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Voice of America, 15 May 1996 (2 of 2)

Voice of America Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] CLINTON / BOSNIA-CROATIA (S) BY DEBORAH TATE (WHITE HOUSE)
  • [02] BOSNIA TALKS (L-UPDATE) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)
  • [03] BOSNIA/REFUGEES (L ONLY) BY DAVID FOLEY (SREBRENICA/BOSNIA)
  • [04] TURKEY/POLITICS (L ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)
  • [05] BOSNIA AND THE MEDIA (L-ONLY) BY DON HENRY (WASHINGTON)
  • [06] GANIC / BOSNIA / U-S (L) BY PAMELA TAYLOR (WASHINGTON)
  • [07] BOSNIA/SERBS BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (GENEVA)
  • [08] YUGO WAR CRIMES (L ONLY) BY GILLIAN SHARPE (THE HAGUE)
  • [09] ARMENIAN GENOCIDE HEARING (L-ONLY) BY MICHELE KELEMEN (WASHINGTON)
  • [10] BOSNIA/KARADZIC (L-UPDATE) BY DAVID FOLEY (PALE)
  • [11] YUGO/DISMISSAL (L ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

  • [01] CLINTON / BOSNIA-CROATIA (S) BY DEBORAH TATE (WHITE HOUSE)

    DATE=5/14/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-197195
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: PRESIDENT CLINTON IS DIRECTING COMMERCE SECRETARY MICKEY KANTOR TO ORGANIZE AND LEAD A BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT MISSION TO BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA AND CROATIA TO CONTINUE THE WORK BEGUN BY THE LATE COMMERCE SECRETARY RON BROWN. MR. BROWN WAS ON A TRADE MISSION TO THE REGION WHEN HE WAS KILLED IN A PLANE CRASH LAST MONTH. MR. CLINTON ANNOUNCED THE NEW MISSION AT A WHITE HOUSE MEETING WITH OFFICIALS FROM BOSNIA'S MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION. V-O-A WHITE HOUSE CORRESPONDENT DEBORAH TATE REPORTS.

    TEXT: A WHITE HOUSE STATEMENT SAYS THE KANTOR MISSION WILL CONTRIBUTE TO THE ECONOMIC REVITALIZATION OF BOSNIA AND CROATIA, AND TO THE STRENGTHENING OF THE MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION.

    THE STATEMENT SAYS THE MISSION WILL MARK THE START OF A NEW PHASE IN U-S RELATIONS WITH BOSNIA AND CROATIA -- COMMERCIAL AND ECONOMIC ENGAGEMENT, AND WILL CONTRIBUTE TO THE LONG-TERM STABILITY OF THE ENTIRE BALKAN REGION.

    NO DATE HAS BEEN ANNOUNCED FOR THE MISSION.

    MR. CLINTON INFORMED VISITING OFFICIALS OF THE MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION OF THE MISSION DURING A BRIEF MEETING AT THE WHITE HOUSE TUESDAY.

    DURING HIS TALKS, THE OFFICIALS DISCUSSED A NEW AGREEMENT UNDER WHICH SOLDIERS IN THE FEDERATION WILL BE PUT UNDER UNIFIED COMMAND. THEY ALSO DISCUSSED THE CONSOLIDATION OF ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS AND FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT WITHIN THE FEDERATION, AS WELL AS PARLIAMENTARY AND LOCAL ELECTIONS TO BE HELD IN BOSNIA LATER THIS YEAR. FEDERATION OFFICIALS MET FOR MOST OF THE DAY TUESDAY WITH SECRETARY OF STATE WARREN CHRISTOPHER FOR TALKS AIMED AT BOLSTERING THEIR FRAGILE FEDERATION. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DAT/SKH
    14-May-96 7:16 PM EDT (2316 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [02] BOSNIA TALKS (L-UPDATE) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)

    DATE=5/14/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-197197
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    /// WRITETHRU ///

    INTRO: LEADERS OF THE MUSLIM CROAT FEDERATION IN BOSNIA-HERZGOVINA HAVE AGREED ON A NEW DEFENSE LAW AND OTHER ISSUES DESIGNED TO GIVE MORE SUBSTANCE TO THEIR SHAKY FEDERATION. RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT.

    TEXT: BOSNIA'S MUSLIM AND CROATS HAVE AGREED TO INTEGRATE THEIR SEPARATE ARMIES WITHIN THREE YEARS. AT A MEETING AT BLAIR HOUSE, THE MANSION ACROSS THE STREET FROM THE WHITE HOUSE, FEDERATION LEADERS DREW UP A NEW DEFENSE LAW THAT ESTABLISHES A SINGLE MINISTRY OF DEFENSE AND A JOINT COMMAND STRUCTURE.

    THIS IS NOT AN EASY STEP FOR ARMIES THAT FOUGHT EACH OTHER ONLY A LITTLE MORE THAN TWO YEARS AGO. FEDERATION PRESIDENT KRESIMIR ZUBAK, A BOSNIAN CROAT, COMPLAINED CONTINUALLY THROUGH THE MEETING THAT BOSNIA HAS THREE TIMES AS MANY MUSLIMS THAN CROATS AND THAT BOSNIAN CROATS CAN LOSE THEIR IDENTITY IN A JOINT ARMY. HOWEVER, THE UNITED STATES HAS MADE A UNITED DEFENSE STRUCTURE ITS CONDITION FOR BEGINNING TO EQUIP AND TRAIN ONE BOSNIAN ARMY. U-S OFFICIALS ESTIMATE THAT IF CONCERNS ABOUT FOREIGN FORCES IN BOSNIA ARE RESOLVED, CONTRACTS FOR BEGINNING TRAINING OF THE BOSNIAN ARMY CAN START WITHIN ONE MONTH.

    SECRETARY OF STATE WARREN CHRISTOPHER, WHO MEDIATED THE SESSION, CALLS IT A SUCCESS BUT HE SAYS IT DID NOT RESOLVE ALL THE PROBLEMS OF THE SHAKY FEDERATION.

    ///CHRISTOPHER ACT///

    WE UNDERSTAND THAT THIS PROGRESS DOES NOT COME EASILY FOR THE PARTIES BECAUSE THESE ARE SOME OF THE MOST FUNDAMENTAL, CORE ISSUES. WE KNOW THAT THE AGREEMENTS THAT HAVE STRETCHED (OR COME) FROM DAYTON TO BLAIR HOUSE ARE NOT SELF-EXECUTING AND WILL TAKE FAITHFUL IMPLEMENTATION BY THE PARTIES.

    ///END ACT///

    THE MUSLIM AND CROAT LEADERS ALSO AGREED ON FEDERAL BANKING AND TAX ADMINISTRATIONS THAT U-S OFFICIALS SAY WILL CLEAR THE WAY FOR LOANS FOR BOSNIA FROM THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND.

    PRESIDENT CLINTON HAS ASKED SECRETARY OF COMMERCE MICKEY KANTOR TO GO TO BOSNIA AND CROATIA IN THE NEAR FUTURE TO CONTINUE THE MISSION OF HIS PREDECESSOR RON BROWN, WHO WAS KILLED ALONG WITH AMERICAN BUSINESS LEADERS WHEN THEIR PLANE CRASHED IN DUBROVNIK LAST MONTH. THE KANTOR DELEGATION WILL INCLUDE REPRESENTATIVES OF SOME OF THE SAME COMPANIES WHOSE LEADERS LOST THEIR LIVES ALONG WITH SECRETARY BROWN.

    ANOTHER COMMITMENT BY THE FEDERATION LEADERS IS TO BEGIN PLANNING FOR ELECTIONS LATER THIS YEAR WITH ONE HOUR OF PRIME TIME RADIO AND TELEVISION TO BE DEVOTED TO ELECTION CAMPAIGNING BEGINNING BY MAY 21ST. OPPOSITION PARTIES ARE SUPPOSED TO GET EQUAL TIME.

    BOSNIA'S VICE PRESIDENT EJUP GANIC SAYS A ONCE EMPTY FEDERATION IS BEGINNING TO GAIN SOME SUBSTANCE.

    ///GANIC ACT///

    A YEAR AGO, WE WERE HERE, REPORTING ON RESULTS ABOUT THE FEDERATION. I CAN SAY THAT IS BETTER THIS YEAR THAN IT WAS A YEAR AGO. A YEAR AGO, THE FEDERATION WAS ALMOST AN EMPTY HOUSE WITH ONLY A ROOF. HOWEVER, WE NOW HAVE MANY ROOMS IN THE SAME HOUSE AND WE ARE NOW BUYING FURNITURE EVERY DAY.

    ///END ACT///

    OF COURSE, THE BOSNIAN SERBS, IN THEIR SEPARATE ENTITY, HAVE GIVEN NO SIGN OF WANTING TO LIVE IN THE SAME HOUSE WITH THE MUSLIMS AND CROATS. MR. GANIC SAYS AS LONG AS RADOVAN KARADZIC, AN INDICTED WAR CRIMINAL, CONTINUES TO DIRECT AFFAIRS THERE, HE DOES NOT EXPECT FREE ELECTIONS TO BE HELD IN THE SERBIAN ENTITY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/RP/SKH
    14-May-96 7:39 PM EDT (2339 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [03] BOSNIA/REFUGEES (L ONLY) BY DAVID FOLEY (SREBRENICA/BOSNIA)

    DATE=5/15/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-197210
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: AS THE CHAOS OF CIVIL WAR DECLINES IN BOSNIA HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF REFUGEES ARE BEGINNING TO REBUILD THEIR LIVES. WHILE MOST ATTENTION IS ON THE MUSLIMS WHO WERE FORCED FROM THEIR HOMES, TENS OF THOUSAND OF SERBS ARE ALSO REFUGEES. WHEN SERB HELD AREAS OF SARAJEVO CAME UNDER GOVERNMENT CONTROL EARLY THIS YEAR, MOST SERBS CHOSE TO LEAVE. MANY SETTLED IN SREBRENICA, THE MUSLIM ENCLAVE IN EASTERN BOSNIA THAT WAS OVER-RUN BY SERB FORCES IN JULY LAST YEAR. DAVID FOLEY REPORTS FROM SREBRENICA ON THE FATE OF SOME OF THE SARAJEVO SERBS.

    TEXT: // ACT - SOUND OF HAMMERING //

    THE EFFORT TO REBUILD HOMES IS UNDER WAY ACROSS BOSNIA, AND HERE IN SREBRENICA IT'S NO DIFFERENT. THE TOWN, LIKE MANY OTHERS, HAS BEEN BADLY DAMAGED BY THE CONFLICT, BUT SREBRENICA IS DIFFERENT.

    DURING THE WAR, IT WAS ONE OF THREE MUSLIM ENCLAVES IN EASTERN BOSNIA SURROUNDED BY SERBS. IN JULY LAST YEAR THE TOWN FELL TO THE SERBS, WHO THEN ALLEGEDLY MASSACRED SEVERAL THOUSAND MUSLIMS, AND NOW THIS TOWN, AND ITS MASS GRAVES, ARE THE FOCUS OF INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES INVESTIGATORS.

    BUT THE SREBRENICA IS ALSO DIFFERENT BECAUSE, AS AN EMPTY TOWN, IT BECAME A MAGNET FOR DISPLACED SERBS FROM ACROSS BOSNIA AND CROATIA. THOUSANDS OF THE NEW RESIDENTS CAME FROM SARAJEVO EARLIER THIS YEAR WHEN, UNDER THE DAYTON (OHIO, USA) AGREEMENT, THEIR NEIGHBORHOODS CAME UNDER BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT CONTROL.

    WITH MY MANDATORY OFFICIAL BOSNIAN SERB GUIDE AT MY SIDE, THE FIRST STOP IS AT THE LOCAL MAYOR'S OFFICE. MOMCILO CVIJETINOVIC, THE HEAD OF THE RULING NATIONALIST BOSNIA SERB PARTY IS HAPPY TO TALK TO US. ONCE HE FINISHES DENYING ANY WAR CRIMES HAVE TAKEN PLACE IN SREBRENICA, HE SAYS THE REBUILDING OF HIS TOWN IS GOING SLOWLY, BUT HE SAYS EVERYONE IS WORKING TOGETHER.

    // ACT - CVIJETINVIC //

    I HAVE PEOPLE FROM 58 DIFFERENT TOWNS IN BOSNA, HE SAYS, BUT EVERYONE HAS GOTTEN TO KNOW EACH OTHER VERY QUICKLY, AND THEY ALL KNOW WHAT HAS TO BE DONE TO BUILD UP THE AREA. HE ALSO SAYS ANYONE WHO WANTS TO IS WELCOME TO RETURN TO SARAJEVO IF THEY WANT, BUT HE SAYS NO ONE IS CONSIDERING IT.

    OUTSIDE THE MAYOR'S OFFICE ALEXANDER DRASCOVIC, A 57 YEAR OLD ENGINEER FROM GRBAVICA NEAR THE CENTER OF SARAJEVO, SAYS HE'LL NEVER RETURN TO HIS OLD HOME AND LIVE WITH THE MUSLIMS. HE SAYS NOW HIS PEOPLE MUST START AGAIN WITH NOTHING.

    // ACT - DRASCOVIC / FOLEY //

    DRASCOVIC: WE HAVE LIVE FOR FUTURE, FOR OUR CHILDREN, FOR OUR GRAND CHILDREN ETC. FOLEY: DO YOU THINK ANY MUSLIMS WILL EVER COME BACK TO LIVE IN SRERENICA? DRASCOVIC: I DON'T BELIEVE THAT, BECAUSE IF THEY COME HERE, WE MUST GO OUT, AND WHERE? WHERE WE GO OUT? IN SARAJEVO NOT, IN TUZLA NOT, IN GLAMOC NOT. WHERE?

    // END ACT //

    // ACT - SHOVEL ON PAVEMENT //

    THE PEOPLE ARE STILL BUSY CLEANING UP SREBRINCA, BUT SOME ARE UNHAPPY WITH THE PACE OF IMPROVEMENTS. FORTY-SEVEN-YEAR-OLD SRETANKA VELEBIT LIVES WITH HER MOTHER IN A ONE ROOM FLAT WITHOUT ELECTRICTY OR RUNNING WATER, AND SHE SAYS THERE'S NO NORMAL LIFE HERE.

    // ACT - VELEBIT //

    THERE ARE NO JOBS SO PEOPLE CAN'T EARN ANY MONEY TO BUY ANYTHING, SHE SAYS. IF THERE WAS SOME KIND WORK OR UNEMPLOYMENT THEN, SHE SAYS, SHE WOULD FEEL MUCH BETTER.

    NEARBY A YOUNG MAN INVITES ME INTO HIS FAMILY'S TINY APARTMENT FOR THE TRADITIONAL BOSNIAN COFFEE AND BRANDY.

    // ACT - SOUNDS IN FLAT //

    AS SOMETIMES HAPPENS IN BOSNIA, THIS PEACEFUL SCENE IS SUDDENLY INTERRUPTED BY A REMINDER OF THE HORROR OF THE WAR. THE YOUNG MAN TELLS ME HE WAS A BOSNIAN SERB ARMY SNIPER IN SARAJEVO. MY OFFICIAL GUIDE, SUDDENLY WORRIED, SUGGESTS TO THE YOUNG MAN THAT HE MUST, OF COURSE, HAVE SHOT ONLY AT SOLDIERS, BUT THE YOUNG MAN TELLS US, NO, HE KILLED CHILDREN AS WELL. IN A ROOM SUDDENLY QUIET, I ASK HIM HOW HE COULD HAVE DONE SUCH A THING?

    // ACT - SNIPER //

    IT WAS MY DUTY, HE SAYS. WHEN I SAW THE MUSLIMS WERE KILLING OUR CIVILIANS, I DID THE THE SAME THING, HE SAYS, AND THAT'S WHY I BECAME A SNIPER.

    MOST PEOPLE HERE DEPEND ON FOOD FROM THE RED CROSS OFFICE, JUST UP THE STREET, FOR THEIR DAILY SURVIVAL. WHILE SPEAKING TO THE LOCAL OFFICIALS A DELIVERY OF AID SUDDENLY ARRIVES.

    // ACT - TRUCK //

    EVERYONE QUICKLY SCRAMBLES TO UNLOAD COOKING OIL FROM AMERICA AND EUROPE, AND CANNED FISH FROM CANADA. AID IS IN SHORT SUPPLY HERE, AND THE SERBS COMPLAIN THEY'RE NOT GETTING ENOUGH HUMANITARIAN AID. IT'S PERHAPS TRUE THAT INTERNATIONAL DONORS WITH LONG EXPERIENCE IN BOSNIA DURING THE WAR HAVE ONLY LIMITED SYMPATHY FOR THE SERBS, BUT THE PEOPLE HERE DISMISS SUCH ARGUMENTS.

    BUT IF CONDITIONS INSIDE SREBRENICA ARE MARGINAL, LIFE IS MORE DIFFICULT AT THE SLAPOVIC CAMP OUTSIDE OF TOWN. BUILT DURING THE WAR BY SWEDISH RELIEF ORGANIZATIONS TO HOLD MUSLIM REFUGEES IT IS NOW OCCUPIED BY MORE THAN ONE THOUSAND SERBS. OUTSIDE ONE SMALL CABIN TWO MEN STRUGGLE WITH A BROKEN CHAINSAW.// ACT - CHAINSAW

    //

    THERE IS LITTLE THAT WORKS IN THIS CAMP. THESE PEOPLE HAD TO FLEE THEIR HOMES IN WESTERN BOSNIA LAST YEAR WITH ONLY A FEW HOURS NOTICE, AND WHILE THE SERBS FROM SARAJEVO BROUGHT DOORS, WINDOWS, FURNITURE AND EVERYTHING ELSE THEY NEED TO REBUILD A DAMAGED HOUSE, THESE REFUGEES HAVE NOTHING. THE CAMP DIRECTOR, NIKOLAS IMIC, SAYS HIS PEOPLE HAVE BEEN FORGOTTEN, AND HE'S ALSO UNHAPPY THE SWEDES WON'T HELP HIS PEOPLE.

    // ACT - SIMIC //

    I WOULD LIKE IF THEY WOULD HELP TO RELOCATE THESE PEOPLE, HE SAYS. TO FIND AND REPAIR DAMAGED HOUSES OR APARTMENTS IN THE AREA AROUND SREBRENICA.

    DESPITE THE OCCASIONAL FLASH OF ANGER OR FRUSTRATION WITH THEIR OWN LEADERS, THE SERBS IN SREBRENICA, WHETHER FROM SARAJEVO, GRAHOVO, OR SANSKI MOST, SEEM TO SHARE ONE THING IN COMMON. ALMOST EVERY PERSON SAID THEY WOULD NEVER LIVE WITH MUSLIMS UNLESS THE SERBS WERE FIRMLY IN CONTROL. A MULTI-ETHNIC BOSNIA DOES NOT SEEM TO BE A SUBJECT FOR DEBATE, OR EVEN DISCUSSION. THE ETHNIC HATRED HERE IS STRONG AND UNBENDING. THESE PEOPLE SAY THEY KNOW WHY THEY FOUGHT THE WAR, AND THEY SAY THERE IS NO GOING BACK TO THE PAST. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DF/MH/CF
    15-May-96 8:02 AM EDT (1202 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [04] TURKEY/POLITICS (L ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)

    DATE=5/15/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-197235
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: TURKEY'S SHAKY RIGHT-WING COALITION IS STILL REELING FROM A FRESH BLOW DELIVERED BY THE MAIN OPPOSITION ISLAMIC WELFARE PARTY, AFTER THE CONSTITUTIONAL COURT RULED TUESDAY IN FAVOR OF THE ISLAMIST'S APPEAL TO ANNUL A MARCH CONFIDENCE VOTE IN THE GOVERNMENT. THE COURT BASED ITS DECISION ON TECHNICALITIES, BUT STOPPED SHORT OF INVALIDATING THE TWO-MONTH OLD GOVERNMENT. AMBERIN ZAMAN REPORTS FROM ANKARA

    TEXT: THE WELFARE PARTY SWIFTLY CLAIMED THE RULING AS A VICTORY. ITS LEADER, NECMETTIN ERBAKAN, SAID PRIME MINISTER MESUT YILMAZ'S TWO-MONTH OLD COALITION WITH HIS PREDECESSOR, TANSU CILLER'S CONSERVATIVE TRUE PATH PARTY, OR D-Y-P, HAD LOST, IN HIS WORDS, ITS LAST SHREDS OF LEGITIMACY.

    MEMBERS OF MR. YILMAZ'S MOTHERLAND PARTY, OR ANAP, ARE SEEKING TO PLAY DOWN DOWN THE CRISIS. THEY SAY THE COURT'S RULING CAN NOT BE APPLIED RETROACTIVELY. BUT LEGAL OPINION ON THE ISSUE REMAINS DIVIDED.

    THE WELFARE PARTY CAME IN FIRST IN GENERAL ELECTIONS FOR THE FIRST TIME IN TURKISH HISTORY LAST YEAR. IT WAS SHUT OUT OF THE GOVERNMENT AFTER BUSINESS CIRCLES JOINED FORCES WITH THE FIERCELY PRO-SECULAR MILITARY TO PRESSURE MR. YILMAZ AND MRS. CILLER INTO AN ALLIANCE.

    EVER SINCE, THE ISLAMISTS HAVE WAGED A RELENTLESS CAMPAIGN TO UNRAVEL THE COALITION THROUGH A SERIES OF PARLIAMENTARY MOTIONS. THEY ARE CENTERED ON WIDESPREAD ALLEGATIONS OF MASSIVE CORRUPTION BY MRS. CILLER.

    MR. ERBAKAN'S TACTICS HAVE SERVED TO EXPOSE THE DEEP-SEATED HOSTILITY BETWEEN MRS. CILLER AND MR. YILMAZ. THE MOTHERLAND PARTY BACKED TWO WELFARE PARTY MOTIONS AGAINST HER. THIS COULD LEAD TO MRS CILLER'S IMPEACHMENT BEFORE THE SUPREME COURT.

    IN THAT EVENT, THE COUNTRY'S FIRST WOMAN PRIME MINISTER WOULD BE BARRED FROM TAKING OFFICE AT THE BEGINNING OF NEXT YEAR AS FORESEEN BY HER POWER-SHARING AGREEMENT WITH THE MOTHERLAND PARTY.

    //REST OPT//

    MR. YILMAZ'S PERCEIVED BETRAYAL HAS SPARKED BITTER FEUDING BETWEEN THE TWO PARTNERS. HARDLY A DAY PASSES WITHOUT PREDICTIONS THE GOVERNMENT IS ABOUT TO FALL.

    OBSERVERS SAY EARLY GENERAL ELECTIONS NOW APPEAR INEVITABLE, UNLESS EITHER THE WELFARE PARTY OR THE MOTHERLAND PARTY DECIDES TO HEED MR ERBAKAN'S CALL FOR A PARTNERSHIP. THEY ADD, EITHER WAY, THE ISLAMISTS STAND TO GAIN. RECENT OPINION POLLS SHOW THE ISLAMISTS PULLING FURTHER AHEAD OF THEIR PRO-SECULAR RIVALS WITH 24 PERCENT OF THE VOTE COMPARED WITH 16 PERCENT FOR MOTHERLAND PARTY AND THE CONSERVATIVE PARTY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/AZ/MH/JM
    15-May-96 12:13 PM EDT (1613 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [05] BOSNIA AND THE MEDIA (L-ONLY) BY DON HENRY (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=5/15/96
    TYPE=
    NUMBER=2-197238
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE HEAD OF A GROUP CALLED "THE COMMITTEE TO PROTECT JOURNALISTS" SAYS NEWS REPORTERS IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA CONTINUE TO FACE REPRESSION AND INTIMIDATION. VOA'S DON HENRY REPORTS HUNGARIAN-BORN KATI (KAH-TEE) MARTON TOLD THE FREEDOM FORUM IN WASHINGTON (TODAY /WEDNESDAY) WESTERN PRESSURE IS NEEDED TO PROMOTE A FREE PRESS IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA, CROATIA AND SERBIA.

    TEXT: KATI MARTON MET WITH SCORES OF JOURNALISTS AND GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS THROUGHOUT THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA EARLIER THIS MONTH, TRYING TO DETERMINE HOW FREE THE PRESS IS.

    // MARTON ACT //

    WELL, THE GOOD NEWS FROM THE BALKAN FRONT IS THAT THEY DON'T SHOOT REPORTERS OR EVEN JAIL THEM ANY MORE IN THE POST-WAR FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. BUT THE MEDIA, I'M SORRY TO REPORT, ARE JUST AS EFFECTIVELY CONTROLLED BY THEIR AUTHORITARIAN GOVERNMENTS' USE OF MORE SUBTLE MEASURES.

    // OPT //

    ALL THREE LEADERS -- SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC, FRANJO TUDJMAN AND ALIJA IZETBEGOVIC -- PROMISED TO UPHOLD THE RIGHT TO FREE SPEECH AND FREE PRESS IN DAYTON, AND ALL THREE ARE FALLING FAR SHORT OF DELIVERING ON THAT PROMISE. // END OPT //

    // END ACT //

    MS. MARTON, JOURNALIST AND AUTHOR, SAYS A FREE PRESS IS NECESSARY TO HELP ESTABLISH A MULTI-ETHNIC SOCIETY AFTER YEARS OF SAVAGE ETHNIC VIOLENCE.

    YET SHE SAYS SHE WAS TOLD IT IS STILL TOO DANGEROUS, HALF A YEAR AFTER THE DAYTON PEACE ACCORDS, FOR JOURNALISTS TO COVER MORE THAN A SMALL PORTION OF BOSNIA HERZEGOVINA.

    // SECOND MARTON ACT //

    REPORTERS DARE NOT PENETRATE THE SERB-HELD AREAS OF BANJA LUKA, BRICKO, PALE, GORADZE OR THE CROAT CONTROLLED WESTERN PART OF MOSTAR.

    // END ACT //

    SHE SAYS, FOR EXAMPLE, THAT BOSNIAN SERB MILITIA HAVE PULLED REPORTERS OUT OF VEHICLES AND DETAINED THEM OVERNIGHT. THOUGH THEY ARE NOT BEATEN, SHE SAYS, IT IS AN EXPERIENCE THEY DO NOT WANT TO REPEAT. MS. MARTON BELIEVES THIS TYPE OF INTIMIDATION COULD DISCOURAGE COVERAGE OF THE BOSNIAN ELECTION DUE TO BE HELD BY THE END OF SEPTEMBER.

    SHE SAYS INDEPENDENT OR OPPOSITION MEDIA HAVE BEEN CLOSED DOWN ON TECHNICAL GROUNDS, SUCH AS NOT MEETING ECOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS, OR ARE UNABLE TO GET ADEQUATE QUANTITIES OF NEWSPRINT TO PUBLISH THEIR PERIODICALS. HOWEVER, SHE SAYS THE SITUATION IS NOT HOPELESS BECAUSE THE GOVERNMENTS DO NOT WANT TO BECOME ISOLATED FROM THE WEST.

    // THIRD MARTON ACT //

    THESE LEADERS ARE NOT THE IMPLACABLE DICTATORS OF THE PAST. THEY'RE WHAT I WOULD CALL SOFT AUTOCRATS, VULNERABLE TO PRESSURE.

    // END ACT //

    SHE SAYS WESTERN GOVERNMENTS AND INSTITUTIONS SHOULD USE BANK LOANS, ECONOMIC SANCTIONS AND MEMBERSHIP IN SUCH ORGANIZATIONS AS THE EUROPEAN UNION AS LEVERAGE TO PROMOTE FREEDOM OF THE PRESS IN BOSNIA, CROATIA AND SERBIA.

    THE HEAD OF THE COMMITTEE TO PROTECT JOURNALISTS HAD A SECOND REASON TO BE INTERESTED IN MEDIA REPRESSION IN THE BALKANS. SHE IS THE WIFE OF RICHARD HOLBROOKE, FORMER U-S ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE WHO IS CONSIDERED THE ARCHITECT OF THE DAYTON PEACE ACCORDS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DOH/PCF
    15-May-96 12:58 PM EDT (1658 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [06] GANIC / BOSNIA / U-S (L) BY PAMELA TAYLOR (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=5/15/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-197240
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE VICE PRESIDENT OF BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA, EJUP GANIC [AYE-YOOP GAHN-ITCH], HAS BEEN IN WASHINGTON TO FIRM UP THE SHAKY MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION. HE BRIEFED REPORTERS AND OTHERS (WEDNESDAY) ON A WIDE RANGE OF ISSUES, INCLUDING WHAT HE SEES AS THE IMPERATIVE NEED FOR PEACEKEEPING TROOPS TO ARREST AND DETAIN ACCUSED WAR CRIMINALS, BOSNIAN-SERB LEADER RADOVAN KARADZIC AND GENERAL RATKO MLADIC. V-O-A'S PAMELA TAYLOR REPORTS:

    TEXT: MR. GANIC OPENED HIS REMARKS BY OBSERVING THAT BOSNIA'S BIGGEST PROBLEM IS THAT MR. KARADZIC AND GENERAL MLADIC REMAIN IN THE SAME COUNTRY AS IFOR, THE NATO IMPLEMENTATION FORCE SENT TO SEPARATE FORCES AND CREATE A STABLE CLIMATE FOR ELECTIONS. "BOSNIA IS A SICK COUNTRY," HE SAID, "AND THERE IS ONLY ONE WAY TO CURE THE DISEASE SO THE PATIENT CAN BECOME HEALTHY AGAIN:"

    /// GANIC ACT ///

    THIS IS NOW NOT ONLY A MORAL ISSUE BUT A BIG ISSUE. IF WE REMOVE THOSE TWO CHARACTERS, IF KARADZIC AND MLADIC ARE REMOVED, WE CAN HAVE ELECTIONS, WE CAN HAVE A CHANGE. IF WE DON'T REMOVE THEM, OF COURSE, IT WILL BE MORE OR LESS THE SAME.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. GANIC MADE THE COMMENTS BEFORE WORD CAME FROM THE BOSNIAN SERB REPUBLIC [REPUBLIKA SRPSKA] THAT MR. KARADZIC HAS FIRED HIS PRIME MINISTER, RAJKO KASAGIC [RAI-KOH CASA-GEECH]. LAST WEEK, MR. KASAGIC CALLED ON ALL SERBS TO RESPECT THE PROVISIONS OF THE DAYTON PEACE ACCORD. UNDER THE DAYTON AGREEMENT, ALL PARTIES TO THE ACCORD ARE REQUIRED TO HAND OVER ANY INDICTED WAR CRIMINALS IN THEIR TERRITORY TO THE U-N WAR CRIMES COURT IN THE HAGUE.

    MR. GANIC WAS, HOWEVER, ASKED BY REPORTERS WHETHER HE EXPECTS THE TWO ACCUSED WAR CRIMINALS TO BE DETAINED BY JUNE 14TH, THE DEADLINE GIVEN BY INTERNATIONAL ELECTIONS MONITORS FOR DETERMINING IF CONDITIONS ARE IN PLACE TO GUARANTEE FREE AND FAIR ELECTIONS FOR SEPTEMBER:

    /// GANIC ACT ///

    WHAT WILL HAPPEN ON JUNE 14, I DON'T KNOW, PROBABLY A POSTPONEMENT FOR A MONTH OR TWO OR THREE UNTIL HE (THE CHIEF MONITOR, JOHN FROWICK) GETS THE INFRASTRUCTURE WORKED OUT. I BELIEVE IT'S BETTER TO POSTPONE FOR ONE MONTH OR A MONTH AND A HALF, TO GET IT RIGHT, BUT WE OPPOSE ANY POSTPONEMENT. IF WE HAVE TO REMOVE THOSE ACCUSED OF WAR CRIMES, WE SHOULD DO THAT IN ORDER TO HAVE ELECTIONS.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. GANIC SAID THAT ALTHOUGH THE U-S OFFICIALS HE SPOKE WITH DURING HIS WASHINGTON VISIT DID NOT TELL HIM WHEN AND HOW DR. KARADZIC AND GENERAL MLADIC MIGHT BE CAUGHT, HE SAID HE FOUND WIDESPREAD AGREEMENT THAT THE TWO MEN ARE THE MAIN OBSTACLE TO FAIR ELECTIONS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PAM/MMK
    15-May-96 1:06 PM EDT (1706 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [07] BOSNIA/SERBS BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (GENEVA)

    DATE=5/15/96
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-33284
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: BOSNIAN SERB LEADER RADOVAN KARADZIC DISMISSED HIS PRIME MINISTER, RAJKO KASAGIC, WEDNESDAY. MR. KARADZIC HAS BEEN INDICTED AS A WAR CRIMINAL AND OSTRACIZED BY THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY, AND CONTINUES TO RESIST KEY ASPECTS OF THE DAYTON PEACE PLAN. MR. KASAGIC, ON THE OTHER HAND, IS VIEWED AS A MODERATE AND HAS FREQUENTLY STATED HIS WILLINGNESS TO COOPERATE IN EFFORTS TO IMPLEMENT THE PEACE PLAN. GENEVA CORRESPONDENT DOUGLAS ROBERTS, JUST BACK FROM A VISIT TO BOSNIA, HAS THIS LOOK AT THE APPARENTLY DEEPENING RIFT WITHIN THE SERB LEADERSHIP.

    TEXT: JUST A WEEK AGO, MR. KASAGIC WAS RECEIVING A HOST OF INTERNATIONAL VISITORS AT HIS OFFICE IN THE BOSNIAN SERB STRONGHOLD OF BANJA LUKA.

    ENVOYS FROM THE UNITED STATES, BRITAIN AND THE EUROPEAN UNION CALLED ON THE PRIME MINISTER, ALONG WITH THE HEAD OF THE U-N REFUGEE AGENCY, SADAKO OGATA, AND CARL BILDT, THE SWEDISH STATESMAN CHARGED WITH OVERSEEING IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CIVILIAN ASPECTS OF THE DAYTON PEACE PLAN.

    MR. BILDT ACKNOWLEDGED THE POLITICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THE FLURRY OF HIGH LEVEL VISITS TO BANJA LUKA.

    ///BILDT ACT///

    IT DEMONSTRATES THAT WE WANT TO COOPERATE WITH THE REPUBLIKA SRPSKA AUTHORITIES, THE GOVERNMENT, THE PRIME MINISTER. THIS HAPPENS TO BE THE MAIN ECONOMIC, SOCIAL, CULTURAL, INTELLECTUAL CENTER OF THE REPUBLIKA SRPSKA. AND THE FACT THAT VERY MANY ARE COMING HERE NOW, THIS PARTICULAR WEEK, IS A SYMBOL OF OUR WILL REACH OUT.

    ///END ACT///

    MR. BILDT MADE IT CLEAR THE VISITS WERE ALSO INTENDED TO SEND A MESSAGE TO WHAT HE TERMED THE ISOLATIONIST TENDENCY WITHIN THE SERB LEADERSHIP IN PALE, MR. KARADZIC'S PICTURESQUE MOUNTAIN STRONGHOLD EAST OF SARAJEVO.

    DURING THE TALKS IN BANJA LUKA, MR. KASAGIC PUBLICLY STATED HIS WILLINGNESS TO WORK WITH INTERNATIONAL MEDIATORS TO BUILD CONFIDENCE BETWEEN THE SERB REPUBLIC AND BOSNIA'S MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION. HE TOLD MRS. OGATA OF THE U-N REFUGEE AGENCY HE FULLY SUPPORTS FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT ACROSS THE FORMER CONFRONTATION LINES.

    THAT IS IN STARK CONTRAST TO THE MESSAGE COMING FROM MR. KARADZIC IN PALE. U-N-H-C-R OFFICIALS SAY PRIVATELY THE PALE LEADERSHIP HAS ISSUED INSTRUCTIONS TO BLOCK THE RETURN OF MUSLIM AND CROAT REFUGEES TO SERB-HELD AREAS, AND TO DISCOURAGE SERB REFUGEES FROM RETURNING TO THEIR HOMES IN THE FEDERATION.

    BOSNIAN AND WESTERN ANALYSTS SAY THE SPLIT BETWEEN PALE AND BANJA LUKA HAS BEEN EVIDENT FOR SOME TIME.

    WHEN THE DAYTON AGREEMENT WAS ANNOUNCED LAST NOVEMBER, THERE WERE CELEBRATIONS IN BANJA LUKA, BUT ANGRY PROTESTS IN PALE.

    THE SPLIT WORSENED LATE LAST MONTH, AFTER THE BRITISH CONTINGENT OF THE NATO PEACEKEEPING FORCE TRANSFERRED ITS HEADQUARTERS FROM FEDERATION TERRITORY TO BANJA LUKA.

    PRIME MINISTER KASAGIC APPROVED AND APPLAUDED THE MOVE. BUT A SPOKESMAN FOR MR. KARADZIC VOICED ANGER AND DEMANDED AN INVESTIGATION.

    ANALYSTS SAY IT IS DIFFICULT FOR OUTSIDERS TO DECIPHER WHAT ONE CALLED THE MURKY WORLD OF SERB POLITICS. BUT THEY SAY THERE IS LITTLE DOUBT THAT THE CONFRONTATION BETWEEN PALE AND BANJA LUKA WILL INTENSIFY IN THE RUN-UP TO THE BOSNIAN ELECTIONS, EXPECTED IN THE FALL.

    THE CAMPAIGN HAS ALREADY BEGUN, SAYS ONE U-N OFFICIAL. MR. KARADZIC'S SERBIAN DEMOCRATIC PARTY HAS FORMED AN ALLIANCE WITH SUPPORTERS OF TWO NOTORIOUS EXTREMISTS, BOTH ACCUSED OF WAR CRIMES DURING THE BOSNIAN CONFLICT ALTHOUGH NOT YET INDICTED BY THE INTERNATIONAL TRIBUNAL. POSTERS OF THE TWO, ZELJKO RAZNATOVIC, KNOWN AS ARKAN, AND VOJISLAV SESELJ, HAVE GONE UP IN BANJA LUKA ALONGSIDE PICTURES OF MR. KARADZIC.

    THE OPPOSITION IS LED BY THE SERB SOCIALIST PARTY, SUPPORTERS OF THE SERBIA'S PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC. AND ACCORDING TO ANALYSTS IN BANJA LUKA, THE SOCIALISTS HAVE ALSO WON THE BACKING OF SENIOR BOSNIAN SERB MILITARY COMMANDERS.

    THE OPPOSITION'S PLATFORM -- BROADCAST ON A CLANDESTINE RADIO NETWORK -- INCLUDES A PLEDGE OF SUPPORT FOR THE DAYTON PEACE PLAN, AND STIPULATES THAT NO ONE INDICTED FOR WAR CRIMES SHOULD BE ALLOWED TO STAND IN THE ELECTIONS. THAT WOULD RULE OUT BOTH MR. KARADZIC AND THE OVERALL SERB MILITARY COMMANDER, RATKO MLADIC.

    ANALYSTS SAY THE OPPOSITION HAS CONSIDERABLE SUPPORT IN BANJA LUKA AND IN OTHER SERB TOWNS. BUT IN THE COUNTRYSIDE, THEY SAY, THERE IS STILL STRONG BACKING FOR MR. KARADZIC AND GENERAL MLADIC.

    U-N AND WESTERN OFFICIALS SAY THE OUSTER OF MR. KASAGIC IS A BLOW FOR THE MODERATE FACTION. A SPOKESMAN FOR MR. BILDT SAID IT IS ALSO A STRIKE AGAINST THE DAYTON PEACE PROCESS.

    BUT SOME ANALYSTS ARE ALREADY SPECULATING THAT THE PRIME MINISTER MAY CHALLENGE HIS DISMISSAL, BRINGING THE FEUD WITHIN THE SERB LEADERSHIP OUT INTO THE OPEN. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DBR/MH/MMK
    15-May-96 1:26 PM EDT (1726 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [08] YUGO WAR CRIMES (L ONLY) BY GILLIAN SHARPE (THE HAGUE)

    DATE=5/15/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-197247
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: WAR CRIMES PROSECUTORS SAY THEY WANT TO TAKE OVER A CASE FROM THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC. THE CASE INVOVLES DRAZEN ERDEMOVIC WHO IS IN CUSTODY AS A WITNESS, BUT ALSO HAS BEEN CHARGED WITH WAR CRIMES IN CONNECTION WITH THE FALL OF SREBRENICA. THE ANNOUNCEMENT CAME ON THE SEVENTH DAY OF THE TRIAL OF DUSAN TADIC, A BOSNIAN SERB CHARGED IN THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL'S FIRST CASE. GILLIAN SHARPE REPORTS FOR VOA FROM THE HAGUE.

    TEXT: THOUSANDS OF MUSLIM MEN ARE THOUGHT TO HAVE BEEN KILLED WHEN THE U-N SAFE AREA OF SREBRENICA WAS CAPTURED BY BOSNIAN SERB FORCES IN JULY, 1995. THE ALLEGED MURDERS CAUSED THE U-N WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL TO INDICT BOSNIAN POLITICAL AND MILITARY LEADERS, RADOVAN KARADZIC AND RATKO MLADIC.

    THE INDICTIMENT SAYS THE MURDERS AT SREBRENICA ARE SCENES WRITTEN ON THE DARKEST PAGES OF HUMAN HISTORY.

    DRAZEN ERDEMOVIC, WHOSE CASE THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL NOW WANTS TO TAKE OVER, IS NOT INDICTED, BUT THAT COULD CHANGE. HE IS REPORTED TO HAVE ADMITTED TAKING PART IN THE SREBRENICA KILLINGS. HE WAS TRANSFERRED BY BELGRADE AUTHORITIES AS A WITNESS TO THE SREBRENICA INCIDENT, ALTHOUGH BELGRADE OFFICIALS HAVE ALREADY CHARGED HIM AS PART OF A WIDER PROBE INTO THE FALL OF SREBRENICA.

    AS THE TRIBUNAL DEALT WITH THE ERDEMOVIC CASE, PROSECUTORS IN THE ONGOING TRIAL OF BOSNIAN SERB DUSAN TADIC CONTINUE TO PRESENT EVIDENCE AGAINST HIM AS THEY TRY TO SHOW A WIDESPREAD CAMPAIGN OF SERB ATROCITIES IN BOSNIA.

    A WITNESS ON WEDNESDAY, ISAK GASI, WAS AN ELECTRICIAN AND SMALL TIME POLITICAL FIGURE IN THE NORTHERN BOSNIAN TOWN OF BRCKO. ARRESTED AFTER SERB FORCES TOOK OVER THE AREA, HE SAID SAID HE WAS BEATEN AND WAS A WITNESS TO KILLINGS IN THE LUKA PRISON CAMP RUN BY BOSNIAN SERBS.

    THE DEFENSE CROSS EXAMINED MR. GASI TO DISCREDIT HIS TESTIMONY. DEFENSE ATTORNEY MIKHAIL WLADIMIROFF ASKED IF MR. GASI COULD DISTINGUISH BETWEEN DIFFERENT KINDS OF UNIFORMS AND MARKINGS ON MILITARY EQUIPMENT. HE ASKED MR. GASI IF HE HAD SEEN WEAPONS IN MUSLIM VILLAGES, APPARENTLY ATTEMPTING TO DEMONSTRATE FROM VAGUE OR CONTRADICTORY ANSWERS THAT MR. GASI WAS NOT A RELIABLE WITNESS.

    AS THE TRIAL CONTINUES, DUSAN TADIC APPEARS TIRED AND DETACHED FROM WHAT IS GOING ON AROUND HIM. SEVERAL DAYS AGO HE REMOVED HIS HEADPHONES THAT PROVIDE HIM WITH A TRANSLATION IN SERBO CROATIAN OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROCEEDINGS, AS IF TO SHOW HIS BOREDOM OR INDIFFERENCE TO A TRIAL THAT COULD END IF HE IS CONVICTED WITH HIM SPENDING THE REST OF HIS LIFE IN PRISON. (SIGNED)
    NEB/GS/MH/CF
    15-May-96 2:06 PM EDT (1806 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [09] ARMENIAN GENOCIDE HEARING (L-ONLY) BY MICHELE KELEMEN (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=5/15/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-197252
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: MEMBERS OF THE U-S CONGRESS TOOK TIME FOR A HISTORY LESSON TODAY (WEDNESDAY), WITH A HEARING ON A RESOLUTION TO COMMEMORATE WHAT IT CALLS ONE AND A HALF MILLION ARMENIAN VICTIMS OF GENOCIDE BY THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE, 80 YEARS AGO. (IN TESTIMONY BEFORE THE HOUSE COMMITTEE ON INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS,) ACADEMICS DEBATED WHETHER CONGRESS SHOULD PASS THE RESOLUTION. AS V-O-A'S MICHELE KELEMEN REPORTS, MEMBERS OF THE COMMITTEE ALSO JOINED WHAT HAS BEEN A HEATED DEBATE FOR MOST OF THIS CENTURY.

    TEXT: EVEN BEFORE THE PROFESSORS COULD MAKE THEIR CASE, COMMITTEE MEMBER DAN BURTON OF INDIANA WARNED HIS COLLEAGUES TO BE WARY.

    //// BURTON ////

    I DO NOT BELIEVE IT IS THE PROPER ROLE OF CONGRESS TO LEGISLATE HISTORY AND DEBASE AN ALLY, AND I MEAN A VERY STRONG ALLY, IN TURKEY BY PROPOSING RESOLUTIONS LIKE HOUSE CONCURRENT RESOLUTION 47. IT IS OUR JOB TO PROMOTE U-S INTERESTS AND PROMOTE PEACE AROUND THE WORLD. I AM VERY SKEPTICAL THAT THIS HEARING WILL ACHIEVE ANY OF THESE GOALS.

    //// END ACT ////

    BUT OTHER MEMBERS OF THE HOUSE COMMITTEE ON INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS SAY, AFTER MANY YEARS AND PREVIOUS ATTEMPTS TO GET CONGRESS TO PASS A RESOLUTION ON THE ISSUE, IT IS TIME TO SET THE RECORD STRAIGHT.

    ROUBEN ADALIAN OF THE ARMENIAN ASSEMBLY OF AMERICA SAYS THE UNITED STATES CAN NOT APPEAR IN DOUBT ABOUT PAST CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY IF IT WANTS TO PLAY A CREDIBLE ROLE IN RESPONDING TO CRISES AROUND THE WORLD TODAY. MR. ADALIAN SAYS HIS RESEARCH TEAM WENT THROUGH TENS OF THOUSANDS OF PAGES OF OFFICIAL U-S REPORTS AND COMMUNICATIONS ABOUT THE ATROCITIES AGAINST ARMENIANS.

    ////// ADALIAN ACT ////

    ALARMED AT THE INCREASING FREQUENCY OF THE REPORTS OF MISTREATMENT, DEPORTATION AND MASSACRES, HENRY MORGANTHAU, THE UNITED STATES AMBASSADOR TO TURKEY (AT THE TIME) REACHED THE CONCLUSION THAT A SYSTEMATIC EFFORT WAS UNDERWAY TO LIQUIDATE THE ARMENIAN POPULATION. // OPT // IN A SERIES OF REPORTS, AMBASSADOR MORGANTHAU RELAYS HIS FINDINGS TO THE SECRETARY OF STATE IN WASHINGTON. HIS CABLES INCLUDED THE CONSULAR REPORTS SUBSTANTIATING THE RUMORS THAT THE ARMENIANS IN TURKEY WERE IN THE THROWS OF A STATE ORGANIZED CAMPAIGN AIMED AT THEIR WHOLESALE ANNIHILATION UNDER THE GUISE OF A RESETTLEMENT POLICY. // END OPT //

    //// END ACT ///

    PROFESSOR ADALIAN WAS JOINED BY LEVON MARASHLIAN OF GLENDALE COMMUNITY COLLEGE IN CALIFORNIA, WHO SAYS THOSE WHO DENY THE ARMENIAN GENOCIDE ARE RESORTING TO -- WHAT HE CALLS -- ACADEMICALLY UNSOUND REVISIONISM. NOT SO, ACCORDING TO JUSTIN MCCARTHY, THE FINAL PANELIST AT THE HEARING ON CAPITOL HILL. PROFESSOR MCCARTHY, WHO TEACHES HISTORY AT THE UNIVERSITY OF LOUISVILLE IN KENTUCKY, SAYS PEOPLE ARE TRYING TO SIMPLIFY DIFFICULT ISSUES.

    //// MCCARTHY ACT ///

    // OPT //

    ONE REASON IS THAT WE HAVE ALL BEEN CONDITIONED TO EXPECT A WORLD OF HEROES AND VILLAINS .... OR VICTIMS AND VILLAINS. THIS FEELING HAS SOMETIME CAUSED AMERICANS TO MISINTERPRET EVENTS PARTICULARLY IN THE MIDDLE EAST. HOWEVER, IT IS THE HOLOCAUST OF THE JEWS THAT MOST DEEPLY AND PROPERLY AFFECTS US. // END OPT // OUR REMEMBRANCES OF THE EVILS OF NAZI GERMANY HAS UNFORTUNATELY CAUSED US TO SEE OTHER EVENTS IN HISTORY THROUGH THE GLASS OF THE HOLOCAUST. BUT NO EVENT IN HISTORY CAN COMPARE TO THE HOLOCAUST. INDEED IN HISTORY MOST LOSS OF CIVILIAN LIFE HAS TAKEN PLACE IN WAR IN WHICH BOTH SIDES WERE ARMED, BOTH SIDES FOUGHT, AND BOTH SIDES WERE VICTIMS. WORLD WAR ONE IN ANATOLIA WAS SUCH A WAR.

    ///// END ACT ////

    MR. MCCARTHY SAYS THE ETHNIC CONFLICT BETWEEN TURKS AND ARMENIANS BEGAN MORE THAN 100 YEARS BEFORE WORLD WAR ONE, AND MANY WERE KILLED ON BOTH SIDES. HE SAYS ALLEGATIONS OF GENOCIDE ARE PRIMARILY BASED ON COUNTING THE ARMENIAN DEAD, NOT THE MUSLIM DEAD.

    THE U-S CONGRESS HAS HEARD SIMILAR ARGUMENTS IN THE PAST AND NOW THE U-S STATE DEPARTMENT IS JOINING IN. IT SAYS THE RESOLUTION ON ARMENIAN GENOCIDE IS NEITHER APPROPRIATE NOR CONSTRUCTIVE BECAUSE IT COULD HARM RELATIONS WITH TURKEY. PROPONENTS SAY TURKEY WILL STILL NEED THE UNITED STATES AS AN ALLY REGARDLESS OF WASHINGTON'S STAND ON THE ATROCITIES AGAINST ARMENIANS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/MK/MMK
    15-May-96 2:46 PM EDT (1846 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [10] BOSNIA/KARADZIC (L-UPDATE) BY DAVID FOLEY (PALE)

    DATE=5/15/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-197262
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: BOSNIAN SERB LEADER RADOVAN KARADZIC HAS FIRED HIS PRIME MINISTER IN A SIGN OF AN ONGOING POWER STRUGGLE IN THE BOSNIAN SERB LEADERSHIP. THE MOVE HAS BEEN CONDEMNED AS UNACCEPTABLE AND AS AN ATTEMPTED COUP AGAINST THE DAYTON AGREEMENT BY CARL BILDT, THE SENIOR INTERNATIONAL MEDIATOR IN BOSNIA. DAVID FOLEY REPORTS FROM THE BOSNIAN SERB'S HEADQUARTERS IN PALE.

    TEXT: THE FIRING OF BOSNIAN SERB PRIME MINISTER RAJKO KASAGIC IS A CLEAR SIGN PRESIDENT RADOVAN KARADZIC AND OTHER BOSNIAN SERB HARD-LINERS ARE FEELING THE PRESSURE. NATO AND THE INTERNATIONAL ADMINISTRATOR IN BOSNIA, CARL BILDT, HAVE BEEN WORKING HARD TO ISOLATE MR. KARADIZIC AND TO SUPPORT MR. KASAGIC AND OTHER MORE MODERATE BOSNIAN SERB OFFICIALS WHO ARE MAINLY BASED IN BANJA LUKA IN NORTHERN BOSNIA.

    THE ANNOUNCEMENT OF THE FIRING CAME AFTER A MEETING BETWEEN MR. KARADZIC, MR. KASAGIC AND SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC IN SERBIA EARLY ON WEDNESDAY. MR. KARADZIC'S OFFICE IN PALE RELEASED A STATEMENT SAYING THE PRIME MINISTER HAD FAILED TO CARRY OUT HIS DUTIES AND HAD CAUSED SIGNIFICANT DAMAGE TO THE BOSNIAN SERB STATE.

    THE FIRING WAS IMMEDIATELY CONDEMNED IN SARAJEVO BY CARL BILDT. HE DESCRIBED IT AS A COUP ATTEMPT AGAINST THE DAYTON AGREEMENT, AND SAID IT WOULD NOT BE ACCEPTED OR RECOGNIZED. MR. BILDT SAID HE IS SEEKING AN URGENT MEETING WITH MR. KASAGIC, BUT, ADMITTING THERE WAS LITTLE HE COULD DO, HE SAID HE WOULD PUT PRESSURE ON PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC TO HAVE MR. KASAGIC REINSTATED.

    THIS LATEST CRISIS WAS APPARENTLY PROMPTED WHEN, OVER THE WEEKEND, MR. KASAGIC REQUESTED A SPECIAL MEETING OF THE BOSNIAN SERB PARLIAMENT TO ENDORSE HIS MOVE TO REPLACE UP TO SIX GOVERNMENT MINISTERS. ALL ARE HARD-LINE SUPPORTERS OF RADOVAN KARADZIC, AND MR. KASAGIC SAID THEY WERE OBSTRUCTING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE DAYTON AGREEMENT.

    IT IS NOT CLEAR WHY MR. KASAGIC THOUGHT HE COULD FORCE THROUGH SUCH CHANGES, THOUGH HE DOES HAVE MORE SUPPORT IN THE MORE MODERATE BOSNIAN SERB PARLIAMENT THAN IN THE GOVERNMENT, WHICH IS STRICTLY CONTROLLED BY MR. KARADZIC. MR. KASAGIC IS NOW BELIEVED TO BE RETURNING TO BANJA LUKA, BUT AS YET THERE IS NO WORD WHETHER HE WILL TRY TO FIGHT HIS DISMISSAL. SUCH A MOVE COULD LEAD TO A SPLIT IN THE BOSNIAN SERB GOVERNMENT, BETWEEN OFFICIALS IN BANJA LUKA AND PALE.

    NO REPLACEMENT FOR MR. KASAGIC HAS BEEN ANNOUNCED, BUT SOURCES IN PALE SAY THE ECONOMY MINISTER, MILOMIR DRAGANIC, HAS ALREADY BEEN APPOINTED AS CARE-TAKER PRIME MINISTER. IT IS NOT CERTAIN MR. KASAGIC WILL EVEN BE ABLE TO RETAIN HIS MEMBERSHIP IN THE RULING NATIONALIST PARTY.

    WHATEVER THE OUTCOME OF THIS DISPUTE, NATO OFFICIALS AND MR. BILDT ARE CERTAIN TO TAKE A MORE FORCEFUL LINE AGAINST ANY BOSNIAN SERB OBSTRUCTION OF THE DAYTON AGREEMENT. INTERNATIONAL OFFICIALS SAY THEY ARE ADAMANT MR. KARADZIC WILL NOT BE ABLE TO IGNORE THE DAYTON AGREEMENT, NOR WILL BOSNIA BE PERMANENTLY ETHNICALLY PARTITIONED. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DF/JM
    15-May-96 4:13 PM EDT (2013 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [11] YUGO/DISMISSAL (L ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

    DATE=5/15/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-197272
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE SOCIALIST-DOMINATED PARLIAMENT OF YUGOSLAVIA HAS VOTED TO SACK THE COUNTRY'S CENTRAL BANK GOVERNOR, DRAGOSLAV AVRAMOVIC, WHO HAS DEMANDED FUNDAMENTAL ECONOMIC REFORMS. THE YUGOSLAV CURRENCY, THE DINAR, QUICKLY FELL IN VALUE ON THE BLACK MARKET IN BELGRADE. V-O-A'S CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT, WAYNE COREY, REPORTS.

    TEXT: THE SACKING OF THE CONTROVERSIAL AND BLUNT-SPEAKING CENTRAL BANK GOVERNOR CAME AS NO SURPRISE, LEAST OF ALL TO MR. AVRAMOVIC HIMSELF.

    JUST BEFORE BOTH HOUSES OF THE YUGOSLAV PARLIAMENT APPROVED HIS DISMISSAL, HE TOLD DEPUTIES GO ON, GENTLEMEN, REPLACE ME. BUT, REMEMBER YOU ARE AT A DEAD END.

    MR. AVRAMOVIC SAID HE NOW REGRETS EVER ACCEPTING THE JOB OF CENTRAL BANK GOVERNOR. BUT, HE SAID HE INTENDS TO APPEAL HIS OUSTER TO THE CONSTITUTIONAL COURT.

    HE EARLIER SAID SOCIALIST ECONOMIC POLICIES WOULD SOON LEAD TO A NEW INFLATION CATASTROPHE AND THAT YUGOSLAVIA WOULD FACE THE SAME DIRE ECONOMIC CONDITIONS AS NORTH KOREA.

    OPPOSITION LEADER VUK DRASKOVIC, WHO BACKED MR. AVRAMOVIC, SAID HIS DISMISSAL WILL LEAD TO FRESH HYPER-INFLATION, WORKERS' RIOTS AND WHAT HE CALLS MAFIA RULE.

    SHORTLY AFTER PARLIAMENT SACKED THE CENTRAL BANK GOVERNOR, THE YUGOSLAV CURRENCY, THE DINAR, QUICKLY FELL IN VALUE AGAINST THE GERMAN MARK ON BELGRADE'S BLACK MARKET. BUT, THE RULING SOCIALIST PARTY IS NOT READY TO BACK RAPID AND MANDATORY INDUSTRIAL PRIVATIZATION AND OTHER REFORMS WHICH MR. AVRAMOVIC HAS CALLED VITAL TO YUGOSLAVIA'S ECONOMIC WELL-BEING.

    WHILE IT RESISTS FUNDAMENTAL ECONOMIC REFORMS, THE YUGOSLAV GOVERNMENT HAS ATTACHED POLITICAL CONDITIONS TO YUGOSLAVIA'S POSSIBLE, RENEWED MEMBERSHIP IN THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND.

    THE CENTRAL BANK GOVERNOR'S SACKING WILL FURTHER SET BACK THE COUNTRY'S I-M-F MEMBERSHIP BID ALTHOUGH THE RULING SOCIALISTS DO NOT APPEAR TOO CONCERNED ABOUT THAT.

    THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA WAS ONE OF THE MOST PROSPEROUS COUNTRIES IN WHAT USED TO BE THE COMMUNIST BLOC IN EASTERN EUROPE. TODAY, THE SMALLER YUGOSLAV STATE'S ECONOMY IS LAGGING FAR BEHIND THE FAST GROWING, MARKET-ORIENTED ECONOMIES OF COUNTRIES LIKE POLAND AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC.

    EVEN THOUGH YUGOSLAVIA NO LONGER FACES INTERNATIONAL SANCTIONS, MOST OF ITS PEOPLE ARE ENDURING HIGH LEVELS OF INFLATION AND UNEMPLOYMENT AND DECLINING LIVING STANDARDS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/WC/LWM
    15-May-96 6:32 PM EDT (2232 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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