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Voice of America, 16 April 1996

From: "Ioannis V. Bousnakis" <ivb19@nfi.com>

Voice of America Directory

CONTENTS

  • [01] TUESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [02] GREEK PRIME MINISTER VISITS

  • [03] ALBANIA ECONOMY (L) BY BARRY WOOD (SOFIA, BULGARIA)

  • [04] BELGRADE BOMBING (S-O) CORRECTED BY PAM TAYLOR (BELGRADE)

  • [05] CONFLICT RESOLUTION: BOSNIA - A WORK-IN-PROGRESS BY ADAM PHILLIPS (WASHINGTON)

  • [06] GERMANY / DISCRIMINATION (L ONLY) BY KYLE KING (BONN)


  • [01] TUESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=04/16/96
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09530
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-S-T ON TUESDAY, APRIL 16TH //

    INTRO: TWO OF AMERICA'S LEADING NEWSPAPERS, "THE WASHINGTON POST" AND "NEW YORK TIMES", ARE CALLING FOR ISRAEL TO CEASE ITS ATTACKS ON LEBANON IN REPRISAL FOR HEZBOLLAH GUERRILLA ROCKET ATTACKS. AMONG TODAY'S OTHER EDITORIAL TOPICS ARE, PRESIDENT CLINTON'S ASIA TRIP; EXPANDING NATO; THE NEW U-S COMMERCE SECRETARY AND SOME HAUNTING MEMORIES OF BRUTALITY IN GUATEMALA. NOW, HERE WITH SOME QUOTES AND A CLOSER LOOK IS __________________ AND TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: UNDER AN EDITORIAL HEADLINE READING "TIME TO STOP IN LEBANON," TODAY'S "NEW YORK TIMES SAYS IN PART:

    VOICE: "ISRAEL'S STRATEGY IN LEBANON NOW SEEMS CLEAR. BY ATTACKING TARGETS IN BEIRUT AND OTHER COMMUNITIES, AND BLOCKADING PORT CITIES, ISRAEL HOPES TO PRODUCE ENOUGH TURMOIL AND REFUGEES TO FORCE LEBANESE AND SYRIAN AUTHORITIES TO CRACK DOWN ON HEZBOLLAH TERRORISTS... PRIME MINISTER SHIMON PERES OF ISRAEL HAS DEMONSTRATED THAT AN ISRAELI GOVERNMENT COMMITTED TO NEGOTIATING PEACE WILL NOT HESITATE TO USE FORCE AGAINST THOSE WHO SHELTER TERRORISTS. THAT IS SOUND POLICY, AND SMART POLITICS FOR MR. PERES, WHO FACES AN ELECTION LATER THIS SPRING. BUT HAVING MADE HIS POINT, HE NEEDS TO BRING THE OFFENSIVE TO AN END... AFTER FIVE DAYS OF POUNDING LEBANON, MR. PERES SHOULD START SILENCING HIS GUNS AND MOVE TOWARD A CEASE-FIRE."

    TEXT: HERE IN THE NATION'S CAPITOL, "THE WASHINGTON POST" TITLES ITS LEAD EDITORIAL WITH THE DECLARATION: "ENOUGH IN LEBANON".

    VOICE: "THE ISRAELI GOVERNMENT HAD A POINT TO MAKE IN LEBANON -- THAT IT WOULD GREATLY RAISE THE COST TO LEBANON OF CONTINUED HEZBOLLAH SHELLING OF ISRAELI TOWNS -- AND IT HAS MADE IT... THERE IS NO CALL TO GENERATE MORE CASUALTIES OR REFUGEES. THIS IS ENOUGH."

    TEXT: TAKING A DIFFERENT VIEW OF THE SITUATION, "THE NEW YORK POST" LAYS MUCH OF THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE PRESENT ATTACKS AT THE FEET OF "SYRIAN DICTATOR HAFEZ ASSAD", WHOM, THE PAPER REMINDS, HAS 35-THOUSAND TROOPS STATIONED IN LEBANON. "THE NEW YORK POST" ADDS:

    VOICE: "PEACE WITHOUT SECURITY ISN'T PEACE. IT REMAINS, THEREFORE, THAT NO ISRAELI GOVERNMENT CAN PURSUE PEACE WITHOUT SIMULTANEOUSLY MAKING THE PRICE OF ATTACKING ISRAEL HIGHER THAN THAT WHICH ANY GROUP OR COUNTRY IS WILLING TO PAY. THE HEZBOLLAH ASSAULTS CAN BEST BE UNDERSTOOD AS PART OF A CONTINUING SYRIAN WAR OF ATTRITION AGAINST ISRAEL; ITS PURPOSE IS TO WEAKEN ISRAEL'S RESOLVE IN THE ON-AGAIN, OFF-AGAIN NEGOTIATIONS."

    TEXT: PRESIDENT CLINTON'S VISIT TO ASIA, ALREADY UNDERWAY, DRAWS A GOOD DEAL OF ATTENTION, INCLUDING THIS ANALYSIS FROM "THE SUN" IN BALTIMORE.

    VOICE: "PRESIDENT CLINTON'S WEEK-LONG JOURNEY TO KOREA, JAPAN AND RUSSIA GIVES HIM STILL ANOTHER CHANCE TO EXPLOIT THE ADVANTAGES OF INCUMBENCY IN THE ONE AREA, FOREIGN AFFAIRS, WHERE CHIEF EXECUTIVES HAVE THE MOST LEEWAY AND FREEDOM OF ACTION. HIS HIGH-PROFILE JOURNEY WILL CONTRAST WITH SENATOR BOB DOLE'S RATHER FRANTIC EFFORTS IN WASHINGTON TO WORK OUT A REPUBLICAN LEGISLATIVE AGENDA."

    TEXT: "THE WALL STREET JOURNAL" IS MORE CONCERNED WITH THE FOREIGN POLICY ASPECTS OF THE CLINTON TRIP.

    VOICE: "THE RECENT PROTESTS IN JAPAN AGAINST THE PRESENCE OF U-S MILITARY BASES ON OKINAWA ARE PART OF BACKLASH PHENOMENON THAT IS SUMMED UP IN A POPULAR SLOGAN NOW CIRCULATING THERE: 'OUT WITH THE U-S, IN WITH ASIA.' CAN THIS BE IN ANYONE'S BEST INTERESTS? PRESIDENT CLINTON ALIGHTS ON ASIA THIS WEEK WITH THE MISSION OF EXPLAINING WHY IT IS IN FACT NOT DESIRABLE. HE MAY FAIL TO CONVINCE... IN SEEKING TO PACIFY THE OKINAWANS WITH A PROMISE TO WITHDRAW U-S FORCES FROM A MAJOR AIR BASE ON THEIR ISLAND, MR. CLINTON MAY HAVE SIGNALED TO THE REST OF ASIA THAT WASHINGTON IS NOT A RELIABLE ALLY. THAT WOULD BE UNFORTUNATE FOR ALL CONCERNED, [OPT] BECAUSE IF ASIA EXPECTS TO CONTINUE TO PROSPER, THERE IS NO CURRENT ALTERNATIVE TO AN AMERICAN PROTECTIVE PRESENCE."[END OPT]

    TEXT: THE "DALLAS MORNING NEWS" SEES THE PRESIDENT'S TRIP AS AN OPPORTUNITY TO HEAL SOME DIFFERENCES IN ASIA:

    VOICE: "PRESIDENT CLINTON'S VISIT TO THE REGION THIS WEEK IS PARTICULARLY TIMELY, GIVEN RECENT CHINESE AND NORTH KOREAN PROVOCATIONS. IT'S ALSO PARTICULARLY SIGNIFICANT THAT HE WANTS TO REVITALIZE THE U-S / JAPAN SECURITY RELATIONSHIP... PROTECTING JAPAN, AND THEREBY SECURING PEACE AND ECONOMIC STABILITY IN NORTHEAST ASIA, SERVES AS AN INSURANCE POLICY FOR U-S ECONOMIC AND SECURITY INTEREST IN THE REGION."

    TEXT: "USA TODAY" RAISES SOME QUESTIONS ABOUT POLITICAL DIRECTIONS IN RUSSIA, AS IT VOICES SUPPORT FOR ENLARGING NATO WITH THE INCLUSION OF SOME EAST-CENTRAL EUROPEAN NATIONS THAT BADLY WANT TO JOIN.

    VOICE: "THE LOGIC FOR ADMITTING THOSE NATIONS TO NATO, ONCE THEY ESTABLISH THEIR VALUE AS ALLIES, SEEMS OBVIOUS: ONCE IN NATO, THEY POSE NO THREAT TO NATO. THEIR INCLUSION EXPANDS THE CLUB OF ALLIED DEMOCRACIES, A GREATER GUARANTEE OF PEACE... AND IN THE UNLIKELY EVENT THAT RUSSIA RETURNS TO EXPANSIONIST WAYS, THE ALLIANCE OPPOSING IT WILL BE LARGER... YET OPPOSITION TO NATO EXPANSION CONTINUES... BUT, ON BALANCE, FREEZING NATO'S SIZE DOESN'T SERVE U-S INTERESTS. DEMOCRACY IS NOT A DONE DEAL [A CERTAINTY] IN RUSSIA. WHY NOT STRENGTHEN NATO NOW?"

    TEXT: "THE BOSTON GLOBE" TODAY COMMENTS ON THE NEWLY-DESIGNATED SECRETARY OF COMMERCE, CALLING THE PRESIDENT'S SELECTION OF FORMER TRADE REPRESENTATIVE MICKY KANTOR A SOUND CHOICE. "THE GLOBE" ADDS:

    VOICE: "[MR.] KANTOR'S REPUTATION FOR HARD WORK AND TOUGH BUT FAIR NEGOTIATING HAS WON HIM PRELIMINARY PRAISE FROM SENATE REPUBLICANS WHO MIGHT HAVE TURNED THE CONFIRMATION PROCESS INTO AN OCCASION FOR ASSAULTING THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE. HE CAN USE THOSE QUALIFICATIONS IN BECOMING THE COUNTRY'S LEADING SALES REPRESENTATIVE."

    TEXT: AND IN ANOTHER EDITORIAL, "THE GLOBE" IS SHARPLY CRITICAL OF BOTH THE C-I-A AND THE GUATEMALAN GOVERNMENT FOR REFUSING TO REVEAL THE FACTS IN THE RAPE AND KIDNAPPING OF AMERICAN ROMAN CATHOLIC NUN SISTER DIANNA ORTIZ, WHO HAS BEEN DEMONSTRATING OUTSIDE THE WHITE HOUSE.

    VOICE: "WHAT HAPPENED TO HER AT THE HANDS OF CRIMINALS IN POWER HAS HAPPENED TO UNCOUNTED NUMBERS OF GUATEMALANS. THE CASE OF SISTER ORTIZ IS UNUSUAL NOT ONLY BECAUSE IT PROVIDES AMERICANS WITH A GLIMPSE INTO THE GUATEMALAN HEART OF DARKNESS, BUT ALSO BECAUSE IT ILLUMINATES A SICKENING U-S COMPLICITY WITH KILLERS, TORTURERS AND RAPISTS." ... THE C-I-A SHOULD DISCLOSE WHAT IT KNOWS ABOUT SISTER ORTIZ'S NIGHTMARE, AND WASHINGTON SHOULD CEASE ABETTING THE CRIMINALS WHO RULE GUATEMALA."

    TEXT: AND ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF SOME OF THE DAYS'S EDITORIALS FROM THE U-S PRESS.

    NEB/ANG/PCH
    16-Apr-96 10:20 AM EDT (1420 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] GREEK PRIME MINISTER VISITS

    DATE=APRIL 17, 1996
    TYPE=EDITORIAL
    NUMBER=0-06750
    CONTENT=THIS IS THE ONLY EDITORIAL BEING RELEASED FOR BROADCAST
    APRIL 17, 1996.

    ANNCR: THE VOICE OF AMERICA PRESENTS DIFFERING POINTS OF VIEW ON A WIDE VARIETY OF ISSUES. NEXT, AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT.

    VOICE:

    PRESIDENT BILL CLINTON RECENTLY WELCOMED GREEK PRIME MINISTER CONSTANTINE SIMITIS TO THE WHITE HOUSE. GREECE HAS BEEN A LONGTIME ALLY OF THE UNITED STATES. THE TWO MEN DISCUSSED A WIDE RANGE OF TOPICS, INCLUDING GREEK-TURKISH RELATIONS, CYPRUS AND BOSNIA.

    GREECE AND TURKEY, BOTH NATO MEMBERS, WENT TO THE BRINK OF WAR EARLIER THIS YEAR AS THEY ASSERTED RIVAL CLAIMS TO OWNERSHIP OF ISLANDS IN THE AEGEAN SEA. LAST-MINUTE MEDIATION BY THE U.S. HELPED TO PREVENT THE OUTBREAK OF VIOLENCE. AS PRESIDENT CLINTON SAID, "THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN GREECE AND TURKEY ARE OF GREAT CONCERN TO US." THE U.S. BELIEVES THE DISPUTE CAN BE WORKED OUT IF INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS ARE ADHERED TO AND NO COUNTRY THREATENS THE USE OF FORCE. PRESIDENT CLINTON URGED GREECE AND TURKEY TO SEEK ARBITRATION THROUGH THE WORLD COURT OR SOME OTHER INTERNATIONAL BODY.

    MR. CLINTON PRAISED GREECE FOR ITS PARTICIPATION IN THE NATO FORCE IN BOSNIA. PRIME MINISTER SIMITIS SAID GREECE WANTS "TO PROMOTE STABILITY, PEACE, AND PROSPERITY IN [ITS] PART OF THE WORLD." THE U.S. IS COMMITTED TO HELPING RESOLVE THE LONGSTANDING DISPUTE BETWEEN GREECE AND TURKEY OVER CYPRUS.

    IT IS VERY IMPORTANT THAT RELATIONS BETWEEN GREECE AND TURKEY IMPROVE. BOTH COUNTRIES ARE VALUABLE NATO ALLIES. THE U.S. LOOKS FORWARD TO CONTINUED GOOD RELATIONS WITH BOTH GREECE AND TURKEY.

    ANNCR:

    THAT WAS AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO BE HEARD ON THIS ISSUE, PLEASE WRITE TO EDITORIALS, VOICE OF AMERICA, WASHINGTON, D-C, 20547, U-S-A. YOU MAY ALSO SEND US A FAX AT (202) 619-1043. YOUR COMMENTS MAY BE USED ON THE AIR.

    16-Apr-96 3:11 PM EDT (1911 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] ALBANIA ECONOMY (L) BY BARRY WOOD (SOFIA, BULGARIA)

    DATE=4/16/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-195800
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: AT THE EUROPEAN BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT MEETING IN SOFIA THE ALBANIAN GOVERNMENT, LIKE MORE THAN DOZEN OTHERS, MADE A SPECIAL PRESENTATION TO POTENTIAL INVESTORS. V-O-A'S BARRY WOOD ATTENDED THE SESSION AND FILED THIS REPORT.

    TEXT: IT HAS BEEN SAID INSTEAD OF CALLING ALBANIA EUROPE'S POOREST ECONOMY IT IS EQUALLY ACCURATE TO SAY ALBANIA IS EUROPE'S NEWEST ECONOMY. SINCE EMERGING AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 1990'S FROM NEARLY 50-YEARS OF ISOLATION, ALBANIA HAS BEEN MAKING STEADY PROGRESS. INFLATION IS UNDER 10-PERCENT (ANNUALLY) AND LAST YEAR THE ALBANIAN ECONOMY GREW BY MORE THAN 10-PERCENT.

    IN THE CONFERENCE HALL WHERE THE E-B-R-D MEETING IS UNDERWAY, ABOUT 500 PEOPLE ATTENDED A PRESENTATION ABOUT ALBANIA WHICH FEATURED THE FINANCE MINISTER, THE CENTRAL BANK CHIEF, BANKING OFFICIALS, AND THE PRESIDENT'S ECONOMIC ADVISOR, MIMOZA VOKSHI. MRS. VOKSHI ASSURES THE POTENTIAL INVESTORS THEY ARE WELCOME IN ALBANIA.

    /// VOKHI ACT ///

    THE PARLIAMENT HAS PASSED LEGISLATION ON (ECONOMIC) FREE ZONES. AND WE ARE READY TO DO BUSINESS AND TO WORK WITH FOREIGN INVESTORS AND OTHER INSTITUTIONS IN THIS (TELCOM) SECTOR. I CAN TELL YOU THAT ALBANIA IS READY TO DO BUSINESS WITH FOREIGN COMPANIES AND EVERYBODY THAT IS INTERESTED IN ALBANIA. YOU CAN FIND GOOD OPPORTUNITIES IN ALBANIA AND YOU CAN FIND VERY GOOD SPECIALIZED PEOPLE.

    /// END ACT ///

    THERE ARE SEVERAL QUESTIONS ADDRESSED TO THE DELEGATION. A BANKER WANTS TO KNOW THE LIKELY OUTCOME OF NEXT MONTH'S PARLIAMENTARY ELECTION. ANOTHER ASKS THE DEVELOPMENT PRIORITIES OF THE ALBANIAN GOVERNMENT. THE ANSWER COMES FROM EDMOND LEKA, THE DIRECTOR OF THE DEVELOPMENT AID COORDINATION DEPARTMENT.

    /// LEKA ACT ///

    I CAN SAY THAT ROAD INFRASTRUCTURE IS A PRIORITY FOR THE COUNTRY. THE ENERGY INFRASTRUCTURE IS ALSO A PRIORITY, WE WANT TO BE INTEGRATED INTO THE EUROPEAN ENERGY NETWORKS. AND ALSO PORTS AND EXPORTS, WE ARE FOCUSING ON THOSE.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. LEKA EXPRESSES OPTIMISM ALBANIA'S BASIC INFRASTRUCTURE CAN MEET MINIMUM EUROPEAN STANDARDS WITHIN THE NEXT FOUR YEARS. THE ALBANIANS SAY WORK IS UNDERWAY ON PAVING THE ROAD FROM THE PORT OF DURRES TO TIRANA, EAST ACROSS MACEDONIA TO THE BULGARIAN BORDER. THEY SAY THIS IMPORTANT, AND FIRST, EAST-WEST ARTERY IN THE SOUTHERN BALKANS SHOULD BE COMPLETED WITHIN THREE YEARS. (SIGNED)

    NEB/BDW/MH/RAE
    16-Apr-96 11:05 AM EDT (1505 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] BELGRADE BOMBING (S-O) CORRECTED BY PAM TAYLOR (BELGRADE)

    DATE=4/16/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-195791
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    ///// DROPS GRAF 3 OF TEXT. ////

    INTRO: A BOMB EXPLODED OUTSIDE BELGRADE'S ONLY MOSQUE EARLY TUESDAY, THERE WERE NO CASUALTIES AND NO ONE HAS CLAIMED RESPONSIBILITY. V-O-A'S PAMELA TAYLOR REPORTS FROM THE YUGOSLAV CAPITAL.

    TEXT: IT WAS THE SECOND SUCH BOMB IN TWO WEEKS AT THE ANCIENT BIRAKI MOSQUE IN CENTRAL BELGRADE.

    FOLLOWING THE FIRST EXPLOSION, BELGRADE'S MUSLIM LEADER, GRAND MUFTI HAMDIJA JUSEFSPAHIC, CALLED FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC TO PROVIDE MORE SECURITY. AFTER THE LATEST ATTACK, HE SAID SUCH PROTECTION IS NOW IMPERATIVE

    THE GRAND MUFTI SAID HE SUSPECTS BOSNIAN-SERB SUPPORTERS UNHAPPY WITH THE DAYTON AGREEMENT ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE BOMB.

    EASTER SUNDAY THERE WAS A SIMILAR ATTACK ON A CATHOLIC CHURCH IN BELGRADE. (SIGNED)

    NEB/PT/MH/RAE
    16-Apr-96 8:36 AM EDT (1236 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] CONFLICT RESOLUTION: BOSNIA - A WORK-IN-PROGRESS BY ADAM PHILLIPS (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=4/12/96
    TYPE=CURRENT AFFAIRS FEATURE
    NUMBER=3-24803
    TELEPHONE=619-1102
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT= // TAPE CUTS IN AUDIO SERVICES //

    ANNCR: LAST NOVEMBER, THE LEADERS OF SERBIA, CROATIA AND BOSNIA INTIALED THE DAYTON AGREEMENT THAT WOULD FORMALLY END THE BLOODY -- SOME SAY GENOCIDAL -- ETHNIC WAR IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. THAT U-S- BROKERED ACCORD DEPENDED ON A THREE-PRONGED STRATEGY FOR PEACE WHICH INCLUDED INTERNATIONAL MILITARY FORCE -- TO SEPARATE THE ADVERSARIES -- AND THE REIMPOSITION OF THE RULE OF LAW. THE THIRD "KEY" TO THE DAYTON PLAN ACCORD WAS POST-CONFLICT RESOLUTION PLANNING -- PARTICULARLY ECONOMIC RECONSTRUCTION IN CONJUNCTION WITH TRAINING IN NEGOTIATION AND MEDIATION SKILLS AND OTHER NON-VIOLENT PROBLEM SOLVING METHODS.

    SIX MONTHS INTO THE PROCESS, ONE MIGHT ASK HOW THIS STRATEGY HAS BEEN FARING. WHAT IS THE ATMOSPHERE LIKE IN SARAJEVO NOW THAT THE CITY HAS BEEN TECHNICALLY UNIFIED? WHAT IS ACTUALLY BEING DONE TO REBUILD THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA, PARTICULARLY SARAJEVO, THE HARD-HIT CAPITAL OF BOSNIA? AND WHAT ARE THE PROSPECTS FOR PEACE -- OR RENEWED CONFLICT -- IN THE REGION GENERALLY? THE VOA PUT THESE QUESTIONS TO A CONFLICT RESOLUTION EXPERT WHO HAS JUST RETURNED FROM A FACT-FINDING MISSION THERE. HERE IS ___________.

    TEXT: UNTIL RECENTLY, MOST POLITICIANS AND DIPLOMATS MIGHT HAVE ASSUMED THAT A CONFLICT WAS SETTLED OR RESOLVED ONCE THE VIOLENCE HAD CEASED AND A PEACE ACCORD HAD BEEN SIGNED. BUT CURRENT THINKING SUGGESTS THAT JOINT PROBLEM-SOLVING TECHNIQUES AND OTHER CONFLICT RESOLUTION METHODS MAY BE NEEDED LONG AFTER THE HOSTILITIES ARE OVER.

    ACCORDING TO EILEEN BABBITT, THE CONFLICT RESOLUTION TRAINING DIRECTOR FOR THE UNITED STATES INSTITUTE OF PEACE IN WASHINGTON, D-C, THIS IS THE PHASE OF CONFLICT RESOLUTION WHICH BOSNIA IS ATTEMPTING TO MASTER RIGHT NOW. SHE AND HER INSTITUTE COLLEAGUES HAVE JUST RETURNED FROM SARAJEVO, THE BOSNIAN CAPITAL.

    TAPE CUT ONE BABBITT

    "WE HAVE, IN BOSNIA, A 'SETTLEMENT.' BUT AFTER SETTLEMENT THERE IS A WHOLE OTHER PHASE WHICH HAS TO DO WITH RECONSTRUCTING SOCIALLY, POLITICALLY, ECONOMICALLY THE AREA THAT WAS DEVASTATED BY THE CONFLICT. AND ALSO, IN A RECONCILIATION SENSE, HEALING THE RELATIONSHIPS THAT WERE DAMAGED, AND SOMETIMES VERY SEVERELY SEVERED BY THE CONFLICT. AND THAT'S THE PHASE THAT WE ARE TALKING ABOUT HERE. AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION PROCESSES AND APPROACHES CAN BE VERY USEFUL IN THIS PHASE."

    TEXT: BECAUSE MS. BABBITT AND HER PARTY WERE LIMITED TO A MERE TEN DAYS "ON THE GROUND" IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA, THEY DECIDED TO STAY EXCLUSIVELY IN SARAJEVO, THE MULTI-ETHNIC CITY WHICH HAD BEEN UNDER EXTENSIVE SIEGE DURING THE WAR. SHE EXPLAINS THAT EVEN THOUGH SHE AND HER DELEGATION HAD NEVER BEEN TO SARAJEVO, THEY WERE WELL-INFORMED AND PREPARED FOR WHAT THEY FOUND.

    TAPE CUT TWO BABBITT

    "WHAT WE EXPECTED TO FIND WAS DEVASTATION, DESTRUCTION, DEPRESSION ON THE PART OF THE POPULATION, A LOT OF PESSIMISM ABOUT WHAT WAS GOING TO HAPPEN NEXT, ANGER AT THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY FOR NOT INTERVENING SOONER, AND BASICALLY A SORT OF BLEAK LANDSCAPE AND PESSIMISM ABOUT WHAT THE FUTURE HELD IN STORE."

    TEXT: DURING THEIR LATE AFTERNOON DRIVE THROUGH THE SARAJEVO SUBURBS ON THE WAY TO THE CITY CENTER, MS. BABBITT'S PARTY CERTAINLY FOUND ALL THE DEVASTATION THEY HAD ANTICIPATED. ENTIRE NEIGHBORHOODS WERE NOW MERE PILES AND RUBBLE AND ASHES. MOST OF THE BUILDINGS LEFT STANDING WERE DAMAGED BEYOND REPAIR. THERE WERE FEW SIGNS OF CONTINUED HABITATION AMONG THE RUINS.

    BUT IT TURNED OUT THAT AS THE DELEGATION WAS MAKING ITS WAY THROUGH THESE SUBURBS TO THE CITY CENTER, HISTORY WAS BEING MADE. THAT VERY DAY, CONTROL OF THE LAST SUBURB THAT HAD BEEN OCCUPIED THROUGHOUT THE WAR BY BOSNIAN SERBS WAS FORMALLY TRANSFERRED TO BOSNIA'S NEW MUSLIM-CROAT GOVERNMENT.

    THAT NIGHT, MS. BABBITT HEARD SPORADIC EXPLOSIONS EMANATING FROM THAT SUBURB AS SHE SAT IN HER ROOM INSIDE THE HOLIDAY INN ON THE CITY'S INFAMOUS SNIPER ALLEY. AT THE HEIGHT OF THE WAR, BOSNIAN SERB FIGHTERS ENCAMPED IN THE SUBURBAN HILLS AROUND SARAJEVO WOULD RAIN ROCKET AND RIFLE FIRE ON THE THE CITY'S CIVILIAN POPULATION. IN SPITE OF THE OCCASIONAL GUNFIRE THAT NIGHT, MS. BABBITT SAID THERE WERE MANY SIGNS THAT SARAJEVANS FELT THE LONG WAR WAS FINALLY OVER.

    TAPE CUT THREE BABBITT "...AND IN THE SHORT AMOUNT OF TIME THAT WE WERE THERE WE BEGAN TO SEE THE SIGNS OF THINGS IMPROVING: STORES OPENING, CAFES OPENING, THE HOTEL, THE HOLIDAY INN, OPENED ITS FRONT DOORS ONTO THE FRONT STREET FOR THE FIRST TIME IN FOUR YEARS. WE WERE ABLE TO MOVE AROUND THE CITY IN WAYS THAT WOULD NOT HAVE BEEN IMAGINABLE EVEN A FEW MONTHS AGO. THE BARRICADES THAT HAD BEEN PUT UP THROUGHOUT THE CITY TO PROTECT CITIZENS FROM SNIPER FIRE WERE TAKEN DOWN AND WERE REMOVED WHEN WE WERE THERE. BUSES THAT HAD BEEN PARKED AT INTERSECTIONS THAT HAD BEEN USED AS BARRICADES BEHIND WHICH PEOPLE WOULD RUN TO GO FROM PLACE TO PLACE SO THAT THEY COULD CONTINUE LIVING IN THE MIDST OF THE SIEGE, THESE WERE TAKEN DOWN, THESE WERE REMOVED WHILE WE WERE THERE, WHICH WAS, AGAIN, VISUALLY AND PSYCHOLOGICALLY, A VERY SIGNIFICANT THING!"

    TEXT: THE RELATIVELY PEACEFUL TRANSFER OF SERB-CONTROLLED NEIGHBORHOODS TO THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT, MADE POSSIBLE BY THE INTERNATIONAL PEACE-IMPLEMENTATION FORCE, OCCURRED IN TANDEM WITH GROWING HUMANITARIAN AID EFFORTS HAVE BEEN GOING ON SINCE THE DARKEST DAYS OF THE WAR. THAT WORK IS NOW ACTIVELY LINKED BOTH TO ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND TO EARLY POST-CONFLICT RECONCILIATION EFFORTS, JUST AS THE ARCHITECTS OF THE DAYTON PEACE AGREEMENT ENVISIONED. MS. BABBITT IS PLEASED THAT ENACTMENT OF THIS THREE-PRONGED PLAN APPEARS TO BE PROCEEDING, BUT CAUTIONS THAT THE CONFLICT RESOLUTION ASPECT WILL REQUIRE PATIENCE.

    TAPE CUT FOUR BABBITT "WE HAVE TO BE VERY CLEAR THAT RECONCILIATION IN THE TECHNICAL SENSE, I.E, BRINGING PEOPLE TOGETHER TO TALK TO EACH OTHER AND MAKE UP, SORT OF KISS AND MAKE UP, IS NOT GOING TO HAPPEN SOON. THAT'S GOING TO TAKE A WHILE. AND THE RECONCILIATION IS GOING TO BE SLOW. I THINK IT WILL BE AIDED SUBSTANTIALLY BY ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND BY PROJECTS THAT BRING INCOME AND JOBS AND COMMUNITY RE-BUILDING TO SARAJEVO AND TO OTHER PLACES."

    TEXT: WHILE THERE IS NO LOVE LOST BETWEEN THE FORMER ETHNIC ADVERSARIES OF BOSNIA, MS. BABBIT SAYS THAT SHE AND HER COLLEAGUES AT THE UNITED STATES INSTITUTE OF PEACE PERCEIVED A GROWING INTEREST IN LEARNING THE CONFLICT RESOLUTION SKILLS THAT WILL PERMIT PEOPLE TO BEGIN TO SETTLE THEIR DIFFERENCES WITHOUT KILLING EACH OTHER.

    TAPE CUT FIVE BABBITT "THERE ARE SIGNIFICANT NUMBERS OF PEOPLE -- AND I CAN ONLY SPEAK FOR SARAJEVO, BECAUSE THAT'S THE ONLY PLACE THAT WE WERE -- WHO WANT THESE SKILLS WHO BELIEVE THAT HAVING THEM WILL MAKE A DIFFERENCE, AND WHO WANT TO WORK FOR PEACE - A LASTING PEACE -- IN THE COUNTRY THAT LEAVES OPEN THE POSSIBILITY THAT PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT BACKGROUNDS BEING ABLE TO LIVE TOGETHER IN HARMONY."

    TEXT: AS TEMPERS COOL AND MORE TIME IS ALLOWED TO ELAPSE BETWEEN THE HORRORS OF THE RECENT WAR AND THE PRESENT LULL, THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA MAY IN FACT SETTLE INTO A STATUS QUO WHERE THE DIVERSE PEOPLES OF THE AREA CAN GET ALONG OR EVEN PROSPER. WHATEVER THE OUTCOME, THIS MUCH SEEMS CLEAR: PROTRACTED VIOLENCE SERVES THE LONG-RANGE INTERESTS OF NO ONE, AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION METHODS OFFER AT LEAST A PARTIAL "WAY OUT." (SIGNED)

    NEB/AP/PCH
    16-Apr-96 7:55 AM EDT (1155 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] GERMANY / DISCRIMINATION (L ONLY) BY KYLE KING (BONN)

    DATE=4/16/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-195799
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: A NEW STUDY COMMISSIONED BY THE INTERNATIONAL LABOR OFFICE HAS FOUND WIDESPREAD DISCRIMINATION AGAINST FOREIGNERS SEEKING JOBS IN GERMANY. AS V-O-A'S KYLE KING REPORTS, THE AUTHORS OF THE STUDY ARE CALLING FOR NEW LEGISLATION TO DEAL WITH A PROBLEM THEY CALL A TICKING TIMEBOMB.

    TEXT: THE AUTHORS OF NEW STUDY SAY ABOUT 20-PERCENT OF THE INITIAL JOB APPLICATIONS BY FOREIGNERS IN GERMANY WERE REJECTED SIMPLY ON THE BASIS OF NATIONALITY. THE STUDY, WHICH COMPARED CANDIDATES WITH EQUAL QUALIFICATIONS, FOUND LITTLE DISCRIMINATION IN AREAS LIKE FOOD SERVICE AND CONSTRUCTION. BUT MORE THAN 40-PERCENT OF FOREIGN CANDIDATES WERE REJECTED FOR HIGH VISIBILITY POSITIONS SUCH AS FOREIGN SERVICE.

    ROGER BOEHNING OF THE INTERNATIONAL LABOR OFFICE IN GENEVA, SAYS THE STUDY DEMONSTRATES BEYOND A DOUBT THAT GERMANY HAS A SERIOUS PROBLEM WITH DISCRIMINATION AGAINST FOREIGNERS.

    /// BOEHNING ACT ///

    IF YOU EXCLUDE THESE PEOPLE ON A CONTINUOUS BASIS FROM MAINSTREAM SOCIETY BY EXCLUDING THEM FROM ACCESS TO MAINSTREAM JOBS, YOU ARE SITTING ON AN IMMENSE TIME-BOMB, WHICH UNFORTUNATELY AS HAS SHOWN IN GERMANY, BUT ALSO IN THE STATES AND OTHER COUNTRIES, IS BOUND TO EXPLODE SOONER OR LATER IF YOU DO NOT TAKE ADEQUATE MEASURES.

    /// END ACT ///

    ONE OF THE MAIN RESEARCHERS FOR THE PROJECT, ANDREAS GOLDBERG OF THE CENTER FOR TURKISH STUDIES IN GERMANY, SAYS THE GERMAN GOVERNMENT NEEDS TO PASS LEGISLATION MAKING DISCRIMINATION AGAINST FOREIGNERS ILLEGAL.

    /// GOLDBERG ACT ///

    THE GENERAL SITUATION IN GERMANY IS THAT WE DO NOT HAVE A LAW WHICH PROHIBITS DISCRIMINATION AGAINST FOREIGNERS IN ACCESS TO EMPLOYMENT OR RENTING AN APARTMENT OR GETTING INSURANCE OR GETTING INTO A DISCOTHEQUE.

    /// END ACT ///

    ALTHOUGH GERMANY'S CONSTITUTION STATES EVERY HUMAN BEING SHOULD BE TREATED EQUALLY, IT DOES NOT APPLY TO THOSE WHO HAVE A FOREIGN NATIONALITY. IN ADDITION, ROGER BOEHNING SAYS MANY PEOPLE ARE UNAWARE DISCRIMINATION IS A PROBLEM.

    /// BOEHNING ACT ///

    THE REACTION HAS BEEN THAT PEOPLE ARE SHOCKED, BECAUSE, AND THIS IS ONCE MORE NOT A SPECIFIC GERMAN REACTION, IF YOU COME WITH A BIG INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH EFFORT AND YOU FIND THESE SORT OF RESULTS, BECAUSE NOBODY HAD EXPECTED, NOT EVEN WE HAD EXPECTED WHEN WE STARTED OUT THE PROGRAM THAT IT WOULD BE THAT BAD.

    /// END ACT ///

    OFFICIALS AT THE GERMAN LABOR MINISTRY SAY THEY HAVE NO SPECIFIC REFORMS IN MIND AT THE PRESENT TIME. BUT THEY NOTE THE COUNTRY IS ALREADY TRYING TO DEAL WITH ITS HIGHEST UN-EMPLOYMENT RATE SINCE THE END OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR.

    OFFICIALS SAY AVAILABLE JOBS SHOULD FIRST GO TO QUALIFIED GERMANS AND THEY POINT OUT THE UN-EMPLOYED HAVE ACCESS TO GENEROUS SOCIAL BENEFITS.

    ANALYSTS NOTE GERMANY IS NOT THE ONLY WESTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRY WHERE DISCRIMINATION AGAINST FOREIGNERS EXISTS. SIMILAR STUDIES IN OTHER NATIONS HAVE FOUND MORE OR LESS THE SAME CONDITIONS.

    BUT SOME EXPERTS SAY THE PROBLEM IN GERMANY HAS BEEN MADE WORSE BY THE FACT FOREIGNERS ARE TREATED DIFFERENTLY AND CITIZENSHIP IS SO DIFFICULT TO OBTAIN. THEY SAY SUCH CIRCUMSTANCES HAVE THE EFFECT OF MAKING PEOPLE LOOK AT FOREIGNERS AS SECOND CLASS CITIZENS. (SIGNED)

    NEB/KBK/JWH/RAE
    16-Apr-96 10:33 AM EDT (1433 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

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