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Voice of America, 19 April 1996

From: "Ioannis V. Bousnakis" <ivb19@nfi.com>

Voice of America Directory

CONTENTS

  • [01] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [02] BOSNIA/SITREP (L) BY WAYNE COREY ( VIENNA )

  • [03] BOSNIA ELECTIONS (L ONLY) BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (GENEVA)

  • [04] ITALY POLITICS (L) BY PEGGY POLK (ROME)

  • [05] U-N WEEK-IN-REVIEW BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)

  • [06] YUGO/WAR CRIMES (S ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)


  • [01] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=04/19/96
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09537
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-S-T ON FRIDAY, APRIL 19TH //

    INTRO: TWO TRAGEDIES -- ONE YESTERDAY AND THE OTHER A YEAR AGO -- DOMINATE THE COMMENTARY SECTIONS OF NEWSPAPERS ACROSS THE UNITED STATES THIS FRIDAY. ISRAEL'S SHELLING OF A UNITED NATIONS REFUGEE CENTER IN LEBANON IS DRAWING WIDESPREAD CRITICISM, WHILE IN MANY EDITORIAL COLUMNS, THE MASSIVE BOMBING ONE YEAR AGO TODAY OF THE MAIN FEDERAL OFFICE BUILDING IN OKLAHOMA CITY IS REMEMBERED. OTHER TOPICS INCLUDE: THE ENVIRONMENTALLY THREAT FROM CHINESE GROWTH, AND JAPAN'S RETHINKING ITS DEFENSE PHILOSOPHY. NOW, HERE WITH A SOME QUOTES AND A CLOSER LOOK IS ______________AND TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: CROSS-BORDER FIGHTING BETWEEN ISRAEL AND HEZBOLLAH GUERRILLAS IN LEBANON ENTERED ITS NINTH DAY FRIDAY DESPITE INCREASED INTERNATIONAL CALLS FOR AN IMMEDIATE CEASEFIRE. THE HEZBOLLAH FIRED ALMOST 30 KATYUSHA ROCKETS INTO NORTHERN ISRAEL DURING THE NIGHT AND ISRAELI ARTILLERY ANSWERED THEM WITH SALVOS INTO SOUTHERN LEBANON. MEANWHILE, THE DEATH TOLL FROM THE ISRAELI BOMBARDMENT OF A U-N REFUGEE CENTER NEAR THE VILLAGE OF QANA STANDS AT 97, AFTER THREE MORE PEOPLE DIED OF THEIR WOUNDS. U-S PAPERS HAD PLENTY OF TIME TO RESPOND IN THEIR EDITORIAL COLUMNS TO THE ISRAELI ATTACK, AND RESPOND THEY DID! "THE BOSTON GLOBE" COMMENTS IN PART:

    VOICE: "YESTERDAY'S HORRIFIC KILLING OF ... LEBANESE REFUGEES SHELTERING AT A U-N BASE DEMONSTRATED THAT CIVILIANS HAVE BECOME THE PRIMARY VICTIMS OF AN INTERMITTENT PROXY WAR BETWEEN ISRAEL AND A TACTICAL ALLIANCE LINKING IRAN TO SYRIA. THE GOVERNMENT OF ISRAEL'S PRIME MINISTER SHIMON PERES ... HAS EFFECTIVELY TAKEN THE LEBANESE POPULATION HOSTAGE... THE FACT THAT OTHERS ARE ALSO TO BLAME FOR THE SUFFERING INFLICTED ON THE LEBANESE DOES NOT MAKE THE ISRAELI TACTICS ANY LESS OBJECTIONABLE."

    TEXT: COMBINING THE DAY'S TOP TWO EDITORIAL TOPICS, NEW YORK'S "DAILY NEWS" NOTES:

    VOICE: "TERROR RAINED ITS LETHAL DEVASTATION ON THE WORLD TWICE YESTERDAY. ISRAELI SHELLS AIMED AT RADICAL HEZBOLLAH GUERRILLAS INSTEAD HIT TWO REFUGEE SHELTERS AT A U-N BASE IN SOUTHERN LEBANON... AND IN CAIRO, GUNMEN KILLED 18 GREEK TOURISTS ... IN FRONT OF THEIR HOTEL... THE KILLINGS ... CAME ON THE EVE OF THE ANNIVERSARY OF THE OKLAHOMA CITY BOMBING THAT KILLED 168 MEN, WOMEN AND LITTLE CHILDREN. IT FOREVER SHATTERED THE ILLUSION THAT SOMEHOW AMERICANS WOULD BE SPARED..."

    TEXT: IN CALIFORNIA, "THE LOS ANGELES TIMES" AGAIN CALLED FOR ISRAEL TO END ITS ATTACKS, DESCRIBING THE SITUATION AS A "DEEPENING TRAGEDY IN LEBANON," WHILE IN THE EAST, "THE NEW YORK TIMES" NOTED THE ISRAELI CAMPAIGN REACHED "A NEW PLANE OF VIOLENCE," ADDING:

    VOICE: "U-N OFFICIALS ... REPORTED THAT JUST BEFORE THE ISRAELI ATTACK, HEZBOLLAH TERRORISTS HAD LAUNCHED ROCKETS AND MORTAR FIRE AT ISRAELI POSITIONS FROM ABOUT 275 METERS OUTSIDE THE U-N BASE. BY DOING SO, HEZBOLLAH PUT THE CIVILIANS AT RISK. BUT ISRAEL CANNOT ESCAPE ITS SHARE OF RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE CASUALTIES... SURELY, LEBANON AND SYRIA UNDERSTAND BY NOW THE COSTS OF CONTINUING TO INDULGE HEZBOLLAH... RATHER THAN RISKING MORE BLOODSHED, ALL SIDES SHOULD SUSPEND THE FIGHTING."

    TEXT: TURNING TO THE DAY'S OTHER MAIN EDITORIAL TOPIC, THE ONE-YEAR ANNIVERSARY OF THE OKLAHOMA CITY BOMBING, "THE ATLANTA CONSTITUTION" TALKS OF THE COURAGE DISPLAYED BY THE CITY'S RESIDENTS, AND OF THE LONGER-LASTING TOLL THE BLAST HAS TAKEN.

    VOICE: "TODAY THEIR DEPRESSION IS PALPABLE. RELATIONSHIPS HAVE FRAYED OR SNAPPED. TEMPERS FLARE IN DISPUTES OVER THE SPENDING OF CHARITABLE CONTRIBUTIONS THAT POURED INTO THE CITY AFTER THE BOMBING, OVER REDEVELOPMENT PLANS, EVEN OVER THE APPROPRIATENESS OF PUBLIC MEMORIALS. WHAT THE CITIZENS OF OKLAHOMA CITY NEED IS DECISIVE, YET SENSITIVE, LOCAL LEADERSHIP TOWARD COMMUNITY REHABILITATION. THEY ALSO NEED THE KIND OF CLOSURE THEY CAN GET ONLY WITH A CONCLUSIVE VERDICT ON BOMBING SUSPECTS TIMOTHY MCVEIGH AND TERRY NICHOLS. THAT DECISION IS UP TO A FEDERAL JURY IN DENVER."

    TEXT: IN FLORIDA, "THE MIAMI HERALD" WORRIES THAT IN AN ATTEMPT TO THWART TERRORISM, NEW LEGISLATION PASSED BY CONGRESS AND HEADING FOR THE PRESIDENT'S SIGNATURE WILL CURTAIL THE RIGHTS OF ALL, POSSIBLY INFRINGING ON THE CONSTITUTION'S HALLOWED FREE SPEECH PROVISIONS.

    VOICE: "THE WORDS AND THOUGHTS OF HATE AND CONTEMPT, HOWEVER REPREHENSIBLE TO A TOLERANT MAJORITY, HAVE ALWAYS FOUND WIDE BERTH IN THIS FREE LAND. THE MURDEROUS DEEDS TO WHICH THEY CAN LEAD, HOWEVER, DON'T AND WON'T. IT IS INCUMBENT UPON LAW ENFORCEMENT TO IDENTIFY AND MONITOR GROUPS THAT ESPOUSE VIOLENCE. .... THERE IS STRANGE IRONY HERE. THE VERY GOVERNMENT THAT GIVES THE DISENCHANTED A RIGHT TO EXIST, TO RECRUIT ... IS THE SAME GOVERNMENT THAT THEY HAVE DECLARED THE ENEMY. THEY 'DO' [ITALICS FOR EMPHASIS] HAVE IT TWISTED, INDEED."

    TEXT: LOOKING BRIEFLY AT SOME OTHER TOPICS -- "THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR" WORRIES ABOUT THE ENVIRONMENTAL THREAT TO THE WORLD AS CHINA GROWS INTO AN INDUSTRIAL GIANT, AND FAMILIES BECOME WEALTHIER, BUYING MORE CARS AND TRUCKS. THIS EDITORIAL REFLECTS ON PRESIDENT CLINTON'S MEETING LAST OCTOBER WITH PRESIDENT JIANG ZEMIN, WHEN THE TWO LEADERS TALKED OF THE PROBLEM AND MR. CLINTON OFFERED U-S HELP TO CHINA.

    VOICE: "[OPT] FIRST THE GOOD NEWS: PRESIDENT CLINTON HAS TOLD CHINA'S PRESIDENT .... ZEMIN THAT AMERICA WANTS TO WORK WITH BEIJING ON WAYS TO MODERNIZE ITS ECONOMY WITHOUT DAMAGING THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT. THEN THE BAD NEWS: NOTHING MUCH HAS BEEN DONE, 'OFFICIALLY' [ITALICS FOR EMPHASIS] ABOUT THIS MAJOR PROBLEM OF OUR ERA. [END OPT] ... ANYONE WHO HAS BEEN TO A CHINESE CITY UNDERSTANDS THE MOST DRAMATIC METAPHOR FOR THE IMPENDING 21ST CENTURY PROBLEM: CAR EXHAUSTS... IMAGINE PERHAPS AS MANY AS 300 MILLION NEW CARS AND MOTORCYCLES ON CHINA'S ROADS AND STREETS, ALL SPEWING EXHAUST GASES. ADD NEW COAL-BURNING POWER PLANTS ... INDUSTRIAL PLANT EFFLUENTS, AND INCREASED WATER USAGE... THE CHINA PROBLEM IS HUGE. BENEFITS TO A BILLION CHINESE FROM STARTING TO SOLVE IT NOW ARE CLEAR. SO IS THE BENEFIT TO THE OTHER FIVE BILLION OF US."

    TEXT: "THE LOS ANGELES TIMES" IS WONDERING ABOUT JAPAN'S RETHINKING ITS DEFENSE POLICY IN THE WAKE OF PRESIDENT CLINTON'S VISIT, AND ASKS "HOW FAR WILL TOKYO GO?"

    VOICE: "MIGHT JAPAN PARTICIPATE MORE WIDELY IN COLLECTIVE DEFENSE FOR REGIONAL STABILITY AND PERHAPS EVENTUALLY IN COMBAT OPERATIONS? TOKYO HAS LONG HELD THAT ITS ANTIWAR CONSTITUTION PROHIBITS INVOLVEMENT IN ANY MILITARY OPERATIONS BEYOND IMMEDIATE SELF-DEFENSE. ITS NEIGHBORS ARE SATISFIED WITH THAT ARRANGEMENT. BUT HELPING THE UNITED STATES POLICE ASIA AT ANY LEVEL PRESENTS NEW CHALLENGES."

    TEXT: "THE WASHINGTON POST" WONDERS ALOUD WHY THE UNITED STATES IS NOT MORE ACTIVE IN PURSUING A WORLD BAN ON LAND MINES BEFORE THE PRESIDENT'S ANNOUNCED DEADLINE IN THE YEAR TWO-THOUSAND AND TEN, NOTING:

    VOICE: "[FAILURE TO ACT SOONER] SEPARATES THE UNITED STATES FROM THOSE NATIONS, INCLUDING ITS CLOSEST ALLIES, THAT ARE ACTING UNILATERALLY NOW TO BAN THE PRODUCTION, USE AND EXPORT OF THESE DEVILISH DEVICES."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: "THE NEW YORK TIMES" EXPRESSES DISGUST OVER THE LONG-STANDING FEDERAL SUBSIDY FOR THE GRAIN ALCOHOL -- OR ETHANOL -- INDUSTRY, AND CALLS IT A BAD DEAL FOR TAXPAYERS.

    VOICE: "ETHANOL, LONG OVERSOLD AS A SOURCE OF CHEAP, CLEAN ENERGY, HAS BEEN THE BENEFICIARY OF GENEROUS SUBSIDIES PROVIDED BY POLITICIANS WHOSE FAVOR HAS BEEN BOUGHT AT BARGAIN PRICES BY ARCHER DANIELS MIDLAND, ETHANOL'S LEADING MANUFACTURER. ETHANOL HAS BEEN AN EXCELLENT INVESTMENT FOR THE COMPANY, BUT A ROTTEN INVESTMENT FOR THE TAXPAYERS..."

    TEXT: [OPT] THE PAPER CHASTISES SENATE MAJORITY LEADER AND PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE BOB DOLE FOR HIS ROLE IN AGAIN AGGRESSIVELY FORCING AN EXTENSION OF THE SUBSIDY THROUGH CONGRESS. "THE TIMES" CONCLUDES:

    VOICE: [OPT] "IT IS A SCANDAL THAT THIS GIVEAWAY CANNOT BE EXPOSED TO THE SAME RELENTLESS SCRUTINY THAT OTHER FARM SUBSIDIES HAVE RECEIVED - - AND FORCED TO JUSTIFY ITSELF AGAINST COMPETING NEEDS." [END OPT]

    TEXT: THAT COMPLETES THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF SOME OF TODAY'S EDITORIALS FROM THE U-S PRESS.

    NEB/ANG/PCH
    19-Apr-96 10:59 AM EDT (1459 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] BOSNIA/SITREP (L) BY WAYNE COREY ( VIENNA )

    DATE=4/19/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-195991
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE FORMER WARRING FORCES IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA HAVE MISSED A DEADLINE TO RETURN THEIR REGULAR TROOPS TO BARRACKS AND TO MOVE THEIR HEAVY WEAPONS TO NATO-APPROVED STORAGE AREAS. BUT, THE COMMANDER OF THE NATO-LED INTERNATIONAL PEACE FORCE IN BOSNIA, U-S ADMIRAL LEIGHTON SMITH, SAYS HE IS SATISFIED WITH THE PROGRESS MADE SO FAR AND THAT THE RIVAL ARMIES HAVE MORE TIME TO COMPLETE THEIR WITHDRAWALS. V-O-A'S CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT, WAYNE COREY, REPORTS.

    TEXT: AS EXPECTED, ADMIRAL SMITH IS NOT TOO CONCERNED THAT THE MUSLIMS, SERBS AND CROATS FAILED TO MEET THE THURSDAY NIGHT DEADLINE FOR THEIR MILITARY WITHDRAWALS.

    SPEAKING IN ROME, HE SAYS THE FORMER WARRING FORCES HAVE SHOWN A CLEAR INTENT TO RETURN THEIR REGULAR TROOPS TO BARRACKS AND TO MOVE THEIR HEAVY WEAPONS TO NATO-APPROVED STORAGE AREAS.

    ADMIRAL SMITH SAYS HE IS VERY PLEASED WITH THE WAY THE PROCESS IS GOING. HE SAYS IT WILL JUST TAKE MORE TIME.

    NATO OFFICERS IN SARAJEVO HAD SAID EARLIER THE MILITARY MOVEMENTS ARE A MASSIVE AND COMPLEX OPERATION. THE OFFICERS SAID THE FORMER WARRING FORCES WERE HAVING LOGISTICAL, TRANSPORTATION, AND OTHER PROBLEMS IN CARRYING IT OUT.

    ALTHOUGH NATO IS TAKING A BENIGN VIEW OF THE TROOP AND HEAVY WEAPONS WITHDRAWALS, IT IS STRONGLY REACTING TO THE SERBS' FAILURE TO PUT SOME ANTI-AIRCRAFT WEAPONS IN A COLLECTION AREA BY THE DEADLINE A MONTH AGO.

    NATO INTENDS TO DESTROY MORE THAN 50 SERB PORTABLE ANTI-AIRCRAFT MISSILES ITS TROOPS FOUND AND CONFISCATED IN NORTHEASTERN BOSNIA. ANTI-AIRCRAFT WEAPONS ARE SUPPOSED TO BE STORED IN AREAS SEPARATE FROM THOSE WHICH CONTAIN OTHER WEAPONS.

    ADMIRAL SMITH DESCRIBES THE CURRENT MILITARY SITUATION IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA AS AN ABSENCE OF WAR. HE WARNS OF MAJOR OBSTACLES ON THE ROAD TO A MEANINGFUL PEACE.

    THEY INCLUDE THE RE-SETTLEMENT OF MORE THAN TWO MILLION REFUGEES OR DISPLACED PEOPLE, THE FREE MOVEMENT OF PEOPLE WITHIN BOSNIA AND DEMOCRATIC ELECTIONS THROUGHOUT THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC.

    UNITED NATIONS REFUGEE OFFICIALS ARE FRUSTRATED BY WHAT THEY CALL A LACK OF COOPERATION FROM THE FORMER WARRING FORCES IN ARRANGING FOR REFUGEES TO RETURN TO THEIR HOMES.

    THERE IS ALSO CONSIDERABLE INTERNATIONAL CONCERN ABOUT WHETHER THE SERBS WILL TRY TO SABOTAGE OR DISRUPT ELECTIONS, DUE TO BE HELD NO LATER THAN SEPTEMBER. (SIGNED)

    NEB/WC/MH/JM
    19-Apr-96 10:55 AM EDT (1455 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] BOSNIA ELECTIONS (L ONLY) BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (GENEVA)

    DATE=4/19/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-196010
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: OFFICIALS OF THE ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE SAY THERE HAS BEEN SOME PROGRESS IN EFFORTS TO PREPARE FOR NATIONWIDE ELECTIONS IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. BUT MAJOR PROBLEMS REMAIN. AND THE CHIEF OF THE O-S-C-E MISSION IN BOSNIA, ROBERT FROWICK, FRIDAY ACKNOWLEDGED IT MAY NOT BE POSSIBLE TO HOLD THE ELECTIONS IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE TIME TABLE SET FORTH IN THE DAYTON PEACE AGREEMENT. MR. FROWICK, A U-S DIPLOMAT, BRIEFED REPORTERS IN GENEVA FRIDAY. DETAILS FROM VOA'S DOUGLAS ROBERTS.

    TEXT: UNDER THE TERMS OF THE DAYTON ACCORD, ELECTIONS ARE TO BE HELD IN BOSNIA BY MID-SEPTEMBER AT THE LATEST. AND THE O-S-C-E WAS GIVEN THE TASK OF ORGANIZING THE VOTE.

    AMBASSADOR FROWICK LEFT NO DOUBT IT IS A MONUMENTAL UNDERTAKING.

    ///FROWICK ACT///

    THIS IS THE MOST COMPLEX ELECTORAL PROCESS IN ALL OF HISTORY, IN MY OPINION.

    ///END ACT///

    THERE WILL IN FACT BE SEVEN ELECTIONS, ALL TO BE HELD ON THE SAME DAY, WITH VOTERS IN THE MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION AND IN THE SERB ENTITY CHOOSING THE MEMBERS OF A COLLECTIVE PRESIDENCY, NATIONAL AND REGIONAL LEGISLATURES AS WELL AS MUNICIPAL AND CANTONAL COUNCILS.

    O-S-C-E OFFICIALS ESTIMATE ROUGHLY HALF OF ALL BOSNIAN VOTERS WERE DISPLACED DURING THE THREE AND A HALF YEARS OF WARFARE. AND FORMULATING REGULATIONS THAT WILL ALLOW THEM TO VOTE, EITHER IN THEIR ORIGINAL HOMETOWNS OR ELSEWHERE, HAS BEEN A MAJOR PREOCCUPATION FOR THE O-S-C-E MISSION IN SARAJEVO.

    A PROVISIONAL ELECTORAL COMMISSION WAS ESTABLISHED AT THE END OF JANUARY. IT HAS ADOPTED INITIAL GUIDELINES ON THE REGISTRATION OF VOTERS, POLITICAL PARTIES AND CANDIDATES. A NEW ELECTORAL LAW IS EXPECTED TO BE UNVEILED AT THE END OF NEXT WEEK.

    AMBASSADOR FROWICK SAID HE IS CONFIDENT THAT ADMINISTRATIVE AND PROCEDURAL PREPARATIONS FOR THE VOTING WILL BE COMPLETED ON TIME. BUT, HE ADDED, THERE ARE SUBSTANTIVE PROBLEMS THAT CAN ONLY BE RESOLVED BY THE BOSNIANS THEMSELVES.

    ONE KEY OBSTACLE IS FREE ACCESS TO THE MEDIA, NOW TIGHTLY CONTROLLED IN BOTH THE MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION AND IN THE SERB ENTITY.

    MR. FROWICK ANNOUNCED PLANS FOR A NEW TELEVISION AND RADIO NETWORK THAT WILL REACH ALL PARTS OF BOSNIA, WITH EQUAL BLOCKS OF TIME GUARANTEED FOR ALL CANDIDATES.

    ANOTHER MAJOR PROBLEM IS FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT, FOR VOTERS AND CANDIDATES ALIKE.

    THE O-S-C-E ENVOY SAID THERE HAS BEEN SOME PROGRESS ON THIS ISSUE, WITH NATO PEACEKEEPERS ENFORCING THE REMOVAL OF GROWING NUMBERS OF ILLEGAL CHECKPOINTS AND ROAD BLOCKS. BUT HE SAID MUCH MORE NEEDS TO BE DONE BEFORE HE CAN CERTIFY THAT FREE AND FAIR ELECTIONS CAN BE HELD IN BOSNIA.

    AMBASSADOR FROWICK IS DUE TO SUBMIT HIS FORMAL RECOMMENDATION BY THE MIDDLE OF JUNE. HE SAID IT IS POSSIBLE HE WILL RECOMMEND THAT THE ELECTIONS GO AHEAD AS SCHEDULED. BUT HE SAID THAT WILL DEPEND ON HOW MUCH PROGRESS IS ACHIEVED OVER THE NEXT FEW WEEKS.

    ///FROWICK ACT///

    THE QUESTION IS WOULD IT BE BETTER TO GO AHEAD AND SAY ALL RIGHT, LET US FURTHER DEEPEN THE PROCESS THROUGH THE ELECTION CAMPAIGN, AND THROUGH THE VOTING INTO POWER OF NEW DEMOCRATICALLY ELECTED INSTITUTIONS OF GOVERNMENT. WOULD IT BE BETTER TO DO THAT OR NOT? IS THE SITUATION SO BAD THAT WE CANNOT PROCEED? IF THAT IS THE CASE, THEN WE WOULD SIMPLY HAVE TO GIVE IT A LITTLE MORE TIME.

    ///END ACT///

    AMBASSADOR FROWICK INSISTED THAT A PROCESS OF DEMOCRATIZATION IS UNDER WAY IN BOSNIA. THERE HAS BEEN MORE PROGRESS THAN MEDIA REPORTS SUGGEST, HE SAID. BUT HE ACKNOWLEDGED IT MAY TAKE A LITTLE LONGER THAN EXPECTED BEFORE BOSNIA IS READY FOR A FULL-BLOWN ELECTION CAMPAIGN. (SIGNED)

    NEB/DBR/JM
    19-Apr-96 2:01 PM EDT (1801 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] ITALY POLITICS (L) BY PEGGY POLK (ROME)

    DATE=4/19/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-196000
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: ITALIAN POLITICIANS ARE WINDING UP THE CAMPAIGN FOR SUNDAY'S GENERAL ELECTIONS. AS PEGGY POLK REPORTS, THE ELECTIONS PIT THE CENTER-LEFT AGAINST THE CENTER RIGHT, AND THE BETTING IS THAT NEITHER BLOC WILL WIN A CLEAR MAJORITY.

    TEXT: ITALIANS VOTE IN GENERAL ELECTIONS SUNDAY FOR THE THIRD TIME IN FOUR YEARS.

    THE MAIN CONTENDERS ARE THE CENTER-RIGHT FREEDOM ALLIANCE -- LED BY MILLIONAIRE FORMER PRIME MINISTER SILVIO BERLUSCONI AND FORMER NEO-FASCIST GIANFRANCO FINI -- AND THE CENTER-LEFT OLIVE TREE COALITION -- WHICH IS LED BY A CATHOLIC ECONOMIST AND INCLUDES BOTH THE EX-COMMUNISTS AND ACTING PRIME MINISTER LAMBERTO DINI, FORMERLY OF THE BANK OF ITALY.

    MR. BERLUSCONI -- WHO WON THE LAST ELECTIONS IN 1994 AND GOVERNED FOR A HECTIC SEVEN MONTHS -- IS NOW ON TRIAL IN CONNECTION WITH BRIBES PAID TO TAX OFFICIALS BY OFFICERS OF HIS FININVEST MEDIA AND BUSINESS EMPIRE. PROSECUTORS ARE ALSO SEEKING TO INDICT HIM ON CHARGES OF VIOLATING PARTY FINANCING LAWS BY ALLEGEDLY SIPHONING FUNDS TO FORMER SOCIALIST PRIME MINISTER BETTINO CRAXI.

    HE HAS DENIED ANY WRONGDOING AND CAMPAIGNED VIGOROUSLY.

    THE FINAL POLLS ISSUED AT THE END OF MARCH SHOWED THE RIVAL BLOCS RUNNING NECK-AND-NECK BUT WITH MANY VOTERS STILL UNDECIDED AND POLITICAL APATHY ON THE RISE.

    POLITICIANS -- WITH THE EXCEPTION OF OLIVE TREE LEADER ROMANO PRODI -- HAVE SPENT MOST OF THE CAMPAIGN TRADING INSULTS IN TELEVISION DEBATES. MR.PRODI-- THE ECONOMIST AND FORMER CHRISTIAN DEMOCRAT WHO IS THE CENTER-LEFT'S FOR PRIME MINISTER -- CRISS CROSSED ITALY IN A SPECIALLY EQUIPPED CAMPAIGN BUS.

    IF THE ELECTIONS PRODUCE NO CLEAR WINNER, ITALIANS MAY HAVE TO RETURN TO THE POLLS AGAIN NEXT YEAR FOLLOWING FURTHER REFORMS IN THE ELECTORAL LAWS. (SIGNED)

    NEB/PP/MH/GPT
    19-Apr-96 11:31 AM EDT (1531 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] U-N WEEK-IN-REVIEW BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)

    DATE=4/19/96
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-33043
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED NATIONS EXPRESSES SHOCK AND HORROR AT SCORES OF CIVILIAN DEATHS IN SOUTHERN LEBANON, WHILE THE SECURITY COUNCIL CALLS FOR AN IMMEDIATE CEASEFIRE BETWEEN ISRAEL AND THE HEZBOLLAH; ARAB GOVERNMENTS PROTEST THE ISRAELI CLOSURE OF ITS BORDERS WITH THE WEST BANK AND GAZA STRIP; U-N DIPLOMATS WARN LIBYA AGAINST VIOLATING A U-N FLIGHT BAN, AS TRIPOLI SENDS PILGRIMS TO MECCA; AND OIL TALKS BETWEEN THE U-N AND IRAQ CONTINUE WITHOUT AGREEMENT. VOA CORRESPONDENT ELAINE JOHANSON REVIEWS THE MAIN DEVELOPMENTS OF THE PAST WEEK.

    TEXT: THE SECURITY COUNCIL CALLED FOR AN IMMEDIATE CEASEFIRE IN SOUTHERN LEBANON. SPURRED THURSDAY BY THE BLOODIEST INCIDENT IN A WEEK OF VIOLENCE BETWEEN LEBANESE GUERRILLAS AND ISRAEL -- THE COUNCIL REJECTED AN ARAB ATTEMPT TO SINGLE OUT ISRAEL FOR CONDEMNATION AND CALLED ON BOTH PARTIES TO SHOW RESTRAINT. ISRAELI SHELLS HIT A U-N BASE IN THE AREA, KILLING SCORES OF CIVILIANS WHO HAD SOUGHT SHELTER IN THE COMPOUND.

    LEBANON SUBMITTED A RESOLUTION THAT ALSO WOULD HAVE DEMANDED COMPENSATION FROM ISRAEL FOR DAMAGES. THE LEBANESE AMBASSADOR SAID THE COUNCIL HAS A RESPONSIBILITY TO REACT APPROPRIATELY TO WHAT HE CALLED A MASSACRE BY THE ISRAELIS.

    BUT THE UNITED STATES PREVAILED AND PERSUADED THE COUNCIL TO TAKE A MORE EVEN-HANDED APPROACH. AMBASSADOR MADELEINE ALBRIGHT SAID THE MOST IMPORTANT POINT IS TO STOP THE CYCLE OF VIOLENCE AND SAVE THE PEACE PROCESS.

    //ALBRIGHT ACT//

    THAT PROCESS REQUIRES FROM THE PARTIES RESTRAINT AND A WILLINGNESS TO CONFRONT DIRECTLY THE SOURCES OF VIOLENCE. AND IT REQUIRES FROM THIS COUNCIL A SENSE OF FAIRNESS AND BALANCE.

    //END ACT//

    THE SECURITY COUNCIL EXPRESSED ITS SUPPORT FOR ON-GOING DIPLOMACY AS U-S SECRETARY OF STATE WARREN CHRISTOPHER MADE PLANS TO VISIT THE REGION.

    WHILE THE U-N CONFIRMED THAT LEBANESE GUERRILLAS HAD FIRED ROCKETS AND MORTARS AT ISRAEL FROM A POSITION NEAR THE U-N COMPOUND MINUTES BEFORE ISRAEL STRUCK -- THE SECRETARY-GENERAL'S SPOKESWOMAN, SYLVANA FOA, SAID ISRAEL HAS TO ACCEPT BLAME FOR KILLING CIVILIANS.

    //FOA ACT//

    I DON'T THINK YOU CAN SAY 'GEE, I'M SORRY THAT THIS HAPPENED.' SOMETHING REALLY HORRIBLE HAPPENED AND TO SAY IT WAS AN ACCIDENT, THAT IT WAS AN EQUIPMENT FAILURE, THAT IT WAS A TRAGIC MISTAKE . . . IT'S JUST NOT ENOUGH OF AN EXCUSE.

    //END ACT//

    SEVERAL U-N PEACEKEEPERS FROM FIJI WERE WOUNDED IN THURSDAY'S ATTACK.

    -0-

    THE PALESTINIANS COMPLAINED IN THE SECURITY COUNCIL THIS PAST WEEK ABOUT THE SEALING OF ISRAELI BORDERS IN RESPONSE TO A RASH OF SUICIDE BOMBINGS IN ISRAEL. THE PALESTINIAN REPRESENTATIVE SAID HE UNDERSTANDS ISRAEL'S PRE-OCCUPATION WITH ITS SECURITY BUT CALLED THE CLOSURE AN INAPPROPRIATE RESPONSE. HE ASKED THE COUNCIL TO TAKE MEASURES, BUT SEEMED RESIGNED TO THE FACT THAT NOTHING WOULD HAPPEN. DEBATE ENDED WITHOUT A RESOLUTION OR FORMAL STATEMENT.

    ISRAEL ARGUED IT HAD NOT INTENDED TO IMPOSE A COLLECTIVE PUNISHMENT ON THE PALESTINIANS AND SAID IT WOULD GRADUALLY OPEN THE BORDERS.

    -0-

    THE SECURITY COUNCIL HAS REPRIMANDED LIBYA FOR FLYING PILGRIMS TO SAUDI ARABIA IN DEFIANCE OF A U-N AIR EMBARGO. THE FLIGHT BAN WAS IMPOSED FOUR YEARS AGO AFTER LIBYA REFUSED TO SURRENDER TWO SUSPECTS IN THE 1988 BOMBING OF AN AMERICAN AIRLINER OVER LOCKERBIE, SCOTLAND. TWO HUNDRED AND 70 PEOPLE DIED IN THAT CRASH.

    WITHOUT MENTIONING SAUDI ARABIA BY NAME, THE COUNCIL REMINDED GOVERNMENTS OF THEIR OBLIGATION TO UPHOLD THE EMBARGO.

    LIBYA FLEW OVER ONE HUNDRED PILGRIMS LAST TUESDAY TO JEDDAH -- THE MAIN AIRPORT FOR THE MUSLIM HOLY CITY OF MECCA. LIBYA HAD THE OPTION OF USING EGYPTAIR -- WHICH WAS GIVEN PERMISSION TO FERRY THE PILGRIMS.

    LIBYAN LEADER MUAMMAR GADDAFI REJECTED THE COUNCIL'S WARNING AND SAID HE WOULD CONTINUE TO DEFY THE U-N BAN.

    -0-

    TALKS BETWEEN THE UNITED NATIONS AND IRAQ CONTINUE IN NEW YORK ON A DEAL THAT WOULD ALLOW THE LIMITED EXPORT OF IRAQI OIL TO RAISE FUNDS FOR HUMANITARIAN PURCHASES. IRAQ HAS BEEN UNDER U-N SANCTIONS -- INCLUDING AN EXPORT BAN -- SINCE IT INVADED KUWAIT IN 1990.

    A FINAL AGREEMENT REMAINS ELUSIVE AS DIPLOMATS CLOSE TO THE SITUATION SAY IRAQ IS TRYING TO IRON OUT DETAILS ABOUT THE HANDLING OF A U-N ESCROW ACCOUNT. THE UNITED NATIONS WILL CONTROL THE OIL PROFITS.

    IT IS NOT CLEAR YET WHETHER ALL DETAILS HAVE BEEN AGREED TO ON DISTRIBUTION OF SUPPLIES TO THE REBELLIOUS KURDISH PROVINCES. U-N AGENCIES ARE SUPPOSED TO TAKE CHARGE OF THE OPERATION.

    THE TALKS ARE EXPECTED TO CONTINUE UNTIL TUESDAY -- FOLLOWED POSSIBLY BY YET ANOTHER ROUND AFTER CONSULTATIONS IN BAGHDAD. (SIGNED)

    NEB/EJ/JM
    19-Apr-96 1:46 PM EDT (1746 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] YUGO/WAR CRIMES (S ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

    DATE=4/19/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-196009
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE CHIEF PROSECUTOR OF THE INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL IN THE HAGUE IS RECOMMENDING THAT AN INDICTED BOSNIAN SERB GENERAL IN THE TRIBUNAL'S CUSTODY SHOULD BE FREED FOR HEALTH REASONS. A FORMAL DECISION ON THIS WILL BE MADE ON MONDAY. V-O-A'S CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT, WAYNE COREY, REPORTS.

    TEXT: CHIEF PROSECUTOR RICHARD GOLDSTONE SAYS WAR CRIMES CHARGES AGAINST BOSNIAN SERB GENERAL DJORDJE DJUKIC SHOULD BE DROPPED.

    MR. GOLDSTONE SAYS THE OFFICER'S HEALTH IS RAPIDLY DETERIORATING AND THAT HE WOULD NOT BE ABLE TO MEANINGFULLY PARTICIPATE IN HIS OWN DEFENSE.

    GENERAL DJUKIC IS BEING TREATED FOR PANCREATIC CANCER. THERE ARE REPORTS THE ILLNESS IS TERMINAL.

    THE GENERAL'S LAWYER EARLIER SAID THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL WOULD HAVE TO DROP ITS CHARGES AGAINST THE AILING SOLDIER SIMPLY BECAUSE IT DOES NOT HAVE ENOUGH EVIDENCE TO CONVICT HIM.

    GENERAL DJUKIC, A SENIOR SERB ARMY LOGISTICS OFFICER, WAS INDICTED FOR SUPPORTING SERB SHELLING ATTACKS ON CIVILIANS IN SARAJEVO. HE HAS DENIED ANY RESPONSIBILITY FOR WAR CRIMES.

    THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL IS EXPECTED TO AGREE ON MONDAY TO DROP ITS CONTROVERSIAL CASE AGAINST HIM. IF IT DOES, THE MOST IMPORTANT ACCUSED WAR CRIMINAL TO APPEAR BEFORE THE TRIBUNAL WILL BE FREE. (SIGNED)

    NEB/WC/MH/MMK
    19-Apr-96 1:23 PM EDT (1723 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

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