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Voice of America, 9 May 1996 (2 of 2)

Voice of America Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] THURSDAY'S EDITORIALS BY DAN NOBLE (WASHINGTON)
  • [02] BOSNIA / OGATA (S) BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (SARAJEVO)
  • [03] BOSNIA CLASHES (L ONLY) BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)
  • [04] BOSNIA SITREP (S ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)
  • [05] KOSOVO TENSIONS BY ED WARNER (WASHINGTON)
  • [06] TURKEY / POLITICS (L ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)
  • [07] YUGO / HUMAN RIGHTS (L ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)
  • [08] YUGO WAR CRIMES (L UPDATE) BY GILLIAN SHARPE (THE HAGUE)
  • [09] YUGOSLAV WAR CRIMES (S) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

  • [01] THURSDAY'S EDITORIALS BY DAN NOBLE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=05/09/96
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-00000
    TELEPHONE=619-1014
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-T ON THURSDAY, MAY 9TH //

    INTRO: THE FUTURE OF DEMOCRACY IN RUSSIA, WHICH HOLDS ELECTIONS NEXT MONTH, COMES IN FOR SOME ATTENTION IN THURSDAY'S U-S PRESS EDITORIALS. OTHER SUBJECTS COVERED INCLUDE DEVELOPMENTS IN THE MIDDLE EAST, AND BOSNIAN WAR CRIMES. NOW, HERE IS ________________ WITH SOME EXCERPTS IN TODAY'S EDITION OF EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS ARE SCHEDULED TO TAKE PLACE IN RUSSIA ON JUNE 16TH. AMONG THE CANDIDATES IS RUSSIA'S CURRENT PRESIDENT, BORIS YELTSIN. BUT RECENTLY, ALEKSANDER KORZHAKOV, A VETERAN OF THE SOVIET K-G-B SECURITY POLICE AND ONE OF MR. YELTSIN'S ADVISORS, "BROACHED IN PUBLIC WHAT HE CALLED HIS PERSONAL DESIRE TO POSTPONE THE ELECTION." THE BOSTON GLOBE OFFERS THIS COMMENT:

    VOICE: "IF THE ELECTION IS NOT POSTPONED, THERE COULD BE BLOODSHED AND CIVIL WAR, YELTSIN'S ERSTWHILE BODYGUARD WARNED. KORZHAKOV'S RATIONALE MIGHT SOUND PREPOSTEROUS TO AMERICAN EARS, BUT ITS CALCULATED EFFECT WAS TO EVOKE RUSSIAN MEMORIES OF EARLIER POWER STRUGGLES AND, IN PARTICULAR, THE PUTSCH MOUNTED BY THE BOLSHEVIKS IN 1917 AND THE ENSUING CATASTROPHIC CIVIL WAR. KORZHAKOV RUNS YELTSIN'S CAMPAIGN OPERATION, SO MEMBERS OF THE POLITICAL CLASS IN RUSSIA ASSUME HIS TRIAL BALLOON REFLECTS UNRELEASED POLLS SHOWING THAT GENNADY ZYUGANOV, THE CANDIDATE OF COMMUNISTS AND EXTREME NATIONALISTS, IS HEADED FOR A LANDSLIDE VICTORY... THE HARD TRUTH IS THAT THE FUTURE OF DEMOCRACY IN RUSSIA WILL BE BLEAK IF ELECTIONS ARE POSTPONED OR IF ZYOGANOV'S NATIONAL-SOCIALIST COALITION COMES TO POWER THROUGH THE BALLOT BOX. AT THIS STAGE THERE IS LITTLE WASHINGTON CAN DO BUT COMMEND DEMOCRATIC PRACTICE AND PRAY FOR THE BEST."

    TEXT: THE NEW YORK TIMES TELLS READERS TODAY THAT: "WHEN A COUNTRY THAT HAS KNOWN CENTURIES OF TYRANNY PREPARES TO ELECT ITS LEADER FREELY FOR THE FIRST TIME, THERE IS BOUND TO BE SOME POLITICAL TURBULENCE. THE QUESTION IN RUSSIA," CONTINUES THE NEWSPAPER'S EDITORIAL, "IS WHETHER THE VOLATILITY CAN BE CONTAINED."

    VOICE: "DEMOCRATIC ELECTIONS DO NOT ALWAYS PRODUCE ENLIGHTENED LEADERS, NOR DO THEY NECESSARILY HEAL BITTER DIVISIONS. BUT THEY ARE THE ANCHOR OF A DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY, AND THE JUDGMENT OF VOTERS MUST BE RESPECTED. A COMMUNIST VICTORY AT THE BALLOT BOX, HOWEVER DISTURBING TO RUSSIAN REFORMERS AND THEIR SUPPORTERS IN THE WEST, IS NOT THE SAME AS AN ARMED SEIZURE OF POWER. WHAT RUSSIA NEEDS IS NOT AN ESCAPE FROM ELECTIONS BUT A STRONG PUBLIC COMMITMENT FROM ALL CANDIDATES TO HONOR THE RESULTS, TO CONDUCT A PEACEFUL TRANSITION TO A NEW GOVERNMENT OR A SECOND YELTSIN ADMINISTRATION, AND TO PURSUE THEIR INTERESTS DEMOCRATICALLY NOW AND IN THE FUTURE."

    TEXT: NEWSDAY, A SUBURBAN NEW YORK NEWSPAPER, OFFERS AN OPINION ON THE FORMAL START THIS WEEK "OF NEGOTIATIONS FOR THE FINAL STAGE OF THE MIDEAST PEACE PROCESS. THE NEWSPAPER NOTES THAT AMONG THE ISSUES THAT MUST BE RESOLVED ARE PALESTINIAN STATEHOOD, ISRAELI SETTLEMENTS ON THE WEST BANK, AND THE STATUS OF JERUSALEM.

    VOICE: "THE KEY TO SUCCESS IS A STEADY ACCRETION OF MUTUAL CONFIDENCE AND TRUST -- SCARCE COMMODITIES IN BOTH CAMPS. HAMAS' TERROR ATTACKS AND THE RESULTING MUTUAL HOSTILITIES OF THE PAST YEAR HAVE ERODED THE CONFIDENCE-BUILDING MEASURES BUILT INTO THE INITIAL PHASES OF THE PEACE PROCESS. THE WILL TO SEE THE NEGOTIATIONS THROUGH REMAINS STRONG, HOWEVER."

    TEXT: THE NEW YORK POST CRITICIZES A UNITED NATIONS REPORT WHICH CONDEMNS ISRAEL FOR THE RECENT ARTILLERY ATTACK THAT KILLED SCORES OF CIVILIANS WHO HAD SOUGHT REFUGE IN A U-N COMPOUND IN SOUTHERN LEBANON.

    VOICE: "THE U-N REPORT -- WHICH DOESN'T EXPLAIN HOW IT HAPPENED THAT CIVILIANS TOOK REFUGE IN THE FACILITY AND DOESN'T DISPUTE ISRAEL'S INSISTENCE THAT IT WAS UNAWARE OF THE REFUGEE PRESENCE -- ACTUALLY ACKNOWLEDGES THAT THE HEZBOLLAH ROCKETEERS ENTERED THE CAMP. AS WE SEE IT, THEREFORE, THE REPORT SHOULD HAVE FOCUSED ON THE U-N'S OWN RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE CALAMITY. WERE THE U-N PEACEKEEPERS COMPLICIT IN THE ROCKET AND MORTAR ATTACKS ON ISRAEL? DOES THE FACT THAT HEZBOLLAH GUNNERS SOUGHT SANCTUARY AT THE QANA BASE SUGGEST A MORE DEVELOPED RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE TERRORISTS AND THE FIJIANS THAN MIGHT FIRST MEET THE EYE? OR WERE THE U-N PEACEKEEPERS SIMPLY INTIMIDATED INTO ALLOWING ROCKETS TO BE FIRED FROM AN AREA ADJACENT TO THE BASE? AND WERE THEY BULLIED INTO AFFORDING HEZBOLLAH TERRORISTS REFUGE INSIDE THE FACILITY, DESPITE THE PRESENCE OF CIVILIANS? EITHER WAY, ISRAEL WAS UNDER OPEN ATTACK FROM THE IMMEDIATE VICINITY OF A U-N BASE BY TERRORISTS WHO WERE SUBSEQUENTLY GRANTED SANCTUARY THERE... RATHER THAN POINT THE FINGER AT ISRAEL, THE U-N -- IT WOULD APPEAR -- HAS SOME SOUL-SEARCHING OF ITS OWN TO DO."

    TEXT: ACCORDING TO THE LEAD EDITORIAL IN TODAY'S PORTLAND (MAINE) PRESS HERALD, "THE CAUSE OF JUSTICE TOOK A MAJOR STEP FORWARD THIS WEEK AS OPENING ARGUMENTS BEGAN IN THE HAGUE, NETHERLANDS, IN THE FIRST INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIAL SINCE THE END OF WORLD WAR II."

    VOICE: "THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL TRIBUNAL FOR THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA, SITTING IN THE NETHERLANDS, HEARD PROSECUTING ATTORNEY GRANT NEIMANN, AN AUSTRALIAN, LAY OUT THE CASE AGAINST DUSKO TADIC. TADIC, A BOSNIAN SERB POLICEMAN, IS ACCUSED OF MURDERING, BEATING, TORTURING, PARTICIPATING IN GANG RAPE, AND OTHERWISE PERSECUTING MUSLIMS HELD PRISONERS IN A SERB-CONTROLLED CAMP IN 1992... TADIC HAS NOT BEEN CONVICTED YET, AND PRESIDING JUDGE GABRIELLE KIRK MCDONALD, WHO IS FROM THE UNITED STATES, NOTED IN HER OPENING STATEMENT THAT HE IS PRESUMED INNOCENT UNTIL PROVEN GUILTY. WAR CRIMES TRIBUNALS MAY NOT BE COMMON -- MAY THEY NEVER BE -- BUT THEY CAN BE CONDUCTED FAIRLY AND OPENLY, IN ACCORDANCE WITH ESTABLISHED STANDARDS OF EVIDENCE AND PROOF OF GUILT. THAT IS FAR MORE CONSIDERATION THAN WAR CRIMINALS GAVE THEIR VICTIMS."

    TEXT: THE U-S-A TODAY NEWSPAPER OFFERS TWO VIEWS ON THE CONSTRUCTION IN LIBYA OF WHAT INTELLIGENCE REPORTS SAY IS "THE WORLD'S LARGEST UNDERGROUND CHEMICAL WEAPONS PLANTS."

    VOICE: "AS WITH ALMOST ALL SLOW-BUILDING DANGERS, DIPLOMATIC AND ECONOMIC PRESSURE SHOULD COME FIRST IN LIBYA. BUT MORE SEVERE ACTION MUST BE CONSIDERED IF THIS PLANT, WHICH COULD PRODUCE TONS OF EASILY TRANSPORTABLE POISON GAS WEEKLY, NEARS COMPLETION. (LIBYAN LEADER MUAMMAR) GADDAFI'S HISTORY MAKES THE BEST ARGUMENT FOR HARSH CONSIDERATIONS. LIBYA ALREADY IS A PURSUER OF BIOLOGICAL AND NUCLEAR WEAPONS AND A KNOWN POSSESSOR OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS... ABOUT 25 COUNTRIES HAVE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CAPABILITY, BUT LIBYA IS ONE OF THE WORLD'S RARE USERS. IN A 1987 CONFLICT WITH CHAD, GADDAFI ORDERED TRANSPORT PLANES TO DROP CHEMICAL AGENTS ON ENEMY TROOPS."

    TEXT: DOUG BANDOW, A SENIOR FELLOW AT THE CATO INSTITUTE IN WASHINGTON, D-C, DISAGREES WITH U-S-A TODAY'S EDITORIAL. IN A REBUTTAL COLUMN, MR. BANDOW SAYS THAT WASHINGTON, IN HIS WORDS, "SHOULD STOP RATTLING ITS SABER."

    VOICE: "WE AREN'T EVEN CERTAIN THAT THE SUSPECTED CHEMICAL WEAPONS PLANT, ESSENTIALLY A HOLE IN THE GROUND ... IS FOR REAL. INTELLIGENCE ABOUT LIBYA HAS PROVED ERRONEOUS IN THE PAST, AND MUAMAR GADDAFI MAY SIMPLY BE PLAYING ON AMERICA'S FEARS. ANYWAY, WHILE THERE IS NO LOVE LOST BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND LIBYA, A LIBYAN CHEMICAL WEAPONS PLANT POSES NO THREAT TO THIS NATION. EVEN IF TRIPOLI INTENDS TO DEVELOP CHEMICAL WEAPONS, IT IS UNLIKELY TO USE THEM ON THE UNITED STATES. GADDAFI MAY BE MERCURIAL, BUT HE IS NOT SUICIDAL, AND SUCCESSIVE ADMINISTRATIONS HAVE STATED THEIR READINESS TO RETALIATE WITH OVERWHELMING FORCE."

    TEXT: AND FINALLY, THE BALTIMORE SUN OFFERS ITS OPINION ON A DOMESTIC ISSUE. PRESIDENT CLINTON RECENTLY ENDORSED A REPUBLICAN-SPONSORED BILL "THAT COULD MAKE ADOPTING A CHILD EASIER FOR SOME FAMILIES."

    VOICE: "THE LEGISLATION HAS FLAWS THAT MUST BE ADDRESSED, BUT ITS PRACTICAL SOLUTION TO THE LONG-DEBATED QUESTION OF HOW TO HANDLE MIXED-RACE ADOPTIONS DESERVES STRONG BIPARTISAN SUPPORT... CHILDREN BROUGHT UP IN AN INTERRACIAL SETTING, INCLUDING THOSE BORN IN SUCH HOUSEHOLDS, CAN ENCOUNTER GREATER CULTURAL STRESS AND SUFFER IDENTITY CRISES. THEY OFTEN FACE THE GREATER BIAS THAT IS TOO OFTEN AIMED IN THIS NATION AT ANYONE DIFFERENT. BUT THE ALTERNATIVE, THOUSANDS OF BLACK AND BROWN CHILDREN LANGUISHING IN FOSTER CARE WHILE FUTILELY AWAITING ADOPTIVE PARENTS OF THE SAME RACE, IS WORSE."

    TEXT: THAT VIEW, EXPRESSED IN TODAY'S BALTIMORE SUN, CONCLUDES THIS BRIEF EDITORIAL SURVEY OF THURSDAY'S U-S PRESS.
    NEB/DN/PCH
    09-May-96 10:55 AM EDT (1455 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [02] BOSNIA / OGATA (S) BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (SARAJEVO)

    DATE=5/9/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-196963
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE U-N HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES, SADAKO OGATA, SAYS ABOUT 70-THOUSAND BOSNIAN REFUGEES HAVE BEEN ABLE TO RETURN TO THEIR HOMES SINCE THE DAYTON PEACE ACCORD WAS SIGNED. BUT V-O-A'S DOUGLAS ROBERTS IN SARAJEVO REPORTS MRS. OGATA TOLD A SARAJEVO NEWS CONFERENCE (THURSDAY) THAT THE PACE OF THE REPATRIATION PROGRAM IS MUCH SLOWER THAN ORIGINALLY FORECAST.

    TEXT: NEARING THE END OF A 600-KILOMETER ROAD TRIP THROUGH BOSNIA, MRS. OGATA SAID THERE HAVE BEEN MANY POSITIVE DEVELOPMENTS SINCE THE PEACE ACCORD WAS SIGNED.

    MOST OF THE COUNTRY'S ROADS ARE OPEN. SOME REFUGEES ARE RETURNING. AND A LIMITED AMOUNT OF RECONSTRUCTION WORK IS BEGINNING.

    /// OGATA ACT ///

    I THINK THINGS ARE HAPPENING, BUT THERE STILL IS A LONG WAY TO GO.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE U-N OFFICIAL ACKNOWLEDGED THAT CONTINUED RESTRICTIONS ON FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT, ESPECIALLY IN SERB AND CROAT CONTROLLED AREAS, ARE HAMPERING THE RETURN OF REFUGEES. THE OTHER KEY PROBLEM IS THE SLOW PACE OF THE MASSIVE RECONSTRUCTION AID PROMISED IN THE WAKE OF THE PEACE SETTLEMENT.

    U-N-H-C-R HAS LAUNCHED A 70-MILLION-DOLLAR SHELTER PROGRAM FOR THOSE RETURNING TO THEIR HOMES. BUT MRS. OGATA SAID IT WILL TAKE BILLIONS OF DOLLARS TO REBUILD THIS WAR-BATTERED COUNTRY.

    U-N-H-C-R HAD HOPED TO REPATRIATE NEARLY 900-THOUSAND REFUGEES THIS YEAR. BUT MRS. OGATA SAID THE ACTUAL FIGURE IS LIKELY TO BE CLOSER TO ONE-HALF MILLION. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DR/JWH/GPT
    09-May-96 2:18 PM EDT (1818 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [03] BOSNIA CLASHES (L ONLY) BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)

    DATE=5/9/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-196959
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: BOSNIAN SERBS HAVE ATTACKED A GROUP OF MUSLIM REFUGEES TRYING TO VISIT GRAVES NEAR THEIR FORMER HOMES IN SERB CONTROLLED NORTHERN BOSNIA. DAVID FOLEY IN SARAJEVO REPORTS SHOTS WERE FIRED, AND TWO JOURNALISTS WERE REPORTEDLY INJURED DURING THE INCIDENT.

    TEXT: THE LATEST CLASH COMES LESS THAN TWO WEEKS AFTER THREE MUSLIMS WERE KILLED BY MINES AND GUNFIRE DURING A SIMILAR VISIT IN THE SAME AREA OF NORTHERN BOSNIA.

    ALEX IVANKO, THE UNITED NATIONS SPOKESMAN HERE, ALEX IVANKO, SAYS A GROUP OF ABOUT 30 MUSLIMS WAS TRYING TO CROSS FROM MAGLAJ TO TESLIC IN BOSNIAN SERB TERRITORY WHEN THE TROUBLE BEGAN.

    // ACT - IVANKO //

    THEY WERE MET BY A VERY HOSTILE GROUP OF SERBS WHO BASICALLY THREATENED THEM WITH VIOLENCE. SHOTS WERE HEARD IN THE AREA.

    // END ACT //

    NATO OFFICIALS SAY BOSNIAN SERB POLICE DISARMED A SERB MAN AFTER HE FIRED TWO SHOTS INTO THE AIR. AND A UNITED NATIONS POLICE CAR WAS DAMAGED BY THE CROWD OF UP TO 70 SERBS. TWO JOURNALISTS WERE ALSO BEATEN BY THE SERBS, AND TELEVISION AND STILL CAMERAS WERE DESTROYED.

    ALEX IVANKO SAYS IT WAS ONLY THE PRESENCE OF NATO TROOPS AND U-N POLICE THAT ALLOWED THE MUSLIMS TO ESCAPE UNINJURED.

    // ACT - IVANKO //

    WE HAVE ALREADY RAISED THE ISSUE WITH THE LOCAL CHIEF OF POLICE WHO'S COMING UP, AS USUAL, WITH LAME EXCUSES WHY THIS HAS HAPPENED. WE WILL DEFINITELY RAISE THIS ISSUE AT A HIGHER LEVEL.

    // END ACT //

    SENIOR INTERNATIONAL OFFICIALS ALL WEEK HAVE SAID THE BOSNIAN SERBS HAD AGREED TO COOPERATE WITH SUCH VISITS OF REFUGEES TO GRAVESITES AND FORMER HOMES. THE DAYTON AGREEMENT CALLS FOR COMPLETE FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT FOR CIVILIANS IN BOSNIA. AMERICAN OFFICIALS HAVE RAISED THE PROSPECT OF RENEWED ECONOMIC SANCTIONS AGAINST SERBIA AND THE BOSNIAN SERBS IF COMPLIANCE WITH THE ACCORD IS NOT IMPROVED.

    THE U-N SPOKESMAN SAYS IT IS NOT UP TO NATO OR THE UNITED NATIONS POLICE TO FORCE LOCAL SERBS TO ALLOW SUCH VISITS BY REFUGEES.

    // ACT - IVANKO //

    IT'S IMPOSSIBLE TO SHOOT THROUGH A CONVOY OF REFUGEES. THE PARTIES HAVE SIGNED UP TO DAYTON AND THEY SHOULD DELIVER, AND IT SEEMS THAT THE AUTHORITIES ON THE REPUBLIKA SRPSKA SIDE SPECIFICALLY, ARE NOT WILLING TO SOMETIMES TO DELIVER.

    // END ACT //

    THE ABILITY OF CIVILIANS TO RETURN TO THEIR HOMES IS A CORNERSTONE OF THE DAYTON AGREEMENT. IF CIVILIANS ARE PREVENTED FROM CROSSING ETHNIC BOUNDARIES, BOSNIA'S CURRENT ETHNIC DIVISION WILL BECOME PERMANENT.

    SOME CRITICS SAY THIS HAS ALWAYS BEEN THE GOAL OF THE BOSNIAN SERBS, AND IT WAS THIS THAT THE DAYTON ACCORD WAS MEANT TO PREVENT. AND THEY FEAR THAT IF NO SOLUTION IS FOUND BEFORE NATO TROOPS LEAVE, THERE IS A VERY REAL POSSIBILITY THAT BOSNIA WILL, ONCE AGAIN, PLUNGE INTO WAR. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DF/JWH/CF
    09-May-96 1:58 PM EDT (1758 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [04] BOSNIA SITREP (S ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

    DATE=5/9/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-196940
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: TENSION OVER MUSLIM ATTEMPTS TO VISIT FAMILY GRAVES IN SERB TERRITORY OF BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA HAS AGAIN ERUPTED INTO VIOLENCE. V-O-A'S CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT WAYNE COREY REPORTS.

    TEXT: ABOUT 30 MUSLIM CIVILIANS WERE STOPPED BY A GROUP OF SERBS IN NORTHERN BOSNIA, WHERE MUSLIMS HAVE BEEN PREVENTED BEFORE FROM VISITING FORMER HOMES OR THE GRAVES OF RELATIVES.

    AT LEAST ONE SERB FIRED A GUN. THERE ARE NO REPORTS THAT ANYONE WAS HURT. BUT, OTHER SERBS ATTACKED AN ASSOCIATED PRESS PHOTOGRAPHER, SMASHED HIS CAMERA, AND DESTROYED HIS FILM.

    ONE SERB JUMPED ONTO A VEHICLE OF THE INTERNATIONAL POLICE FORCE IN BOSNIA AND KICKED IN THE WINDSHIELD. THE POLICEMAN INSIDE, APPARENTLY, DID NOT RESPOND.

    THE INCIDENT OCCURRED AS THE UNITED NATIONS WAS TO BEGIN A BUS SERVICE FOR CIVILIANS ELSEWHERE TO TAKE ADVANTAGE OF THE BOSNIAN PEACE AGREEMENT'S FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT PROVISION.

    FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT IS ESSENTIAL IF REASONABLY FREE AND FAIR ELECTIONS ARE TO BE HELD IN BOSNIA LATER THIS YEAR, AND IF THE COUNTRY IS NOT TO BE PARTITIONED INTO STRICTLY ETHNIC REGIONS.

    INTERNATIONAL OFFICIALS IN SARAJEVO SAY THE SERBS ARE MAINLY RESPONSIBLE FOR THE LACK OF FREE MOVEMENT SO FAR. (SIGNED)
    NEB/WC/JWH/MMK
    09-May-96 10:23 AM EDT (1423 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [05] KOSOVO TENSIONS BY ED WARNER (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=5/9/96
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-33231
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: WHILE NATO KEEPS THE PEACE IN BOSNIA, ANOTHER PART OF FORMER YUGOSLAVIA THREATENS TO EXPLODE. A RECENT SERIES OF VIOLENT ACTS IN KOSOVO POINTS UP THE CONTINUING CONFLICT BETWEEN THE PREDOMINANTLY ALBANIAN POPULATION AND THE SERBS WHO RULE THEM. VOA'S ED WARNER REPORTS.

    TEXT: BOB HAND, A STAFF ADVISER TO THE HELSINKI COMMISSION OF THE U-S CONGRESS, HAS JUST RETURNED FROM KOSOVO:

    // HAND ACTUALITY //

    WE WENT TO KOSOVO HOPEFUL THAT MAYBE IN THE POST-DAYTON ENVIRONMENT, THERE WOULD BE SOME MOMENTUM TO TRY TO IMPROVE THE SITUATION THERE, TO TRY TO FIND SOME SORT OF RESOLUTION. BUT OUR CONCLUSION WAS THAT THINGS REMAIN AS REPRESSIVE AS THEY WERE BEFORE THE DAYTON AGREEMENT AND THAT THERE DOES NOT SEEM TO BE ANY REAL WILLINGNESS BY THE SERBIAN AUTHORITIES TO TRY TO ACHIEVE SOME SORT OF RESOLUTION TO OUTSTANDING ISSUES IN KOSOVO.

    // END ACT //

    MR. HAND SAYS THE MAIN ISSUE IS THE EVER VIGILANT SERBIAN POLICE WHO HARASS ALBANIANS AND OCCASIONALLY ARREST AND BEAT THEM. LIVING UNDER AN EMERGENCY RULE IMPOSED BY THE SERBS IN 1989, THE KOSOVARS ARE DENIED THE PARTIAL SELF-GOVERNMENT THEY ONCE ENJOYED.

    SO THEY NEED OUTSIDE HELP, SAYS NICHOLAS PANO, PROFESSOR OF HISTORY AT WESTERN ILLINOIS UNIVERSITY:

    // PANO ACT //

    THERE IS GROWING CONCERN ON THE PART OF BOTH THE MASSES IN KOSOVO AND THE LEADERS THAT THE UNITED STATES AND WESTERN EUROPE HAVE NOT BEEN AS ATTENTIVE TO THE PROBLEM AS THEY NEED TO BE, AND THERE IS A SIGNIFICANT PUSH ON THE PART OF RESPONSIBLE ELEMENTS OF THE KOSOVO LEADERSHIP TO BRING THIS ISSUE TO THE CONFERENCE TABLE OF THE GREAT POWERS OF EUROPE AND THE UNITED STATES TO TRY TO BRING SOME RESOLUTION TO THE SITUATION.

    // END ACT //

    PROFESSOR PANO SAYS THE SERBS OPPOSE OUTSIDE INTERFERENCE IN KOSOVO, FEARING ABOVE ALL ANY MOVE TOWARD INDEPENDENCE.

    FOR GOOD REASON, SAYS MICHAEL MENNARD, A FORMER U-S STATE DEPARTMENT OFFICIAL WHO DEFENDS THE SERB POSITION:

    // MENNARD ACT //

    I SUGGEST THAT THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT -- WE -- IF WE ARE INTERESTED IN PEACE IN THAT PART OF THE WORLD, WE SHOULD CONVINCE THE ALBANIANS TO PARTICIPATE IN THE POLITICAL PROCESS OF THE COUNTRY IN WHICH THEY LIVE. IT IS THE ALBANIANS WHO IDENTIFY THEMSELVES AS ALBANIANS AND THEY WANT TO BE BY THEMSELVES IN AN INDEPENDENT COUNTRY. THIS PART OF THE WORLD NEVER WAS ALBANIAN AND NEVER WILL BE, AS FAR AS THE SERBS ARE CONCERNED.

    // END ACT //

    WHEN ALBANIANS HAD AUTONOMY, CONCEDES BOB HAND, THEY WANTED STILL MORE. THEIR AGITATION AGAINST THE SERBS PRECEDED SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC'S AGGRESSIVE GOVERNMENT:

    // HAND ACTUALITY //

    BUT IN AN INCREASINGLY DEMOCRATIC EUROPE, NO GOVERNMENT IN BELGRADE OR ANYWHERE ELSE HAS THE RIGHT TO RULE OVER A GROUP OF ITS CITIZENS THE WAY THAT BELGRADE SEEMS TO WANT TO RULE OVER THE KOSOVAR ALBANIANS. WANTING TO HAVE INDEPENDENCE OR ANY CHANGE OF STATUS THAT MIGHT BE DEEMED SEPARATIST DOES NOT JUSTIFY MISTREATMENT OF PEOPLE AND THE VIOLATION OF THEIR HUMAN RIGHTS. AND SO THE CRACKDOWN AND REPRESSION IN KOSOVO IS UNJUSTIFIED REGARDLESS OF THE CREDIBILITY OF KOSOVAR ALBANIANS' ARGUMENTS REGARDING KOSOVO'S STATUS.

    // END ACT //

    BOB HAND SAYS A NUMBER OF PRACTICAL STEPS CAN BE TAKEN TO REDUCE TENSIONS. ASIDE FROM CURBING OVER ZEALOUS POLICE, THE SERBS COULD RESTORE THE ALBANIAN INSTITUTIONS THEY HAVE SHUT DOWN. WITHOUT SUCH CONCESSIONS, HE FEARS THE KIND OF EXPLOSION THAT HAS ROCKED OTHER PARTS OF YUGOSLAVIA. (SIGNED)
    NEB/EW/CF
    09-May-96 11:41 AM EDT (1541 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [06] TURKEY / POLITICS (L ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)

    DATE=5/9/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-196953
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: TURKEY'S PARLIAMENT HAS VOTED OVERWHELMINGLY TO INVESTIGATE ALLEGATIONS OF CORRUPTION AGAINST FORMER PRIME MINISTER TANSU CILLER. AMBERIN ZAMAN IN ANKARA REPORTS THE VOTE DEALT A FURTHER BLOW TO THE SHAKY COALITION BETWEEN MRS. CILLER'S CONSERVATIVE "TRUE PATH PARTY" AND PRIME MINISTER MESUT YILMAZ'S CENTRE-RIGHT "MOTHERLAND PARTY".

    TEXT: THE RESOLUTION DRAFTED BY THE OPPOSITION PRO-ISLAMIC WELFARE PARTY CHARGES MRS. CILLER AND HER HUSBAND WITH INTERFERING IN THE SALE OF STATE-OWNED SHARES IN THE LOCAL CARMAKER, TOFAS, DURING HER TWO-AND-ONE-HALF-YEAR TENURE AS PRIME MINISTER. DEPUTIES VOTED 376-TO-141 TO CREATE A COMMISSION TO INVESTIGATE THE CHARGES.

    AHEAD OF THE VOTE, WELFARE PARTY AND TRUE PATH PARTY MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT TOOK TURNS TO ACCUSE AND DEFEND MRS. CILLER WHO APPEARED CHEERFUL AND CALM THROUGHOUT THE TENSION-CHARGED SESSION.

    MUCH IS AT STAKE FOR THE COUNTRY'S FIRST WOMAN PRIME MINISTER. THE INQUIRY, WHICH FOLLOWS ANOTHER INVESTIGATION OF SEPARATE CORRUPTION CHARGES AGAINST MRS. CILLER APPROVED LAST MONTH BY THE PARLIAMENT, COULD RESULT IN HER BEING TRIED BY THE SUPREME COURT.

    THIS IN TURN WOULD MEAN SHE COULD NO LONGER BECOME THE PRIME MINISTER AT THE BEGINNING OF NEXT YEAR, AS STIPULATED UNDER THE TERMS OF THE POWER SHARING AGREEMENT WITH PRIME MINISTER YILMAZ'S MOTHERLAND PARTY. UNDER TURKISH LAW, ANY INDIVIDUAL BEING TRIED BY THE SUPREME COURT CANNOT WORK FOR THE GOVERNMENT.

    SPEAKING TO A CROWDED PARLIAMENT BEFORE THE BALLOTING, MRS. CILLER DESCRIBED THE MOTION AS A POLITICAL PLOT AIMED AT PREVENTING HER FROM RETURNING TO POWER. TURNING TOWARDS THE LEADER OF THE PRO-ISLAMIC WELFARE PARTY, NECMETTIN ERBAKAN, MRS. CILLER SAID HER PARTY HAD AGREED TO -- WHAT SHE TERMED -- HIS INSISTENT DEMANDS TO FORM A COALITION GOVERNMENT, HIS PARTY WOULD NEVER HAVE SOUGHT TO DEFAME HER.

    MRS. CILLER DENIED ANY WRONGDOING, AND SAID SHE WOULD VOTE IN FAVOR OF THE PROBE IN ORDER TO CLEAR HER NAME.

    POLITICAL OBSERVERS SAY THE MOTHERLAND PARTY'S DECISION TO BACK THE PROBE HAS FURTHER REDUCED CHANCES THE NEW GOVERNMENT BEING ABLE TO GOVERN EFFECTIVELY. THEY CLAIM PRIME MINISTER YILMAZ'S MAIN OBJECTIVE IS TO DESTROY MRS. CILLER'S POLITICAL CAREER IN ORDER TO ASSUME THE LEADERSHIP OF A UNITED RIGHT.

    DESPITE THE ALLEGATIONS LEVELED AGAINST HER, MRS. CILLER CONTINUES TO ENJOY CONSIDERABLE SUPPORT FROM THE TURKISH PEOPLE. OBSERVERS SAY SO LONG AS TURKEY REMAINS A DEMOCRACY, IT IS THEIR BACKING THAT ULTIMATELY COUNTS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/AZ/JWH/RAE
    09-May-96 1:16 PM EDT (1716 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [07] YUGO / HUMAN RIGHTS (L ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

    DATE=5/9/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-196951
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE U-N'S TOP HUMAN RIGHTS OFFICIAL HAS CALLED ON THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT TO STOP ITS CRACKDOWN ON THE INDEPENDENT CROATIAN PRESS. MEANWHILE, THE U-N HUMAN RIGHTS INVESTIGATOR FOR THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA IS PROPOSING A HIGH-LEVEL CONFERENCE ON THE ISSUE OF THE NEARLY 30-THOUSAND MISSING PEOPLE IN POST-WAR BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. V-O-A'S CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT, WAYNE COREY, REPORTS.

    TEXT: THE U-N HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR HUMAN RIGHTS, JOSE AYALA LASSO, HAS URGED THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT TO PURSUE A CONSTRUCTIVE HUMAN RIGHTS POLICY.

    MR. AYALA LASSO EARLIER MET WITH GOVERNMENT LEADERS AND WITH HUMAN RIGHTS MONITORS IN ZAGREB. THE MONITORS ARE SAID TO HAVE GIVEN HIM DISTURBING INFORMATION ABOUT THE HUMAN RIGHTS SITUATION IN CROATIA.

    MINORITY SERBS HAVE PROBLEMS GETTING GOOD JOBS AND BORROWING MONEY TO REPAIR THEIR HOMES. THEIR PROPERTY WAS DAMAGED DURING FIGHTING BETWEEN 1991, WHEN CROATIA DECLARED ITS INDEPENDENCE FROM YUGOSLAVIA, AND 1995 WHEN THE GOVERNMENT AND THE SERBS CONCLUDED A PEACE AGREEMENT.

    THE U-N HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR HUMAN RIGHTS ALSO SAYS HE HAS URGED PRESIDENT FRANJO TUDJMAN'S GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT A FREE PRESS IN ORDER TO CREATE A FREE SOCIETY.

    THE GOVERNMENT HAS BEEN CRACKING DOWN ON INDEPENDENT NEWSPAPERS WHICH HAVE CRITICIZED PRESIDENT TUDJMAN.

    IN ADDITION, MR. TUDJMAN HAS REFUSED TO ACCEPT THE OPPOSITION CENTER-LEFT COALITION'S VICTORY LAST YEAR IN LOCAL ZAGREB ELECTIONS. THAT REFUSAL IS SAID TO BE BASED ON NATIONAL SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS. MEANWHILE, THE U-N HUMAN RIGHTS INVESTIGATOR FOR THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA, ELISABETH REHN, IS CALLING FOR ANOTHER DAYTON-TYPE CONFERENCE ON THE SITUATION IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA.

    SPEAKING IN HELSINSKI, SHE SAYS IT IS IMPORTANT TO HAVE ANOTHER CONFERENCE, LIKE THE ONE THAT PRODUCED THE BOSNIAN PEACE AGREEMENT, TO FOCUS ATTENTION ON THE NEARLY 30-THOUSAND MISSING PEOPLE IN BOSNIA.

    THE HUMAN RIGHTS INVESTIGATOR COMPLAINS OF A LACK OF INTEREST, DELAYS, AND OTHER PROBLEMS IN SEARCHING FOR MASS GRAVES AND IN IDENTIFYING THE REMAINS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/WC/JWH/RAE
    09-May-96 12:39 PM EDT (1639 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [08] YUGO WAR CRIMES (L UPDATE) BY GILLIAN SHARPE (THE HAGUE)

    DATE=5/9/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-196958
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE FIRST BOSNIAN MUSLIM TO APPEAR AT THE U-N WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL HAS PLEADED INNOCENT TO THE CHARGES AGAINST HIM. GILLIAN SHARPE AT THE HAGUE REPORTS THE SUSPECT, ZEJNIL DELALIC, WAS ARRESTED IN GERMANY IN MARCH AND TRANSFERRED TO THE HAGUE ON WEDNESDAY. HE WAS A MUSLIM MILITARY COMMANDER IN CENTRAL BOSNIA, AND IS BEING HELD RESPONSIBLE FOR THE ACTIONS OF HIS SUBORDINATES INCLUDING MURDER, RAPE AND TORTURE.

    TEXT: ZEJNIL DELALIC IS ONE OF FOUR MEN ACCUSED IN THE TRIBUNAL'S FIRST INDICTMENT DEALING WITH CRIMES ALLEGEDLY COMMITTED AGAINST BOSNIAN SERBS.

    AS A MUSLIM MILITARY COMMANDER IN CENTRAL BOSNIA, HE HAD ULTIMATE RESPONSIBILITY FOR WHAT HAPPENED IN THE CELEBICI PRISON CAMP. THE INDICTMENT PAINTS A BRUTAL PICTURE OF CAMP LIFE, WHERE MURDER, RAPE AND TORTURE WERE ALMOST COMMON PLACE. ONE MAN, THE CHARGES SAY, WAS SHOT DEAD TO CELEBRATE A MUSLIM FESTIVAL..

    FORTY-EIGHT-YEAR OLD MR DELALK ARRIVED AT COURT FROM THE U-N DETENTION CENTER WHERE HE SPENT THE NIGHT. HE WAIVED HIS RIGHT TO HAVE THE FULL INDICTMENT READ IN COURT.

    PRESIDING JUDGE GABRIELLE MACDONALD:

    /// MACDONALD / DELALIC ///

    JUDGE: ARE YOU READY TO EITHER PLEAD NOT GUILTY OR GUILTY TO THE INDICTMENT, THE CHARGES THAT ARE CONTAINED IN THE INDICTMENT AGAINST YOU?

    DELALIC: I DO NOT AGREE WITH ANY OF THE CHARGES IN THE INDICTMENT AND I PLEAD NOT GUILTY.

    /// END ACT ///

    ZEJNIL DELALIC, SPEAKING THROUGH A TRANSLATOR.

    ANOTHER MAN NAMED IN THE INDICTMENT -- A BOSNIAN CROAT -- IS ALREADY IN CUSTODY. THE OTHER TWO HAVE BEEN ARRESTED BY BOSNIAN AUTHORITIES AND WILL BE TRANSFERRED SHORTLY TO THE HAGUE.

    IT WAS A BUSY DAY IN THE TRIBUNAL'S ONE AND ONLY COURTROOM. THERE ARE PLANS TO BUILD ANOTHER, ON THE SITE OF THE PRESENT CANTEEN -- BUT THAT ALL DEPENDS ON MONEY, WHICH AT THE MOMENT THE TRIBUNAL DOES NOT HAVE.

    EARLIER IN THE DAY, THE SAME JUDGES HEARD FURTHER EXPERT TESTIMONY IN THE CASE OF DUSHAN TADIC, A BOSNIAN SERB ACCUSED OF CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY. MR TADIC APPEARED UNINTERESTED IN MOST OF THE HISTORICAL BACKGROUND. INDEED, AT TIMES, EVEN THE JUDGES WERE SPOTTED YAWNING.

    BUT THE PROSECUTION STRATEGY IS BECOMING CLEAR. BRITISH POLITICAL SCIENTIST, JAMES GOW, WHO HAS COMPLETED HIS SECOND FULL DAY OF TESTIMONY, IS BEING ASKED TO PROVE THAT THE WAR IN BOSNIA WAS AN INTERNATIONAL CONFLICT, ONE WHERE THE GENEVA CONVENTIONS APPLY.

    THE DEFENSE SAYS IT WAS A CIVIL WAR. IF THE PROSECUTION FALLS TO CONVINCE THE JUDGES, THEN SOME OF THE CHARGES AGAINST DUSHAN TADIC MAY HAVE TO BE DROPPED. (SIGNED)
    NEB/GS/JWH
    09-May-96 1:45 PM EDT (1745 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [09] YUGOSLAV WAR CRIMES (S) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

    DATE=5/9/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-196939
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: AT THE INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIAL IN THE HAGUE, A BRITISH HISTORIAN HAS TESTIFIED THAT THE CONFLICT IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA WAS NOT A CIVIL WAR. THE HISTORIAN TESTIFIED AS A WITNESS FOR THE PROSECUTION IN THE CASE AGAINST BOSNIAN SERB DUSAN TADIC, A FORMER CAFE OWNER. V-O-A'S CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT, WAYNE COREY, REPORTS.

    TEXT: BRITISH HISTORIAN JAMES GOW EXPLAINED THE INTERNATIONAL NATURE OF THE BOSNIAN CONFLICT DURING WHAT AMOUNTED TO A LECTURE ON THE RECENT HISTORY OF THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA.

    THE HISTORIAN RECALLED THAT SERBS BOYCOTTED A POPULAR REFERENDUM ON BOSNIA'S INDEPENDENCE AND THAT EUROPEAN UNION RECOGNITION OF BOSNIA LED TO THE SERB SIEGE OF SARAJEVO.

    A TRIBUNAL SPOKESMAN SAYS THE PURPOSE OF MR. GOW'S TESTIMONY, WHICH CONTINUED FOR A THIRD DAY, WAS TO SHOW THAT THE WAR IN BOSNIA WAS INTERNATIONAL IN SCOPE AND WAS NOT A CIVIL WAR.

    THE SPOKESMAN SAYS OTHER PROSECUTION WITNESSES AT THE WAR CRIMES TRIAL WILL TESTIFY THAT THE DEFENDANT, DUSAN TADIC, A SERB, WAS ONE OF THE PEOPLE INVOLVED IN A SYSTEMATIC PATTERN OF CRIMES, BANNED BY INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW.

    MR. TADIC HAS PLEADED NOT GUILTY TO CHARGES THAT HE KILLED OR TORTURED MUSLIMS AND CROATS IN 1992. HIS LAWYERS SAY THEIR WITNESSES WILL SHOW THAT THE CASE AGAINST HIM IS BASED ON MISTAKEN IDENTITY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/WC/MH/GPT
    09-May-96 10:17 AM EDT (1417 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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