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Voice of America, 7 May 1996 (2 of 2)

Voice of America Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] ISRAEL AND TURKEY BY ED WARNER (WASHINGTON)
  • [02] THE BOSNIAN WAR CRIMES TRIALS BEGIN BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [03] TURKEY - IT'S PROBLEMS, IT'S TRIUMPHS BY ERICA BENIS/DEBORAH COOPER (WASHINGTON)
  • [04] U-S-BOSNIA (S) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)
  • [05] YUGO WAR CRIMES (L UPDATE) BY GILLIAN SHARPE (THE HAGUE)
  • [06] YUGO SITREP (L ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)
  • [07] YUGO TALKS (S ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

  • [01] ISRAEL AND TURKEY BY ED WARNER (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=5/7/96
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-33205
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: A NEW MILITARY AGREEMENT HAS STRENGTHENED THE TIES BETWEEN ISRAEL AND TURKEY BUT HAS CAUSED SOME FEAR AND ANGER IN THE ARAB WORLD. VOA'S ED WARNER REPORTS THE CHANGES THE PACT MAY MAKE IN THE VOLATILE MIDDLE EAST.

    TEXT: THE AGREEMENT BETWEEN ISRAEL AND TURKEY PROVIDES FOR JOINT AIRCRAFT TRAINING, EXCHANGE OF PERSONNAL AND OTHER FORMS OF MILITARY COOPERATION.

    AND IT DOES MORE THAN THAT, SAYS ALAN MAKOVSKY, A SENIOR FELLOW AT THE WASHINGTON INSTITUTE FOR NEAR EAST POLICY:

    // MAKOVSKY ACTUALITY //

    THE SIGNIFICANCE IS THAT IT BRINGS TOGETHER THE TWO MOST MILITARILY POWERFUL, MOST ECONOMICALLY DYNAMIC AND MOST ASSERTIVELY PRO-U-S STATES IN THE MIDDLE EAST. THIS IS NOT A MILITARY ALLIANCE IN THE CLASSICAL SENSE. ISRAEL AND TURKEY HAVE NOT AGREED TO COME TO ONE ANOTHER'S AID IN CASE THE OTHER IS ATTACKED. WHAT IT DOES -- AND THIS IS VERY SIGNIFICANT -- IT CHANGES THE PSYCHOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT IN THE AREA. IT CHANGES STRATEGIC CALCULATIONS, PARTICULARLY IN DAMASCUS AND IN TEHRAN.

    // END ACT //

    MR. MAKOVSKY SAYS NO JOINT ISRAEL-TURKEY ATTACK ON SYRIA OR IRAN IS CONTEMPLATED, BUT THE POSSIBILITY CANNOT BE COMPLETELY DISMISSED. THE PACT IS OBVIOUSLY INTENDED TO PUT PRESSURE ON SYRIAN PRESIDENT HAFEZ AL-ASSAD:

    // MAKOVSKY ACTUALITY //

    THE TURKS HOPE THAT IT WILL MAKE HIM CUT BACK IF NOT DISCONTINUE HIS SUPPORT FOR THE P-K-K, WHICH IS WAGING A TERRORIST INSURGENCY IN SOUTHEASTERN TURKEY AND USING SYRIA AND THE BEKAA VALLEY FOR TRAINING PURPOSES. AND ISRAEL HOPES IT WILL MAKE ASSAD MORE PLIANT ON THE PEACE PROCESS. IT REMAINS TO BE SEEN, OF COURSE, WHETHER EITHER OF THOSE WILL IN FACT RESULT OR WHETHER MR. ASSAD, FEELING CORNERED, WILL TAKE THE OPPOSITE TACK AND IN FACT INCREASE HIS SUPPORT FOR THE P-K-K OR BECOME MORE RECALCITRANT ON THE PEACE PROCESS.

    // END ACT //

    IN GENERAL, THE ARAB COUNTRIES HAVE REACTED WITH ALARM TO THE PACT, SAYS HENRY SIEGMAN, A TOP ANALYST ON THE MIDDLE EAST AT THE COUNCIL ON FOREIGN RELATIONS. THEY SAY IT IS INCONSISTENT WITH THE PEACE INITIATIVES IN THE MIDDLE EAST; INDEED A REBUKE TO THEM. AND IT COMES ON TOP OF THE ISRAELI ATTACK ON LEBANON:

    // SIEGMAN ACTUALITY //

    THERE IS VERY, VERY NEGATIVE PUBLIC OPINION ABOUT THAT IN THE ARAB WORLD. IT IS SO WIDESPREAD AND SO INTENSE THAT IT IS CREATING PROBLEMS FOR POLITICAL LEADERS WHO HAVE BEEN IN THE FOREFRONT OF THE PEACE PROCESS. AND THIS ADDED CONCERN ON THE PART OF SOME ARAB COUNTRIES THAT THIS AGREEMENT WITH TURKEY IS MORE THAN A TRAINING AGREEMENT, THAT IT INVOLVES INTELLIGENCE AND PERHAPS EVEN AGREEMENTS FOR COOPERATION IN THE EVENT OF HOSTILITIES, MAKES IT ALL THE MORE DIFFICULT.

    // END ACT //

    BUT THE ARAB REACTION SHOULD NOT BE EXAGGERATED, SAYS TALCOTT SEEYLE, A FORMER U-S AMBASSADOR TO THE MIDDLE EAST:

    // SEEYLE ACTUALITY //

    I THINK THE KIND OF RIPPLES IT WILL CAUSE ARE MILD COMPARED TO WHAT WOULD HAVE BEEN THE CASE A FEW YEARS AGO BEFORE THE ARAB GOVERNMENTS HAD RECONCILED THEMSELVES TO THE EXISTENCE OF ISRAEL. THE MOST RELEVANT POLITICAL GRIEVANCE IS THAT IT LOOKS TO SYRIA AS IF IT IS KIND OF AN ANTI-ARAB BLOC -- ISRAEL AND TURKEY AGAINST THE ARAB WORLD -- AND UNTIL SYRIA HAS A PEACE AGREEMENT WITH ISRAEL THAT GIVES THEM BACK THE GOLAN HEIGHTS, THEY FEEL THAT MAYBE THIS DIVERTS ISRAEL FROM THAT ISSUE.

    // END ACT //

    THERE IS TALK OF CREATING AN ARAB COUNTER-ALLIANCE AGAINST THE ISRAEL-TURKEY PACT, AND THE GREEK GOVERNMENT HAS BEEN HINTING AT CLOSER TIES TO SYRIA. THESE MOVES WOULD HELP POLARIZE THE REGION, BUT AMBASSADOR SEELYE SAYS HE THINKS THEY ARE MORE TALK THAN ACTION. HE BELIEVES ALL THE NATIONS HAVE ENOUGH PROBLEMS WITHOUT ADDING TO THEM. (SIGNED)
    NEB/EW/CF
    07-May-96 12:19 PM EDT (1619 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [02] THE BOSNIAN WAR CRIMES TRIALS BEGIN BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=05/07/96
    TYPE=U-S OPINION ROUNDUP
    NUMBER=6-09564
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=NEAL LAVON
    CONTENT=

    INTRO: A TEAM OF INTERNATIONAL JURISTS TODAY (5/7/96) BEGINS TRYING THE FIRST SUSPECT CHARGED WITH WAR CRIMES SINCE THE WORLD WAR TWO NUREMBURG TRIALS. A BOSNIAN SERB SOLDIER IS ACCUSED OF THE MURDER, RAPE AND TORTURE OF MOSTLY MUSLIM BOSNIAN CIVILIANS DURING THE WAR IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA THAT HAS LASTED MORE THAN FOUR YEARS.

    THE UNITED NATIONS TRIBUNAL, BEING HELD IN THE HAGUE, HAS CAUSED A GOOD DEAL OF COMMENT IN THE U-S PRESS AND HERE IS ___________________WITH A SAMPLING IN TODAY'S U-S OPINION ROUNDUP.

    TEXT: TODAY IN THE HAGUE, A YOUNG BOSNIAN SERB SOLDIER, DUSAN TADIC, FACES THE UNITED NATIONS WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL. HE IS CHARGED SPECIFICALLY WITH TORTURING AND KILLING AT LEAST 16 BOSNIAN MUSLIM CIVILIANS AT A PRISON CAMP. SO FAR, THE TRIBUNAL HAS BEEN WIDELY CRITICIZED FOR NOT BEING ABLE TO BRING BEFORE IT SOME OF THE HIGHER RANKING PEOPLE BELIEVED RESPONSIBLE FOR LARGE NUMBERS OF CIVILIAN DEATHS AND TORTURE DURING THE WAR.

    HOWEVER SOME U-S PAPERS ARE SAYING THAT EVEN WITHOUT THE PROSECUTION OF BOSNIAN SERB LEADERS, THE TRIALS ARE SENDING A POWERFUL MESSAGE. WE BEGIN OUR SAMPLING IN FLORIDA, WITH [TODAY'S] ["THE"] MIAMI HERALD."

    VOICE: "IN MANY RESPECTS THE WAR-CRIMES TRIAL THAT BEGINS TODAY IN THE HAGUE IS SYMBOLIC. THE DEFENDANT, DUSAN TADIC, A BOSNIAN SERB ... IS ACCUSED OF TORTURING AND KILLING AT LEAST 16 BOSNIAN MUSLIMS. THE CRIMES ARE HEINOUS, THE WITNESSES FEARFUL... BUT MR. TADIC IS ALSO 'SMALL POTATOES' [A MINOR FIGURE IN THE OVERALL EVENT]. HE IS NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR ORGANIZING CONCENTRATION CAMPS OR THE MASSACRES OF THREE-THOUSAND UNARMED CIVILIANS LAST SUMMER NEAR SREBRENCIA... NOR DID HE COMMAND THE SHELLING OF SARAJEVO. THOSE WHO DID, INCLUDING INDICTED BOSNIAN SERB LEADERS RADOVAN KARADZIC AND RATKO MLADIC, REMAIN AT LARGE."

    TEXT: "THE PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER" UNDERSTANDS THE SKEPTICISM OF TRYING SUCH MINOR BOSNIAN FIGURES WHILE MAJOR SUSPECTS REMAIN FREE -- BUT SEES AN OVERRIDING VALUE.

    VOICE: "ON THE SURFACE, THE INTERNATIONAL BOSNIA WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL THAT OPENS IN THE HAGUE TODAY (5/7) LOOKS LIKE AN EXERCISE IN FUTILITY. THE TRIBUNAL, ESTABLISHED BY THE DAYTON PEACE ACCORDS, IS WOEFULLY UNDERFUNDED AND UNDERSTAFFED. THE LEADERS OF CROATIA AND SERBIA, WHO HAD PLEDGED TO COOPERATE, HAVE DONE SO HALF-HEARTEDLY OR NOT AT ALL. ONLY THE BOSNIAN MUSLIM LEADERSHIP, WHOSE POPULATION WERE THE VICTIMS IN MORE THAN 80 PERCENT OF REGISTERED CASES, HAS READILY TURNED OVER INDICTED SUSPECTS. ......... SO DOES THIS TRIBUNAL SERVE ANY PURPOSE? DESPITE ITS SEVERE LIMITATIONS, THE ANSWER STILL MUST BE 'YES.'... BY COLLECTING DOCUMENTS AND TESTIMONY OF SURVIVORS, AND EXPLORING MASS GRAVE SITES, THE HAGUE TRIBUNAL IS COMPILING A RECORD THAT WILL NOT DIE."

    TEXT: "THE NEW YORK TIMES" LEADS ITS EDITORIAL COLUMN WITH THIS COMMENTARY, AGREEING THAT THE LIMITED SCOPE OF THE TRIBUNAL IS UNFORTUNATE, BUT LIKE "THE INQUIRER," SUGGESTS IT IS STILL IMPORTANT.

    VOICE: "POLITICAL AND PRACTICAL OBSTACLES MAKE IT UNLIKELY THAT MANY OF THOSE WHO ENGINEERED THE ETHNIC SLAUGHTER IN BOSNIA WILL BE CAPTURED AND BROUGHT TO TRIAL. THE UNSPOKEN PRICE OF THE DAYTON PEACE AGREEMENT SEEMS TO BE INDIFFERENCE ABOUT THE ATROCITIES COMMITTED BY ALL PARTIES DURING THE WAR. BUT WHILE THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER NATIONS MAY BE DEFEATED IN THE END BY THESE IMPEDIMENTS, THEY SHOULD BE STUBBORN IN THE PURSUIT OF JUSTICE. ..... CREDIBLE WAR CRIMES PROSECUTIONS ARE NOT ONLY IMPORTANT TO THE PROSPECTS FOR LONG-TERM PEACE IN BOSNIA, BUT ALSO BEAR ON THE COUNTRY'S CIVIL TRANQUILITY IN THE COMING MONTHS. THAT MAY AFFECT THE CLIMATE AT THE END OF NATO'S SCHEDULED WITHDRAWAL AT YEAR'S END."

    [OPT]
    "OF ALL THE ASPECTS OF THE BOSNIAN PEACE, THE PROSECUTION OF WAR CRIMINALS MAY BE THE MOST SENSITIVE AND POLITICALLY CHARGED. [OPT] PRESIDENTS [SLOBODAN] MILOSEVIC AND [FRANJO] TUDJMAN WOULD NO DOUBT LIKE TO AVOID TRIALS OF DEFENDANTS THAT MIGHT EXPOSE SUSPECTED LINKS BETWEEN THEIR OWN MILITARY FORCES AND BOSNIAN ETHNIC MILITIAS. [END OPT] BUT THE DIFFICULTY INHERENT IN HOLDING PEOPLE ACCOUNTABLE FOR THE TERRIBLE CRIMES OF THE BALKAN WAR IS NO REASON TO BRUSH OFF THE JOB."

    TEXT: "THE LOS ANGELES TIMES" IS ALSO DISAPPOINTED IN THE TRIBUNAL'S PROSPECTS FOR GAINING CONVICTIONS OF MORE IMPORTANT LEADERS, DECLARING:

    VOICE: "THE STANDARDS OF HUMANITARIAN CONDUCT CLEARLY HAVE NOT BEEN MET, EITHER IN THE FIGHTING OR IN THE ATTEMPTED APPLICATION OF THE LAW. THE DEAD AND MAIMED DESERVE MORE."

    TEXT: WITH THAT SENTIMENT, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF REVIEW OF U-S PRESS EDITORIALS ON THE UNITED NATIONS WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL ON BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA, WHICH OPENED TUESDAY IN THE NETHERLANDS.
    NEB/ANG/NL
    07-May-96 4:17 PM EDT (2017 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [03] TURKEY - IT'S PROBLEMS, IT'S TRIUMPHS BY ERICA BENIS/DEBORAH COOPER (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=5/7/96
    TYPE=INTERNATIONAL FOCUS
    NUMBER=4-09119
    TELEPHONE=619-0934/619-1874
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT= (INSERTS AVAILABLE THROUGH AUDIO SERVICES)
    CART: THEME (ESTABLISH, FADE AND HOLD UNDER) HOST: WELCOME TO "INTERNATIONAL FOCUS" ON THE VOICE OF AMERICA, A WEEKLY PROGRAM THAT PRESENTS A VARIETY OF VIEWS ON ISSUES AND EVENTS OF GLOBAL CONCERN AND INTEREST. CART: THEME (REESTABLISH, FADE AND LOSE UNDER)

    GEOPOLITICALLY SPEAKING, TURKEY COULD BE CALLED A FIREWALL BETWEEN EUROPE AND THE MIDDLE EAST. IT IS A MEMBER OF THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION. IT ALLIED WITH THE WEST IN THE GULF WAR AGAINST IRAQ AND HAS BEEN ADMITTED INTO A TRADING ALLIANCE WITH THE EUROPEAN UNION. AND TURKEY IS OFTEN HELD UP TO THE REST OF THE MIDDLE EAST AS AN EXAMPLE OF SECULAR GOVERNMENT WORKING WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF A MAJORITY MUSLIM POPULATION. LAST MONTH, HOWEVER, THE COUNTRY'S NEW CENTER-RIGHT COALITION GOVERNMENT ASSUMED POWER ONLY AFTER MAKING A POLITICAL DEAL THAT EXCLUDED THE ANTI-WESTERN ISLAMIC PARTY, WHICH WAS THE LARGEST VOTE-GETTER IN THE BALLOTING. AT THE SAME TIME, TURKEY'S ECONOMY SUFFERS FROM 80 PERCENT INFLATION AND SALARY STAGNATION. AND THE ARMED FORCES CONTINUE TO WAGE A CAMPAIGN AGAINST KURDISH SEPARATISTS IN THE SOUTHEAST, AT GREAT COST TO THE GOVERNMENT. WE'LL PROVIDE AN UPDATE ON THE TURKEY'S ONGOING WAR WITH THE KURDS LATER IN THE PROGRAM, BUT FIRST A LOOK AT ANOTHER DEVELOPMENT IN THE REGION -- TURKEY'S NEW MILITARY ACCORD WITH ISRAEL. I'M _______________________.

    LAST MONTH, WHILE THE WORLD WAS PAYING MUCH MORE ATTENTION TO THE FIGHTING BETWEEN HEZBOLLAH GUERRILLAS AND ISARELI TROOPS IN SOUTHERN LEBANON, ANOTHER EVENT OF SOME SIGNIFICANCE IN THE MIDDLE EAST EQUATION BECAME KNOWN -- THE SIGNING OF A TURKISH-ISRAELI MILITARY ACCORD.

    THE MILITARY COOPERATION AGREEMENT SIGNED IN FEBRUARY BY TURKEY AND ISRAEL -- BUT NOT MADE PUBLIC UNTIL EARLY APRIL -- IS ONLY NOW GETTING FULL AND RATHER NEGATIVE ATTENTION IN THE ARAB WORLD. MUSLIM ANALYSTS FROM CAIRO TO TEHRAN DENOUNCED THE ACCORD AS A THREAT TO THE MIDDLE EAST PEACE PROCESS.

    TURKISH-BORN SABRI SAYARI (SIGH-YAR-AY) IS THE HEAD OF THE GEORGETOWN UNIVERSITY TURKISH STUDIES INSTITUTE. HE SAYS THE AGREEMENT IS A SUBSTANTIAL DOCUMENT WHICH INCLUDES JOINT MILITARY TRAINING, EXCHANGES BETWEEN MILITARY ACADEMIES, AND PARTICIPATION OF OBSERVERS IN EACH OTHER'S EXERCISES. BUT, SAYS MR. SAYARI, THE AGREEMENT IS FAR FROM BEING A FULL-BLOWN MILITARY PACT.

    TAPE: CUT ONE SAYARI "IT IS BILLED AS ESSENTIALLY A TRAINING AND EDUCATIONAL AGREEMENT. IT DOES NOT AMOUNT TO A FORMAL MILITARY ALLIANCE. IT IS NOT DIRECTED AGAINST THIRD COUNTRIES. IT DOES NOT INVOLVE EACH COUNTRY TO COME TO EACH OTHER'S AID IN CASE OF AN ATTACK. SO IT IS NOT REALLY A STRATEGIC-MILITARY ALLIANCE IN THE FULL SENSE OF THE WORD. TURKEY HAS SIMILAR BILATERAL MILITARY TRAINING AGREEMENTS WITH ABOUT 16 COUNTRIES IN THE WORLD. AND I DON'T THINK EVERY TIME IT WANTS TO ENGAGE IN AN AGREEMENT OF THIS NATURE, IT SHOULD ASK PERMISSION FROM THE ARAB COUNTRIES."

    TEXT: ESPECIALLY -- ADDS MR. SAYARI -- SINCE TURKEY HAS BEEN VERY SUPPORTIVE OF THE MIDDLE EAST PEACE PROCESS, INCLUDING RECOGNITION OF THE PALESTINIAN AUTHORITY HEADED BY YASSER ARAFAT.

    TAPE: CUT TWO SAYARI "IT IS THE FIRST COUNTRY THAT HAS RECOGNIZED (MR.) ARAFAT'S NEW POLITICAL ENTITY. IT HAS PROVIDED A MODEST, BUT SIGNIFICANT AMOUNT OF ECONOMIC AID TO THE NEW PALESTINIAN AUTHORITY. IN DIPLOMATIC FORUMS IT HAS BEEN VERY PRO-PALESTINIAN, BUT AT THE SAME TIME IT HAS MAINTAINED GOOD RELATIONS WITH ISRAEL. I DON'T SEE HOW THIS AGREEMENT COULD BE PERCEIVED AS SOMETHING THAT IS GOING TO ADVERSELY AFFECT THE PEACE PROCESS."

    TEXT: JAN LESSER IS A SENIOR ANALYST AT THE RAND CORPORATION IN SANTA MONICA, CALIFORNIA, AND DEPUTY DIRECTOR OF RAND'S MIDDLE EAST STUDIES CENTER. HE SAYS WHAT SURPRISED WESTERN OBSERVERS THE MOST WAS THE VERY NEGATIVE REACTION FROM EGYPT.

    TAPE: CUT THREE LESSER "ONE COULD EXPECT A CERTAIN AMOUNT OF ARAB DISPLEASURE WITH THE NATURE OF THE AGREEMENT -- FOR NO OTHER REASON THAN THIS IS A MILITARILY SIGNIFICANT AGREEMENT BETWEEN NON-ARAB STATES IN THE MIDDLE EAST, WHICH OBVIOUSLY AFFECTS PERCEPTIONS. BUT THE EGYPTIAN COMMENT THAT THIS WILL AFFECT THE MILITARY BALANCE, AND THAT EGYPT WILL HAVE TO EXPLORE WHAT SORTS OF STEPS MIGHT BE TAKEN IN RESPONSE, I THINK, THIS CAUGHT MANY PEOPLE BY SURPRISE."

    TEXT: [OPT] WHAT DOESN'T COME AS A SUPRISE, SAYS MR. LESSER, IS THAT THE EGYPTIAN REACTION WOULD REFLECT BOTH EGYPT'S GEOPOLITICAL AMBITIONS, AND A CERTAIN DEGREE OF INSECURITY ABOUT WHAT THE POST COLD WAR WORLD MIGHT MEAN FOR THE MIDDLE EAST.

    TAPE: [OPT] CUT FOUR LESSER "EGYPT, LIKE MANY OTHER COUNTRIES, IS HAVING A DIFFICULT PROBLEM OF ADJUSTMENT TO WHAT IT MEANS TO BE A REGIONAL POWER IN THIS NEW WORLD, UNDER VERY DIFFICULT CONDITIONS. AND, I THINK, GIVEN THAT SENSITIVITY, THE AGREEMENT BETWEEN TURKEY AND ISRAEL SIMPLY ADDS AN ADDITIONAL COMPLICATING FACTOR, WHICH SEEMS -- IN THEIR VIEW -- TO SHIFT THE POLITICAL MILITARY BALANCE IN THE REGION IN WAYS THAT EGYPT MIGHT NOT FIND FAVORABLE. OBVIOUSLY THEY'RE STILL CONCERNED ABOUT THE MILITARY BALANCE WITH ISRAEL. DESPITE YEARS OF RATHER COLD PEACE AS A RESULT OF CAMP DAVID, THEY'RE STILL CONCERNED ABOUT THE MILITARY BALANCE WITH ISRAEL, AND THEREFORE ANYTHING THAT SUGGESTS THAT ISRAEL MIGHT BE ABLE TO HAVE GREATER FREEDOM OF ACTION IN THE REGION, IS PERHAPS WORRYING TO THEM."[END OPT]

    TEXT: MR. SAYARI POINTS OUT THAT THE NEW TURKISH-ISRAELI MILITARY AGREEMENT WILL PROVE EQUALLY BENEFICIAL TO BOTH COUNTRIES.

    TAPE: CUT FIVE SAYARI "IN TERMS OF IMPROVING THE CAPABILITY OF THE TURKISH MILITARY AS A RESULT OF LEARNING FROM THE ISRAELIS AND MAKE ESPECIALLY THE TURKISH AIR FORCE BETTER PREPARED. THE FACT THAT THE ISRAELIS WOULD BE ABLE TO USE TURKISH AIRSPACE FOR THEIR OWN TRAINING, WILL ALSO HELP THEM TO BETTER TRAIN THEIR PERSONNEL."

    TEXT: THE NEW AGREEMENT IS PART OF A WIDER PLAN FOR IMPROVING RELATIONS BETWEEN TURKEY AND ISRAEL THAT BEGAN IN 1993. ACCORDING TO SABRI SAYARI, THE VISIT TO ISRAEL, IN MARCH, BY TURKISH PRESIDENT SULEYMAN DEMIREL REFLECTS THE WARMING FRIENDSHIP BETWEEN THE TWO COUNTRIES. AND HE POINTS OUT THAT THE MILITARY AGREEMENT IS TO BE FOLLOWED BY A FREE-TRADE AGREEMENT, CULTURAL AND ACADEMIC EXCHANGES, AS WELL AS A 650-MILLION-DOLLAR ARMS CONTRACT TO UPGRADE TURKEY'S FLEET OF F-4 PHANTOM JETS.

    TAPE: CUT SIX SAYARI "THAT HAS BEEN OPENED UP FOR A BID TO DIFFERENT COMPANIES AROUND THE WORLD. I THINK THE AMERICANS, THE FRENCH, AND THE ISRAELIS WERE INTERESTED IN DOING IT. AND THE CONTRACT WAS FINALLY GIVEN TO THE ISRAELIS."

    TEXT: CRITICISM OF THE TURKISH-ISRAELI ACCORD BY MUSLIM COUNTRIES INCLUDED PROTESTS FROM BOTH IRAN AND SYRIA, TWO OF TURKEY'S SOUTHERN NEIGHBORS, WHOSE RELATIONS WITH ANKARA HAVE WORSENED RECENTLY. MR. SAYARI SAYS IRAN'S REACTION WAS TO BE EXPECTED, SIMPLY BECAUSE ANY COUNTRY THAT MAINTAINS RELATIONS WITH ISRAEL IS VIEWED UNFAVORABLY BY THE RULING MULLAHS.

    TAPE: CUT SEVEN SAYARI "THEY'VE BEEN CRITICAL OF TURKEY'S RELATIONS WITH ISRAEL ALL ALONG. NOW THIS AGREEMENT GIVES THEM SOME MORE AMMUNITION. SYRIA IS PROBABLY PERCEIVING THIS AS SOME KIND OF A PLOT HATCHED BY TWO OF ITS NEIGHBORS. I THINK THEY ARE FEARFUL THAT THIS ALLIANCE MIGHT LEAD THEM TO BEEF UP THEIR FORCES BOTH IN THE SOUTH AND IN THE NORTH. CERTAINLY IT IS SOMETHING THEY DID NOT WISH TO HAPPEN."

    TEXT: MR. SAYARI SAYS THE CRITICAL ATTENTION BEING DIRECTED AT TURKEY BY THE OTHER MUSLIM NATIONS IN THE REGION IS RATHER UNEXPECTED. HE NOTES THAT IN THE PAST, TURKEY -- WHICH IS 100 PERCENT MUSLIM -- HAS RECEIVED NEITHER THE ATTENTION NOR THE SUPPORT OF ITS MUSLIM NEIGHBORS CONCERNING SEVERAL KEY FOREIGN POLICY ISSUES.

    TAPE: CUT EIGHT SAYARI "FOR EXAMPLE, ON THE ISSUE OF CYPRUS, IN WHICH THERE IS A TURKISH MUSLIM MINORITY PITTED AGAINST THE GREAT MAJORITY; ON THE ISSUE OF TURKEY'S PROBLEM WITH THE KURDS, WITH THE P-K-K, AN ORGANIZATION WHICH HAS ITS BASE IN THE BEKAA VALLEY AND IT'S SUPPORTED BY THE SYRIAN GOVERNMENT, AGAIN THE ARAB REGIMES IN THE AREA HAVE SHOWN VERY LITTLE INTEREST IN HELPING TURKEY."

    TEXT: JAN LESSER, OF RAND'S MIDDLE EAST CENTER, SAYS THERE IS NO DOUBT THAT TURKEY SHARES A COMMON INTEREST WITH ISRAEL IN DEALING WITH THE ISSUE OF TERRORISM.

    TAPE: CUT NINE LESSER "IT HAS DIFFERENT DIMENSIONS, OBVIOUSLY, FOR THE TWO COUNTRIES, BUT SYRIA IS VIEWED AS A COMMON LINK. SYRIA HAS BEEN AN OFF AGAIN, ON AGAIN SUPPORTER OF THE KURDISTAN WORKERS PARTY -- THE P-K-K -- WHICH IS CONDUCTING A REAL VIOLENT INSURGENCY IN SOUTH TURKEY. THE HEAD OF THIS ORGANIZATION RESIDES IN DAMASCUS. AS FAR AS MOST TURKS ARE CONCERNED, SYRIA IS A LEADING SUPPORTER OF THIS PROBLEM. SO TURKEY CLEARLY HAD AN INTEREST IN LINING UP REGIONAL ALLIES IN PRESSURING SYRIA, AND INDEED DEVELOPING MEANS TO COUNTER THIS PROBLEM IN A TANGIBLE SENSE."

    TEXT: TO UNDERSTAND SYRIA'S RELATIONSHIP WITH THE THE KURDISH GUERRILLA GROUP, THE P-K-K, ONE MUST LOOK AT WHAT THE FACTS BEHIND SYRIA'S RELATIONSHIP WITH TURKEY. VERA SAEED POUR, DIRECTOR OF THE KURDISH LIBRARY IN NEW YORK, EXPLAINS.

    TAPE: CUT TEN - SAEED POUR "TURKEY HOLDS THE SPIGOT OF THE WATER WHICH COMES FROM THE KURDISH REGION THAT SYRIA WANTS. AND THE ONLY CARD THEY HAVE TO PLAY AGAINST TURKEY TO MAKE SURE THEY GET WHAT THE WANT, OR SOMETHING CLOSE TO WHAT THEY WANT, IS THE P-K-K.

    TEXT: THE AGREEMENT BETWEEN ISRAEL AND TURKEY CAME AS TURKEY LAUNCHED ITS SPRING OFFENSIVE AGAINST THE KURDISH REBELS FROM ITS SOUTHEAST REGION.

    MS. SAEED POUR SAYS TURKEY BELIEVES THE ONLY SOLUTION TO THE KURDISH PROBLEM IS A MILITARY ONE.

    TAPE: CUT ELEVEN - SAEED POUR "AND THEY STILL INSIST IN TURKEY THERE IS NO KURDISH PROBLEM; THERE IS A TERRORIST PROBLEM. SO THAT THE KURDISH GUERRILLAS ARE SIMPLY DISMISSED AND DENEGRATED AS TERRORISTS."

    TEXT: ALAN MAKOVSKY OF THE WASHINGTON INSTITUTE ON NEAR EAST POLICY SAYS THAT WHILE MANY TURKISH OFFICIALS MAY STILL INSIST ON USING THE MILITARY OPTION, THE NEW COALITION GOVENMENT HAS INDICATED A DESIRE TO LOOK FOR OTHER SOLUTIONS.

    TAPE: CUT TWELVE - MAKOVSKY "AND I BELIEVE THIS YEAR, UNLIKE IN PAST YEARS, THE TURKS ARE NOT SAYING THAT THIS IS THE FINAL PUSH AND THAT PROBLEM WILL BE SOLVED THIS YEAR. I THINK THE ESTABLISHMENT HAS BECOME RESIGNED TO THE FACT THAT THIS IS A LONG-TERM PROBLEM, AND INDEED THE PRIME MINISTER OF TURKEY HAS SAID THAT THE PROBLEM CANNOT BE SOLVED MILITARILY."

    TEXT: THE MODERN STATE OF TURKEY WAS FORMED IN 1923. IT INCORPORATED MANY EHTINIC GROUPS, THE LARGEST WERE THE TURKS, THE SECOND LARGEST --THE KURDS. FOR THE SAKE OF CREATING NATIONAL UNITY, THE IDEA WAS PUT FORWARD BY THE STATE --- IN TEXTBOOKS AND IN ALL OFFICAL THINKING AND PROCLAMATIONS -- THAT ALL RESIDENTS OF TURKEY WERE ETHNICALLY TURKS. KURDS WERE DENIED THEIR CULTURAL AND LINGUISTIC RIGHTS. AND AS LONG AS THAT WAS THE VIEW, IT WAS IMPOSSIBLE FOR ANY SERIOUS MOVEMENT TO BE MADE TOWARDS KURDISH RIGHTS. BUT IN 1991, THINGS BEGAN TO CHANGE. THE KURDISH LANGUAGE WAS LEGALIZED AT THE INITATIVE OF TURKEY'S LATE PRESIDENT TURGOT OZAL. AND THEN PRIME MINISTER SULEYMAN DEMIREL SAID HIS GOVERNMENT RECOGNIZED THE KURDISH REALITY. ALAN MAKOVSKY SAYS THAT WAS A WATERSHED IN TURKISH POLITICAL HISTORY. MR. MAKOVSKY SAYS THE SOLUTION TO THE PROBLEM WILL REQUIRE POLITICAL MEASURES.

    TAPE: CUT THIRTEEN - MAKOVSKY "BUT THAT IS NOT TO SAY THAT THE TURKISH MILITARY IS MISTAKEN IN FIGHTING THE P-K-K. OF COURSE, IT HAS TO FIGHT THE P-K-K BECAUSE THE P-K-K IS ASSAULTING ITS TERRITORIAL INTERGRITY. WHAT THEY REALLY NEED IS TO FIND A TWO-TRACK SOLUTION. THEY NEED TO CONTINUE TO ROUT OUT THE P-K-K. ON THE OTHER HAND, THE ONLY REAL SOLUTION TO THE KURDISH PROBLEM IN TURKEY WILL BE POLITICAL REFORM THAT WILL GIVE THE KURDS FULL POLITICAL, CULTURAL AND LINGUISTIC RIGHTS OF EXPRESSION."

    TEXT: THE TURKS HAVE MADE SERIOUS GAINS PARTICULARLY, OVER THE LAST TWO YEARS, IN ROUTING OUT THE P-K-K. THE GUERRILLA GROUP NO LONGER CONTROLS CERTAIN TOWNS AS IT DID A FEW YEARS AGO. THE AREAS IT STILL CONTROLS ARE SPARSELY POPULATED. BUT TURKEY'S MILITARY GAINS HAVE COME AT AN ENORMOUS COST. AT LEAST 15-HUNDRED KURDISH VILLAGES AND HAMLETS HAVE BEEN DESTROYED. AND MORE IMPORTANT, SOME PEOPLE SAY, HAS BEEN THE DISPLACEMENT OF MORE THAN A MILLION PEOPLE -- MAINLY KURDS IN SOUTHEASTERN TURKEY.

    TAPE: CUT FOURTEEN - SAEED POUR "THE MILITARY CAMPAIGN HAS GONE ON ABSOLUTELY FULL FORCE IN TURKEY AGAINST THE KURDS."

    TEXT: VERA SAEED POUR LIKENS THE MILITARY OFFENSIVE AGAINST THE KURDS IN SOUTHEASTERN TURKEY TO SADDAM HUSSEIN'S TREATMENT OF THE KURDISH POPULATION OF NORTHERN IRAQ.

    TAPE: CUT FIFTEEN - SAEED POUR "THE ONLY DIFFERENCE IS THAT THERE IS FULL SUPPORT OF TURKEY'S WESTERN ALLIES FOR THAT CAMPAIGN. ALTHOUGH IN PUBLIC RHETORIC THEY MAKE REMARKS LIKE TURKEY IS INVOLVED IN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES AND THOSE HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES OUGHT TO BE CORRECTED. WELL, THE REALITY IS WE ARE NOT TALKING ABOUT HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES; WE'RE TALKING ABOUT A STRUCTURAL POLITICAL PROBLEM. BUT THE WEST DOESN'T WANT TO DEAL WITH IT AS A POLITICAL PROBLEM. AND SINCE THEY CONTINUE TO DESIGNATE ABDULLAH OCALAN, THE LEADER OF THE P-K-K, AS A TERRORIST, THEY SAY WE DON'T NEGOTIATE WITH TERRORISTS. THE FACT IS I WENT TO BED ONE NIGHT AND (P-L-O LEADER) YASSER ARAFAT WAS A TERRORIST. WHEN I WOKE UP IN THE MORNING, HE WAS A STATESMAN."

    TEXT: MRS. SAEED POUR SAYS THERE HAS BEEN NO PROGRESS IN GETTING THE PARTIES TO THE NEGOTIATING TABLE, AND SHE ARGUES THAT THE UNITED STATES HAS DONE VERY LITTLE TO ENCOURAGE ITS ALLY TO END THE CIVIL WAR.

    TAPE: CUT SIXTEEN - SAEED POUR "THE UNITED STATES HAS BOLDLY REFUSED TO PRESS TURKEY BEHIND THE SCENES, TO SAY THE ONLY WAY TO STOP THIS IS TO NEGOTIATE WITH THEM, IS TO BRING THEM TO ANKARA. AS LONG AS TURKEY GETS UNBRIDLED SUPPORT FROM THE UNITED STATES AND ITS WESTERN ALLIES, AND PARTICULARLY THE UNTIED STATES AND GERMANY, THEN THEY WILL CONTINUE ALONG THAT PATH AND MORE PEOPLE WILL DIE AND MORE VILLAGES WILL BE DESTROYED."

    TEXT: ALAN MAKOVSKY DISAGREES. HE SAYS THE UNITED STATES HAS CRITICIZED TURKEY'S EXCESSES IN FIGHTING THE P-K-K.

    TAPE: CUT SEVENTEEN - MAKOVSKY "BUT THE OVER-ARCHING VIEW THAT THE U-S TAKES, AND I THINK CORRECTLY, IS THAT THE P-K-K IS A TERRORIST ORGANIZATION, THAT THE TURKISH GOVERNMENT HAS A RIGHT TO FIGHT THE P-K-K. AND SO IT IS WITHIN THAT CONTEXT THAT THE U-S MAKES ITS CRITICISM."

    TEXT: VERA SAEED POUR SAYS THE P-K-K HAS DECLARED SEVERAL UNILATERAL CEASEFIRES WHICH HAVE BEEN IGNORED BY THE TURKS. AND SHE SAYS THE GUERRILLA ORGANIZATION'S LEADER HAS MODIFIED HIS DEMANDS.

    TAPE: CUT EIGHTEEN - SAEED POUR/MAKOVSKY (SAEED POUR) "OCALAN HAS TALKED ABOUT NOT BREAKING UP TURKEY'S BORDERS BUT HAVING A FEDERATED KURDISH AREA THAT'S WITHIN THE BOUNDARIES OF TURKEY." (MAKOVSKY) "IN RECENT TIMES THE P-K-K HAS OCCASSIONALLY SAID THAT IT'S NO LONGER AIMING FOR A SEPARATE STATE, BUT IT HAS REALLY NOT CLARIFIED THAT ISSUE. AND THE TURKS HAVE EVERY REASON TO THINK THAT THAT IS STILL ITS STRATEGIC GOAL."

    TEXT: ALAN MAKOVSKY POINTS OUT THAT THE TURKISH GOVERNMENT DOES NOT FEEL THAT THE P-K-K IS A LEGITMATE ORGANIZATION.

    TAPE: CUT NINETEEN - MAKOVSKY "FROM THEIR POINT OF VIEW, THE P-K-K HAS NO RIGHT TO ACT AS AN INTERLOCUTOR ON THE KURDISH PROBLEM."

    TEXT: TURKEY, SAYS MR. MAKOVSKY, IS NOW IN A TRANSITION PERIOD.

    TAPE: CUT TWENTY - MAKOVSKY "I THINK IT IS GOING IN THE RIGHT DIRECTION, BUT I THINK IT'S GOING TO TAKE SOME TIME. I THINK THE LONG TERM SOLUTION TO THIS PROBLEM IS GOING TO HAVE TO TAKE PLACE WITHIN THE DEMOCRATIC STRUCTURE OF TURKEY WHICH IS GOING TO HAVE A LONG AND DIFFICULT ADJUSTMENT TO THE IDEA BEFORE FULL KURDISH RIGHTS ARE ALLOWED. HOWEVER, I'M CONVINCED THAT THE TREND IS SET AND THAT IT WILL IN FACT HAPPEN, ALTHOUGH IT MAY TAKE SEVERAL YEARS. I THINK AMONG THE MORE ENCOURAGING DEVELOPMENTS IS THE FACT THAT THE TURKISH GOVERNMENT HAS ALLOWED A PRO-KURDISH RIGHTS PARTY TO PARTICIPATE IN A NATIONAL ELECTION FOR THE FIRST TIME -- THE SO-CALLED PEOPLE'S DEMOCRACY PARTY, OR 'HADEP' AS IT IS KNOWN BY ITS TURKISH ACRONYM. TWO PREDECESSORS TO THAT PARTY HAD BEEN OPENED AND CLOSED BY THE TURKISH GOVERNMENT BECAUSE OF ALLEGED ASSOCIATION WITH TERRORISTS BEFORE THEY WERE EVER ALLOWED TO PARTICIPATE IN ELECTIONS. THIS PARTY HAS BEEN ALLOWED TO PARTICIPATE IN ELECTIONS. IT HAS REMAINED OPEN, AND IT WILL BE PARTICPATING IN UPCOMING LOCAL ELECTIONS IN JUNE. SO, I THINK THAT IS ONE SIGN OF HOPE THAT THINGS ARE LOOSENING UP IN TURKEY."

    TEXT: ALAN MAKOVSKY OF THE WASHINGTON INSTITUTE FOR NEAR EAST POLICY BELIEVES THE KURDISH INSURGENCY ONLY COMPLICATES THE PROCESS.

    TAPE: CUT TWENTY-ONE - MAKOVSKY "I THINK AT THIS POINT THE BEST THING THE P-K-K CAN DO IS DECLARE A PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND LET'S SEE HOW IT GOES WITH THE PRO-KURDISH RIGHTS PARTY IN TURKEY, WITH THE POSITIVE DECLARATION ABOUT THE KURDISH ISSUE, AND LET'S SEE IF REFORM CAN TAKE PLACE OVER THE NEXT YEAR OR SO. I THINK THERE IS SOME REASON TO BE GUARDEDLY OPTIMISTIC, AT LEAST HOPEFUL THE PROBEM WILL BE SOLVED WITHIN A PEACEFUL FRAMEWORK."

    TEXT: FOR VERA SAEED POUR, DIRECTOR OF THE KURDISH LIBRARY IN NEW YORK, IT IS ONLY A MATTER OF TIME BEFORE TURKEY WILL HAVE TO RESOLVE THE ISSUE.

    TAPE: CUT TWENTY-TWO - SAEED POUR "I WILL SAY THIS -- IF WE COULD LOOK 50 YEARS DOWN THE ROAD THEY WILL HAVE TO BECAUSE THE KURDISH POPULATION IS GROWING AT SUCH A RATE THAT THEY WILL BECOME MAJORITY IN TURKEY. ISTANBUL IS PREDOMINATELY KURDISH NOW FROM ALL THE PEOPLE WHO FLED THE FIGHTING IN THE KURDISH AREAS AND FLED TO THE BIG CITIES. THE WAR CAN CONTINUE AND GROW WORSE OR THEY CAN NEGOTIATE. AND YOU KNOW THAT WITH EVERY SINGLE CONFLICT SITUATION, WHERE DOES IT HAVE TO END -- AT THE NEGOTIATING TABLE." CART: THEME MUSIC (ESTABLISH THEN UNDER)

    TEXT: YOU HAVE BEEN LISTENING TO INTERNATIONAL FOCUS ON THE VOICE OF AMERICA. TODAY'S PROGRAM ON THE TURKEY WAS WRITTEN BY DEBORAH COOPER AND ERICA BENIS, EDITED BY PHIL HAYNES, DIRECTED BY ________ AND PRODUCED BY____________. I'M ____________. JOIN US AGAIN NEXT WEEK AT THIS SAME TIME FOR ANOTHER LOOK AT GLOBAL EVENTS ON INTERNATIONAL FOCUS. CART: THEME MUSIC (TO END AS NEEDED)
    NEB/DC/EB/PCH
    07-May-96 3:43 PM EDT (1943 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [04] U-S-BOSNIA (S) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)

    DATE=5/7/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-196845
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED STATES IS EXPRESSING CONCERN ABOUT THE FAILURE OF BOSNIAN SERBS TO ALLOW FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT IN BOSNIA. V-O-A'S CORRESPONDENT RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT.

    TEXT: THE DAYTON PEACE AGREEMENT PROMISED THE RETURN OF REFUGEES TO THEIR HOMES AND ELECTIONS FOR A NEW BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT IN AUGUST OR SEPTEMBER OF THIS YEAR. HOWEVER, MANY MUSLIM REFUGEES THAT HAVE DARED TO VISIT THEIR HOMES UNDER CONTROL OF THE BOSNIAN SERBS HAVE BEEN STONED OR EVEN SHOT.

    THE STATE DEPARTMENT SAYS FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT IN BOSNIA IS THE KEY TO ELECTIONS BEING HELD. SPOKESMAN NICHOLAS BURNS BLAMES THE BOSNIAN SERBS FOR FAILING TO MEET THEIR RESPONSIBILITIES.

    ///BURNS ACT///

    IT'S REALLY AN ISSUE OF THE WILLINGNESS OF THE SERBS, FOR INSTANCE,AND THE PALE SERBS, IN PARTICULAR, TO ALLOW MUSLIMS FOR INSTANCE TO RETURN TO AREAS FROM WHICH THEY WERE DRIVEN THREE OR FOUR YEARS AGO.

    ///END ACT///

    THE SPOKESMAN REJECTS CRITICISM OF THE BOSNIA PEACE FORCE FOR NOT MAKING SURE REFUGEES CAN TRAVEL SAFELY.

    ///BURNS ACT///

    IT'S NOW THE RESPONSIBILITY PRIMARILY OF THE COUNTRIES INVOLVED HERE OF SERBIA, CROATIA AND BOSNIA AND OF THE REPRESENTATIVES OF THOSE COUNTRIES, BOTH IN THEIR CAPITALS AND IN THE CITIES AND TOWNS.

    ///END ACT///

    STATE DEPARTMENT OFFICIAL JOHN KORNBLUM HAS MET WITH THE LEADERS OF ALL THREE COUNTRIES TO EMPHASIZE THE NEED FOR FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT TO PREPARE THE PLANNED ELECTIONS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PT
    07-May-96 3:46 PM EDT (1946 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [05] YUGO WAR CRIMES (L UPDATE) BY GILLIAN SHARPE (THE HAGUE)

    DATE=5/7/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-196827
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: FOR THE FIRST TIME SINCE TRIALS AT NUREMBERG AND TOKYO 50 YEARS AGO, A MAN IS ON TRIAL AT AN INTERNATIONAL TRIBUNAL CHARGED WITH WAR CRIMES. A BOSNIAN SERB -- 40 YEAR OLD DUSAN TADIC -- IS CHARGED BY THE U-N WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL WITH CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY COMMITTED IN 1992 IN NORTHWESTERN BOSNIA. AS GILLIAN SHARPE REPORTS FROM THE HAGUE, HE HAS PLEADED INNOCENT TO ALL THE CHARGES.

    TEXT: DUSAN TADIC ARRIVED AT THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL HANDCUFFED AND AMID TIGHT SECURITY. HE HAS BEEN HELD AT THE U-N DETENTION CENTER JUST OUTSIDE THE HAGUE FOR MORE THAN A YEAR NOW, AND HIS LAWYER SAYS HE VIEWS THIS TRIAL WITH MIXED EMOTIONS.

    MR. TADIC HIMSELF TOLD DUTCH TELEVISION -- IN A TELEPHONE INTERVIEW FROM PRISON -- THAT HE HAS NOTHING TO HIDE.

    /// TADIC ACT - FADE UNDER TRANSLATION ///

    EVERYTHING THEY CHARGE ME WITH IS LIES, ABSOLUTELY. ITS SAD THAT THE PROSECUTOR ACCEPTED THESE LIES AT FACE VALUE. IN THE PAST TWO YEARS, HE HAS TAKEN NO TROUBLE TO VERIFY EVEN ONE FACT ABOUT ME.

    /// END ACT ///

    APPEARING IN THE DOCK, DRESSED IN A DARK SUIT, DUSAN TADIC WATCHED CLOSELY AS PROCEEDINGS OPENED IN THE FIRST INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIAL IN ONE-HALF CENTURY.

    /// OPT ///

    PRESIDING JUDGE GABRIELLE KIRK MCDONALD OPENED THE TRIAL.

    ///// OPT // ACT MCDONALD ///

    THE EXTEND OF PRE-TRIAL DISCUSSIONS THAT HAVE TAKEN PLACE, THE MANY PRE-TRIAL MOTIONS THAT HAVE BEEN DEALT WITH--HAVE ALL BEEN AIMED AT INSURING THAT THIS FIRST TRIAL WILL BE CONDUCTED AS FAIRLY AND AS EXPEDITIOUSLY AS POSSIBLE, WITH JUSTICE BEING BOTH DONE AND BEING SEEN TO BE DONE. REGARDLESS OF ALL THE APPARENT TRAPPINGS OF OF TODAY, THAT IS OUR SOLE RAISON D'ETRE.

    /// END ACT ///

    /// OPT ///

    JUDGE MCDONALD HAD SEVERAL IMPORTANT DECISIONS TO MAKE. SHE ALLOWED A DEFENSE REQUEST TO PERMIT WITNESSES TO TESTIFY BY A VIDEO LINK FROM THE TERRITORY OF REPUBLIKA SRBSKA. AND SHE AGREED WITH THE PROSECUTION THAT, FOR THE MOMENT, A RAPE CHARGE AGAINST DUSAN TADIC SHOULD BE WITHDRAWN. THE ALLEGED VICTIM IS TOO SCARED TO TESTIFY. /// END OPT ///

    LEAD PROSECUTOR GRANT NIEMANN TOLD THE COURT THE EVIDENCE HE WILL PRESENT TELLS A STORY OF UNSPEAKABLE HORROR, WHICH STRAINS HUMAN IMAGINATION. THERE IS NO DOUBT, HE SAID, THAT DUSAN TADIC IS GUILTY:

    /// NIEMANN ACT ///

    THE EVIDENCE WILL SHOW THAT HE WAS PERMITTED TO ENTER CAMPS ALMOST AT RANDOM, AND TO CARRY OUT ASSAULTS, MURDERS, RAPES AND SEXUAL ASSAULTS ON PRISONERS HE HAD SELECTED. IT SEEMS THAT HE WAS ALSO PERMITTED TO BRING HIS ACCOMPLICES WITH HIM IN ORDER TO ASSIST HIM, IN HIS RAMPAGE OF VIOLENCE AND TERROR. HE, ALONG WITH MANY OTHERS WHO PERFORMED THESE TASKS, WAS SEEN WITH LISTS OF NAMES IN THEIR HANDS, WHICH LISTS THEY CONSULTED BEFORE PULLING OUT LISTS OF VICTIMS SPECIALLY SELECTED FOR TORTURE.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE DEFENSE IS EXPECTED TO CALL ABOUT 30 WITNESSES OF ITS OWN TO ESTABLISH ITS ANSWER OF ALIBI. LEAD DEFENSE ATTORNEY MICHAIL WLADIMIROFF TOLD THE TRIBUNAL THAT THE STRENGTH OF HIS CASE WAS DIMINISHED BY DEFECTS IN THE TRIBUNAL ITSELF. AN EXPERIMENT IN JUSTICE, HE ARGUED, SHOULD NOT BE CARRIED OUT AT THE EXPENSE OF HIS CLIENT. HE SAID THE TRIBUNAL HAD GONE FOR THE EASY VICTIM. AND HIS CLIENT WAS BEING PUNISHED FOR THE CRIMES OF OTHERS.

    /// WLADIMIROFF ACT ///

    WE ARE THEREFOR DEEPLY CONCERNED ABOUT THE QUALITY OF THIS TRIAL. AND WE FEAR THAT EVENTUALLY IT WILL NOT MEET THE DEMANDS OF JUSTICE. WE ARE STANDING ON THE EDGE OF A FAIR TRIAL. DO NOT PUSH US OVER THAT EDGE. HELP US TO STAY ON THE RIGHT SIDE AND TO PUT FORWARD OUR CASE. IF YOU ENABLE US, IF YOU ENABLE OUR WITNESSES TO TESTIFY, YOU WILL NOT CONVICT MR. TADIC.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE ISSUE, SAID MR. WLADIMIROFF, IS WHETHER AN ADEQUATE DEFENSE COULD BE MOUNTED IN A SYSTEM WHERE, HE ARGUED, EVEN THE PROSECUTION SEEMED UNSURE OF EXACTLY WHAT IT HAD TO PROVE.

    THE DEFENSE STATEMENT BRINGS INTO FOCUS THE ISSUE WHICH IS AT THE VERY HEART OF THIS TRIAL. IN THE WORDS OF THE TRIBUNAL'S CHIEF PROSECUTOR, RICHARD GOLDSTONE, IF THE TADIC TRIAL IS NOT JUDGED TO HAVE BEEN FAIR, THEN THE UNITED NATIONS WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL IS IN TROUBLE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/GS/JWH/GPT
    07-May-96 11:27 AM EDT (1527 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [06] YUGO SITREP (L ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

    DATE=5/7/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-196835
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE U-S ENVOY TO THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA HAS DISCUSSED WAYS TO STRENGTHEN THE FALTERING PEACE PROCESS IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA WITH SERBIA'S PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC IN BELGRADE. V-O-A'S CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT, WAYNE COREY, REPORTS WHILE BOSNIA'S FUTURE IS UNCERTAIN, CROATIA AND YUGOSLAVIA HAVE TAKEN MORE STEPS TO NORMALIZE THEIR RELATIONS.

    TEXT: U-S ENVOY JOHN KORNBLUM AND PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC MET FOR NEARLY THREE HOURS AT A TIME WHEN THE PEACE PROCESS IN BOSNIA FACES ANOTHER CRITICAL PERIOD.

    MR. KORNBLUM TOLD REPORTERS IN BELGRADE PRACTICAL AND PRAGMATIC STEPS TO RESOLVE PROBLEMS SUCH AS A LACK OF FREE MOVEMENT IN BOSNIA ARE NEEDED TO MOVE THE PEACE PROCESS FORWARD.

    HE SAYS HE AND PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC DISCUSSED WAYS TO OVERCOME OBSTACLES TO FREE MOVEMENT, WHICH IS GUARANTEED BY THE BOSNIAN PEACE AGREEMENT.

    THE ENVOY GAVE NO DETAILS. BUT, HE IS BELIEVED TO HAVE REQUESTED THE SERBIAN LEADER'S SUPPORT IN PUTTING PRESSURE ON THE BOSNIAN SERBS TO PERMIT MUSLIMS AND CROATS TO ENTER THEIR TERRITORY.

    MR. KORNBLUM SAYS OTHER ISSUES NEEDING TO BE RESOLVED INCLUDE ARMS CONTROL IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA AND THE FATE OF WAR CRIMINALS.

    INTERNATIONAL OFFICIALS IN SARAJEVO RECENTLY SAID THEY EXPECTED MORE PRESSURE TO BE PUT ON MR. MILOSEVIC TO FORCE BOSNIAN-SERB LEADER RADOVAN KARADZIC AND SERB-ARMY COMMANDER GENERAL RATKO MLADIC TO GIVE UP POWER. BOTH HAVE BEEN INDICTED FOR WAR CRIMES.

    ALTHOUGH THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY FACES MAJOR PROBLEMS IN BOSNIA -- CROATIA AND YUGOSLAVIA HAVE TAKEN MORE STEPS TO NORMALIZE THEIR RELATIONS.

    THE MAIN HIGHWAY BETWEEN ZAGREB AND BELGRADE HAS BEEN RE-OPENED TO INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC, FIVE-YEARS AFTER CROATIA'S BLOODY BUT SUCCESSFUL FIGHT FOR INDEPENDENCE.

    CROATIA HAS ALSO RE-OPENED A KEY SECTION OF A VITAL OIL PIPELINE THAT EXTENDS FROM THE COUNTRY'S ADRIATIC COAST TO A REFINERY NEAR BELGRADE.

    THE SLOWLY IMPROVING RELATIONS BETWEEN CROATIA AND YUGOSLAVIA ARE CONSIDERED VITAL TO LONG-TERM PEACE IN THE HISTORICALLY UNSTABLE BALKANS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/WC/JWH/RAE
    07-May-96 12:33 PM EDT (1633 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [07] YUGO TALKS (S ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

    DATE=5/7/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-196828
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE AMERICAN PEACE ENVOY TO THE BALKANS, JOHN KORNBLUM, HAS HELD IMPORTANT TALKS WITH SERBIA'S PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC IN BELGRADE. THE TALKS FOCUSED ON SOME MAJOR PROBLEMS IN POST-WAR BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA, INCLUDING SERB RESTRICTIONS ON THE RIGHT OF FREE MOVEMENT. V-O-A'S CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT, WAYNE COREY, REPORTS.

    TEXT: AFTER NEARLY THREE-HOURS OF TALKS WITH PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC, THE AMERICAN ENVOY SAYS PRACTICAL AND PRAGMATIC STEPS ARE NEEDED TO ADVANCE THE PEACE PROCESS IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA.

    THE ENVOY SAYS HE AND MR. MILOSEVIC DISCUSSED WAYS TO IMPLEMENT THE BOSNIAN PEACE AGREEMENT'S FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT PROVISION. THE BOSNIAN SERBS HAVE BEEN SEVERELY RESTRICTING THE ENTRY OF NON-SERBS INTO THEIR TERRITORY.

    ACCORDING TO MR. KORNBLUM, OTHER IMPORTANT AND UNRESOLVED ISSUES ARE THE FATE OF INDICTED WAR CRIMINALS LIKE THE BOSNIAN SERB POLITICAL AND MILITARY LEADERS, AND ARMS CONTROL IN THE BALKANS.

    HE SAYS HE WANTS TO TRY TO RESOLVE THESE PROBLEMS BEFORE THE OPTION OF RESTORING INTERNATIONAL SANCTIONS AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA AND THE BOSNIAN SERBS IS CONSIDERED.

    THE U-S PEACE ENVOY EARLIER VISITED SARAJEVO AND ZAGREB TO HELP PREPARE FOR A MAJOR BIG-POWER REVIEW OF THE SITUATION IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. (SIGNED)
    NEB/WC/MH/RAE
    07-May-96 11:16 AM EDT (1516 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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