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Voice of America, 6 May 1996

Voice of America Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] MONDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [02] BOSNIA / SARAJEVO (L ONLY) BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)
  • [03] BOSNIA REFUGEES BY DOUG ROBERTS (BOSNIA)
  • [04] BOSNIA SITREP (S UPDATE) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)
  • [05] BULGARIA ECONOMY (L ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)
  • [06] TURKEY / ISRAEL PACT (CORRECTED) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (CAIRO)
  • [07] YUGO / WAR CRIMES (L OVERNIGHTER) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

  • [01] MONDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=05/06/96
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09561
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-S-T ON MONDAY, MAY 6TH //

    INTRO: IMMIGRATION REFORM AS PASSED BY THE CONGRESS COMES IN FOR A GOOD DEAL OF COMMENT IN THE NATION'S PRESS THIS MONDAY, ALONG WITH THESE OTHER TOPICS: SWISS BANKS AND THE JEWISH TREASURE THEY HOLD; NIGERIA'S ON-GOING SUPPRESSION OF CIVIL RIGHTS; SYRIA'S FOREIGN POLICY, AND THE CONTINUING PROBLEM OF SEXUAL HARASSMENT IN THE U-S WORKPLACE. NOW, HERE WITH A CLOSER LOOK AND SOME QUOTES IS ___________________ AND TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: SEVERAL PAPERS ARE COMMENTING ON THE IMMIGRATION BILL WORKING ITS WAY THROUGH CONGRESS AND THE EFFECTS ELECTION-YEAR POLITICS ARE HAVING ON THIS VERY EMOTIONAL SUBJECT. "THE BALTIMORE SUN" FRAMES THE DEBATE AS A QUESTION:

    VOICE: "WHAT KIND OF COUNTRY IS AMERICA AND WHAT KIND OF COUNTRY WILL WE BECOME? NOTHING THAT COMES BEFORE CONGRESS AND THE PRESIDENCY IS MORE PERTINENT TO THESE QUESTIONS THAN THE SUBJECT OF IMMIGRATION... AFTER MUCH SOUL-SEARCHING, CONGRESS APPEARS TO BE ON THE PATH TO A CONSENSUS IN WHICH THERE WILL BE A CRACKDOWN ON ALIENS ILLEGALLY ENTERING THIS COUNTRY BUT RELATIVELY LITTLE ... DONE TO DISCOURAGE LEGAL IMMIGRATION. THIS IS A PRUDENT APPROACH SO LONG AS IT IS RECOGNIZED THAT POPULATION GROWTH, 40 PERCENT OF WHICH REFLECTS IMMIGRATION, WILL BE A RECURRING ISSUE."

    TEXT: IN CALIFORNIA, WHICH IS PLAGUED BY THOUSANDS OF ILLEGAL IMMIGRANTS YEARLY OVER ITS BORDER WITH MEXICO, MONDAY'S "LOS ANGELES TIMES" SAYS, IN PART:

    VOICE: "THE TWO BILLS ON IMMIGRATION PASSED BY THE HOUSE AND SENATE REFLECT A FEELING THAT IS PREVALENT NATIONWIDE, ESPECIALLY IN CALIFORNIA: IT'S TIME TO CRACK DOWN ON ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION. IN THE MAIN, THE CONGRESSIONAL FOCUS FINALLY IS WHERE IT OUGHT TO BE -- ON THOSE WHO BREAK THE LAW, NOT ON ALL IMMIGRANTS... CONGRESS IS ON ITS WAY TO RATIONAL AND FAIR IMMIGRATION REFORM."

    TEXT: "THE NEW YORK POST," HOWEVER, CALLS THE MEASURES "A MISSED OPPORTUNITY," ADDING:

    VOICE: "... THE FACT THAT THE ONLY IMMIGRATION-REFORM MEASURE PASSED BY CONGRESS THIS YEAR WILL BE A BILL THAT BEEFS UP THE BORDER PATROL IS A MAJOR DISAPPOINTMENT. IN THIS REALM, CONGRESS SIMPLY IS OUT OF TOUCH WITH ... THE AMERICAN PEOPLE. IN ONE POLL AFTER ANOTHER, AMERICANS HAVE MADE IT CLEAR ... THEY WANT REDUCED RATES OF LEGAL IMMIGRATION, AS WELL AS EFFECTIVE PROGRAMS TO HALT THE MIGRATION OF ILLEGALS."

    TEXT: TURNING TO AN OLD AND SENSITIVE ISSUE STEMMING FROM WORLD WAR TWO, THE PREVIOUSLY SECRET HOLDINGS OF JEWISH GOLD AND TREASURE BY SWISS BANKS OF THOSE WHO DIED IN THE HOLOCAUST, TODAY'S "MIAMI HERALD" COMMENTS:

    VOICE: "IN MAY 1946, THE SWISS GOVERNMENT PROMISED TO DETERMINE WHAT ASSETS HAD BEEN LEFT BY HOLOCAUST VICTIMS WITH ITS BANKS. FIFTY YEARS LATER, AND AFTER PROMISE AFTER PROMISE, THE SWISS BANKS 'FINALLY' [ITALICS] HAVE AGREED TO A THOROUGH ACCOUNTING... LAST YEAR ... THE BANKS (CONCEDED) THEY HOLD 34-MILLION DOLLARS IN OLD ACCOUNTS; SOME JEWISH GROUPS SAY ... THE TOTAL MAY BE SEVEN-BILLION DOLLARS... JUSTICE SO DELAYED IS BARELY JUSTICE. [OPT] SURELY THE FAMILIES WHO ACCEPTED THE INVITATION OF THE SWISS BANKS TO SAFEGUARD THEIR ASSETS FROM HITLER DESERVED MUCH, MUCH MORE THAN GRUDGING COOPERATION..." [END OPT]

    TEXT: TURNING TO AFRICA, MONDAY'S "NEW YORK TIMES" IS AGAIN CASTIGATING NIGERIA FOR ITS CIVIL RIGHTS RECORD, AND CRITICIZING THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION AND ITS ALLIES FOR THEIR INACTION.

    VOICE: "REGRETTABLY ... SIX MONTHS AFTER KEN SARO-WIWA AND EIGHT OTHER MINORITY-RIGHTS ACTIVISTS WERE HANGED ... AFTER A FARCICAL TRIAL, THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION SAYS IT IS STILL CONSULTING WITH OTHER COUNTRIES ON LONG-PROMISED SANCTIONS... AN OIL EMBARGO, HOWEVER DESERVED, IS UNLIKELY... INTERNATIONAL SANCTIONS AGAINST NIGERIA WOULD BE PREFERABLE ... BUT IF THAT EFFORT FAILS, WASHINGTON SHOULD NOT HESITATE TO ACT ALONE. THE WORLD ... SHOULD NOT CONDONE THE BRUTAL POLICIES OF THE NIGERIAN DICTATORSHIP."

    TEXT: IN DISCUSSING THE MIDDLE EAST, "THE SUN" IN BALTIMORE SAYS OF SYRIA'S PRESIDENT HAFEZ ASSAD, AND U-S DEALINGS WITH HIM:

    VOICE: "FROM THE SPRINGBOARD OF THE LEBANON CEASEFIRE, SECRETARY OF STATE WARREN CHRISTOPHER SHOULD PRESS ON FOR PEACE BETWEEN SYRIA AND ISRAEL. HE SHOULD KEEP PRESIDENT ... ASSAD IN PLAY... THE FIREFIGHT BETWEEN ISRAEL AND LEBANON HAD MANY VICTIMS. ITS ONLY WINNER WAS MR. ASSAD, THE 65-YEAR-OLD CUNNING DICTATOR OF SYRIA... HIS STANDING AMONG ARAB RULERS WENT UP. SO DID HIS IMPORTANCE TO ISRAEL... MR. ASSAD MAY ONCE HAVE BELIEVED PEACE TO BE IMPOSSIBLE [;] HE NOW CONSIDERS IT INEVITABLE. EITHER WAY, HE HAS HARDLY MOVED."

    TEXT: AND LASTLY, ON THE NAGGING ISSUE OF SEXUAL HARASSMENT IN THE AMERICAN WORKPLACE, "USA TODAY" SAYS THE AUTO MAKER MITSUBISHI'S PROBLEMS WITH THE LAWS COULD BE A GUIDE TO OTHER COMPANIES. AND IT GIVES THIS ADVICE:

    VOICE: "ESTABLISH POLICY. EXPLICITLY DEFINE WHAT CONSTITUTES SEXUAL HARASSMENT IN YOUR WORKPLACE, AND EMPHASIZE TOP MANAGEMENT'S COMMITMENT TO PUNISH IT... DON'T DUCK [IGNORE OR AVOID] PROBLEMS. HAVE A WELL-DEFINED AND KNOWN PROCEDURE FOR DEALING WITH HARASSMENT COMPLAINTS... U-S COMPANIES HAVE HAD PLENTY OF TIME TO ANTICIPATE THE CHANGING DYNAMIC OF THE WORKFORCE AND ITS IMPACT ON THE WORKPLACE."

    TEXT: AND THAT CONCLUDES THIS BRIEF SUMMARY OF SOME OF THE EDITORIALS TO BE FOUND IN MONDAY'S U-S PRESS.
    NEB/ANG/PCH
    06-May-96 11:06 AM EDT (1506 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [02] BOSNIA / SARAJEVO (L ONLY) BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)

    DATE=5/6/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-196789
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE SENIOR AMERICAN NEGOTIATOR ON BOSNIA SAYS ECONOMIC SANCTIONS AGAINST SERBIA AND THE BOSNIAN SERBS COULD BE RE-IMPOSED UNLESS THERE IS FULL COMPLIANCE WITH THE DAYTON PEACE ACCORD. DAVID FOLEY IN SARAJEVO REPORTS THE WARNING COMES AFTER TALKS BETWEEN THE U-S ENVOY AND BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS.

    TEXT: TENSIONS IN BOSNIA HAVE BEEN ON THE RISE, MAINLY DUE TO THE FAILURE OF THE BOSNIAN SERBS TO ALLOW MUSLIM REFUGEES TO VISIT THEIR HOMES IN SERB AREAS, AND THE BOSNIAN-SERB LEADERS AND INDICTED WAR CRIMINALS RADOVAN KARADZIC AND RATKO MLADIC STILL SEEM FIRMLY IN CHARGE.

    TO TRY TO SORT OUT THESE PROBLEMS, THE ACTING U-S ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE, JOHN KORNBLUM, IS ON HIS FIRST VISIT TO THE REGION AS THE MAN IN CHARGE OF AMERICAN POLICY IN BOSNIA. HIS PREDECESSOR WAS THE TOUGH-TALKING ARCHITECT OF THE DAYTON PEACE PLAN, RICHARD HOLBROOKE, WHO LEFT THE STATE DEPARTMENT EARLIER THIS YEAR, AND MR. KORNBLUM SEEMS READY TO FOLLOW IN HIS FOOTSTEPS.

    SPEAKING AFTER A MEETING IN SARAJEVO WITH THE BOSNIAN PRESIDENT, MR. KORNBLUM SAID THE UNITED STATES IS LIMITING ASSISTANCE TO THE BOSNIAN SERBS BECAUSE OF THEIR FAILURE TO FULLY COMPLY WITH THE DAYTON AGREEMENT. HE SAID HE WOULD ALSO TAKE WHAT HE CALLED -- A VERY FIRM LINE -- WITH SERBIAN PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC IN BELGRADE, WHERE HE IS EXPECTED FOR TALKS TUESDAY.

    /// ACT - KORNBLUM ///

    YOU CAN BE SURE THAT IF THERE IS [A] PATTERN, AND IF THINGS ARE NOT MOVING, THAT OTHER STEPS WILL BE CONSIDERED, AND YOU KNOW UNDER THE UN RESOLUTION WE HAVE ALSO THE RIGHT TO RE-IMPOSE SANCTIONS AGAINST THESE TWO ENTITIES, AND THAT IS AN OPTION WHICH IS ALWAYS THERE.

    /// END ACT ///

    HE ALSO SAID THE UNITED STATES IS PUSHING HARD TO SEE THE DAYTON PROCESS IS -- IN HIS WORDS -- AS AMBITIOUS AS POSSIBLE. HE SAID THE BOSNIAN SERBS' ATTITUDE TOWARD THE DAYTON AGREEMENT IS CLEAR.

    /// ACT - KORNBLUM ///

    AS FOR THE ATTITUDE OF THE REPUBLIKA SRPSKA, IT IS QUITE EVIDENT TO US, AND WE WILL BE PUSHING VERY HARD TO MAKE SURE THAT THIS ATTITUDE DOES NOT CONTINUE, AND THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY HAS A NUMBER OF WAYS OF MAKING SURE THAT THEY UNDERSTAND OUR VOICE, AND YOU CAN (BE) SURE WE WILL BE SPEAKING VERY LOUDLY ON THE ISSUE.

    /// END ACT ///

    JUST HOW MUCH PRESSURE MR. KORNBLUM WILL BE ABLE TO BRING ON SERBIAN PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC IS NOT YET CLEAR. EVEN IF THE AMERICANS WANTED TO REIMPOSE SANCTIONS ON SERBIA AND THE BOSNIAN SERBS, THE EUROPEANS ARE NOT CERTAIN TO GO ALONG, AND THE RUSSIANS MIGHT WELL REFUSE TO COMPLY WITH ANY RENEWED SANCTIONS.

    BUT DIPLOMATS AND INTERNATIONAL OFFICIALS IN SARAJEVO APPEAR TO AGREE MR. KARADZIC AND GENERAL MLADIC HAVE TO GO IF THERE IS TO BE PEACE IN BOSNIA, AND ONLY MR. MILOSEVIC LOOKS ABLE TO DELIVER THEM TO THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL IN THE HAGUE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DF/JWH/RAE
    06-May-96 2:36 PM EDT (1836 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [03] BOSNIA REFUGEES BY DOUG ROBERTS (BOSNIA)

    DATE=5/6/96
    TYPE=BACKGROUNDREPORT
    NUMBER=5-33186
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: U-N HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES SADAKO OGATA HAS BEGUN A SIX-DAY TOUR OF BOSNIA TO ACCESS OBSTACLES BLOCKING THE RETURN OF THE MORE THAN TWO MILLION PEOPLE FORCED TO FLEE THEIR HOMES DURING THE LONG CONFLICT. DOUG ROBERTS, TRAVELLING WITH THE U-N OFFICIAL REPORTS MANY OF THOSE OBSTACLES ARE CLEARLY APPARENT IN A SMALL VILLAGE IN THE NORTHEASTERN PART OF THE COUNTRY.

    TEXT: HUSSO BAHOR HAS MADE A BOLD GAMBLE. HE HAS RETURNED TO SHATTERED REMAINS OF HIS HOME ASTRIDE WHAT USED TO BE THE BOSNIAN CONFRONTATION LINE. THAT, IN ITSELF, IS NOT UNUSUAL. U-N-H-C-R ESTIMATES MORE THAN SIX THOUSAND PEOPLE HAVE MOVED BACK INTO FORMER FRONTLINE AREAS IN THIS NORTHEASTERN CORNER OF THE COUNTRY. BUT HUSSO BAHOR IS ONE OF ONLY A HANDFUL TO HAVE ACTUALLY HAVE CROSSED THE LINE. THE 48-YEAR-OLD MUSLIM HIS WIFE AND TEENAGE DAUGHTER ARE BACK IN THEIR HOME IN WHAT FOR NOW AND PERHAPS FOREVER IS SERB TERRITORY.

    PART OF MR. BAHOR'S VILLAGE, DIZDARUSA, FALLS WITHIN THE ZONE OF SEPARATION ESTABLISHED BY THE NATO PEACEKEEPING FORCE IN BOSNIA. U-S SOLDIERS MAN A CHECKPOINT JUST A FEW METERS FROM MR. BAHOR'S HOME. HE READILY ADMITS HE AND THE TWO OTHER MUSLIM FAMILIES WHO HAVE RETURNED HERE WOULD NOT HAVE COME BACK WITHOUT THOSE AMERICAN TROOPS DEPLOYED BETWEEN THEM AND THE SERBS IN THE ADJOINING TOWN OF BRCKO.

    MR. BAHOR IS NOT SURE HE WILL STAY ONCE THE NATO FORCE LEAVES. ADDING TO HIS UNCERTAINTY IS THE STILL UNDECIDED FATE OF BRCKO, ITSELF. IT WAS ONE OF THE MOST-HOTLY-CONTESTED AREAS DURING THE LONG BOSNIAN CONFLICT. SERB FORCES SEIZED CONTROL OF THE TOWN AT THE OUTSET OF THE WAR, EXPELLING VIRTUALLY ALL ITS MUSLIM AND CROAT INHABITANTS. FOR SERB LEADERS, BRCKO WAS AND REMAINS A VITAL STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE BECAUSE IT COMMANDS A NARROW CORRIDOR LINKING SERB-HELD LANDS IN EAST AND CENTRAL BOSNIA.

    AT THE DAYTON PEACE CONFERENCE LAST NOVEMBER THE FACTIONAL LEADERS WERE NOT ABLE TO AGREE ON BRCKO AND THE STATUS OF THE TOWN WAS LEFT TO INTERNATIONAL ARBITRATION. A RULING IS EXPECTED BY THE END OF THIS YEAR -- ABOUT THE SAME TIME THE NATO PEACEKEEPERS ARE DUE TO BEGIN LEAVING BOSNIA. IF THE ARBITERS RULE IN FAVOR OF THE SARAJEVO GOVERNMENT, MR. BAHOR'S GAMBLE CLEARLY WILL HAVE PAID OFF. YET THE WHITE-HAIRED FORMER BUSINESSMAN HOPES FOR A DIFFERENT OUTCOME.

    HE BELIEVES BRCKO SHOULD BE DECLARED A NEUTRAL ZONE, NOT UNDER THE DIRECT CONTROL OF EITHER SIDE. THAT WAY, HE SAYS, ALL THE REGIONS REFUGEES -- MUSLIM, CROAT, AND SERB -- CAN RETURN WITHOUT FEAR AND BRCKO COULD BECOME A SPRINGBOARD FOR RECONCILIATION THROUGHOUT THE COUNTRY.

    MEANWHILE MR. BAHOR -- ENCOURAGED BY NATO COMMANDERS AND U-N OFFICIALS -- IS DOING WHAT HE CAN TO PROMOTE CONTACT BETWEEN THE TWO ENTITIES. HE DRINKS COFFEE AND BRANDY WITH THE SERB POLICEMEN WHO OCCASIONALLY PATROL HIS NEIGHBORHOOD. AND, HE HAS ACCOMPANIED SERB REFUGEES ON BRIEF VISITS TO THEIR FORMER HOMES IN TERRITORY CONTROLLED BY BOSNIA'S MUSLIM CROAT FEDERATION. MR. BAHOR IS ALSO TRYING TO ENCOURAGE OTHER MUSLIM FAMILIES TO RETURN TO DIZDARUSA. RUBBLE AND LANDMINES HAVE BEEN CLEARED FROM AROUND THIRTY HOMES IN THE VILLAGE BUT MR. BAHOR ADMITS HE IS FINDING IT INCREASINGLY DIFFICULT TO PERSUADE THE REFUGEES TO RETURN. IN ADDITION TO THE UNCERTAIN FUTURE, THERE ARE NO JOBS AVAILABLE HERE. AND, AIDE AGENCY OFFICIALS ACKNOWLEDGE THEY ARE RELUCTANT TO SUPPLY SUBSTANTIAL RECONSTRUCTION ASSISTANCE TO THE VILLAGE, SIMPLY BECAUSE OF ITS LOCATION. THE FEAR IS THE RETURNEES COULD SIMPLY BE FORCED TO LEAVE AGAIN, IF SERB FORCES REGAIN FULL CONTROL AFTER NATO'S DEPARTURE.

    HUSSO BAHOR HAS BEEN GIVEN JUST ENOUGH ASSISTANCE TO MAKE ONE ROOM OF HIS TWO-STORY HOUSE LIVABLE -- PLASTIC SHEETING FOR WINDOWS; A WOOD BURNING STOVE FOR WARMTH AND COOKING. HE ALSO RECEIVED SOME FOOD AIDE. I USED TO BE PROSPEROUS -- HE SAYS -- WITH A STRING OF SHOPS IN BRCKO AND 60 EMPLOYEES; BUT LOOK AT ME NOW. HE ADDS: I'M LITTLE MORE THAN A BEGGAR LOOKING FOR CHARITY. (SIGNED)
    NEB / DR / AC / WOD
    06-May-96 5:42 AM EDT (0942 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [04] BOSNIA SITREP (S UPDATE) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

    DATE=5/6/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-196777
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    /// EDS: UPDATES, NEW INFORMATION THROUGHOUT ///

    INTRO: THE AMERICAN ENVOY TO THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA IS VISITING THE REGION AT ANOTHER CRITICAL PERIOD IN THE BOSNIAN PEACE PROCESS. V-O-A'S CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT, WAYNE COREY, REPORTS.

    TEXT: U-S ENVOY JOHN KORNBLUM CONFERRED WITH BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT AND INTERNATIONAL OFFICIALS IN SARAJEVO AND THEN FLEW TO THE SERB STRONGHOLD OF BANJA LUKA TO MEET WITH SERB LEADERS.

    MR. KORNBLUM SAYS HIS TALKS IN THE BOSNIAN CAPITAL COVERED WAYS TO IMPLEMENT THE BOSNIAN PEACE AGREEMENT'S FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT PROVISION.

    THE AMERICAN DIPLOMAT WARNS INTERNATIONAL SANCTIONS COULD BE REIMPOSED AGAINST THE SERBS, AS A LAST RESORT, IF THEY DO NOT COOPERATE ON THE FREE-MOVEMENT ISSUE.

    MR. KORNBLUM IS VISITING BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA, CROATIA, AND YUGOSLAVIA TO HELP PREPARE FOR A MAJOR REVIEW NEXT MONTH OF THE INTERNATIONAL PEACE PROCESS IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA.

    HE SAYS SOME VERY IMPORTANT DECISIONS WILL BE MADE IN CONNECTION WITH THAT REVIEW.

    JUNE WILL MARK THE HALF-WAY POINT IN THE ONE-YEAR DEPLOYMENT OF THE NATO-LED INTERNATIONAL PEACE FORCE IN BOSNIA. (SIGNED)
    NEB/WC/JWH/RAE
    06-May-96 11:10 AM EDT (1510 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [05] BULGARIA ECONOMY (L ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)

    DATE=5/6/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-196782
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE VALUE OF THE BULGARIAN CURRENCY, THE LEVA, HAS FALLEN BY MORE THAN 20-PERCENT IN THE PAST WEEK AS THE GOVERNMENT DECIDES WHETHER TO IMPLEMENT AN AUSTERE REFORM PROGRAM ADVOCATED BY THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND. V-O-A'S BARRY WOOD REPORTS COMMERCIAL BANKERS FEAR WITHOUT HELP FROM THE I-M-F, BULGARIA IS HEADED FOR A FINANCIAL CRISIS.

    TEXT: A MONTH AGO, THE LEVA WAS TRADING AT 79 TO ONE U-S DOLLAR. A WEEK AGO, IT WAS 89. AND THIS WEEK, IT IS 110 TO THE DOLLAR. BANKERS SAY FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC INVESTORS ARE FLEEING THE BULGARIAN CURRENCY, FEARFUL OF ACCELERATING INFLATION AND DEFAULT ON FOREIGN DEBT PAYMENTS.

    THE I-M-F HAS A TEAM OF EXPERTS IN SOFIA THIS WEEK. ANALYSTS VOICE CAUTIOUS OPTIMISM THAT AFTER ONE-YEAR OF NEGOTIATIONS, BULGARIA MAY BE READY TO AGREE TO THE CONDITIONS THE I-M-F IS DEMANDING AS THE PRICE OF RENEWED FINANCIAL SUPPORT.

    FOREMOST AMONG THE CONDITIONS ARE THE FREEING OF ENERGY PRICES, A SPEED UP OF PRIVATIZATION, AND BUDGETARY DISCIPLINE TO CLOSE A LARGE AND GROWING FISCAL DEFICIT. THE I-M-F IS ALSO INSISTING ON TOUGHER BANKING REGULATION AND ON TOUGHER ACTION AGAINST DISREPUTABLE COMMERCIAL BANKS.

    THE GOVERNMENT OF FORMER COMMUNISTS WHICH CAME TO POWER AT THE END OF 1994 HAS THUS FAR NOT BEEN ABLE TO DEVELOP A SYSTEMATIC PLAN FOR REFORMING THE ECONOMY. BANKERS SAY VALUABLE TIME HAS BEEN LOST WHILE THE GOVERNMENT SOUGHT CONSENSUS ON SUCH MATTERS AS TO WHAT TO DO WITH MONEY-LOSING STATE ENTERPRISES. A DRAFT PROGRAM DEVELOPED BY THE GOVERNMENT LAST MONTH WOULD CLOSE THE BIGGEST MONEY LOSERS AND GIVE OTHER COMPANIES NOTICE THEY HAVE ONLY ONE-MORE YEAR OF GENEROUS STATE SUBSIDIES.

    THE DEPRECIATION OF THE CURRENCY COINCIDES WITH A SHARP DROP IN FOREIGN CURRENCY RESERVES. THEY ARE SAID TO TOTAL LESS THAN 700-MILLION DOLLARS, DOWN FROM ONE-POINT-TWO-BILLION DOLLARS IN 1995. BULGARIA OWES ITS WESTERN CREDITORS ONE-BILLION DOLLARS IN REPAYMENTS THIS YEAR.

    BULGARIA HAS FAILED TO ATTRACT VERY MUCH FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT, AND ONE OF THE BIGGEST SUCH INVESTMENTS RECENTLY ENDED IN FAILURE WHEN THE ROVER CAR COMPANY SAID IT WOULD PULL OUT OF THE COUNTRY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/BDW/JWH/RAE
    06-May-96 12:08 PM EDT (1608 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [06] TURKEY / ISRAEL PACT (CORRECTED) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (CAIRO)

    DATE=5/6/96
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-33190
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    ///// CORRECTS SPELLING TO OYMEN IN TEXT GRAFS 2,3. /////

    INTRO: A MILITARY TRAINING AGREEMENT BETWEEN TURKEY AND ISRAEL HAS UNSETTLED ARAB STATES IN THE REGION AND STIRRED MORE ANTI-ISRAEL RHETORIC IN THE PRESS. V-O-A MIDDLE EAST CORRESPONDENT LAURIE KASSMAN TAKES A LOOK AT THE REACTION, AMID RISING CONCERNS CLOSER COOPERATION BETWEEN TURKEY AND ISRAEL COULD SIGNAL A SHIFT IN THE REGION'S MILITARY BALANCE.

    TEXT: UNDER THE MILITARY AGREEMENT, ISRAELI PILOTS WILL USE TURKISH BASES AND AIRSPACE FOR TRAINING EXERCISES. TURKEY SAYS IT HAS SIMILAR AGREEMENTS WITH 15 OTHER COUNTRIES, INCLUDING SEVERAL ARAB STATES IN THE MIDDLE EAST. EGYPT HAS A MILITARY COOPERATION PACT WITH TURKEY THAT DATES BACK NEARLY 10-YEARS. BUT EGYPTIAN OFFICIALS COMPLAIN ABOUT THE TIMING OF TURKEY'S ARRANGEMENT WITH ISRAEL AT A DELICATE STAGE IN THE PEACE PROCESS.

    TURKEY'S UNDERSECRETARY FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS ONUR OYMEN HAS BEEN TO CAIRO TO REASSURE EGYPT AND ITS NEIGHBORS THE DEAL IS NOT A HOSTILE ACT.

    /// OYMEN ACT ///

    SO THIS AGREEMENT HAS NOTHING TO DO WITH THE INTEREST OF OTHER REGIONAL COUNTRIES, AND IT IS NOT AIMED AGAINST ANY COUNTRY OF THE REGION.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. OYMEN REJECTS SUGGESTIONS THE FEBRUARY AGREEMENT WITH ISRAEL OPENS A DOOR TO ALLOWING ISRAEL TO BASE ITS WARPLANES IN TURKEY. MR. OYMEN SAYS COMPLAINTS ABOUT THE ARRANGEMENT SURFACED ONLY AFTER ISRAEL LAUNCHED ITS APRIL OFFENSIVE IN LEBANON.

    /// OYMEN ACT ///

    WHEN AGREEMENT SIGNED IT WAS PRINTED IN TURKISH MEDIA AND THERE WAS ABSOLUTELY NO REACTION FROM ANY COUNTRY OF THE WORLD. SO THEY STARTED TO REACT THE MOMENT ISRAEL STARTED TO OPERATE IN LEBANON AS IF THE TURKISH/ISRAEL AGREEMENT HAD ANYTHING TO DO WITH THESE ATTACKS. I TOLD YOU IT HAS NOTHING TO DO. THERE IS NOTHING IN COMMON.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE EXPLANATIONS MAY HAVE CALMED SOME OFFICIAL CONCERNS, BUT NOT THE ANGRY RHETORIC IN THE PRESS, ESPECIALLY IN SYRIA AND IRAN.

    ONE WESTERN DIPLOMAT IN CAIRO SUGGESTS SYRIA MAY HAVE PRODDED HEZBOLLAH GUERRILLAS IN SOUTHERN LEBANON TO ESCALATE THEIR ATTACKS AGAINST ISRAEL IN REACTION TO THE TURKEY-ISRAEL DEAL. SYRIA IS SEEN AS THE POWER BROKER IN LEBANON. THE U-S AND ISRAELI GOVERNMENTS COMPLAIN THAT SYRIA ALSO CONTROLS THE HEZBOLLAH.

    SYRIAN POLITICAL ANALYST MOHAMED SHUKRY VIEWS THE MILITARY COOPERATION AGREEMENT AS A CONSPIRACY TO SQUEEZE SYRIA. IN A PHONE INTERVIEW WITH V-O-A NEWS, HE SAYS THE AGREEMENT, COUPLED WITH ISRAEL' S CLOSE MILITARY TIES TO WASHINGTON, COULD BE SEEN AS A THINLY VEILED THREAT AGAINST DAMASCUS AND TEHRAN.

    SOME ANALYSTS SAY ISRAEL'S IMPROVED TIES WITH TURKEY TO THE NORTH AND JORDAN TO THE SOUTH INCREASE THE PRESSURE ON PRESIDENT HAFEZ AL ASSAD. ISRAEL HAS BEEN PUSHING THE RELUCTANT LEADER TO GET THE PEACE TALKS MOVING AGAIN.

    RELATIONS BETWEEN SYRIA AND TURKEY HAVE BEEN STRAINED FOR YEARS OVER DISPUTES ABOUT SHARING WATER FROM THE EUPHRATES RIVER, WHICH ORIGINATES IN TURKEY AND FLOWS THROUGH SYRIA INTO IRAQ.

    A TURKISH COMMENTATOR DESCRIBES THE TURKEY-ISRAEL DEAL ALSO AS PUNISHMENT FOR SYRIA BECAUSE OF ITS SUPPORT FOR THE KURDISH SEPARATISTS. THE U-S STATE DEPARTMENT STILL LISTS SYRIA AS A SPONSOR OF TERRORISM AND ACCUSES DAMASCUS OF ALLOWING TURKEY'S KURDISH REBELS TO TRAIN IN SYRIAN-DOMINATED AREAS OF LEBANON.

    ONE DIPLOMAT IN THE REGION SAYS TURKEY'S AGREEMENT WITH ISRAEL COULD ALSO SERVE AS A WARNING TO TURKEY'S NEIGHBOR TO THE EAST, IRAN. ISRAEL ACCUSES IRAN OF SPONSORING TERRORISTS TRYING TO SABOTAGE THE PEACE PROCESS. TURKEY COMPLAINS ABOUT IRAN'S SUPPORT FOR TURKEY'S KURDISH SEPARATISTS.

    DESPITE TURKEY'S INSISTENCE ITS MILITARY TRAINING AGREEMENT WITH ISRAEL IS NOT A HOSTILE ACT, EGYPTIAN ISLAMIC SCHOLAR FAHMY HOWEIDI SAYS IT ADDS TO A WIDESPREAD ARAB PERCEPTION ISRAEL IS CONSTANTLY PREPARING FOR WAR, NOT FOR PEACE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LK/JWH/RAE
    06-May-96 11:46 AM EDT (1546 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [07] YUGO / WAR CRIMES (L OVERNIGHTER) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

    DATE=5/6/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-196785
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE FIRST INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIAL IN ONE-HALF CENTURY IS TO BEGIN (TUESDAY) IN THE HAGUE. V-O-A CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT WAYNE COREY REPORTS A BOSNIAN SERB FACES POSSIBLE LIFE IMPRISONMENT IF HE IS FOUND GUILTY OF MURDERING OR TORTURING MUSLIMS AND CROATS IN A PRISON CAMP IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA.

    TEXT: THREE JUDGES OF THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL FOR THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA WILL HEAR STATEMENTS BY THE PROSECUTION AND THE DEFENSE AS THE TRIAL OPENS.

    IT WILL BE THE FIRST INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIAL SINCE THE VICTORIOUS WORLD-WAR-TWO ALLIES HELD THE NUREMBERG AND TOKYO TRIALS OF NAZIS AND JAPANESE WHO WERE CHARGED WITH CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY.

    IN A STATEMENT, THE U-N ESTABLISHED TRIBUNAL IN THE HAGUE SAYS THE TRIAL OF DUSAN TADIC IS INTENDED TO ASSERT THE RULE OF LAW OVER THE RULE OF THE GUN AS THIS WAR-TORN CENTURY DRAWS TO A CLOSE.

    THE PROSECUTION PLANS TO INTRODUCE WITNESSES WHO WILL TESTIFY THAT MR. TADIC, A BOSNIAN SERB, KILLED OR TORTURED MUSLIMS AND CROATS IN OR NEAR THE NOTORIOUS SERB-RUN OMARSKA PRISON CAMP IN 1992.

    DEFENSE LAWYERS WILL ARGUE MR. TADIC WAS NOT IN OMARSKA WHEN THE INCREDIBLY SADISTIC WAR CRIMES WITH WHICH HE IS CHARGED ARE SAID TO HAVE BEEN COMMITTED.

    THE DEFENSE LAWYERS WILL TRY TO CONVINCE THE JUDGES HEARING THE CASE IT IS A CASE OF MISTAKEN IDENTITY.

    DUSAN TADIC IS ONE OF ONLY THREE ALLEGED WAR CRIMINALS IN THE INTERNATIONAL TRIBUNAL'S CUSTODY. HE WAS ARRESTED IN GERMANY AND EXTRADITED TO THE HAGUE LAST YEAR. THE OTHER SUSPECTS, HELD IN THE HAGUE, ARE BOSNIAN CROATS.

    MOST OF THE MORE THAN 50 PEOPLE, INDICTED BY THE TRIBUNAL, ARE BOSNIAN SERBS. THEY INCLUDE THE SERB POLITICAL LEADER, RADOVAN KARADZIC, AND THE SERB ARMY COMMANDER, GENERAL RATKO MLADIC.

    MR. KARADZIC AND GENERAL MLADIC HAVE REFUSED TO SURRENDER TO THE TRIBUNAL, AND THE BOSNIAN SERBS SAY THEIR POLITICAL AND MILITARY LEADERS WILL NOT BE FORCIBLY SENT TO THE HAGUE.

    THE TRIAL ABOUT TO BEGIN IN THE HAGUE IS EXPECTED TO LAST SEVERAL MONTHS. IF FOUND GUILTY OF WAR CRIMES, DUSAN TADIC, WHO IS 40, COULD BE IMPRISONED FOR THE REST OF HIS LIFE.

    THE TRIBUNAL DOES NOT HAVE THE AUTHORITY TO IMPOSE THE DEATH PENALTY, AND IT WILL NOT HOLD TRIALS UNLESS THE DEFENDANTS ARE PRESENT IN COURT. (SIGNED)
    NEB/WC/JWH/RAE
    06-May-96 1:04 PM EDT (1704 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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