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Voice of America, 30 April 1996

Voice of America Directory

From: News Distribution Manager <dist@hri.org>


CONTENTS

  • [01] TUESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [02] BOSNIA / SARAJEVO (L) BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)

  • [03] BOSNIA REFUGEES BY KYLE KING (BONN)

  • [04] BOSNIA SITREP (S-O CORRECTED) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

  • [05] CROATIA/PEACEKEEPERS (L ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

  • [06] E-U / BEEF (L-ONLY) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)

  • [07] EGYPT/CHURCHES (L ONLY) BY JESSICA JONES (ZAGAZIG/EGYPT)

  • [08] SLOVAKIA / NATO BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)


  • [01] TUESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=04/30/96
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09552
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-S-T ON TUESDAY, APRIL 30TH //

    INTRO: TOPICS DISCUSSED ON THE EDITORIAL PAGES OF MAJOR U-S NEWSPAPERS THIS TUESDAY, THE LAST DAY OF APRIL, RANGE FROM THE RISING PRICE OF GASOLINE TO MAKING AIR FORCE PASSENGER PLANES SAFER. EDITORIAL WRITERS ALSO COMMENT ON INDIA'S EPIC ELECTION; HINTS OF PANIC IN THE REPUBLICAN PARTY; ITALY'S ELECTION AND THE PROBLEM OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE. NOW, HERE WITH SOME QUOTES AND A CLOSER LOOK IS _____________AND TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: A PAIR OF ELECTIONS ARE DISCUSSED IN EDITORIALS TODAY, ONE UNDERWAY IN INDIA, THE WORLD'S LARGEST DEMOCRACY, THE OTHER IN ITALY, ONE OF THE WORLD'S LEAST STABLE DEMOCRACIES. "THE NEW YORK TIMES" SAYS OF THE VOTING IN INDIA:

    VOICE: "INDIA REAFFIRMS ITS FAITH IN DEMOCRACY WITH NATIONAL ELECTIONS THAT BEGAN OVER THE WEEKEND. IT IS AN OCCASION TO CELEBRATE. NO OTHER DEMOCRACY IS SO LARGE AND SO DIVERSE. DESPITE THE GOVERNMENT'S SUSPENSION OF LIBERTIES IN THE MID-1970'S, INDIA RETAINS A BELIEF THAT POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT CAN OVERCOME VIOLENCE AND FACTIONALISM. [OPT] EVERY NEW ELECTION IN INDIA IS BY DEFINITION THE BIGGEST EVER ATTEMPTED. ONE OUT OF EVERY TEN PEOPLE ON EARTH WILL BE ELIGIBLE TO CAST BALLOTS."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: "THE LOS ANGELES TIMES", ON THE OTHER HAND, EXAMINES THE ELECTION IN ITALY THAT TOOK PLACE A FEW DAYS AGO.

    VOICE: "A CENTER-LEFT COALITION WON BIG IN ITALY'S ELECTION LAST WEEK, AND THE LARGE PRESENCE OF THE FORMER COMMUNIST PARTY IN ITS RANKS IS RAISING EYEBROWS IN AMERICA. IT SHOULD NOT... IT'S ENCOURAGING TO HEAR ROMANO PRODI, THE NEXT PRIME MINISTER AND THE RESPECTED ECONOMICS PROFESSOR WHO HEADS THE COALITION, CHAMPIONING THE REFORM MOVEMENT. WHETHER [MR.] PRODI HAS THE POLITICAL SKILLS TO SUCCEED IN HIS CRUSADE IS A GREAT UNKNOWN; HIS ACADEMIC CREDENTIALS ARE NO MEASURE OF HIS ABILITY TO SURVIVE THE TREACHEROUS WATERS OF 'REALPOLITIK.'"

    TEXT: THE LEAD EDITORIAL OF TODAY'S "LOS ANGELES TIMES" FOCUSES ON THE OBJECTIONS OF SOME POLICE TO NEW LAWS THAT REQUIRE OFFICERS TO MAKE AN ARREST WHEN INVESTIGATING DOMESTIC VIOLENCE CASES.

    VOICE: "SOME OFFICERS ARGUE THAT THE LAWS HAVE TIED THEIR HANDS [TAKEN AWAY THEIR DISCRETION]. WE DISAGREE AND MAINTAIN THAT THE CHANGES ACTUALLY HAVE GIVEN INVESTIGATORS MORE DISCRETION AND A GREATER RANGE OF OPTIONS... POLICE OFFICERS WHO OPPOSE THE MANDATORY ARREST LAWS ... CONTEND THEY HAVE TO ARREST SOMEONE EVEN IF IT MIGHT BE THE WRONG PERSON. SORRY, WE'RE NOT BUYING IT... MANDATORY ARREST LAWS WERE NEVER MEANT TO MAKE THE INVESTIGATION OF DOMESTIC ABUSE CASES EASY. ENFORCEMENT CAN BE IMPROVED AND TIGHTENED TO PREVENT MISUSE, AND THAT IS EXACTLY WHAT SHOULD BE DONE."

    TEXT: MOVING TO THE PEACE-IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS IN BOSNIA, "NEWSDAY" IS CONCERNED ABOUT TALK OF A DELAY IN PULLING U-S TROOPS OUT OF THE BALKAN REGION WHEN THEIR ONE-YEAR ASSIGNMENT IS UP.

    VOICE: "PRESIDENT BILL CLINTON HAD MADE THE CORRECT -- AND POLITICALLY DIFFICULT -- DECISION BY DELAYING THE GRADUAL WITHDRAWAL OF U-S TROOPS FROM BOSNIA UNTIL WINTER AND EXTENDING THE DEADLINE FOR A FINAL PULLOUT BY AT LEAST A MONTH. THE EXTENSION MUST NOT BECOME OPEN-ENDED. [OPT] BUT IT HAS BEEN APPARENT FOR SOME THAT NATO COULD NOT MEET THE YEAR-END DEADLINE SET IN THE DAYTON PEACE PACT... THE LEAST [MR.] CLINTON COULD DO, AS HE HAS, IS TO GUARANTEE THAT THE U-S PULLOUT WILL NOT START UNTIL JUST BEFORE THE DECEMBER 20TH DEADLINE, INSTEAD OF LATE SUMMER AS ORIGINALLY PLANNED. [END OPT] ... AFTER THAT, WHETHER BOSNIA HOLDS TOGETHER MUST BECOME THE RESPONSIBILITY OF BOSNIANS, OF WHATEVER ETHNIC OR RELIGIOUS STRIPE."

    TEXT: NOW THAT A CEASEFIRE HAS BROUGHT A MEASURE OF CALM IN SOUTHERN LEBANON AND NORTHERN ISRAEL, THE "PORTLAND (MAINE) PRESS HERALD" SAYS THE LEBANESE PEOPLE ARE THE REAL LOSERS:

    VOICE: "AS THE WORLD'S ATTENTION AND ITS DIPLOMATS MOVE ON, THE LEBANESE PEOPLE ARE LEFT TO MOURN ALL THEY HAVE LOST. THE CEASE-FIRE BROKERED BY THE UNITED STATES, WHICH ENDED DEVASTATING AIR, SEA AND ARTILLERY ATTACKS, IS CAUSE FOR RELIEF, NOT CELEBRATION... SO MUCH HAS BEEN LOST AND SO LITTLE HAS BEEN CHANGED. THE CEASE-FIRE AGREEMENT, WHICH BARS ATTACKS ON CIVILIAN TARGETS, IN EFFECT ONLY RESTORED A 1993 VERBAL ACCORD. THE ENDURING MEMORY OF THIS 16-DAY WAR WILL NOT BE THE TRIUMPH OF DIPLOMACY, BUT THE TRAGEDY OF THE BODIES -- SO MANY BODIES -- WRAPPED IN GRAY BLANKETS AND SPRINKLED WITH FLOWERS."

    TEXT: HOWEVER, LOOKING AT THE SAME CIRCUMSTANCES MORE POSITIVELY, "THE ORLANDO SENTINEL" DECLARES THERE IS "NO STOPPING PEACE."

    VOICE: "[OPT] RECENT CONFLICT IN LEBANON UNDERSCORED THE MIDDLE EAST'S UNPREDICTABILITY, COMPLEXITY AND INSTABILITY. SOME PEOPLE WERE TEMPTED TO THROW UP THEIR HANDS AND RE-EMBRACE WAR AS THE PREFERRED AGENT OF CHANGE. YET, AS EVENTS FRIDAY AND DURING THE WEEKEND SHOWED, LEVEL HEADS 'CAN' MAKE A DIFFERENCE. [END OPT] ... OF COURSE, THE LEBANON CEASEFIRE REPRESENTS MERELY AN INTERMEDIATE STEP. FAR MORE IMPORTANT WOULD BE THE RESUMPTION OF PEACE TALKS BETWEEN ISRAEL AND SYRIA AND BETWEEN ISRAEL AND LEBANON. THAT'S THE KEY TO THE LIBERATION OF LEBANON AND THE DEMISE OF THE ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT."

    TEXT: TURNING AGAIN TO DOMESTIC ISSUES, "THE LOS ANGELES TIMES" SUGGESTS IT TOOK THE DEATH OF COMMERCE SECRETARY RON BROWN TO MAKE THE PENTAGON UPGRADE SAFETY EQUIPMENT ON ITS PASSENGER PLANES, INCLUDING SATELLITE NAVIGATION AIDS AND FLIGHT DATA RECORDERS.

    VOICE: "SUCH INSTRUMENTATION HAS BEEN A PART OF COMMERCIAL AVIATION FOR YEARS. SO WHY IS THE MILITARY JUST GETTING AROUND TO MAKING THE CHANGES IN ITS PASSENGER FLEET? IN PLAIN TERMS SAFETY HAS BEEN A LOW PRIORITY... ACCELERATING THE INSTALLATION OF THESE DEVICES WILL COST 335 MILLION DOLLARS OVER WHAT THE SERVICES ALREADY HAVE BUDGETED FOR UPGRADING NAVIGATION SYSTEMS IN THE NEXT THREE YEARS. BUT AS THE COMMERCIAL AIRLINE INDUSTRY HAS LEARNED, SAFETY IS WORTH IT."

    TEXT: AND FINALLY, RAPIDLY RISING GASOLINE PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES THE PAST FEW WEEKS DRAWS THIS RESPONSE FROM TODAY'S "CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR."

    VOICE: "AT THE GAS PUMPS TODAY AMERICANS ARE BEING REMINDED OF THE REASONS THEY NEED TO PAY ATTENTION TO EVENTS IN THE MIDDLE EAST. THE CURRENT SURGE IN FUEL PRICES IS NOT, OF COURSE, A PRODUCT OF EITHER A NEW GULF WAR OR A MIDEAST BOYCOTT. IT'S LARGELY A SEASONAL DEMAND SURGE. BUT THE PRICE RISE HAS STIRRED CONSUMER MEMORIES OF THE OIL CRISES OF THE 1970S. IN SO DOING, IT SHOULD REMIND DRIVERS THAT THE UNITED STATES IS GRADUALLY JOINING ITS IMPORT-DEPENDENT FRIENDS, JAPAN AND EUROPE, IN RELIANCE ON SOMETIMES-SHAKY OIL SOURCES."

    TEXT: AND ON THAT GEOPOLITICAL AND ECONOMIC NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF EDITORIALS FROM TODAY'S U-S PRESS.

    NEB/ANG/PCH
    30-Apr-96 11:27 AM EDT (1527 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [02] BOSNIA / SARAJEVO (L) BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)

    DATE=4/30/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-196509
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO COMMANDERS HAVE CALLED ON ALL PARTIES IN BOSNIA TO ENSURE THE SAFETY OF CIVILIANS FOLLOWING ATTACKS BY SERBS ON MUSLIM CIVILIANS. NATO COMMANDERS REFUSED TO CONDEMN EITHER SIDE FOR THE INCIDENTS IN WHICH AT LEAST TWO PEOPLE WERE KILLED AND DOZENS INJURED WHEN MUSLIMS TRIED TO VISIT FORMER HOMES AND CEMETERIES IN SERB AREAS. DAVID FOLEY IN SARAJEVO REPORTS NATO OFFICIALS SAY THEY ARE REVIEWING PROCEDURES TO AVOID FURTHER BLOODSHED.

    TEXT: THE NATO SPOKESMAN CALLED ON THE PARTIES TO LIVE UP TO THEIR OBLIGATIONS UNDER THE DAYTON PEACE AGREEMENT WHICH CALLS FOR THE FREE MOVEMENT OF CIVILIANS THROUGHOUT BOSNIA.

    BUSLOADS OF MUSLIMS ON A VISIT TO A CEMETERY NEAR SARAJEVO WERE ATTACKED MONDAY BY SERBS, ARMED WITH STONES AND SHOVELS. ALTHOUGH THE BUSES WERE ESCORTED BY NATO ARMORED VEHICLES, MANY MUSLIMS WERE INJURED BY BROKEN GLASS DURING THE CLASH.

    IN ANOTHER INCIDENT MONDAY IN NORTHERN BOSNIA, A GROUP OF MUSLIMS, TRYING TO AVOID A NATO CHECKPOINT AND A CROWD OF SERBS, BLUNDERED INTO A MINEFIELD. A NUMBER OF PEOPLE WERE SERIOUSLY INJURED, AND TWO PEOPLE WERE KILLED.

    THERE WERE REPORTS ONE OF THE MUSLIMS DIED WHEN SERBS ATTACKED THE GROUP WITH SMALL ARMS AND GRENADES. NATO SPOKESMAN EARLIER CONFIRMED ONE DEATH FROM GUNSHOTS, BUT NATO SPOKESMEN NOW SAY ONLY THAT THE INCIDENT IS UNDER FURTHER INVESTIGATION.

    THE INCIDENTS ARE THE LATEST IN AN INCREASINGLY VIOLENT SERIES OF CONFRONTATIONS BETWEEN THE ETHNIC GROUPS IN BOSNIA. BOSNIAN SERBS ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR ALMOST ALL THE ATTACKS. BUT BRIGADIER ANDREW CUMMING, A SENIOR NATO COMMANDER, REFUSED TO BLAME ANYONE, AND SAID IT WAS UP TO THE LOCAL AUTHORITIES TO AVOID SUCH INCIDENTS.

    /// ACT - CUMMING ///

    I AM NOT GOING TO CONDEMN ONE SIDE OR THE OTHER. I CONDEMN THE WHOLE ORGANIZATION HERE WHO ARE DUTY-BOUND TO TRY AND MAINTAIN THE DUE CARE AND PROTECTION OF THEIR PEOPLE.

    /// END ACT ///

    BRIGADIER CUMMING SAID THE CROSSING OF LARGE GROUPS OF CIVILIANS ACROSS INTER-ETHNIC LINES WAS BOUND TO BE SEEN AS THREATENING.

    /// ACT - CUMMING ///

    AFTER FOUR YEARS OF VERY BITTER WAR, THERE IS STILL AN ENORMOUS AMOUNT OF HATRED BETWEEN THE TWO ENTITIES AND INDEED PERHAPS EVEN BETWEEN THE PARTIES.

    /// END ACT ///

    NATO OFFICIALS SAY THEY ARE REVIEWING PROCEDURES AND CONSIDERING OPTIONS IN AN EFFORT TO LIMIT FURTHER VIOLENCE. BUT OFFICIALS SAY NATO WILL NOT CONSIDER ARMING TROOPS AT KEY CROSSING POINTS WITH TEAR GAS OR RUBBER BULLETS.

    UNDER THE DAYTON PEACE PLAN, THE LARGE-SCALE RETURN OF THE REFUGEES IS ESSENTIAL IF BOSNIA IS TO AVOID PERMANENT DIVISION ALONG ETHNIC LINES, AS IS NOW THE CASE.

    AID OFFICIALS ALSO WARN HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF REFUGEES MAY BE FORCED TO SPEND ANOTHER WINTER IN COLLECTIVE CENTERS, OR REMAIN IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES, IF THEY ARE NOT ALLOWED TO RETURN TO THEIR FORMER HOMES THIS SUMMER. (SIGNED)

    NEB/DF/JWH/RAE
    30-Apr-96 11:07 AM EDT (1507 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [03] BOSNIA REFUGEES BY KYLE KING (BONN)

    DATE=4/30/96
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-33150
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    // RERUNNING TO CORRECT TEXT OF LAST ACTUALITY FOR CLARITY //

    INTRO: INTER-ETHNIC CLASHES ALONG THE BOUNDARY SEPARATING THE BOSNIAN MUSLIM CROAT FEDERATION FROM SERB TERRITORY ONCE AGAIN HAVE UNDERSCORED THE DIFFICULTIES OF IMPLEMENTING THE DAYTON PEACE AGREEMENT ARRANGED FOR BOSNIA. V-O-A'S KYLE KING REPORTS FROM SANSKI MOST IT MAY TAKE A LONG TIME BEFORE REFUGEES IN BOSNIA WILL BE ABLE TO RETURN TO THEIR HOMES.

    TEXT: // ACT OF CROWD NOISE //

    THE SEVERAL HUNDRED BOSNIAN MUSLIM REFUGEES THAT GATHERED ON A ROAD LEADING TO THE SERB CONTROLLED TOWN OF PRIJEDOR SUNDAY WANTED WHAT IS SUPPOSED TO HAVE BEEN GUARANTEED BY THE DAYTON PEACE AGREEMENT: THE RIGHT OF FREE MOVEMENT INTO AREAS WHERE THEY ONCE LIVED, AND THE RIGHT TO RETURN TO THE HOMES THEY WERE FORCED TO FLEE DURING THE BLOODY THREE AND ONE HALF YEAR WAR.

    INCREASINGLY VIOLENT CLASHES ALONG THE DEMARKATION LINE SEPARATING BOSNIA'S MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION FROM THE SERB REPUBLIC HAVE UNDERSCORED HOW DIFFICULT THAT WILL BE.

    U-S UNDER SECRETARY OF STATE PETER TARNOFF SAYS HE IS DISAPPOINTED ABOUT THE PROGRESS THAT HAS BEEN ON THE REFUGEE ISSUE SO FAR.

    // TARNOFF ACT //

    FOR THE MOST PART THE RESPONSIBILITY, AS FAR AS WE CAN TELL, LIES WITH THE BOSNIAN SERBS, WHO HAVE, AS I HAVE INDICATED, BROUGHT PRESSURE ON SOME OF THE BOSNIAN SERB POPULATION TO LEAVE AREAS WHERE THEY MIGHT HAVE BEEN WILLING TO STAY AND AT THE SAME TIME DENIED ACCESS OR TRIED TO FRUSTRATE ACCESS BY MUSLIM OR CROAT POPULATIONS TO RETURN. IT IS OBVIOUSLY AN ISSUE OF GREAT CONCERN AND NO WE ARE NOT SATISFIED WITH WHAT HAS HAPPENED UP TO THIS POINT.

    // END ACT //

    OUTSIDE OF PRIJEDOR, WHERE NATO TROOPS SKILLFULLY MANAGED TO PREVENT ANY SERIOUS CONFRONTATION THIS WEEK THE LOCAL COMMANDER OF THE INTERNATIONAL POLICE, CAPTAIN MARK NORWOOD SAYS ITS DIFFICULT TO PREDICT WHEN COMPLETE FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT FOR CIVILIANS WILL BECOME A REALITY.

    // NORWOOD ACT //

    THAT QUESTION IS ALMOST IMPOSSIBLE TO ANSWER AT THIS TIME, AGAIN I HAVE TO REITERATE THAT PEOPLE ON BOTH SIDES WORK DAY AND NIGHT TO MAKE VISITS HAPPEN. ITS GOING TO HAVE TO START WITH A SMALL SCALE AND WORK ITS WAY UP.

    // END ACT //

    DURING THE WAR MORE THAN 50 THOUSAND MUSLIMS WERE DRIVEN FROM THEIR HOMES IN AND AROUND PRIJEDOR, WHICH WAS THE SITE OF SERB RUN CONCENTRATION CAMPS.

    MORE THAN 11-THOUSAND MUSLIMS FROM THE REGION ARE STILL MISSING AND PRESUMED DEAD. OTHERS, WHO ARE LIVING AROUND BIHAC AND SANSKI MOST, OR AS FAR AWAY AS GERMANY, ARE HOPING TO RETURN.

    SPEAKING THROUGH AN INTERPRETER, THE FORMER MAYOR OF PRIJEDOR, SEAD CHERKIN, ACKNOWLEDGES THAT WILL PROBABLY TAKE TIME.

    // CHERKIN ACT //

    THERE IS NEED FOR SOME TIME TO PASS TO COME BACK TO PRIJEDOR AND FOR THE WAR CRIMINALS THAT ARE STILL IN PRIJEDOR'S POLITICAL ESTABLISHMENT TO BE GONE FROM POWER IN ORDER FOR US TO COME BACK.

    // END ACT //

    BUT LIVING THERE WILL NOT BE EASY. ONE YOUNG GIRL FROM AN ETHNICALLY MIXED FAMILY THAT HAS REMAINED IN THE SERB CONTROLLED CITY, SAYS LIFE THERE HAS BEEN DIFFICULT.

    // TEENAGER ACT //

    WE HAD A FEW PROBLEMS BECAUSE THAT IS THE SERBIAN SIDE, AND MY FATHER IS CATHOLIC, AND WE GET REALLY MUCH THREATENED DURING NIGHTS. ALMOST EVERY NIGHT THEY CALL AND THREATEN HOW THEY WILL KILL US AND CUT OUR NECKS OR SOMETHING REALLY FUNNY (ODD). ONCE WE GET A BOMB IN FRONT OF OUR HOME IN MIDDLE OF THE NIGHT, SO SOME NEIGHBOR THROW THE BOMB. PROBABLY THEY WANT TO KICK US OUT BECAUSE THE HOME IS BEAUTIFUL AND NOW PEOPLE DON'T SO MUCH CARE ABOUT TO BE HUMAN.

    // END ACT //

    THE GIRL, WHO ASKED NOT TO BE NAMED, SAYS SO MUCH HAS HAPPENED DURING THE WAR IT IS DIFFICULT TO KNOW IF PEOPLE WILL EVER BE ABLE TO LIVE TOGETHER AGAIN.

    RELIEF WORKERS SAY THEY ARE CONCERNED THAT MANY OF THE MORE THAN ONE MILLION OR SO DISPLACED PEOPLE INSIDE BOSNIA WILL HAVE TO CONTINUE LIVING IN CAMPS AND MAKESHIFT HOUSING, UNTIL A SOLUTION CAN BE FOUND. (SIGNED)

    NEB/KBK/MH/CF
    30-Apr-96 3:54 PM EDT (1954 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [04] BOSNIA SITREP (S-O CORRECTED) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

    DATE=4/30/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-196508
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    /////

    DELETES SECOND SENTENCE IN TEXT GRAF 5 OF CR-2-196507.

    /////

    INTRO: ANOTHER INCIDENT IS REPORTED BETWEEN BOSNIAN MUSLIMS, WHO WANT TO VISIT THEIR FORMER HOMES IN SERB TERRITORY, AND SERBS DETERMINED TO STOP THEM. BUT, V-O-A CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT WAYNE COREY REPORTS HUNDREDS OF MUSLIMS ARE SAID TO HAVE BEEN ABLE ENTER SERB TERRITORY.

    TEXT: HUNDREDS OF SERB CIVILIANS, ARMED WITH GUNS, CLUBS AND STONES, ARE SAID TO BE INVOLVED IN A TENSE AND POTENTIALLY VIOLENT CONFRONTATION WITH MUSLIMS.

    THE MUSLIMS WANT TO ENTER A SERB-HELD TOWN (KORAJ) TO VISIT FAMILY GRAVES OR THEIR FORMER HOMES.

    RUSSIAN TANKS OF THE INTERNATIONAL PEACE FORCE IN BOSNIA WERE BLOCKING TWO ROADS. THE RUSSIAN COMMANDER ON THE SCENE WAS PREVENTING ANYONE FROM ENTERING THE AREA THAT SEPARATES THE MUSLIM AND SERB CIVILIANS.

    IN OTHER AREAS OF NORTHERN BOSNIA, MUSLIMS ARE SAID TO HAVE BEEN ABLE TO ENTER SERB TERRITORY, A DAY AFTER THE WORST VIOLENCE YET AS MUSLIMS TEST THEIR FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT.

    A NUMBER OF PEOPLE WERE KILLED OR INJURED IN SEPARATE INCIDENTS ON MONDAY WHEN MUSLIM AND SERB CIVILIANS CONFRONTED EACH OTHER.

    FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT FOR MUSLIMS, SERBS AND CROATS IS A KEY PROVISION OF THE BOSNIAN PEACE AGREEMENT. BUT NATO OFFICIALS IN SARAJEVO SAY IT IS TOO SOON FOR THAT PROVISION TO BE FULLY IMPLEMENTED. (SIGNED)

    NEB/WC/JWH/GPT/RAE
    30-Apr-96 10:35 AM EDT (1435 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [05] CROATIA/PEACEKEEPERS (L ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

    DATE=4/30/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-196520
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: A NEW INTERNATIONAL PEACE-KEEPING FORCE IS TO BE FULLY DEPLOYED IN CROATIA WITHIN A WEEK. THE FORCE WILL OPERATE IN SERB-HELD EASTERN SLAVONIA UNTIL THAT REGION REVERTS TO CROATIAN GOVERNMENT CONTROL WITHIN TWO YEARS. V-O-A'S CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT, WAYNE COREY, REPORTS.

    TEXT: FIVE-THOUSAND U-N PEACE-KEEPERS ARE BEING SENT TO EASTERN SLAVONIA, THE ONLY REMAINING SERB-HELD TERRITORY IN CROATIA.

    THE PEACE-KEEPERS ARE TO BE FULLY DEPLOYED WITHIN A WEEK. AS PART OF THEIR WORK, THEY WILL PROVIDE SECURITY FOR THE RETURN OF ABOUT 100-THOUSAND ETHNIC CROATS.

    THE CROATS WERE FORCED FROM THEIR HOMES IN EASTERN SLAVONIA WHEN CROATIA DECLARED ITS INDEPENDENCE AND WAS ATTACKED BY THE YUGOSLAV ARMY AND REBEL SERBS IN 1991.

    CROATS WILL INITIALLY, BE ALLOWED TO RETURN TO THREE EMPTY TOWNS ALONG THE BORDER BETWEEN CROATIA AND YUGOSLAVIA. SERB OFFICIALS INSIST SERBS MUST NOT HAVE TO GIVE UP THEIR HOMES WITHOUT ALTERNATE HOUSING OR FINANCIAL COMPENSATION.

    EVEN BEFORE THE NEW PEACE-KEEPING FORCE IS AT FULL STRENGTH, A U-N SPOKESMAN SAYS THERE HAVE BEEN SOME RECENT, POSITIVE DEVELOPMENTS IN THE PEACE PROCESS IN CROATIA.

    HE SAYS THERE HAVE BEEN FAMILY REUNIONS AND TELEPHONE LINKS HAVE BEEN RE-ESTABLISHED BETWEEN EASTERN SLAVONIA AND THE REST OF CROATIA.

    THE IMPOVERISHED TERRITORY IS TO REVERT TO GOVERNMENT RULE WITHIN ONE OR TWO YEARS. IF THE TRANSITION PROCESS COLLAPSES, THE GOVERNMENT HAS WARNED IT WOULD RETAKE EASTERN SLAVONIA BY FORCE.

    THE PRESENCE OF U-N PEACE-KEEPERS IN CROATIA LAST YEAR DID NOT PREVENT THE CROATIAN ARMY FROM RECAPTURING OTHER SERB-HELD TERRITORY IN LIGHTNING OFFENSIVES. BUT, THE SITUATION IN CROATIA IS MORE STABLE AND LESS COMPLICATED THAN THE SITUATION IN NEIGHBORING BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. EXTREME HARDLINERS NO LONGER CONTROL THE REBEL CROATIAN SERBS.

    AT THE SAME TIME, CROATIA AND YUGOSLAVIA ARE MOVING, HOWEVER SLOWLY, TOWARD NORMAL RELATIONS. THE HIGHWAY BETWEEN ZAGREB AND BELGRADE THAT WAS CUT EARLY IN THE WAR IN THE BALKANS IS EXPECTED TO FINALLY RE-OPEN NEXT WEEK. (SIGNED)

    NEB/WC/MH/RAE
    30-Apr-96 12:50 PM EDT (1650 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [06] E-U / BEEF (L-ONLY) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=4/30/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-196530
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: EUROPEAN UNION AGRICULTURE MINISTERS HAVE COMPLETED YET ANOTHER MARATHON MEETING IN LUXEMBOURG, TO DISCUSS THE EXPORT BAN ON BRITISH BEEF. AT THE END OF TALKS TUESDAY, THERE WAS NO IMMEDIATE PROGRESS TOWARD THE BAN BEING LIFTED -- BUT THERE IS NOW AN EXPECTATION THAT THERE COULD BE MOVEMENT NEXT WEEK. JOHN FRASER REPORTS FOR V-O-A FROM LUXEMBOURG.

    TEXT: BRITISH AGRICULTURE MINISTER DOUGLAS HOGG ARRIVED IN LUXEMBOURG WITH A NEW OFFER FOR HIS EUROPEAN COLLEAGUES.

    IN ADDITION TO ALL THE EXISTING MEASURES TO TACKLE THE CRISIS OVER THE MAD COW DISEASE B-S-E, BRITAIN IS OFFERING THE SLAUGHTER OR QUARANTINE OF A FURTHER 42-THOUSAND HEAD OF CATTLE.

    THESE ANIMALS WILL COME FROM THOSE HERDS MOST AT RISK FROM THE MAD COW DISEASE, B-S-E.

    THE BRITISH PLAN WAS WELCOMED BY THE OTHER EUROPEAN UNION FARM MINISTERS AS A STEP -- BUT JUST A STEP -- IN THE RIGHT DIRECTION.

    THE OTHER 14 MINISTERS CALLED FOR MORE AMBITIOUS SLAUGHTER PLANS FROM BRITAIN, AND THIS WILL NOW BE DISCUSSED FURTHER. HOWEVER, THE BRITISH DO APPEAR TO BE MAKING SOME PROGRESS TOWARD THE FIRST EASING OF THE EXPORT RESTRICTIONS.

    SENIOR EUROPEAN VETERINARIANS MEET NEXT WEEK, WHEN THEY ARE EXPECTED TO END THE EXPORT BAN ON BULL SEMEN AND ON FOODS CONTAINING GELATIN AND A FAT TALLOW, WHICH ARE BOTH MADE FROM BEEF.

    MR. HOGG CLAIMS THAT, AT LAST, PROGRESS IS IN SIGHT, AND HE ADDS THAT HE NEVER EXPECTED ANYTHING REMARKABLE FROM THIS EUROPEAN UNION MEETING.

    // HOGG ACT //

    I THINK THAT YOU CAN HONESTLY SAY WE HAVE PUT IN PLACE A PROCESS WHICH IS CAPABLE OF BRINGING ABOUT THE LIFTING OF THE BAN. BUT, HAVING SAID THAT, I ACKNOWLEDGE AND RECOGNIZE THAT THERE IS A GREAT DEAL MORE DISCUSSION, CONSULTATION, AND THINGS TO DO. TO SAY OTHERWISE WOULD BE TO AROUSE FALSE EXPECTATIONS.

    // END ACT //

    BRITAIN IS HOPEFUL THAT MOVEMENT IS IN SIGHT. IF NOT, EUROPEAN UNION OFFICIALS SAY THERE IS A STRONG DANGER THAT THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT WILL TAKE THE ISSUE TO THE EUROPEAN COURT -- OR EVEN IMPOSE RETALIATORY MEASURES AGAINST THE EUROPEAN EXPORT BAN ON BEEF.

    THE BRITISH ACCEPT THAT PROGRESS IN LIFTING THE BAN MAY BE SLOW BUT PROGRESS THEY MUST HAVE. (SIGNED)

    NEB / JF / BD-T / SKH
    30-Apr-96 4:01 PM EDT (2001 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [07] EGYPT/CHURCHES (L ONLY) BY JESSICA JONES (ZAGAZIG/EGYPT)

    DATE=4/30/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-196517
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: TWENTY-YEARS AGO, ABOUT 100 CHURCHES IN EGYPT WERE EMPTY. GREEK ORTHODOX, ARMENIAN, AND ROMAN CATHOLIC PRIESTS BEGAN TO PACK THEIR BAGS, PADLOCK THEIR DOORS AND HEAD FOR CITIES WHERE THEY HAD CONGREGATIONS. BUT NOW EGYPTIAN CHRISTIANS ARE GIVING THOSE ABANDONED CHURCHES A NEW LIFE. JESSICA JONES REPORTS FROM ZAGAZIG EAST OF CAIRO THE COPTIC ORTHODOX CHURCH HAS BOUGHT MANY OF THE BUILDINGS, AND AS MANY AS 50 MORE ARE UP FOR SALE.

    TEXT: /// MUSIC FROM MASS AND FADE ///

    EGYPTIAN COPTIC CHRISTIANS IN THE TOWN OF ZAGAZIG HAVE BEEN PRAYING AT THE CHURCH OF SAINT MARY FOR ALMOST NINE MONTHS. LAST JULY, THEY SPENT MOST OF THE FIRST DAY BREAKING THE RUSTY PADLOCKS FROM THE GATES AND DOORS OF THE ABANDONED CHURCH. THE NEXT DAY THEY SANG THEIR FIRST MASS INSIDE.

    /// ARABIC AND FADE ///

    A MEMBER OF THE CONGREGATION, SUHEIR SOBRY, REMEMBERS THERE WERE WEEDS AND UNDERGROWTH EVERYWHERE. IT WAS PRACTICALLY A FOREST, SHE SAYS, AND THERE WERE SNAKES AND BATS -- IT WAS REALLY TERRIBLE, SHE SHUDDERS AT THE THOUGHT. THE CHURCH HAD BEEN CLOSED FOR A LONG TIME.

    THE CHURCH WAS ORIGINALLY GREEK ORTHODOX. IT WAS BUILT IN 1925 FOR THE GREEK COMMUNITY IN EGYPT. SEVERAL-HUNDRED-THOUSAND GREEKS LIVED IN EGYPT BEFORE THE 1950'S, BUT MANY LEFT AFTER THEN-PRESIDENT GAMAL ABDEL NASSER NATIONALIZED THE SUEZ CANAL -- AND FOREIGN PROPERTY IN EGYPT.

    OTHERS ALSO LEFT -- ITALIANS, ARMENIANS, FRENCH, MALTESE, AND BRITISH PACKED THEIR BAGS AND PADLOCKED THEIR CHURCHES BEHIND THEM. THE CHURCHES REMAINED ABANDONED AND EMPTY FOR DECADES. BUT 15-YEARS AGO, THE EGYPTIAN COPTIC ORTHODOX CHURCH BEGAN BUYING THE EMPTY BUILDINGS FOR THE GROWING CHRISTIAN POPULATION. THE CHURCH HAS QUIETLY BOUGHT ALMOST 30 OF THE ABANDONED BUILDINGS, AND LOCAL PRIESTS HOPE THE TREND WILL CONTINUE. ABOUT EIGHT-MILLION CHRISTIANS LIVE IN EGYPT, MOST OF THEM COPTIC ORTHODOX.

    IT WAS PRESIDENT ANWAR SADAT WHO REVIVED OLD LAWS THAT RESTRICTED CHRISTIANS FROM BUILDING THEIR CHURCHES. TODAY'S COPTS CAN BUILD ONLY WITH SPECIAL GOVERNMENT PERMISSION. BISHOP THOMAS, FROM SOUTHERN EGYPT, SAYS THIS RESTRICTS THE CHURCH'S OPTIONS.

    /// THOMAS ACT //

    FOR THE COPTS, OF COURSE, IT IS HURTING THAT THEY ARE NOT ALLOWED TO BUILD NEW CHURCHES AT THEIR NEEDS AND ALSO NOT ALLOWED TO REPAIR THE CHURCHES. OF COURSE IT IS NOT FAIR TO SAY THEY ARE NOT ALLOWED, BUT IT HAS TO BE THROUGH THE PRESIDENT HIMSELF. AND TO GET TO THE PRESIDENT IT IS SOMETHING AND FOR A SMALL VILLAGE IN UPPER EGYPT HOW TO GET A PERMISSION FROM THE PRESIDENT -- IT TAKES A LONG TIME.

    /// END ACT ///

    BUT THE LAWS DO NOT PREVENT THE COPTS FROM BUYING ABANDONED CHURCHES FROM FOREIGN COMMUNITIES. RELIGIOUS OFFICIALS SAY THEY ARE ESPECIALLY HAPPY TO BUY GREEK ORTHODOX AND ARMENIAN CHURCHES.

    /// ARABIC AND FADE ///

    THE PRIEST OF THE RESTORED CHURCH IN ZAGAZIG, FATHER ANTONIUS, SAYS HE IS THANKFUL GREEK CHURCHES ARE SO MUCH LIKE COPTIC ORTHODOX ONES. HE DID NOT HAVE TO MAKE ANY MAJOR CHANGES TO THIS CHURCH. THE ALTAR FACES EAST, JUST LIKE THE COPTIC ORTHODOX.

    /// BEGIN OPT ///

    FATHER ANTONIUS SAYS HE ONLY HAD TO REARRANGE THE PEWS TO PREPARE FOR COPTIC SERVICES. /// END OPT ///

    FOREIGN COMMUNITIES ARE SELLING THEIR CHURCHES TO EGYPTIAN CHRISTIANS. THE THOUGHT AN EMPTY CHURCH COULD BE TURNED INTO SOMETHING ELSE DISTURBS BISHOP THOMAS.

    /// THOMAS ACT ///

    AS I REMEMBER THERE WAS ONE PARTICULAR CHURCH IN DEIROUT WHICH HAS BEEN USED BY THE GOVERNMENT AS A PLACE TO STORE THE COTTON, WHICH WAS A HURT FOR THE CHRISTIANS. THEY WERE NOT ALLOWED TO TAKE IT.

    /// END ACT ///

    IN SMALL TOWNS, LOCAL AUTHORITIES SOMETIMES PREVENT PRIESTS FROM REMODELING OR FIXING THEIR CHURCHES. THEY SAY IT CONTRADICTS BUILDING CODES.

    /// BEGIN OPT ///

    COPTIC WRITER MILAD HANNA SAYS WHY NOT CHANGE THE LAWS.

    /// OPT HANNA ACT ///

    THE COPTS HAVE THE RIGHT TO BUILD THEIR OWN CHURCHES. WHY SHOULD WE FIDDLE WITH THE LAW TO BUY A PRESBYTERIAN OR ARMENIAN CHURCH AND THEN CONVERT IT TO ORTHODOX.

    /// END ACT // END OPT//

    UNTIL THE LAWS ARE CHANGED, EGYPT'S COPTS WILL CONTINUE TO BUY RATHER THAN BUILD -- AND GIVE OLD CHURCHES A NEW LIFE. /// MUSIC AND FADE /// (SIGNED)

    NEB/JJ/LK/MH/RAE 30-Apr-96 12:37 PM EDT (1637 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [08] SLOVAKIA / NATO BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)

    DATE=4/30/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-196514
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO SECRETARY GENERAL JAVIER SOLANA SPENT PART OF TUESDAY IN BRATISLAVA WHERE HE TOLD SLOVAK LEADERS THEIR COUNTRY HAS NOT BEEN EXCLUDED FROM THE POSSIBILITY OF JOINING NATO. V-O-A'S BARRY WOOD REPORTS.

    TEXT: MR. SOLANA MET SEPARATELY WITH SLOVAK PRESIDENT MICHAL KOVAC AND PRIME MINISTER VLADIMIR MECIAR. THE NATO SECRETARY GENERAL STRESSED DESPITE PROBLEMS OVER DEMOCRACY, MINORITY RIGHTS, AND POLITICAL FREEDOM, NATO MEMBERSHIP FOR SLOVAKIA HAS NOT BEEN RULED OUT. BUT, MR. SOLANA CALLED FOR SLOVAKIA TO DEMONSTRATE ITS COMMITMENT TO DEMOCRACY. HE WARNED COUNTRIES WITHOUT STABLE DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTIONS WILL HAVE DIFFICULTY MEETING NATO'S MEMBERSHIP CRITERIA. MR. SOLANA SAID NATO APPLICANTS MUST HAVE DEMOCRATIC SYSTEMS, A GOOD RECORD ON MINORITY RIGHTS, A MARKET ECONOMY, AND GOOD RELATIONS WITH NEIGHBORING COUNTRIES.

    THE FORMER SPANISH DIPLOMAT SAID AGAIN IT IS TOO EARLY TO SAY WHICH FORMER EAST BLOC COUNTRIES WILL BE THE FIRST TO JOIN NATO AND WHEN.

    THERE IS WORRY IN BRATISLAVA RECURRENT PROBLEMS ABOUT HUMAN RIGHTS AND PROTECTION FOR THE HUNGARIAN MINORITY HAVE CAUSED SLOVAKIA TO DROP BACK FROM THE FIRST GROUP OF COUNTRIES LIKELY TO JOIN NATO. FAST REFORMING POLAND, HUNGARY, AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC ARE THE TOP CANDIDATES FOR JOINING THE WESTERN ALLIANCE.

    AFTER HIS MEETING WITH MR. SOLANA, PRIME MINISTER MECIAR SAID SLOVAKIA IS NOT LAGGING BEHIND OTHERS IN PREPARING FOR NATO MEMBERSHIP. HE REITERATED BRATISLAVA'S DESIRE TO JOIN NATO.

    PRESIDENT KOVAC, A POLITICAL RIVAL OF THE PRIME MINISTER, CALLED ON NATO TO PUBLICLY STATE THE CONDITIONS FOR MEMBERSHIP AND ITS ASSESSMENT OF SLOVAKIA'S COMPLIANCE WITH THEM.

    ALSO IN BRATISLAVA WAS FORMER ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE RICHARD HOLBROOKE, WHO LED THE BOSNIAN PEACE NEGOTIATIONS IN DAYTON, OHIO. NOW AN INVESTMENT BANKER, MR. HOLBROOKE MET WITH PRIME MINISTER MECIAR AND FOREIGN MINISTER JURAJ CHENK.

    MR. HOLBROOKE SAID SLOVAK RATIFICATION OF THE FRIENDSHIP TREATY WITH HUNGARY IS A PRE-CONDITION FOR NEGOTIATIONS ON NATO MEMBERSHIP. HE SAID SLOVAKIA IS MAKING PROGRESS IN PREPARING FOR NATO NEGOTIATIONS. HE SAID MR. MECIAR IS SEEKING EARLY RATIFICATION OF THE HUNGARIAN TREATY THAT WAS APPROVED WITH CONTROVERSIAL AMENDMENTS BY THE SLOVAK PARLIAMENT IN MARCH. MR. HOLBROOKE SAID MR. MECIAR IS SEEKING AN EARLY MEETING WITH THE HUNGARIAN PRIME MINISTER. (SIGNED)

    NEB/BDW/JWH/RAE
    30-Apr-96 11:44 AM EDT (1544 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

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