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Voice of America, 14 May 1996 (2 of 2)

Voice of America Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] GREECE AND TURKEY MUST RESOLVE DIFFERENCES
  • [02] CYPRUS CHURCH PROTEST (L ONLY) BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)
  • [03] BULGARIA ECONOMY BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)
  • [04] ECO SUMMIT ENDS (L) BY DOUGLAS BAKSHIAN (ASHGABAT, TURKMENISTAN)
  • [05] YUGO PROTEST (L ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)
  • [06] YUGO WAR CRIMES (L ONLY) BY GILLIAN SHARPE (THE HAGUE)
  • [07] BOSNIA TALKS (L) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)
  • [08] BOSNIA TALKS UPDATE (S) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)
  • [09] BOSNIA-RECONSTRUCTION BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (POZARIKE, BOSNIA)

  • [01] GREECE AND TURKEY MUST RESOLVE DIFFERENCES

    DATE= MAY 15, 1996
    TYPE= EDITORIAL
    NUMBER= 0-06784
    CONTENT=THIS IS THE FIRST OF TWO EDITORIALS BEING RELEASED FOR
    BROADCAST MAY 15, 1996.

    ANNCR: THE VOICE OF AMERICA PRESENTS DIFFERING POINTS OF VIEW ON A WIDE VARIETY OF ISSUES. NEXT, AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT.

    VOICE:

    GREECE AND TURKEY ARE KEY NATO ALLIES OF THE UNITED STATES. THESE EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN NEIGHBORS ARE IN A POSITION TO CONTRIBUTE A GREAT DEAL TO THE WORLD THAT HAS EMERGED SINCE THE END OF THE COLD WAR. BUT THEIR CONTRIBUTIONS WILL BE LIMITED UNTIL GREECE AND TURKEY MOVE BEYOND THE DISPUTES THAT HAVE LONG DIVIDED THEM. BOTH COUNTRIES MUST ALSO ADDRESS INTERNAL PROBLEMS.

    GREECE HAS AN IMPORTANT ROLE TO PLAY IN BUILDING TIES OF COMMERCE AND PEACE IN THE BALKANS. AT THE SAME TIME, GREECE FACES ECONOMIC CHALLENGES. AMONG OTHER THINGS, IT HAS A VERY HIGH UNEMPLOYMENT RATE AND A LARGE BUDGET DEFICIT.

    TURKEY SITS AT A STRATEGIC CROSSROADS CONNECTING THE BALKANS, THE MIDEAST AND THE NEWLY INDEPENDENT STATES OF THE FORMER SOVIET UNION. LIKE GREECE, IT IS A DEMOCRACY IN A PART OF THE WORLD WHERE DEMOCRACY IS NOT FIRMLY ROOTED. AND TURKEY REMAINS A STRONGLY SECULAR COUNTRY IN A REGION OF GROWING RELIGIOUS EXTREMISM. TURKEY FACES THE CHALLENGE OF IMPROVING ITS HUMAN RIGHTS RECORD WHILE CONFRONTING A VICIOUS TERRORIST GROUP, THE KURDISTAN WORKERS' PARTY. TURKEY ALSO FACES MAJOR ECONOMIC PROBLEMS, INCLUDING SEVERE INFLATION.

    GREECE AND TURKEY HAVE A LONG HISTORY OF MISTRUST. IN JANUARY, THEY CAME CLOSE TO CONFLICT OVER OWNERSHIP OF SMALL ISLANDS IN THE AEGEAN SEA. THERE IS A MAJOR DISPUTE OVER CYPRUS, DIVIDED BETWEEN GREEK AND TURKISH COMMUNITIES. AS U.S. OFFICIALS HAVE STRESSED, THAT ISLAND NATION SHOULD BE REUNITED -- FOR THE BENEFIT OF ALL CYPRIOTS.

    IN THE PAST TWO MONTHS, PRESIDENT BILL CLINTON HAS WELCOMED TURKISH PRESIDENT SULEYMAN DEMIREL AND GREEK PRESIDENT CONSTANTINOS STEPHANOPOULOS TO THE WHITE HOUSE. AS MR. CLINTON SAID, THE U.S. OPPOSES NOT ONLY THE USE OF FORCE IN ANY DISPUTE BETWEEN GREECE AND TURKEY BUT ALSO ANY THREAT OF THE USE OF FORCE. IF GREECE AND TURKEY CAN RESOLVE THEIR DIFFERENCES, SAID PRESIDENT CLINTON, THEY CAN HAVE A POSITIVE IMPACT ON EUROPE AND THE MIDDLE EAST.

    ANNCR:

    THAT WAS AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO BE HEARD ON THIS ISSUE, PLEASE WRITE TO EDITORIALS, VOICE OF AMERICA, WASHINGTON, D-C, 20547, U-S-A. YOU MAY ALSO SEND US A FAX AT (202) 619-1043. YOUR COMMENTS MAY BE USED ON THE AIR.
    14-May-96 3:50 PM EDT (1950 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [02] CYPRUS CHURCH PROTEST (L ONLY) BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)

    DATE=5/14/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-197177
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE GOVERNMENT OF CYPRUS HAS ASKED FOR UNITED NATIONS INTERVENTION TO PREVENT THE SALE OF A BYZANTINE CHURCH IN A TURKISH-OCCUPIED SECTOR OF THE COUNTRY. THE CYPRIOT MISSION IN NEW YORK COMPLAINED TO SECRETARY-GENERAL BOUTROS BOUTROS-GHALI ON TUESDAY, CALLING FOR URGENT MEASURES. VOA CORRESPONDENT ELAINE JOHANSON REPORTS.

    TEXT: THE GREEK CYPRIOT COMMUNITY CONSIDERS THE SALE OF THE CHURCH IN TRIMITHI, CYPRUS AS BOTH ILLEGAL AND SACRILEGIOUS. THE GREEK CYPRIOT MISSION SAYS TURKISH AUTHORITIES HAVE ADVERTISED IN A LOCAL NEWSPAPER, OFFERING THE SITE FOR 32-THOUSAND-500 POUNDS STERLING -- THE EQUIVALENT OF ABOUT 50-THOUSAND U-S DOLLARS.

    THE CHURCH OF PANAGIA CHRYSOTRIMITHIOTISSA IS SAID TO DATE BACK TO THE MIDDLE BYZANTINE PERIOD. IN 1974, THE CYPRIOT GOVERNMENT INCLUDED THE CHURCH ON A LIST OF ANCIENT MONUMENTS.

    TURKISH TROOPS HAVE OCCUPIED NORTHERN CYPRUS SINCE 1974, HAVING ENTERED THE COUNTRY IN RESPONSE TO A COUP IN NICOSIA BACKED BY THE FORMER MILITARY RULERS OF GREECE. FOR THE LAST 26 YEARS, THE GREEK CYPRIOT GOVERNMENT HAS ACCUSED TURKISH AUTHORITIES OF VANDALIZING CHURCHES AND MONASTERIES IN A BID TO ERASE GREEK CULTURE FROM THE OCCUPATION ZONE. THE TURKISH CYPRIOT COMMUNITY IS PREDOMINANTLY MUSLIM.

    TALKS TO RE-UNITE THE TWO COMMUNITIES ARE DEADLOCKED. THE U-N HAS OFFERED A PLAN FOR POWER-SHARING THAT ESSENTIALLY WOULD ALLOW THE CYPRIOTS TO LIVE SEPARATELY, IF THEY CHOOSE.

    THE TURKISH CYPRIOTS BROKE AWAY IN 1983. BUT ONLY TURKEY RECOGNIZES THE BREAKAWAY REPUBLIC.

    //REST OPT//

    THE SECURITY COUNCIL MEETS PERIODICALLY TO RENEW THE MANDATE OF A PEACEKEEPING FORCE ON CYPRUS, WHICH WAS FIRST DEPLOYED AFTER AN INTERCOMMUNAL WAR IN 1964. IMPATIENCE WITH THE LACK OF PROGRESS TOWARD A SETTLEMENT HAS PROMPTED THE COUNCIL TO DRASTICALLY REDUCE THE FORCE, WHICH NOW STANDS AT JUST OVER ONE-THOUSAND TROOPS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/EJ/PCF
    14-May-96 2:21 PM EDT (1821 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [03] BULGARIA ECONOMY BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)

    DATE=5/14/96
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-33273
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THERE ARE BREAD LINES AND A SHORTAGE OF IMPORTED GOODS ON SHOP SHELVES IN BULGARIA THIS WEEK. V-O-A'S BARRY WOOD HAS THIS BACKGROUND REPORT ON BULGARIA'S ECONOMIC CRISIS AND THE SOCIALIST GOVERNMENT'S FRANTIC BUT BELATED ATTEMPTS TO RESTORE CONFIDENCE.

    TEXT: THE LONG FEARED CRISIS WHICH HAD BEEN BUILDING UP FOR MONTHS FINALLY BURST INTO THE OPEN AT THE END OF LAST WEEK.

    THE VALUE OF THE CURRENCY, THE LEVA, WHICH HAD BEEN GRADUALLY LOSING VALUE, FELL PRECIPITOUSLY, GOING FROM 80 TO THE DOLLAR TO OVER 100. THE CENTRAL BANK RESPONDED WITH DRACONIAN MEASURES, RAISING SHORT TERM INTEREST RATES FROM 67 PERCENT TO 108 PERCENT. DURING THE WEEKEND MANY SHOPS REFUSED TO ACCEPT LEVA, INSISTING INSTEAD ON HARD CURRENCY.

    THE GOVERNMENT'S EMERGENCY MEASURES TO RESTORE CONFIDENCE WERE ANNOUNCED MONDAY. THEY INCLUDE PLANS TO CLOSE 67 LOSS MAKING STATE ENTERPRISES AND RESTRUCTURE HUNDREDS MORE, WHICH ARE TO HAVE AN ACCELERATED SCHEDULE FOR PRIVATIZATION. THERE WILL BE JOB LOSSES OF AT LEAST 30 THOUSAND BUT PROBABLY MANY THOUSAND MORE. MEANTIME, TALKS IN SOFIA WITH A VISITING MISSION FROM THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND HAVE TAKEN ON URGENCY AS THE GOVERNMENT DESPARATELY SEEKS INTERNATIONAL SUPPORT TO RESTORE BULGARIA'S DEPLETED HARD CURRENCY RESERVES.

    WHILE MANY ECONOMISTS APPLAUD THE GOVERNMENT'S AUSTERITY MEASURES, THERE ARE WORRIES THAT BECAUSE SO MUCH TIME HAS BEEN LOST THE POSITIVE IMPACT ON CONFIDENCE MAY BE LESS THAN ANTICIPATED. THERE ARE CONCERNS THAT THE CRISIS WILL SLOW ECONOMIC ACTIVITY AND PERHAPS THROW THE ECONOMY INTO RECESSION. BULGARIA HAD BEEN EXPECTING ONLY MODEST GROWTH OF ONE PERCENT THIS YEAR. UNEMPLOYMENT, OFFICIALLY PUT AT 17 PERCENT, IS CERTAIN TO RISE WHILE INFLATION IS LIKELY TO ACCELERATE.

    MORE FUNDAMENTALLY, INTERNATIONAL LENDERS SAY THE CRISIS SHOWS DEEP SPLITS WITHIN THE GOVERNMENT OF FORMER COMMUNISTS THAT WON PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS IN DECEMBER 1994. ONE BANKER SAYS THERE IS NO FORCEFUL LEADER WITHIN THE GOVERNING SOCIALIST PARTY WHO HAS A COMPREHENSIVE PLAN FOR ECONOMIC REFORM. PRIME MINISTER ZHAN VIDENOV IS SEEN AS INDECISIVE AND LACKING COMMITMENT, DRIVEN TO THIS WEEK'S MEASURES ONLY BY DESPARATION.

    THE FOREIGN BANKER, INSISTING ON ANONYMITY, SAYS BULGARIA IS ONLY AT THE LAUNCHING POINT FOR REFORM AND THAT THE TASK AHEAD IS ENORMOUS. FIRST ON THE AGENDA, HE SAYS, IS THE RESTRUCTURING OF THE BANKING SYSTEM WHICH IS SEEN AS CORRUPT AND UNREGULATED. PRIVATIZATION NEEDS TO BE SPEEDED UP AND SYSTEMATIC ATTACKS MADE ON ORGANIZED CRIME.

    BULGARIA'S ECONOMIC CRISIS HAS PAINFULLY REVEALED JUST HOW LITTLE PROGRESS THE COUNTRY HAS MADE SINCE THE COLLAPSE OF THE COMMUNIST ECONOMIC SYSTEM. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT TOTALS LESS THAN 900 MILLION DOLLARS. A BILLION DOLLARS OF DEBT REPAYMENTS ARE DUE THIS YEAR. IT IS EXPECTED THAT THE I-M-F AND WORLD BANK WILL ULTIMATELY SUPPORT BULGARIA'S REFORMS BUT STIFF CONDITIONS ARE CERTAIN TO BE ATTACHED. BULGARIA FACES PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS THIS YEAR. (SIGNED)
    NEB/BDW/MH
    14-May-96 12:21 PM EDT (1621 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [04] ECO SUMMIT ENDS (L) BY DOUGLAS BAKSHIAN (ASHGABAT, TURKMENISTAN)

    DATE=5/14/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-197174
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: A SUMMIT OF THE 10 NATION ECONOMIC COOPERATION ORGANIZATION (OR ECO), HAS ENDED AFTER NARROWLY AVOIDING A SPLIT. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT DOUGLAS BAKSHIAN IN ASHGABAT REPORTS THERE WAS A DISPLAY OF HARMONY WHEN THE GROUP A DAY EARLIER INAUGURATED A RAIL LINK BETWEEN IRAN AND TURKMENISTAN.

    TEXT: DEBATE DEVELOPED ABOUT WHETHER THE ECONOMIC COOPERATION ORGANIZATION (OR ECO) IS A POLITICAL OR ECONOMIC GROUP. THE PRESIDENT OF UZBEKISTAN -- ISLAM KARIMOV -- WARNED IF ECO IS USED FOR POLITICAL PURPOSES, HIS COUNTRY MIGHT LEAVE THE ORGANIZATION.

    HE SAID ECO SHOULD NOT BE TURNED INTO WHAT HE CALLED A MILITARY POLITICAL UNIT. HE SAID IT SHOULD NOT BE USED AS A FORUM TO ATTACK NON-MEMBER COUNTRIES. A SPOKESMAN FOR TAJIKISTAN SAID HIS COUNTRY SHARED MR. KARIMOV'S VIEWS.

    THE UZBEK PRESIDENT DID NOT NAME ANY COUNTRIES, BUT OBSERVERS SAID HIS REMARKS WERE AIMED AT IRAN. IRANIAN PRESIDENT ALI AKBAR HASHEMI RAFSANJANI, IN HIS SPEECH TO THE GROUP, CONDEMNED ISRAEL FOR WHAT HE CALLED MASSACRES OF DEFENSELESS PEOPLE IN LEBANON. HE SAID THE UNITED STATES SUPPORTS SUCH CRIMES.

    TURKISH PRESIDENT SULEIMAN DEMIREL PLAYED A MEDIATING ROLE. HE SAID ALTHOUGH ECO IS AN ECONOMIC GROUP, IT OFFERS A FORUM FOR REGIONAL LEADERS TO TALK WITH EACH OTHER ABOUT MANY ISSUES. HE SAID ECO MAKES DECISIONS ON ECONOMIC ISSUES, BUT ON POLITICAL MATTERS, MEMBERS JUST EXCHANGE VIEWS. IN RESPONSE, UZBEK PRESIDENT KARIMOV SAID POLITICAL ISSUES SHOULD NOT BE ON THE AGENDA AND SHOULD ONLY BE TAKEN UP IN SIDE DISCUSSIONS.

    THE EXCHANGES ABOUT THE NATURE OF THE ORGANIZATION CAME ONE DAY AFTER THE 10 ECO LEADERS INAUGURATED A RAIL LINK BETWEEN IRAN AND TURKMENISTAN, WHICH GIVES CENTRAL ASIA ACCESS TO IRAN'S INTERNATIONAL PORT AT BANDAR ABBAS AND ALSO LINKS THE REGION TO EUROPEAN RAIL SYSTEMS BY CONNECTIONS THROUGH TURKEY. ANALYSTS SAY THIS OPENS UP A VITAL ECONOMIC LIFELINE TO THE LONG ISOLATED CENTRAL ASIAN NATIONS.

    IN OTHER HIGHLIGHTS, PAKISTAN, TURKMINISTAN, UZBEKISTAN AND AFGHANISTAN SIGNED A MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING ON A NATIONAL GAS PIPELINE THROUGH THEIR COUNTRIES. UNFORTUNATELY AFGHANISTAN IS TORN BY CIVIL WAR AND AT THIS STAGE THE PIPELINE IS ONLY A PLAN. A SEPARATE MEMORANDUM INCREASED THE CAPACITY OF THE ECO SECRATRIAT.

    THE SUMMIT ALSO ISSUED A 22-POINT DECLARATION ON A VARIETY OF PROCEDURAL MATTERS AND PROJECTS. THEY CALLED FOR A MINISTERS MEETING IN TURKEY LATER THIS YEAR TO REVISE THE ORGINAL TREATY UNDER WHICH ECO WAS FOUNDED.

    KAZAKHSTAN IS TO HOST THE NEXT ECO SUMMIT IN THE FIRST HALF OF 1998. ECO IS MADE UP OF PAKISTAN, IRAN, TURKEY, AFGHANISTAN AND AZERBAIJAN, AND THE CENTRAL ASIAN NATIONS OF UZBEKISTAN, KAZAKHSTAN, KRYGISTAN, TAJIKISTAN AND TURKMINISTAN. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DB/LTJ-T/CF
    14-May-96 1:37 PM EDT (1737 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [05] YUGO PROTEST (L ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

    DATE=5/14/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-197172
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: YUGOSLAVIA'S CENTRAL BANK GOVERNOR HAS WARNED THAT THE COUNTRY MUST ADOPT ECONOMIC REFORMS OR ITS ECONOMY WILL LANGUISH LIKE THAT OF NORTH KOREA. THE GOVERNOR MADE THE REMARKS TO PARLIAMENT IN BELGRADE WHILE THOUSANDS OF DEMONSTRATING WORKERS THERE AND IN ANOTHER YUGOSLAV CITY DEMANDED JOBS AND BACK PAY. V-O-A'S CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT, WAYNE COREY, REPORTS.

    TEXT: CENTRAL BANK GOVERNOR DRAGOSLAV AVRAMOVIC TOLD PARLIAMENT YUGOSLAVIA HAS NOT DECIDED WHAT TO DO. HE SAYS YUGOSLAVIA HAS TO DECIDE WHETHER TO BECOME PART OF THE WESTERN WORLD OR TO GO ALONG WITH NORTH KOREA.

    THE BLUNT SPEAKING GOVERNOR HAS BEEN URGING THE RULING SOCIALIST PARTY IN BELGRADE TO ACCEPT INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND TERMS FOR REJOINING THE I-M-F AND TO CARRY OUT ECONOMIC REFORMS. HE BELIEVES YUGOSLAVIA'S STATE-RUN INDUSTRIES SHOULD BE QUICKLY PRIVATIZED. BUT, THE SOCIALIST PARTY, LED BY SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC, HAS GIVEN NO INDICATION IT IS PREPARED TO UNDERTAKE THE VAST ECONOMIC REFORMS MR. AVRAMOVIC ADVOCATES. INSTEAD, MR. AVRAMOVIC WAS SACKED AS THE CHIEF YUGOSLAV NEGOTIATOR WITH THE I-M-F, AND THERE ARE GROWING SIGNS HE WILL BE SACKED AS THE CENTRAL BANK GOVERNOR.

    IN THE FACE OF HIGH LEVELS OF INFLATION AND UNEMPLOYMENT AND LOWER LIVING STANDARDS IN YUGOSLAVIA, THOUSANDS OF WORKERS DEMONSTRATED FOR A SECOND DAY IN BELGRADE AND IN THE TOWN OF NIS TO THE SOUTH.

    THEY DEMANDED JOBS AND BACK PAY. AN AGREEMENT WAS REPORTED TO HAVE BEEN REACHED EARLIER ON THE BACK PAY ISSUE.

    ANALYSTS AGREE WITH THE CENTRAL BANK GOVERNOR THAT YUGOSLAVIA'S DEVASTATED ECONOMY WILL DECLINE EVEN FURTHER UNLESS THE COUNTRY ADOPTS ECONOMIC REFORMS LIKE THOSE BEING IMPLEMENTED IN OTHER NATIONS IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE. BUT, THE SOCIALIST PARTY DOES NOT WANT TO LOOSEN ITS GRIP ON POWER. AND, UNLIKE RULING PARTIES IN OTHER EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES, THE SOCIALISTS IN YUGOSLAVIA DO NOT NECESSARILY FAVOR CLOSER TIES WITH THE WEST. (SIGNED)
    NEB/WC/MH/CF
    14-May-96 12:39 PM EDT (1639 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [06] YUGO WAR CRIMES (L ONLY) BY GILLIAN SHARPE (THE HAGUE)

    DATE=5/14/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-197178
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE YUGOSLAV WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL HAS BEEN HEARING FURTHER PROSECUTION EVIDENCE OF A SYSTEMATIC PATTERN OF SERBIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES IN BOSNIA. THE TESTIMONY COMES IN THE SECOND WEEK OF THE TRIAL OF BOSNIAN SERB DUSAN TADIC, ACCUSED OF CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY IN NORTHWEST BOSNIA. BUT AS GILLIAN SHARPE IN THE HAGUE REPORTS, EVEN AT THIS EARLY STAGE, THE CASE HAS RUN INTO PROBLEMS OF TIMING.

    TEXT: THE COURT HAS HEARD EVIDENCE FROM ITS THIRD WITNESS, ANOTHER VICTIM OF ALLEGED SERB ATROCITIES IN THE NORTHERN BOSNIAN TOWN OF BOSANSKI SAMAC.

    SULIJMAN TIHIC WAS PRESIDENT OF THE TOWN'S COUNCIL. AFTER THE AREAS WAS TAKEN OVER BY REBEL SERBS, HE WAS HELD IN A SERIES OF CAMPS WHERE PRISONERS, HE SAID, WERE ABUSED SIMPLY BECAUSE THE GUARDS WERE BORED.

    HE WAS BEATEN, WAS A WITNESS TO KILLINGS AND A VICTIM OF PSYCHOLOGICAL ABUSE. ON ONE OCCASION, HE SAID, THE MAN BEATING HIM TELEPHONED HIS GIRL FRIEND IN BELGRADE AND LET HER LISTEN TO WHAT WAS BEING DONE TO HIM.

    LOOKING MUCH OLDER THAT HIS 45 YEARS, HE TOLD THE COURT, THROUGH AN INTERPRETER, THAT ONE DAYS THAT THE RED CROSS VISITED THE CAMP, THE BEATINGS STOPPED. ONLY TO BEGIN AGAIN.

    /// TIHIC ACT ///

    THESE WERE ALL HUGE SOLDIERS, WHO HAD TO TURN TOWARDS THE WALL AND THEN HE WOULD RUN TOWARDS YOU AND WITH A BIG BOOT HE WOULD HIT YOU, AND THEN IF YOU FEEL, YOU HAD TO STAND UP AGAINST AND HE WOULD HIT YOU AGAIN IN THE KIDNEYS.

    /// END ACT ///

    THIS STORY DOES NOT DIRECTLY RELATE TO ANYTHING THAT MR. TADIC IS SAID TO HAVE DONE. BUT PROSECUTORS ARE TRYING TO PROVE THERE WAS A WIDESPREAD PATTERN OF ABUSE, SO THAT THE CHARGES AGAINST DUSAN TADIC CAN LEGALY BE CONSIDERED AS CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY. BUT ONLY 13 DAYS INTO THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL TRIAL, TESTIMONY LIKE THAT OF MR. TIHIC'S IS CAUSING PROBLEMS. THIRTEEN MORE WITNESSES WILL BE OFFERED TO MAKE SIMILIAR POINTS. PRESIDING TRIBUNAL JUDGE GABRIELLE MCDONALD HAS BEEN DOING HER ARITHMETIC AND SAYS AT THE PRESENT PACE, IT COULD TAKE THE PROSECUTION UP TO SIX MONTHS TO PRESENT ITS CASE. WAS THERE NOTHING, SHE ASKED PROSECUTOR GRANT NIEMANN, THAT COULD BE DONE? MR. NIEMANN RESPONDED:

    /// NIEMANN ACT ///

    THIS IS THE FIRST TIME THAT ONE OF THESE CASES HAS BEEN PROSECUTED AND WE JUST DO NOT KNOW WHAT IS REQUIRED IN TERMS OF PROOF.

    /// END ACT ///

    BUT NEITHER IS THE DEFENSE TOO KEEN TO REACH AN ACCOMODATION WITH THE PROSECUTION. DEFENSE ATTORNEY MIKHAIL WLADIMIROFF ARGUED IN HIS OPENING STATEMENT LAST WEEK TO THE COURT THAT THE PROSECUTION DID NOT KNOW EXACTLY WHAT IT HAD TO PROVE. THAT IS ONE OF THE DANGERS OF THIS CASE, HE SAID.

    BUT JUDGE MCDONALD WANTS BOTH DEFENSE AND PROSECUTION TO MEET AND DO WHAT THEY CAN TO SPEED THE PROCESS. THE TWO HAVE UNTIL MONDAY TO REPORT BACK. BUT EVEN IF THEY DO COME UP WITH AN AGREEMENT, THE TRIAL OF DUSAN TADIC IS EXPECTED TO LAST SEVERAL MONTHS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/GS/MH/GPT
    14-May-96 3:04 PM EDT (1904 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [07] BOSNIA TALKS (L) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)

    DATE=5/14/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-197171
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: LEADERS OF MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION IN BOSNIA ARE MEETING AT THE BLAIR HOUSE MANSION ACROSS THE STREET FROM THE WHITE HOUSE, AS THEY WORK ON A NEW DEFENSE LAW TO UNITE THEIR SEPARATE ARMED FORCES. RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT ON THE OPENING SESSION.

    TEXT: IN A SHAKY FEDERATION, THERE IS NO HARDER TASK THAN UNITING ARMED FORCES THAT WERE AT WAR WITH EACH OTHER A LITTLE MORE THAN TWO YEARS AGO. EVEN IN PEACETIME, BOSNIAN CROATS DO NOT WANT MILITARY DRAFTEES FROM THEIR PART OF BOSNIA-HERZGOVINA TO SERVE IN PREDOMINANTLY MUSLIM AREAS.

    SECRETARY OF STATE WARREN CHRISTOPHER CONVENED THE PRESIDENT OF THE FEDERATION, BOSNIAN CROAT KRESIMIR ZUBAK, AND CROATIAN FOREIGN MINISTER MATE GRANIC WITH BOSNIA'S VICE PRESIDENT EJUP GANIC AND PRIME MINISTER HASAN MURATOVIC ACROSS THE STREET FROM THE WHITE HOUSE. HE URGED THEM TO AGREE ON A NEW DEFENSE LAW IF THEY WANT MILITARY HELP FROM THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER COUNTRIES.

    ///CHRISTOPHER ACT///

    IT IS IMPORTANT THAT YOU APPROVE AND IMPLEMENT A NEW FEDERATION DEFENSE LAW TO UNITE THE ARMED FORCES OF THE BOSNIAN AND CROAT COMMUNITIES. ONLY WHEN THOSE FORCES ARE INTEGRATED, CAN THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY BEGIN TO HELP TO TRAIN AND EQUIP THEM.

    //END ACT///

    THE AMERICAN PLAN TO EQUIP AND TRAIN BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT FORCES HAS ALREADY BEEN SET BACK BY THE FAILURE OF MUSLIM AUTHORITIES TO EXPEL ALL FOREIGN FIGHTERS, MAINLY IRANIAN, FROM THE COUNTRY. AMERICAN OFFICIALS ESTIMATE THERE ARE STILL AROUND 100 FIGHTERS REMAINING FROM THE SEVERAL THOUSAND THAT HELPED BOSNIA DURING THE WAR.

    U-S OFFICIALS HAVE SAID THEY WILL NOT FUND SEPARATE MUSLIM AND CROAT ARMIES AND INSIST THEY WANT TO DEAL WITH ONE FEDERAL DEFENSE MINISTRY AND ONE ARMY.

    ANOTHER ISSUE AT TODAY'S SESSION IS ECONOMIC RECONSTRUCTION. SECRETARY OF STATE CHRISTOPHER TOLD THE DELEGATIONS THEY HAVE TO MAKE PROGRESS TOWARD A JOINT FINANCE MINISTRY AND TO ESTABLISH FREE AND FAIR ELECTIONS.

    ///CHRISTOPHER ACT///

    IT IS ALSO VITAL THAT THE FEDERATION FINISH BUILDING ITS FINANCIAL STRUCTURES SO THE WORLD BANK ASSISTANCE CAN GO FORWARD. YOU MUST SET UP LOCAL ELECTORAL COUNCILS AND MEET YOUR COMMITMENT TO GUARANTEE THAT ALL POLITICAL PARTIES HAVE EQUAL ACCESS TO THE MEDIA.

    ///END ACT///

    THE SECRETARY OF STATE SAYS ALL SIDES CAN DO A BETTER JOB OF ENSURING FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT SO REFUGEES CAN RETURN HOME. AMERICAN OFFICIALS SAY THE BOSNIAN SERBS ARE THE MAIN OBSTACLE TO LETTING REFUGEES RETURN TO AREAS THEY CONTROL. HOWEVER, THE MUSLIMS AND CROATS ARE ALSO RELUCTANT TO LET OTHER ETHNIC GROUPS MOVE INTO PLACES THEY CONTROL.

    THE MUSLIMS AND CROATS ARE SLOW TO UNITE WITH EACH OTHER BUT THE STATE DEPARTMENT SAYS AMERICAN AND EUROPEANS WILL USE THEIR INFLUENCE WITH THE FEDERATION TO MAKE IT WORK BETTER. (SIGNED)
    NEB/RP/MMK
    14-May-96 12:11 PM EDT (1611 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [08] BOSNIA TALKS UPDATE (S) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)

    DATE=5/14/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-197192
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: LEADERS OF THE MUSLIM CROAT FEDERATION IN BOSNIA-HERZGOVINA HAVE AGREED ON A NEW DEFENSE LAW AND OTHER ISSUES DESIGNED TO GIVE MORE SUBSTANCE TO THEIR SHAKY FEDERATION. V-O-A'S CORRESPONDENT RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT.

    TEXT: BOSNIA'S MUSLIM AND CROATS, AT WAR WITH EACH OTHER A LITTLE MORE THAN TWO YEARS AGO, HAVE AGREED TO INTEGRATE THEIR SEPARATE ARMIES WITHIN THREE YEARS. AT A MEETING AT BLAIR HOUSE, THE MANSION ACROSS THE STREET FROM THE WHITE HOUSE, FEDERATION LEADERS AGREED ON A NEW DEFENSE LAW THAT ESTABLISHES A SINGLE MINISTRY OF DEFENSE AND A JOINT COMMAND STRUCTURE.

    SECRETARY OF STATE WARREN CHRISTOPHER, WHO MEDIATED THE SESSION,CALLS IT A SUCCESS BUT HE SAYS IT DID NOT RESOLVE ALL THE PROBLEMS.

    /// CHRISTOPHER ACT ///

    WE UNDERSTAND THAT THIS PROGRESS DOES NOT COME EASILY FOR THE PARTIES BECAUSE THESE ARE SOME OF THE MOST FUNDAMENTAL, CORE ISSUES. WE KNOW THAT THE AGREEMENTS THAT HAVE STRECHED FROM DAYTON TO BLAIR HOUSE ARE NOT SELF-EXECUTING AND WILL TAKE FAITHFUL IMPLEMENTATION BY THE PARTIES.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE MUSLIM AND CROAT LEADERS ALSO AGREED ON FEDERAL BANKING AND TAX ADMINISTRATIONS THAT U-S OFFICIALS SAY WILL CLEAR THE WAY FOR LOANS FROM THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND. BOSNIA'S VICE PRESIDENT COMPARES THE FEDERATION TO AN EMPTY HOUSE THAT ONLY NOW IS BEGINNING TO HAVE FURNITURE MOVED INTO IT. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PT
    14-May-96 6:40 PM EDT (2240 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [09] BOSNIA-RECONSTRUCTION BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (POZARIKE, BOSNIA)

    DATE=5/14/96
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-33274
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THERE IS GROWING INTERNATIONAL CONCERN OVER THE SLOW PACE OF RECONSTRUCTION EFFORTS IN BOSNIA. NEARLY TWO BILLION DOLLARS OF ASSISTANCE HAS BEEN PLEDGED FOR THIS YEAR. BUT THE MAJOR PROJECTS ARE NOT EXPECTED TO BEGIN BEFORE MID-SUMMER. THE U-N HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES IS TRYING TO FILL THE GAP, AS WE HEAR IN THIS BACKGROUND REPORT FROM VOA'S DOUGLAS ROBERTS IN THE NORTHERN VILLAGE OF POZARIKE.

    TEXT: THE BABY CRIB IN THE SECOND STORY BEDROOM OF YUSUF OSMANOVIC'S HOUSE IS CLEARLY VISIBLE FROM THE STREET OUTSIDE. THAT IS BECAUSE THE FRONT WALL OF THE HOUSE SIMPLY IS NOT THERE ANYMORE. IT WAS BLASTED AWAY BY SERB GUNNERS ON WHAT WERE THE FRONT LINES OF THE BOSNIAN CONFLICT, BARELY TWO HUNDRED METERS AWAY.

    MR. OSMANOVIC IS AMONG SEVERAL THOUSAND FORMER REFUGEES WHO HAVE MOVED BACK INTO THEIR HOMES -- OR WHAT IS LEFT OF THEM -- ASTRIDE THIS COUNTRY'S BATTLEFIELDS.

    WITH HELP FROM U-N-H-C-R, THE 51-YEAR OLD FORMER DEPARTMENT STORE CLERK, HAS BEEN ABLE TO MAKE TWO ROOMS IN HIS HOUSE LIVEABLE AGAIN; ENOUGH SPACE--THOUGH BARELY--FOR HIMSELF, HIS WIFE, THREE SONS, TWO DAUGHTERS-IN-LAW AND A PAIR OF GRANDCHILDREN.

    U-N-HC-R PROVIDES VILLAGES LIKE POZARIKE WITH REPAIR KITS, EACH VALUED AT ABOUT 500 GERMAN MARKS, CONSISTING OF PLYWOOD, NAILS, PLASTIC SHEETING, MATTRESSES, BLANKETS AND A WOOD BURNING STOVE.

    IT IS UP TO LOCAL AUTHORITES TO DETERMINE WHICH FAMILIES RECEIVE THE KITS. DEMAND FAR OUTSTRIPS SUPPLY.

    ///ACT, FREE SOUND--SHOVELLING///

    IN ANOTHER VILLAGE ABOUT AN HOUR'S DRIVE AWAY, TWO MEN STRIPPED TO THE WAIST ARE CLEARING THE RUBBLE OUT OF ANOTHER SHELL BATTERED HOME, PREPARING FOR A MORE SUBSTANTIAL RECONSTRUCTION PROJECT, ALSO FUNDED BY U-N-H-C-R.

    THE UNITED METHODIST COMMITTEE ON RELIEF, KNOWN AS UMCOR, A U-S BASED AID AGENCY, HAS BEEN GIVEN THE CONTRACT TO ARRANGE FOR REPAIRS OF NEARLY SEVEN THOUSAND HOMES IN THE MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION. U-N-H-C-R IS PLANNING TO FUND A SIMILAR PROJECT IN BOSNIA'S SERB REPUBLIC.

    UMCOR PURCHASES THE MATERIALS AND ARRANGES THE DELIVERY THROUGHOUT THE FEDERATION. AGAIN, IT IS THE LOCAL AUTHORITIES WHO DETERMINE THE BENEFICIARIES.

    UMCOR'S CHIEF PROGRAM OFFICER FOR THE REGION IS BRAD PURENTEN.

    ///PURENTEN ACT///

    OF COURSE, THIS IS A SELF HELP PROGRAM WHERE THE WORK IS GOING TO BE DONE BY THE HOMEOWNERS, PROBABLY WITH HELP FROM THEIR NEIGHBORS. THE PROGRAM PROVIDES BASIC BUILDING MATERIALS THAT ARE NECESSARY TO BEGIN RECONSTRUCTION OF HOUSES. THE IDEA IS THAT IT IS ENOUGH MATERIAL TO PROVIDE A WEATHER TIGHT ROOF AND A COUPLE OF LIVING ROOMS ON ONE FLOOR, A COUPLE OF ROOMS THAT PEOPLE CAN LIVE IN WITH WINDOWS AND DOORS AND WALLS AND SO FORTH.

    ///END ACT///

    // OPT //

    ALMOST ALL THE MATERIALS FOR THE UMCOR PROJECT--CEMENT BLOCKS, TIMBER, DOORS AND WINDOWS--ARE PURCHASED FROM BOSNIAN COMPANIES, AND THE DELIVERIES ARE MADE BY BOSNIAN TRUCKING FIRMS AS PART OF AN EFFORT TO REVIVE THE LOCAL ECONOMY AS WELL AS TO REBUILD AT LEAST SOME OF THIS COUNTRY'S BATTLE-SCARRED HOMES.

    ///PURENTEN ACT///

    IT IS A GREAT KICK START. YOU HAVE GOT TO START SOMEPLACE, AND THIS SEEMS LIKE A GOOD BEGINNING. A LOT OF THE MOST VULNERABLE INDIVIDUALS WILL BENEFIT FROM THIS, AND IT WILL GET THINGS STARTED IN A LOT OF VILLAGES ALL OVER BOSNIA.

    ///END ACT///// END OPT //

    BUT U-N-H-C-R'S SHELTER PROGRAMS ARE BY NO MEANS LIMITED TO RURAL VILLAGES.

    ///ACT--FREE SOUND, GLAZING PROJECT///

    IN A DISTRICT OF HIGH-RISE APARTMENT BUILDINGS NEAR THE CENTER OF SARAJEVO, WORKMEN ON A U-N-H-C-R GLAZING PROJECT ARE HELPING TO REPLACE SHATTERED WINDOWS ALL OVER THIS CAPITAL CITY.

    // OPT //

    ABOUT 400 WORKMEN, MANY OF THEM FORMER BOSNIAN ARMY SOLDIERS, ARE EMPLOYED ON THE PROJECT. SPOKESMAN RON REDMOND SAYS THEY HAVE ALREADY INSTALLED WINDOWS IN MORE THAN SIX THOUSAND OF THE CITY'S APARTMENTS--IRONICALLY REPLACING THE PLASTIC SHEETING EMBLAZONED WITH THE U-N-H-C-R LOGO THAT HAD BECOME A VIRTUAL SYMBOL OF SARAJEVO'S LONG SEIGE.

    ///REDMOND ACT///

    ALTOGETHER, THEY ARE DOING MORE THAN THREE HUNDRED APARTMENTS A DAY, AND A TOTAL OF 400-THOUSAND SQUARE METERS OF GLASS, BENEFITTING SOME 36-THOUSAND FAMILIES IN ALL THE MUNICIPALITIES IN SARAJEVO WILL BE INSTALLED BY THE END OF AUGUST.

    ///END ACT///// END OPT //

    THE U-N AGENCY HAS ALLOCATED 70-MILLION DOLLARS FOR SHELTER PROJECTS IN BOSNIA THROUGH THE REMAINDER OF THIS YEAR. HIGH COMMISSIONER SADAKO OGATA ACKNOWLEDGES THAT IT IS JUST A DROP IN THE BUCKET.

    ///OGATA ACT///

    THE COUNTRY NEEDS BILLIONS OF DOLLARS FOR RECONSTRUCTION. BUT I THINK THE TEST IS HOW DO WE MAKE THE SEVENTY MILLION STRATEGICALLY IMPORTANT, THAT WOULD CHANGE PEOPLES LIVES, THAT WOULD ALLOW ALL RETURNS. AND THIS IS THE REAL TEST.

    ///END ACT///

    HERE IN POZARIKE, YUSUF OSMANOVIC SAYS HE WISHES HE COULD DO MORE TO REPAIR HIS HOME. HE IS ESPECIALLY WORRIED ABOUT A LEAKY ROOF OVER WHAT PASSES FOR THE KITCHEN. BUT WITH WRY SMILE AND A SHRUG OF HIS SHOULDERS, HE SAYS AT LEAST HE IS NOT A REFUGEE ANYMORE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DBR/MH/GPT
    14-May-96 1:58 PM EDT (1758 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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