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Voice of America, 1 May 1996

Voice of America Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] WEDNESDAY'S BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [02] BOSNIA/SARAJEVO (L ONLY) BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)
  • [03] BOSNIA / REFUGEES BY KYLE KING (BONN)
  • [04] BOSNIA SITREP (S ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)
  • [05] CROATIA/SERBS (L ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)
  • [06] NATO EXPANSION (L ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)
  • [07] SARAJEVO: VOICES OF THE SIEGE (L) BY CAROL PEARSON (WASHINGTON)
  • [08] U-S / BOSNIA (S ONLY) BY VICTOR BEATTIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [09] YUGOSLAVIA / KOSOVO (L ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

  • [01] WEDNESDAY'S BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=05/01/96
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09554
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-S-T ON WEDNESDAY, MAY 1ST //

    INTRO: THE RISING PRICE OF GASOLINE ACROSS THE UNITED STATES, AND THE PRESUMED DROWNING DEATH OF FORMER C-I-A CHIEF WILLIAM COLBY ARE THE MOST COMMON EDITORIAL TOPICS IN THE U-S PRESS THIS MAY DAY. OTHER SUBJECTS UNDER DISCUSSION INCLUDE: THE MIDDLE EAST AT A TURNING POINT AND THE UPCOMING RUSSIAN ELECTIONS. NOW, FOR A CLOSER LOOK AND SOME EXCERPTS, HERE IS _____________________ WITH TODAY'S U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: THE NATION'S THREE MOST INFLUENTIAL NEWSPAPERS, "THE NEW YORK TIMES," "THE LOS ANGELES TIMES" AND "THE WASHINGTON POST" ARE ALL LEADING THEIR EDITORIAL COLUMNS WITH COMMENTS ON THE SHARP RISE U-S GASOLINE IN RECENT MONTHS. SINCE EARLY FEBRUARY, THE AVERAGE PRICE OF GASOLINE ACROSS THE COUNTRY HAS RISEN 12-POINT-FOUR PERCENT. [OPT] TODAY, ONE LITER OF UNLEADED REGULAR OCTANE FUEL COST AN AVERAGE OF 33-CENTS. [END OPT] REPUBLICAN SENATOR BOB DOLE HAS CALLED ON PRESIDENT CLINTON TO RESCIND THE FOUR-POINT-THREE CENTS-PER GALLON (3.75 LITERS) FEDERAL GASOLINE TAX ENACTED IN 1993. THE PRESIDENT RESPONDED TO THE SPIRALING FUELPRICES BY SELLING 12-MILLION BARRELS OF CRUDE OIL FROM THE NATION'S STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVES. ALL THIS POLITICAL MANEUVERING AND THE PUBLIC'S ANGER HAVE PLACED THE ISSUE FRONT AND CENTER ON THE EDITORIAL PAGES. "THE LOS ANGELES TIMES" CRITICIZES THE PRESIDENT'S MOVE, SAYING IT WILL HAVE LITTLE IMPACT:

    VOICE: "THE MOST NOTABLE FEATURE OF THIS ACTION IS ITS IRRELEVANCE. THE OIL TO BE SOLD IS EQUIVALENT TO LESS THAN THREE-FOURTHS OF A SINGLE DAY'S TOTAL (U-S) DEMAND. RELEASED OVER THREE OR FOUR WEEKS, IT WOULD HAVE A BARELY MEASURABLE IMPACT ON GASOLINE SUPPLIES... IN THE MAIN, MARKET FORCES SEEM TO BE THE BIG REASON FOR THE HIGHER PRICES, AND BEFORE TOO LONG THOSE SAME FORCES WILL PROBABLY PUSH PRICES DOWN. PENDING THAT, THERE'S NO NEED TO TAP INTO THE STRATEGIC RESERVE, OR TO CUT NEEDED GASOLINE TAXES."

    TEXT: "THE NEW YORK TIMES" IS NOT HAPPY WITH EITHER RESPONSE FROM THE TWO POLITICAL LEADERS TO THE GAS PRICE ESCALATION.

    VOICE: "BOB DOLE'S PITCH [SUGGESTION] FOR LOWER GASOLINE TAXES AND BILL CLINTON'S PLANNED SALE OF OIL FROM THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE ARE GRANDSTANDING [ATTENTION GETTING] POLITICAL GESTURES. THEY AIM TO PLEASE ANY MOTORIST NAIVE ENOUGH TO THINK THAT EITHER ACTION IS AN EFFECTIVE OR INTELLIGENT RESPONSE TO THE CURRENT RISE IN PRICES AT THE GAS PUMP... POLITICIANS MAY THINK THEY HAVE A POLITICAL WINNER [A POPULAR THEME] IN RAILING [CRITICIZING] AT THE RISING PRICE OF MOTORING, BUT THAT INCREASE SHOULD BE A SIGNAL INSTEAD FOR A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW OF ENERGY POLICY."

    TEXT: "THE WASHINGTON POST" AGREES.

    VOICE: "IN 1993, AS PART OF HIS FIRST BUDGET, PRESIDENT CLINTON RIGHTLY PROPOSED AN INCREASE IN THE FEDERAL GASOLINE TAX TO HELP REDUCE THE DEFICIT AND ENCOURAGE ENERGY CONSERVATION, BOTH AT THE SAME TIME. IF ANYTHING, THE INCREASE WAS TOO SMALL TO ACCOMPLISH EITHER PURPOSE... NOW, HOWEVER, GASOLINE PRICES ARE TEMPORARILY UP A LITTLE, HAVING BEEN STABLE FOR MOST OF THE PAST TEN YEARS, AND THE REPUBLICANS ... ARE CALLING FOR REPEAL OF THE TAX INCREASE, WHICH WAS ONE-POINT-13-CENTS PER LITER [4.3 CENTS A GALLON]. AND WHAT IS THE ADMINISTRATION'S RESPONSE TO THAT? IT'S ABOUT AS STOUT AS YOU HAVE LIKELY COME TO EXPECT. THE ADMINISTRATION, TOO, IS 'PREPARED TO DISCUSS' REPEAL... THOUGH ONLY OF COURSE IN THE CONTEXT OF BROADER BUDGET TALKS. SO IT GOES IN AN ELECTION YEAR."

    TEXT: TURNING TO THE OTHER DOMINANT TOPIC IN WEDNESDAY'S EDITORIALS, THE PRESUMED DROWNING DEATH OF FORMER C-I-A DIRECTOR WILLIAM COLBY, "THE MIAMI HERALD" SAYS OF MR. COLBY: "HE RAN THE C-I-A IN ITS BEST, AND WORST, OF TIMES", ADDING:

    VOICE: "IT WAS A DEMISE WORTHY OF A MASTER SPY AND SPY MASTER ... THE EMPTY CANOE FLOATING OFF THE FAMILY DOCK, THE HOUSEHOLD COMPUTER STILL ON, DINNER DISHES NOT YET WASHED. WILLIAM COLBY, 76, ONE OF THE FEW CAREER INTELLIGENCE OFFICERS TO HEAD THE CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY, EVIDENTLY DROWNED WHILE CANOEING AT HIS WEEKEND HOME IN MARYLAND. AUTHORITIES THERE DISCOUNT FOUL PLAY... AS RICHARD NIXON'S C-I-A DIRECTOR, MR. COLBY BECAME A LEADING INTERNAL PROPONENT OF REFORM. HE TESTIFIED TO CONGRESS ABOUT PAST ABUSES, DOMESTIC SPYING, AND INTERFERENCE WITH FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS. SO OPEN WAS HE THAT PRESIDENT FORD FIRED HIM. HE SPENT THE REMAINDER OF HIS LIFE PRACTICING LAW AND AS A SOURCE OF PRAGMATIC VIEWS ABOUT THE SPY BUSINESS."

    TEXT: "THE LOS ANGELES TIMES" SAYS OF THE FORMER C-I-A CHIEF:

    VOICE: "WILLIAM ... COLBY ... ESTABLISHED A STRONG LEGACY AS ONE WHO THROUGH GREATER OPENNESS HELPED SAVE THE C-I-A FROM SELF-DESTRUCTION... IN BECOMING THE FIRST INTELLIGENCE CHIEF TO TESTIFY PUBLICLY BEFORE A COMMITTEE ON CAPITOL HILL, HE PRESENTED A PRAISEWORTHY MODEL OF FULLER ACCOUNTABILITY."

    TEXT: AND FLORIDA'S "ORLANDO SENTINEL" OFFERS THIS BRIEF ASSESSMENT OF MR. COLBY'S CAREER:

    VOICE: "ONE OF AMERICA'S SHADOW WARRIORS, AN OUT-OF-THE-LIMELIGHT HERO, APPARENTLY HAS PASSED ON AS HE LIVED -- ALONE AND OUT OF THE LIMELIGHT."

    TEXT: TODAY'S "BOSTON GLOBE" COMMENTS ON THE MIDEAST PEACE PROCESS AND WONDERS WHETHER "A TURNING POINT" HAS BEEN REACHED WITH ANTI-ISRAEL VIEWS REMOVED FROM THE PALESTINE NATIONAL COUNCIL CHARTER:

    VOICE: "... SLOWLY, AND ONE HOPES IRREVOCABLY, ATTITUDES ON BOTH SIDES ARE CHANGING DESPITE THE SETBACKS. IT IS GETTING HARDER FOR REJECTIONISTS TO PERSUADE PALESTINIANS THAT THE PEACE WITH ISRAEL IS WRONG AND HARDER FOR ISRAELI BITTER-ENDERS TO MAINTAIN THAT ALL THE PALESTINIANS SAY AND DO IN THE SPIRIT OF COMPROMISE IS DECEPTION."

    TEXT: AND LASTLY, COMMENTING ON THE SCHEDULED JUNE ELECTIONS IN RUSSIA, "THE NEW YORK TIMES" DESCRIBES AN "ODD COUPLE" PRESIDENTIAL ALLIANCE OPPOSING BORIS YELTSIN.

    VOICE: "AS FUSION POLITICS GOES, THE PUTATIVE ALLIANCE BETWEEN THE RUSSIAN PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATES GRIGORY YAVLINSKY AND ALEKSANDR LEBED MAY BE IN A CLASS BY ITSELF... MR. YAVLINSKY IS AN AMERICAN-EDUCATED ECONOMIST WHO WANTS TO KEEP RUSSIA ON THE PATH OF DEMOCRATIC REFORM, WHILE MR. LEBED IS A RECENTLY RETIRED ARMY GENERAL WHO HAS PROMISED TO RESTORE ORDER IN RUSSIA AND MAKE IT A GREAT POWER AGAIN. THE ONLY THING HARDER TO IMAGINE THAN THESE TWO MEN CAMPAIGNING TOGETHER IS THEIR RUNNING RUSSIA TOGETHER... FOR MR. YAVLINSKY, THE PRESERVATION OF REFORM OUGHT TO BE MORE IMPORTANT THAN POLITICAL AMBITION... [HE] SHOULD NOT BE CONSORTING WITH THE ENEMIES OF REFORM."

    TEXT: AND WITH THAT BIT OF ADVICE FOR THE BODY POLITIC OF RUSSIA, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF SOME EDITORIALS FROM TODAY'S U-S NEWSPAPERS.
    NEB/ANG/PCH
    01-May-96 11:20 AM EDT (1520 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [02] BOSNIA/SARAJEVO (L ONLY) BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)

    DATE=5/1/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-196573
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT AND SERB LEADERS HAVE SO FAR FAILED TO REACH AGREEMENT DURING NEGOTIATIONS TO RESOLVE THE LATEST CRISIS OVER THE FREE MOVEMENT OF CIVILIANS. DESPITE STRONG PRESSURE FROM INTERNATIONAL MEDIATORS, THE BOSNIAN SERBS HAVE YET TO AGREE TO PROPOSED GUIDELINES FOR VISITS BY REFUGEES TO THEIR FORMER HOMES. DAVID FOLEY REPORTS FROM SARAJEVO.

    TEXT: THE BOSNIAN PRIME MINISTER, HASAN MURATOVIC, AND THE LEADER OF THE BOSNIAN SERB PARLIAMENT, MOMCILO KRAJSNIK, MET AT SARAJEVO'S AIRPORT ON TUESDAY IN AN EFFORT TO AGREE ON PROPOSED GUIDELINES FOR FUTURE VISITS OF REFUGEES ACROSS ETHNIC BOUNDARY LINES IN BOSNIA. THE MEETING WAS CHAIRED BY CARL BILDT, THE SENIOR INTERNATIONAL MEDIATOR IN BOSNIA, WHO APPLIED STRONG PRESSURE ON THE SIDES, BUT SO FAR THE BOSNIAN SERBS ARE REFUSING TO ACCEPT THE PLAN. A SPOKESMAN FOR MR. BILDT SAYS THE SERBS ARE CLOSE TO AGREEMENT, BUT AS IS OFTEN THE CASE IN BOSNIA, LAST MINUTE HITCHES CAUSED DELAYS.

    THE MEETING COMES IN RESPONSE TO A CLASH BETWEEN GROUPS OF SERB AND MUSLIMS CIVILIANS WHICH LEFT TWO DEAD AND MANY MORE INJURED ON MONDAY. COLUM MURPHY, THE SPOKESMAN FOR MR. BILDT, SAYS THERE WILL BE A THOROUGH INVESTIGATION OF THE INCIDENT.

    /// ACT - MURPHY ///

    THE HIGH REPRESENTATIVE IS ACTUALLY BEING VERY TOUGH ON THIS ONE, AND HE IS INSISTING ON A SPECIFIC CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION WHERE PEOPLE WILL BE HELD RESPONSIBLE.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. MURPHY INSISTED THE INVESTIGATION WOULD NOT BE A WHITEWASH (COVER-UP).

    /// ACT - MURPHY ///

    IT WILL BE MONITORED BY THE INTERNATIONAL POLICE, AND THE HIGH REPRESENTATIVE WILL BE WAITING FOR SPECIFIC RESULTS.

    /// END ACT ///

    DESPITE THE INVESTIGATION, THERE IS STILL LITTLE SIGN THE SERBS ARE PREPARED TO ALLOW FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT TO MUSLIMS WHO WISH TO VISIT THEIR OLD HOMES. SERB LEADERS ARE USING THE VISITS TO STIR UP HATRED AND FEAR AMONG THEIR PEOPLE, AND MR. MURPHY IS CALLING FOR THE IMMEDIATE ARREST OF BOSNIAN SERB LEADERS AND INDICTED WAR CRIMINALS RADOVAN KARADZIC AND GENERAL RATKO MLADIC.

    /// ACT - MURPHY ///

    LET'S BE BLUNT ABOUT IT, DR. KARADZIC AND GENERAL MLADIC SHOULD BE ARRESTED -- THAT'S ARRESTED -- REPEAT.

    /// END ACT ///

    NATO OFFICIALS HAVE NOW LAID THE BLAME FOR MONDAY'S INCIDENTS ON THE SERBS, BUT THEY SAY THE RETURN OF REFUGEES IS GOING TO BE A LONG AND DIFFICULT PROCESS, ONE WHICH NATO TROOPS DO NOT WANT TO GET INVOLVED IN. NATO COMMANDERS INSIST THEIR TROOPS WILL NOT TRY TO CONTROL CROWDS OF ANGRY REFUGEES, OR USE, OR THREATEN TO USE, FORCE TO MAKE SUCH VISITS HAPPEN. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DF/MH/MMK
    01-May-96 11:19 AM EDT (1519 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [03] BOSNIA / REFUGEES BY KYLE KING (BONN)

    DATE=5/1/96
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-33157
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: WITH MOST MILITARY ASPECTS OF THE BOSNIAN PEACE AGREEMENT NOW IMPLEMENTED, ATTENTION HAS TURNED TO THE PLIGHT OF MORE THAN TWO-MILLION BOSNIAN REFUGEES, WHO ARE DEMANDING THE RIGHT TO GO BACK TO THEIR HOMES. AS V-O-A'S KYLE KING EXPLAINS IN THIS BACKGROUND REPORT FROM THE TOWN OF SANSKI MOST, THE REFUGE ISSUE POSES A NEW AND DIFFICULT TEST FOR NATO PEACEKEEPING TROOPS AND INTERNATIONAL RELIEF AGENCIES.

    TEXT: LIKE OTHER MILITARY OFFICERS ASSIGNED TO NATO'S PEACEKEEPING MISSION IN BOSNIA, MAJOR DAVID LAST SPENT PART OF THIS WEEK TRYING TO CALM STONE-WIELDING SERBS AND GROUPS OF MUSLIM REFUGEES DEMANDING TO RETURN TO THEIR HOMES IN PRIJEDOR.

    IN AN EFFORT TO PREVENT THE KIND OF VIOLENT CLASHES THAT ERUPTED ELSEWHERE, THE MAJOR SHUTTLED BACK AND FORTH BETWEEN THE TWO GROUPS, FIRST MEETING WITH A REPRESENTATIVE OF THE MUSLIM REFUGEES.

    /// LAST ACT ///

    I REGRET TO INFORM YOU THAT THEY FEEL THE SAME WAY ABOUT YOU AS YOU FEEL ABOUT THEM. AND BECAUSE OF THE CIRCUMSTANCES HERE, I FEEL IT WOULD BE A VERY GOOD IDEA IF YOU LEFT THE ZONE OF SEPARATION.

    /// END ACT ///

    HAVING SUCCESSFULLY PERSUADED ONE GROUP TO BACK OFF, THE MAJOR TURNS HIS ATTENTION TO A CROWD OF ANGRY SERBS WHO WANT TO BLOCK THE MUSLIM REFUGEES FROM RETURNING TO THEIR HOMES. ONE 36-YEAR OLD SERB -- WHO ASKED NOT TO BE IDENTIFIED -- SAID HE HAD HEARD LARGE GROUPS OF MUSLIMS WERE COMING TO TACK BACK HOUSES THAT WERE NOW BEING USED BY SERB REFUGEES.

    /// SERB PROTESTER ACT ///

    WE DON'T ALLOW THAT, THIS IS OUR LAND. WE HAVE STONES AND WE WONT LET THEM COME THROUGH. WE HAVE SOME CORN AND WE WILL FEED YOU. WE WILL GIVE THEM FOOD, BUT NOT OUR LAND.

    /// END ACT ///

    ALTHOUGH NATO TROOPS MANAGED TO DEFUSE THE SITUATION, VIOLENT CLASHES IN OTHER PARTS OF BOSNIA UNDERSCORE THE SIMMERING TENSIONS LEFT BY THE 43-MONTH WAR AND THE TWO-MILLION REFUGEES THAT WANT TO GO HOME.

    U-N OFFICIAL ALUN ROBERTS, WHO HAS HAD EXTENSIVE EXPERIENCE IN THE REGION, SAYS PART OF THE PROBLEM IS THE CONTINUING LACK OF RELIABLE INFORMATION AND THE CONTROL OF THE MEDIA BY LOCAL AUTHORITIES.

    /// ROBERTS ACT ///

    PART OF THE PROBLEM OF THIS WHOLE WAR HAS BEEN THE INFORMATION GIVEN TO LOCAL PEOPLE ON BOTH SIDES OF THE CONFLICT. WHETHER IN BOSNIA, CROATIA, AND ELSEWHERE, THE LOCAL MEDIA HAS BEEN PRETTY MUCH IN THE CONTROL OF THE AUTHORITIES OR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE AREA. SO PEOPLE GET A LOT OF INFORMATION THAT HAS LED PEOPLE TO BE EITHER FEARFUL OR APPREHENSIVE OR VERY VOLATILE AFTER THREE AND A HALF YEARS OF THIS KIND OF MEDIA STRUCTURE.

    /// END ACT ///

    A MEMBER OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT WHO MONITORS RELATIONS WITH THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA, DORIS PACK, SAYS GETTING BOSNIA BACK ON ITS FEET RESETTLING REFUGEES WILL BE MUCH MORE DIFFICULT THAN PEOPLE HAVE ACKNOWLEDGED WHEN THE PEACE AGREEMENT WAS SIGNED.

    /// PACK ACT ///

    CIVILIAN IMPLEMENTATION IS SO DIFFICULT BECAUSE WE DON'T HAVE ANY INSTRUMENT, EVEN THE INTERNATIONAL POLICE COME HERE WITHOUT PISTOLS, THEY CAN DO NOTHING, THEY CANNOT SHOW ANY POWER.

    /// END ACT ///

    CRITICS SAY THE FAILURE OF NATO TROOPS TO ARREST ACCUSED WAR CRIMINALS LIKE BOSNIAN SERB LEADER RADOVAN KARADZIC AND HIS ARMY COMMANDER RATKO MLADIC, HAS ALSO THREATENED THE FRAGILE PEACE BY LEAVING IN POWER THE MOST UNCOMPROMISING OPPONENTS OF ETHNIC REINTEGRATION.

    FOR THOSE TRYING TO HELP REBUILD THE COUNTRY AND ENABLE THE WAR'S REFUGEES TO RETURN HOME, PROGRESS WILL HAVE TO BE MEASURED IN SMALL STEPS AND CONTINUING EFFORTS TO PREVENT FURTHER CONFRONTATIONS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/KBK/JWH/GPT
    01-May-96 12:03 PM EDT (1603 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [04] BOSNIA SITREP (S ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

    DATE=5/1/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-196575
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO AND U-N OFFICIALS IN SARAJEVO HAVE WARNED THE RIGHT OF PEOPLE TO MOVE FREELY THROUGHOUT BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA IS SERIOUSLY ENDANGERED. V-O-A CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT WAYNE COREY REPORTS THE WARNING FOLLOWS VIOLENT INCIDENTS IN WHICH SERBS REFUSED TO ALLOW LARGE GROUPS OF MUSLIMS TO ENTER THEIR TERRITORY. TWO MUSLIMS WERE KILLED.

    TEXT: A NATO SPOKESMAN IN SARAJEVO SAYS A REAL STRUGGLE IS TAKING PLACE OVER THE FUTURE AND STATUS OF FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT. FREE MOVEMENT IS A KEY PROVISION OF THE BOSNIAN PEACE AGREEMENT.

    IN A RELATED COMMENT, A U-N REFUGEE AGENCY SPOKESMAN SAYS THE PEACE PROCESS IN BOSNIA MAY BE FACING ONE OF ITS MOST CRITICAL PERIODS SINCE THE PEACE AGREEMENT WAS SIGNED LAST DECEMBER.

    THE WARNINGS FOLLOW THE DEATHS OF TWO MUSLIMS WHO TRIED TO ENTER SERB TERRITORY TO VISIT THEIR FORMER HOMES OR FAMILY GRAVES.

    NATO INITIALLY BLAMED MUSLIM AND SERB POLITICAL LEADERS FOR ALLOWING A VIOLENT CONFRONTATION TO DEVELOP. BUT, NATO NOW SAYS THE SERBS WERE MAINLY RESPONSIBLE.

    ONE OF THE MUSLIM VICTIMS IS BELIEVED TO HAVE BEEN SHOT. THE SENIOR INTERNATIONAL CIVILIAN OFFICIAL IN SARAJEVO, CARL BILDT, IS DEMANDING THE SERBS QUICKLY INVESTIGATE THE INCIDENT AND PUNISH THE KILLER. (SIGNED)
    NEB/WC/JWH/RAE
    01-May-96 11:30 AM EDT (1530 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [05] CROATIA/SERBS (L ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

    DATE=5/1/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-196579
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE LEADER OF THE REMAINING SERB-HELD TERRITORY IN CROATIA HAS CALLED ON HIS PEOPLE TO ACCEPT GOVERNMENT RULE AND TO LIVE IN A MULTI-ETHNIC COUNTRY. V-O-A'S CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT WAYNE COREY REPORTS.

    TEXT: CROATIAN SERB LEADER GORAN HADZIC SAYS THE SERBS, WHO LIVE IN THE EASTERN SLAVONIA REGION, HAVE NO OPTION BUT TO REMAIN THERE.

    IN AN INTERVIEW WITH A WEEKLY CROATIAN PUBLICATION (GLOBUS), MR. HADZIC SAYS HE IS WORKING WITH TEMPORARY INTERNATIONAL ADMINISTRATORS IN EASTERN SLAVONIA TO PROTECT SERB INTERESTS.

    BUT HE SAYS HE IS NOT SEEKING THE TERRITORY'S INDEPENDENCE. HE SAYS THE 150-THOUSAND ETHNIC SERBS IN EASTERN SLAVONIA MUST COME TO TERMS WITH THE FACT THAT THEY WILL HAVE TO LIVE WITH PEOPLE THEY ONCE FOUGHT.

    EASTERN SLAVONIA WILL REVERT TO CROATIAN GOVERNMENT CONTROL WITHIN TWO YEARS UNDER AN AGREEMENT THE UNITED STATES HELPED TO MEDIATE. AN INTERNATIONAL PEACE-KEEPING FORCE WILL BE DEPLOYED IN THE REGION DURING THE TRANSITION PERIOD.

    THE MODERATE CROATIAN SERB LEADER'S REPORTED COMMENTS ARE IN STARK CONTRAST WITH THOSE OF HARD-LINE SERB LEADERS IN NEIGHBORING BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA.

    BOSNIAN SERB LEADER RADOVAN KARADZIC, AN INDICTED WAR CRIMINAL, IS TRYING TO BLOCK THE RESTORATION OF A MULTI-ETHNIC SOCIETY IN HIS COUNTRY.

    GORAN HADZIC IS CLOSE TO SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC. MR. MILOSEVIC HAS ENCOURAGED THE ETHNIC SERBS IN EASTERN SLAVONIA TO RECONCILE THEIR DIFFERENCES WITH THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT.

    THE OTHER SERB-HELD REGIONS OF CROATIA WERE RECAPTURED BY THE LARGE AND WELL-EQUIPPED CROATIAN ARMY LAST YEAR. MANY, PERHAPS MOST, OF THE SERBS, WHO NOW LIVE IN EASTERN SLAVONIA, FLED THERE WHEN THE OTHER SERB TERRITORIES FELL TO GOVERNMENT FORCES.

    EASTERN SLAVONIA IS A NARROW STRIP OF FERTILE FARMLAND ALONG THE YUGOSLAV-CROATIAN BORDER. THE FIRST ETHNIC CROATS, WHO WERE EXPELLED WHEN THE SERBS TOOK CONTROL OF THE REGION IN 1991, ARE EXPECTED TO RETURN THERE SOON. (SIGNED)
    NEB/WC/MH/GPT
    01-May-96 12:51 PM EDT (1651 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [06] NATO EXPANSION (L ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

    DATE=5/1/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-196581
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO SECRETARY-GENERAL JAVIER SOLANA HAS BEGUN A VISIT TO ALBANIA. MR. SOLANA IS CONTINUING HIS FACT-FINDING TRIP TO FORMER COMMUNIST COUNTRIES IN EUROPE THAT WANT TO JOIN NATO. V-O-A'S CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT WAYNE COREY REPORTS.

    TEXT: MR. SOLANA FLEW INTO TIRANA FOR A TWO-DAY VISIT. HE WAS WELCOMED BY PRESIDENT SALI BERISHA, WHO IS EAGER FOR ALBANIA TO BECOME A FULL MEMBER OF NATO.

    ALBANIA WAS ONCE ONE OF THE WORLD'S MOST ORTHODOX AND ISOLATED COMMUNIST COUNTRIES. IT NOW ACTIVELY PARTICIPATES IN NATO'S PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE PROGRAM.

    PRESIDENT BERISHA HAS ALLOWED AMERICAN MILITARY TRAINING EXERCISES TO BE HELD IN ALBANIA AND HAS CALLED FOR CLOSE RELATIONS BETWEEN ALBANIA AND THE UNITED STATES.

    THE NATO SECRETARY-GENERAL ARRIVED IN TIRANA AFTER VISITING SLOVENIA. THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC IS CONSIDERED A LEADING CANDIDATE FOR NATO MEMBERSHIP.

    SLOVENE LEADERS POINTED OUT TO MR. SOLANA THAT SLOVENIA, AS A PART OF YUGOSLAVIA, WAS NEVER A MEMBER OF THE WARSAW PACT, SO IT HAS NO LEGACY OF SOVIET MILITARY TRAINING TO OVERCOME.

    SLOVENIA ALSO APPEARS TO MEET NATO'S REQUIREMENTS THAT ITS MEMBERS MUST BE GENUINELY DEMOCRATIC COUNTRIES WHICH RESPECT HUMAN RIGHTS.

    BUT AT A NEWS CONFERENCE IN THE SLOVENE CAPITAL, LJUBLJANA, MR. SOLANA AGAIN AVOIDING SAYING WHEN NATO WILL IMPLEMENT ITS EXPANSION PLANS. HE INDICATED ONLY THAT SLOVENIA WOULD NOT BE INVITED TO JOIN THE WESTERN ALLIANCE THIS YEAR.

    NATO LEADERS HAVE REPEATEDLY SAID RUSSIA HAS NO VETO OVER THE ALLIANCE'S EXPANSION PLANS. BUT, IN THE FACE OF STRONG OPPOSITION FROM MOSCOW, NO CLEAR TIMETABLE FOR EXPANSION HAS BEEN ANNOUNCED.

    PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN OBJECTS TO NATO'S ENLARGEMENT ON THE GROUNDS THAT A MILITARY BLOC WITH NUCLEAR WEAPONS WOULD BE ON RUSSIA'S BORDERS AND THAT A NEW DIVIDING LINE WOULD BE CREATED IN EUROPE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/WC/MH/GPT
    01-May-96 1:53 PM EDT (1753 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [07] SARAJEVO: VOICES OF THE SIEGE (L) BY CAROL PEARSON (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=5/1/96
    TYPE=CURRENT AFFAIRS FEATURE
    NUMBER=3-24926
    TELEPHONE=619-3903
    EDITOR=SMART
    CONTENT= [INSERTS IN AUDIO SERVICES]

    INTRO: MUCH IS MADE OF AMERICAN'S LACK OF INTEREST IN INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS. BUT INTEREST IN THE CONFLICT IN THE BALKANS BROUGHT A GROUP OF AMERICAN TEENAGERS TOGETHER. AND AS CAROL PEARSON REPORTS, THEY ARE TAKING A MESSAGE ABOUT THE WAR TO AN EVER-INCREASING AUDIENCE.

    TEXT: PORTSMOUTH, NEW HAMPSHIRE IS A QUIET TOWN ON THE ATLANTIC COST OF AMERICA, WORLDS AWAY FROM BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. BUT THE PEOPLE OF PORTHSMOUTH, ESPECIALLY THE TEENAGERS, HAVE IN A SENSE LIVED THE WAR IN BOSNIA.

    TAPE A CUT ONE: SONG OF SARAJEVO VOICES :10 "I DIDN'T KNOW THAT WE WOULD HAVE NO FOOD. I DIDN'T KNOW I WOULDN'T SLEEP.

    TEXT: ALMOST TWO YEARS AGO, ARTISTIC DIRECTOR KAREN LUNDH WANTED TO ORGANIZE A THEATER PROJECT FOR LOCAL TEENS. TAPE A: SONG OF SARAJEVO :05 "I DIDN'T KNOW THAT HATE COULD BE SO DEEP."

    TAPE B CUT ONE LUNDH :07 "I WAS LOOKING FOR SOMETHING THAT SPOKE TO TEEN PASSION AND SOMETHING THEY COULD REALLY SINK THEIR TEETH INTO."

    TEXT: KAREN READ ZLATA'S DIARY -- THE STORY OF A YOUNG GIRL IN SARAJEVO. THEN SHE STARTED READING NEWSPAPERS, MAGAZINES.... ANYTHING THAT WOULD TELL HER MORE ABOUT THE WAR IN BOSNIA. AND SHE BEGAN MEETING WITH A GROUP OF TEENAGERS WHO EVENTUALLY FORMED THE NEW VOICES THEATRE ENSEMBLE. TAPE A: SONG OF SARAJEVO :13 "I DIDN'T KNOW, I DIDN'T KNOW. I DIDN'T KNOW. IN MY BELOVED SARAJEVO."

    TAPE B CUT TWO: LUNDH :27 "AND WEEK BY WEEK WE BEGAN CREATING A PIECE OF THEATER OUT OF ALL OF THIS NON-THEATRICAL MATERIAL, KIND OF STAYING AWAY FROM THE POLITICS. MOSTLY WE WANTED TO EXPLORE THE HUMAN ASPECT OF WAR, THE EFFECTS OF WAR ON CHILDREN. AND AS WE BEGAN THE PROCESS OF EXPLORATION, WE BEGAN TO UNCOVER MORE AND MORE. SO THE PIECE THEN, IS A COMPILATION OF NON-DRAMATIC MATERIAL DRAWN INTO A THEATER PIECE."

    TEXT: A GROUP OF TEENAGERS FROM BOSNIA GOES TO SCHOOL NEAR PORTSMOUTH SO THEY HELPED PUT THE PLAY TOGETHER BASED ON THEIR REAL LIFE EXPERIENCES. THE THEATER GROUP NAMED THE PLAY "SARAJEVO: VOICES OF THE SIEGE." THEN KAREN LUNDH TURNED THE PROJECT OVER TO HER HUSBAND, DIRECTOR PETER BERKROT.

    TAPE B CUT FOUR: PETER BERKROT :18 "THE WAY I APPROACHED IT WAS THAT THEY WERE TRAPPED ON STAGE, UNABLE TO LEAVE UNTIL THESE STORIES HAD BEEN TOLD AND THAT THEY WERE SADDLED WITH THE RESPONSIBILITY OF TELLING STORIES FOR PEOPLE WHO IN MANY CASES COULD NOT TELL THEM FOR THEMSELVES, EITHER BECAUSE THEY WERE STILL IN BOSNIA OR BECAUSE THEY WERE DEAD."

    TEXT: THE SET IS BARE EXCEPT FOR MILK CRATES AND WINDOW FRAMES.

    TAPE B CUT FIVE: BERKROT :23 "EVERY KID HAS A MILK CRATE AND EVERY CRATE HAS THEIR PROPS.... AND THEIR HATS AND THEIR HELMETS AND THEIR GUNS. AND THEY COME ON STAGE AS A GROUP TO TELL THE STORY. SO WITH THE EXCEPTION OF SEVERAL WINDOW FRAMES, WHICH COME TO BE THE WINDOWS THAT THE PARENTS ARE LOOKING OUT OF AS THEY WATCH THEIR CHILDREN BEING SHELLED WHICH BECOMES VERY HAUNTING, VERY SIMPLE BASIC IMAGE..." TAPE A: SONG OF SARAJEVO "THE BOMBS ARE FALLING ONE AFTER ANOTHER. AND WE CHILDREN ARE AFRAID."

    TAPE B CUT SIX : BERKROT :15 "IF WE HAD TIME-LAPSE PHOTOGRAPHY, IT WOULD HAVE BEEN REMARKABLE BECAUSE YOU COULD SEE THEM GOING FROM A GROUP OF OFTEN OUT OF CONTROL KIDS GETTING TOGETHER TO DO A SHOW TO BEING MUCH MORE FOCUSED AND MUCH MORE RESPECTFUL OF THE WORLD THEY WERE ENTERING."

    TEXT: "SARAJEVO: VOICES OF THE SIEGE" WILL BE GOING ON TOUR IN MASSACHUSETTS IN JUNE. KAREN LUNDH AND PETER BERKROT WOULD LIKE TO SEE THE PLAY BECOME AN EDUCATIONAL TOOL TO TEACH TEENAGERS AND ADULTS ABOUT WHAT HAS GONE ON IN BOSNIA AND SO THAT THE VOICES OF THE BOSNIAN PEOPLE CAN BE HEARD. TAPE A: SONG OF SARAJEVO :17 (REPRISE)

    TEXT: (SIGNED)
    NEB/CAP/NES
    01-May-96 6:12 PM EDT (2212 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [08] U-S / BOSNIA (S ONLY) BY VICTOR BEATTIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=5/1/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-196548
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED STATES IS CONDEMNING THE LATEST VIOLENCE BETWEEN SERB CIVILIANS AND MUSLIM REFUGEES IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA SAYING IT IS UP TO THE PARTIES TO ENSURE FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE BOSNIA PEACE ACCORDS. V-O-A'S VICTOR BEATTIE REPORTS THE U-S AMBASSADOR TO BOSNIA UNDERSCORED THE POINT IN MEETINGS (TUESDAY) WITH GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS ON BOTH SIDES:

    TEXT: U-S STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN NICHOLAS BURNS SUPPORTS EFFORTS BY MUSLIM REFUGEES TO VISIT HOMES AND GRAVE SITES IN TERRITORY NOW CONTROLLED BY SERBS. MONDAY'S CLASHES LEFT A NUMBER OF MUSLIMS KILLED AND INJURED -- THE WORST SUCH VIOLENCE SINCE THE WAR. FRESH CLASHES OCCURRED TUESDAY.

    MR. BURNS SAYS ADHERENCE TO THE LETTER AND SPIRIT OF THE DAYTON (OHIO) PEACE ACCORD IS THE ONLY WAY TO AVOID FUTURE CLASHES:

    ///BURNS ACTUALITY///

    IT'S THE RESPONSIBILITY OF THE PARTIES TO ENSURE THE FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT ON THEIR TERRITORIES AND TO ENSURE THE SECURITY OF GROUPS SUCH AS THE REFUGEES WHO WERE INVOLVED IN THESE INCIDENTS.

    ///END ACTUALITY///

    MR. BURNS SAYS AMBASSADOR JOHN MENZIES MET WITH SERB AND BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS, TUESDAY:

    ///BURNS ACTUALITY///

    TO INSIST ON UPON THEIR ASSISTANCE IN AVOIDING THESE KINDS OF CLASHES IN THE FUTURE.

    ///END ACTUALITY///

    MR. BURNS DID NOT DIRECTLY CRITICIZE THE BOSNIAN SERBS FOR THE CLASHES, BUT REAFFIRMED THE FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT AS -- IN HIS WORDS -- ONE OF THE MOST FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS GIVEN TO PEOPLE AS A RESULT OF THE DAYTON ACCORDS.

    HE SAYS NATO TROOPS ARE REVIEWING THE CLASHES IN AN EFFORT TO DETERMINE WHAT MIGHT BE DONE TO PREVENT THEIR RECURRENCE. (SIGNED).
    NEB / WOD
    01-May-96 12:06 AM EDT (0406 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [09] YUGOSLAVIA / KOSOVO (L ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

    DATE=5/1/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-196570
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED STATES IS OFFERING TO HELP MEDIATE AN END TO AN UPSURGE OF VIOLENCE IN YUGOSLAVIA'S MAINLY ETHNIC ALBANIAN PROVINCE OF KOSOVO. V-O-A'S CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT WAYNE COREY REPORTS.

    TEXT: AN AMERICAN DELEGATION, HEADED BY STATE DEPARTMENT OFFICIAL RUDOLPH PERINA, ARRIVED IN THE KOSOVO PROVINCIAL CAPITAL, PRISTINA WEDNESDAY.

    MR. PERINA AND OTHER MEMBERS OF HIS GROUP MET WITH IBRAHIM RUGOVA, THE LEADER OF THE ETHNIC ALBANIANS WHO MAKE UP 90 PERCENT OF KOSOVO'S POPULATION.

    THE AMERICAN DIPLOMAT TOLD REPORTERS HE EXPRESSED HIS CONCERN TO MR. RUGOVA ABOUT THE KILLING OF FIVE ETHNIC SERBS AND THE WOUNDING OF FOUR OTHERS IN KOSOVO LAST WEEK.

    HE SAYS THE TENSION AND VIOLENCE BETWEEN ETHNIC ALBANIANS AND SERBS MUST BE RESOLVED PEACEFULLY. HE SAYS THE UNITED STATES WILL DO WHAT IT CAN TO HELP MAKE PROGRESS TOWARD RESTORING CALM IN THE SOUTHERN YUGOSLAV PROVINCE.

    THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER MAJOR POWERS WANT YUGOSLAV LEADERS AND ETHNIC ALBANIANS TO RESUME HIGH-LEVEL CONTACTS AND TO NEGOTIATE SOME FORM OF AUTONOMY FOR KOSOVO.

    THE ETHNIC ALBANIAN MAJORITY WANTS INDEPENDENCE FOR THE TROUBLED PROVINCE. BUT INDEPENDENCE APPEARS OUT OF THE QUESTION.

    THE SERBS REGARD KOSOVO AS THE CRADLE OF SERB NATIONALISM. IT WAS IN KOSOVO THAT SERBIAN FORCES WERE OVERWHELMINGLY DEFEATED BY THE OTTOMAN TURKS IN 1389.

    THAT DEFEAT LED TO A LONG PERIOD OF MUSLIM RULE OVER SERB ORTHODOX CHRISTIANS. THE KOSOVO SERBS' NATIONALISM WAS REKINDLED IN 1987 WHEN SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC TOLD THEM NO ONE SHOULD EVER DARE BEAT THEM.

    EXPERTS SAY THE BITTER HISTORICAL EXPERIENCE OF THE SERBS IN KOSOVO HELPS TO EXPLAIN THE BEHAVIOR OF MINORITY SERBS IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA AND IN CROATIA DURING THE VIOLENT BREAKUP OF YUGOSLAVIA. (SIGNED)
    NEB/WC/JWH/GPT
    01-May-96 10:52 AM EDT (1452 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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