (SIGNED)

    NEB/JAJ/MMK
    02-Apr-96 1:34 PM EST (1834 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [03] BOSNIA/SMITH (L-ONLY) BY NICK SIMEONE (WASHINGTON )

    DATE=4/2/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-195223
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:
    /// RERUNNING TEXT TO OPT TO SHORT CR FOR LANGUAGE SERVICES NEEDING IT ///

    INTRO: THE COMMANDER OF NATO FORCES IN BOSNIA, ADMIRAL LEIGHTON SMITH, SAYS IT IS TOO EARLY FOR MILITARY COMMANDERS TO RECOMMEND WHETHER U-S PEACE-KEEPING TROOPS SHOULD REMAIN IN BOSNIA BEYOND THEIR SCHEDULED DEPARTURE IN DECEMBER. THAT'S A DECISION, HE SAYS, THAT WILL HAVE TO BE MADE LATER THIS YEAR. BUT NEARLY FIVE MONTHS INTO THE PEACE-KEEPING OPERATION, ADMIRAL SMITH IS RAISING CONCERNS ABOUT CIVILIAN ASPECTS OF THE BOSNIAN PEACE AGREEMENT, INCLUDING THE ABILITY OF LOCAL POLICE TO ACTUALLY ENFORCE LAW. WE HAVE THIS REPORT FROM V-O-A'S NICK SIMEONE.

    TEXT: WITH WAR CRIMES INVESTIGATORS STARTING TO LOOK INTO MASS GRAVES, ADMIRAL SMITH SAYS ENORMOUSLY DIFFICULT TASKS STILL LIE AHEAD AS THE WORLD WATCHES TO SEE WHETHER BOSNIA'S FORMER WARRING PARTIES WILL BE ABLE TO FULFILL TERMS OF THE PEACE ACCORD THEY SIGNED TO END THE WAR. // OPT // HE MADE THE STATEMENTS TUESDAY AT A PENTAGON BRIEFING. //

    // OPT //

    LATELY, SOME POLITICAL LEADERS IN EUROPE HAVE BEEN PRIVATELY SUGGESTING THE PEACE PROCESS IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA IS TOO DELICATE AND THE COUNTRY IS TOO LIKELY TO SLIP BACK INTO WAR FOR NATO FORCES -- PARTICULARLY U-S TROOPS --- TO CONSIDER PULLING OUT AT THE END OF THE YEAR. // END OPT //

    PRESIDENT CLINTON HAS REPEATEDLY SAID THAT U-S PARTICIPATION IN THE PEACE-KEEPING MISSION IN BOSNIA WILL ONLY BE FOR ONE YEAR. NATO COMMANDER SMITH SAYS THE MILITARY, AT THIS STAGE AT LEAST, IS NOT MAKING PREDICTIONS EITHER WAY.

    // OPT SMITH ACT //

    THERE ARE SOME PEOPLE IN EUROPE WHO HAVE EXPRESSED AN OPINION BOTH FOR AND AGAINST I-FOR REMAINING AFTER DECEMBER. I WILL JUST TELL YOU THAT THE SMART MAN WOULD GO LOOK AT THE SITUATION, JUDGE IT AT THE TIME, MAKE A DECISION AND THEN FROM THAT POINT ON BE GUIDED ACCORDINGLY.

    // END ACT //

    BUT IN EITHER CASE, ADMIRAL SMITH SAYS THOUGHT IS BEING GIVEN TO SCALING BACK THE NATO FORCE, WHICH NOW STANDS AT ABOUT 60-THOUSAND TROOPS, AS THE OPERATION HEADS INTO THE SUMMER MONTHS.

    // OPT //

    SO FAR, NATO COMMANDERS SEE NO EVIDENCE THAT THE WARRING PARTIES ARE PREPARING FOR WHAT IN YEARS PAST HAS BEEN THE START OF A WARM WEATHER, SPRING OFFENSIVE.

    // OPT SMITH ACT //

    WHAT WE WANT TO BE ABLE TO DO IS TO KEEP THE MILITARY APART AND IF WE CAN DO THAT WITHOUT A LARGE FORCE OR WITHOUT A FORCE, THAT'S REALLY THE GOAL. I AM NOT CONVINCED, IN MY MIND, THAT PULLING OUT IS GOING TO AUTOMATICALLY RESULT IN A LOT OF PEOPLE FIGHTING AGAIN.

    // END ACT //

    WHAT HE IS CONCERNED ABOUT -- AND WHAT COULD AFFECT CIVILIAN LIFE LONG AFTER NATO LEAVES -- IS WHAT ADMIRAL SMITH CALLS AN UNPROFESSIONAL POLICE FORCE, ONE THAT REFUSES TO DISMANTLE ILLEGAL CHECKPOINTS OR ALLOW FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT.

    // THIRD SMITH ACT //

    IF THEY DON'T GET THEIR ACT TOGETHER, THAT IS GOING TO BE A SERIOUS PROBLEM FOR THE RESETTLEMENT OF THE REFUGEES. IT IS GOING TO BE A SERIOUS PROBLEM FOR THE ELECTIONS AND IT IS GOING TO BE AN EVEN MORE SERIOUS PROBLEM BECAUSE ONE OF THE MAJOR, MAJOR ISSUES ON THE HORIZON IS CRIME.

    // END ACT //

    HE SAYS A KEY TO THE SUCCESS OF THE BOSNIA PEACE PLAN WILL BE THE BOSNIAN ELECTIONS, WHICH, ACCORDING TO THE PEACE PLAN, ARE TO BE HELD IN SEPTEMBER. BY THEN, NATO COMMANDERS, AS WELL AS THE SPONSORS OF THE DAYTON PEACE ACCORD, WILL LIKELY HAVE A GOOD IDEA OF WHETHER BOSNIA'S POST-WAR ATMOSPHERE IS FREE OF THREATS AND IF, IN ADMIRAL SMITH'S WORDS, POLITICIANS CAN GIVE SPEECHES WITHOUT BEING SHOT. SUCH INDICATIONS COULD INFLUENCE THE DECISION ON WHETHER COME DECEMBER, U-S TROOPS STAY OR LEAVE. (SIGNED)

    NEB/NJS/SKH
    02-Apr-96 4:46 PM EST (2146 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [04] BOSNIA BY DAN NOBLE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=04/02/96
    TYPE=U-S OPINION ROUNDUP
    NUMBER=6-09508
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=

    INTRO: THE DAYTON (OHIO) PEACE ACCORDS FOR BOSNIA HAVE BEEN IN EFFECT FOR MORE THAN THREE-MONTHS. NATO GROUND TROOP -- MEMBERS OF IFOR, THE INTERNATIONAL FORCE, ARE NOW IN PLACE. AMERICAN NEWSPAPERS CONTINUE TO COMMENT ON DEVELOPMENTS IN THE REGION. WE GET A SAMPLING NOW FROM _______________ IN TODAY'S U-S OPINION ROUNDUP.

    TEXT: IN AN EDITORIAL HEADLINED "REALITY CHECK IN BOSNIA," THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR, SAYS THAT WHILE THERE HAS BEEN SOME PROGRESS, "ONE THING IS CLEAR: SOME KIND OF NATO-LED MILITARY FORCE WILL NEED TO REMAIN FOR MORE THAN THE ONE YEAR CURRENTLY CALLED FOR."

    VOICE: "NATO OFFICIALS ARE BEGINNING TO DISCUSS THE NEED FOR A FOLLOW-UP FORCE, AND MAY MAKE PRELIMINARY DECISIONS AT A JUNE MEETING. SOME IFOR TROOPS NEED TO STAY, BUT OBSERVERS SEEM TO AGREE THE CONTINGENT CAN BE A LOT SMALLER THAN THE CURRENT 60-THOUSAND TROOPS. THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION SHOULD ASSENT TO KEEP A SMALL NUMBER OF U-S TROOPS ON THE GROUND, ALTHOUGH THEIR ROLE CAN BE NEGOTIATED. (THERE ARE HINTS THAT BRITAIN AND FRANCE MIGHT BE SATISFIED WITH THE AMERICANS MAINTAINING THEIR LOGISTICAL SUPPORT BASE IN NEARBY HUNGARY). IN ANY EVENT, THE NEED FOR CONTINUING NATO MILITARY SUPPORT OF BOSNIAN PEACE IS CLEAR. NATO LEADERS, INCLUDING PRESIDENT CLINTON, SHOULD START LAYING THE GROUNDWORK -- INCLUDING PREPARING THE PUBLIC -- NOW."

    TEXT: BUT THE WASHINGTON POST, IN ITS EDITORIAL ON THE SUBJECT, SAYS THAT AFTER A YEAR'S TIME NATO TROOPS WILL PROBABLY LEAVE. AND, THE NEWSPAPER POSES THIS QUESTION: "WHEN, AS PLANNED, NATO GOES HOME NEXT DECEMBER, WILL THE FRAGILE THREE-PART MUSLIM-LED BOSNIAN STATE DISINTEGRATE UNDER THE BOSNIAN SERB AND BOSNIAN CROAT SEPARATIST PRESSURE?"

    VOICE: "ONE PART OF THE PROPOSED AMERICAN RESPONSE TO THIS VERY REAL POSSIBILITY IS TO ENSURE UNDERDOG BOSNIA ITS OWN ADEQUATE DEFENSE CAPACITY. IT'S NO SUBSTITUTE FOR THE POLITICAL RECONCILIATION THAT IS THE BEST GUARANTEE THE DAYTON PEACE ACCORDS OFFER TO CONSOLIDATE A UNITARY STATE. BUT IT'S AN ESSENTIAL PIECE OF BACKUP INSURANCE IF THE COUNTRY IS NOT SIMPLY TO BE PERMANENTLY PARTITIONED ALONG ETHNIC LINES BY FURTHER WAR... THE DAYTON ACCORDS GROAN UNDER THE WEIGHT OF THE PASSIONS THEY ARE MEANT TO TAME. IT CAN BE ARGUED THAT BEEFING UP ONE SIDE'S MILITARY OPTION MAY DO AS MUCH TO WEAKEN AS STRENGTHEN ITS READINESS TO ENGAGE IN POLITICAL COMPROMISE. LET THE UNITED STATES AND OTHERS LOOK TO THAT. BUT REMEMBER THAT THIS IS BOSNIA, A PLACE OF DEATH AND 'ETHNIC CLEANING', ESPECIALLY FOR MUSLIMS. OTHERS CANNOT IN GOOD FAITH ABANDON THEM TO NEW PERILS AND DENY THEM A FAIR CHANCE TO DEFEND THEMSELVES."

    TEXT: THERESE RAPHAEL IS EDITORIAL PAGE EDITOR OF THE WALL STREET JOURNAL'S EUROPEAN EDITION. IN A COLUMN PUBLISHED IN THE NEWSPAPER'S AMERICAN EDITION, MS. RAPHAEL DISCUSSES THE WORK OF THE YUGOSLAVIA WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL WHICH MEETS IN THE HAGUE.

    VOICE: "JUSTICE CARRIES A BIGGER STICK NOW. THE TRIBUNAL HAS HANDED DOWN 57 INDICTMENTS AND SOON COULD HAVE AS MANY AS SEVEN PEOPLE IN CUSTODY. FAR FROM BEING DISMISSED AS IRRELEVANT, THE TRIBUNAL MORE OFTEN GETS FAULTED THESE DAYS FOR MAKING TOO MANY WAVES. ALTHOUGH THE TRIBUNAL DIDN'T HAMPER EFFORTS TO REACH A NEGOTIATED SETTLEMENT, AS FRANCE AND BRITAIN THOUGHT IT WOULD, UNITED NATIONS AND IFOR COMMANDERS STILL THINK IT COMPLICATES THEIR IMPLEMENTATION MISSION. RUSSIA VIEWS IT AS ANTI-SERB. YET, EVEN THOSE OBJECTIONS ARE RECEDING."

    TEXT: WILLIAM PFAFF IS A NATIONALLY SYNDICATED COLUMNIST WHOSE OPINIONS APPEAR IN THE PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER, AND OTHER NEWSPAPERS. IN TODAY'S EDITIONS, HE WRITES THAT "PEACE HAS PROVIDED SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC, PRESIDENT OF SERBIA, WITH MEANS AND MOTIVE FOR STRENGTHENING HIS CONTROL OVER THE SUCCESSOR YUGOSLAV STATE, COMPOSED OF SERBIA PLUS MONTENEGRO."

    VOICE: "THIS IS ONE RESULT OF THE DAYTON AGREEMENTS ON BOSNIAN PEACE. MILOSEVIC WAS THE MAN THE WESTERN POWERS HAD TO DEAL WITH IF THEY EXPECTED TO END -- OR SUSPEND -- THE WAR. THEY MIGHT OTHERWISE HAVE SOUGHT HIS INDICTMENT BY THE INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL... MILOSEVIC IS THE MAN WHO STARTED THE WAR (WITH CONSIDERABLE HELP FROM OTHERS IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA). THE MAN WHO STARTS A WAR IS TOO OFTEN INDISPENSABLE TO ENDING IT, BUT NOT MANY DO SO ON TERMS SO PROFITABLE TO THEMSELVES AND SO UNPROFITABLE TO THOSE THEY HAVE RULED AS MILOSEVIC. HOWEVER, IT MAY BE HARD FOR HIM TO CASH IN THAT PROFIT... HE MAY FIND HIMSELF THREATENED...BY THE COMING TO MATURITY OF A YOUNGER GENERATION WHICH GREW UP WITH THE WAR, HAS SEEN THE LIES OF OFFICIAL PROPAGANDA AND IS NOT BOUND BY THE PARANOID NATIONALISM OF ITS ELDERS."

    TEXT: AND WITH THAT VIEW FROM SYNDICATED COLUMNIST WILLIAM PFAFF, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SURVEY OF SOME U-S EDITORIAL OPINION ON DEVELOPMENTS IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA.

    NEB/DN/PCH
    02-Apr-96 11:18 AM EST (1618 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [05] BOSNIA SITREP (L) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

    DATE=4/2/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-195206
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: AMERICAN TROOPS WITH THE NATO-LED PEACE FORCE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA SAY THEY WILL SUPPORT THE INVESTIGATION OF WAR CRIMES IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC. V-O-A CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT WAYNE COREY REPORTS INTERNATIONAL EXPERTS ARE ABOUT TO INVESTIGATE THE ALLEGED SERB MASSACRE OF MUSLIMS FROM THE ENCLAVE OF SREBRENICA LAST YEAR.

    TEXT: THE HEADQUARTERS OF U-S TROOPS IN BOSNIA SAYS AMERICAN FORCES WILL PROVIDE SECURITY, EMERGENCY MEDICAL CARE, AND A LIAISON TEAM FOR EXPERTS FROM THE INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL.

    THE AMERICAN STATEMENT SAYS THIS SUPPORT WILL DEPEND ON THE CAPABILITIES OF U-S FORCES AND MUST NOT HINDER THEIR MILITARY MISSION.

    THE STATEMENT HAS BEEN ISSUED AS REPRESENTATIVES OF THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL PREPARE TO INVESTIGATE THE ALLEGED MASSACRE OF MUSLIMS FROM THE ENCLAVE OF SREBRENICA.

    THE WAR CRIMES TEAM INTENDS TO VISIT SUSPECTED MASS GRAVE SITES IN SERB-HELD TERRITORY AS PART OF ITS INVESTIGATION. THE BOSNIAN SERB ARMY IS BELIEVED TO HAVE MASSACRED AT LEAST THREE-THOUSAND MUSLIM CIVILIANS AFTER IT OVERRAN SREBRENICA LAST YEAR.

    IT IS NOT KNOWN IF SERBS WILL GIVE THE INVESTIGATORS ACCESS TO THE AREAS THEY WANT TO VISIT.

    THE SERBS HAVE DENIED THERE WAS ANY MASS KILLING OF MUSLIM CIVILIANS FROM SREBRENICA. BUT, THE UNITED STATES, THE UNITED NATIONS, AND THE INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL ALREADY HAVE EVIDENCE THAT A MASSACRE OCCURRED THERE.

    NATO COMMANDERS HAVE BEEN RELUCTANT TO COMMIT MILITARY RESOURCES IN SUPPORT OF THE INTERNATIONAL EFFORT TO IMPLEMENT CIVIL ASPECTS OF THE BOSNIAN PEACE AGREEMENT. BUT, THE U-S GOVERNMENT HAS, APPARENTLY, BEEN PUTTING STRONG PRESSURE ON NATO TO MORE ACTIVELY BACK WAR CRIMES INVESTIGATIONS.

    NATO IS PURSUING A VERY CAUTIOUS POLICY OF NOT GOING OUT OF ITS WAY TO CAPTURE INDICTED OR SUSPECTED WAR CRIMINALS. BOSNIAN SERB POLITICAL LEADER, RADOVAN KARADZIC, AND SERB ARMY COMMANDER, GENERAL RATKO MLADIC ARE ALWAYS SURROUNDED BY HEAVY SECURITY. NATO FORCES FEAR THERE WOULD BE MANY CASUALTIES IF THEY TRIED TO DETAIN THEM.

    /// REST OPT ///

    WHILE IT PROMOTES THE INVESTIGATION OF POSSIBLE WAR CRIMES, THE UNITED STATES IS ALSO TRYING TO STRENGTHEN THE SHAKY MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA.

    A SENIOR U-S OFFICIAL, JOHN KORNBLUM, WHO IS VISITING ZAGREB, SAYS A NEW FORUM FOR TALKS ON ALL LEVELS SHOULD MAKE THE FEDERATION STRONGER.

    MR. KORNBLUM SAYS THE FORUM IS AN AMERICAN IDEA. THE UNITED STATES HELPED ESTABLISH THE FEDERATION THAT IS SUPPOSED TO ENSURE COOPERATION BETWEEN BOSNIAN MUSLIMS AND CROATS. (SIGNED)

    NEB/WC/JWH/SS
    02-Apr-96 11:27 AM EST (1627 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [06] E-U/IRAN (L ONLY-CORRECTION) BY LAURIE KASSMAN ( CAIRO )

    DATE=4/2/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-195199
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    // RERUNNING TO CLARIFY IDENTITY OF OFFICIALS IN INTRO //

    INTRO: A EUROPEAN UNION DELEGATION IS IN TEHRAN HOLDING WHAT IT CALLS A CRITICAL DIALOGUE WITH OFFICIALS THERE ABOUT IRAN'S ALLEGED LINKS TO TERRORISM AND ITS OPPOSITION TO THE MIDDLE EAST PEACE PROCESS. IRANIAN NEWSPAPERS HAVE WELCOMED THE VISIT BUT WARN THAT EUROPE SHOULD REMAIN INDEPENDENT FROM U-S CALLS FOR ISOLATING IRAN. CORRESPONDENT LAURIE KASSMAN REPORTS FROM OUR MIDDLE EAST BUREAU THAT THE SO-CALLED "TROIKA" OF SENIOR OFFICIALS (FROM ITALY, SPAIN AND IRELAND) WANTS IRAN TO CONDEMN TERRORISM.

    TEXT: RELATIONS ARE TENSE BETWEEN IRAN AND THE EUROPEAN UNION AFTER IRAN'S OFFICIAL NEWS AGENCY PRAISED THE SUICIDE BOMBINGS THAT KILLED SOME 60 PEOPLE IN ISRAEL LAST MONTH. THE GOVERNMENT HAS DENIED U-S AND ISRAELI CHARGES THAT IT SUPPORTS THE RADICAL PALESTINIAN GROUP HAMAS, WHICH CLAIMED RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE BOMBINGS.

    BUT EUROPEAN ALLIES WANT TEHRAN TO CONDEMN TERRORISM ONCE AND FOR ALL. A STATEMENT FROM THEIR MEETING LAST MONTH ALSO SUGGESTS THAT EUROPE'S DIALOGUE WITH IRAN DEPENDS ALSO ON TEHRAN REVISING ITS OPPOSITION TO THE MIDDLE EAST PEACE PROCESS.

    MANY E-U MEMBERS, ESPECIALLY FRANCE AND GERMANY, HAVE MAINTAINED GOOD TRADE TIES WITH IRAN AND HAVE REJECTED U-S CALLS FOR ISOLATING IRAN. THEY ARGUE THAT IT IS BETTER TO MAINTAIN A DIALOGUE THAN LOSE ALL MEANS OF INFLUENCE. BUT THE PRESSURE IS MOUNTING.

    FRENCH OFFICIALS WERE ANGERED BY IRAN'S AMBIVALENT POSITION CONCERNING THE TERRORIST BOMBINGS IN ISRAEL. BRITAIN PUBLICLY CRITICIZED IRAN DURING THE PEACEMAKERS' SUMMIT IN SHARM EL SHEIK. LAST MONTH, GERMANY ISSUED AN ARREST WARRANT FOR IRAN'S INTELLIGENCE MINISTER BECAUSE OF HIS SUSPECTED LINKS TO THE 1992 MURDER OF THREE IRANIAN KURDISH LEADERS IN BERLIN.

    DIPLOMATS BASED IN IRAN SAY IRAN'S LINKS TO TERRORIST GROUPS, ITS ATTACKS AGAINST IRANIAN DISSIDENTS IN EUROPE AND THE RELIGIOUS DEATH THREAT AGAINST BRITISH AUTHOR SALMAN RUSHDIE ONLY ADD MORE OBSTACLES TO IMPROVING POLITICAL TIES. (SIGNED)

    NEB/LK/MH /MMK
    02-Apr-96 10:03 AM EST (1503 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

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