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Voice of America, 20 May 1996

Voice of America Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] MONDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [02] BOSNIA / HOPE BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (VRANDUK, BOSNIA)
  • [03] BOSNIA SITREP (L) BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)
  • [04] BULGARIA ECONOMY (L ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)
  • [05] U-S-TURKEY (L ONLY) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)
  • [06] YUGO WAR CRIMES (L ONLY) BY GILLIAN SHARPE (THE HAGUE)

  • [01] MONDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=05/20/96
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09583
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-S-T ON MONDAY, MAY 20TH //

    INTRO: THE SUICIDE DEATH OF THE NAVY'S SENIOR ADMIRAL AND THE U-S DEFENSE BUDGET ARE TWO TOPICS OF SPECIAL INTEREST IN THE NATION'S EDITORIAL COLUMNS THIS MONDAY. OTHER SUBJECTS UNDER DISCUSSION INCLUDE THE U-S TRADE CONFLICT WITH CHINA; A SLIPPAGE OF MORALITY IN PANAMA; TWO ASSAULTS ON THE MEDIA IN CUBA, AND SEPARATIST SENTIMENTS IN CANADA. NOW, HERE WITH SOME QUOTES IS _______________ AND TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: THERE IS CONTINUED SADNESS IN THE NATION OVER THE SUICIDE LAST WEEK OF ADMIRAL JEREMY "MIKE" BOORDA, THE CHIEF OF NAVAL OPERATIONS, WHO SHOT HIMSELF TO DEATH AT HIS HOME IN WASHINGTON. ADMIRAL BOORDA WAS APPARENTLY DESPONDENT OVER A NEWS MEDIA INVESTIGATION INTO A PAIR OF MEDALS HE WORE FOR SERVICE IN VIETNAM -- DECORATIONS HE MIGHT NOT HAVE BEEN ENTITLED TO WEAR. IN TODAY'S NEW YORK POST, THERE IS THIS REMEMBRANCE.

    VOICE: "ADMIRAL ... BOORDA'S SUICIDE BROUGHT TO AN ABRUPT AND TRAGIC END A LIFE THAT TESTIFIED TO THE CONTINUING VITALITY OF THE AMERICAN DREAM. IN A CURIOUS WAY, THE DEATH OF THE CHIEF OF NAVAL OPERATIONS, AND THE CIRCUMSTANCES SURROUNDING IT, MAY SERVE TO REMIND CYNICS THAT THERE REMAIN IN AMERICA MEN AND WOMEN WHOSE LIVES ARE GUIDED BY FEALTY TO A CODE OF HONOR... IN [ADMIRAL] BOORDA'S WORLD, HIS ALLEGED MISDEED WAS NO MINOR MATTER; WEARING UNEARNED DECORATIONS IS SEEN AS DIMINISHING THE HEROISM OF MEN AWARDED THEM LEGITIMATELY. FOR AN OFFICER OF [ADMIRAL] BOORDA'S RANK, THE PROSPECT OF EXPERIENCING THE INEVITABLE HUMILIATION MAY WELL HAVE BEEN TOO PAINFUL TO CONTEMPLATE."

    TEXT: USA TODAY IS STILL PERPLEXED BY THE DEATH, WONDERING WHETHER THERE WAS MUCH MORE BEHIND THE SUICIDE THAN EMBARRASSMENT OVER UNEARNED MEDALS. CITING ON-GOING SEXUAL ASSAULTS BY NAVY PERSONNEL AND STRIDENT CRITICISM BY FORMER NAVY SECRETARY JAMES WEBB AND OTHERS THAT NAVY MORALE WAS PLUMMETING BECAUSE OF WEAK LEADERSHIP, THE PAPER SAYS:

    VOICE: "A DIFFICULT SITUATION. YET WOULDN'T A MAN WHO ORDERED THE FIRST AIR STRIKES BY NATO IN BOSNIA AND NAVIGATED THE ROCKY SHOALS OF PENTAGON POLITICS TO RUN THE NAVY HAVE DEVELOPED ARMOR ENOUGH TO DEFEND AGAINST SUCH ASSAULTS? THE TRAGEDY IS, AS IS OFTEN THE CASE WITH SUICIDE, [ADMIRAL] BOORDA APPARENTLY DIDN'T LET OTHERS IN ON HIS PAIN AND DIDN'T ASK FOR THEIR HELP."

    TEXT: SOME PAPERS ARE CRITICIZING REPUBLICAN-CONTROLLED CONGRESS FOR MOVING TO INCREASE THE DEFENSE DEPARTMENT BUDGET EVEN AS OTHER DEPARTMENTS ARE SUFFERING SERIOUS CUTS IN AN EFFORT TO FEDERAL BALANCE THE BUDGET. THE MIAMI HERALD SUGGESTS:

    VOICE: "SOME HOUSE MEMBERS WHO HAVE BEEN ON A HOLY CRUSADE TO BALANCE THE FEDERAL BUDGET, AND WHO ARE WHACKING AWAY AT SPENDING ON HEALTH AND SOCIAL SERVICES, ARE VOTING TO INCREASE PENTAGON SPENDING BY SOME 12-POINT-SIX BILLION DOLLARS... AT A TIME OF VOCIFEROUS CALLS ON BEHALF OF BUDGET-TIGHTENING, 'FISCAL CONSERVATIVES' ON CAPITOL HILL NOT ONLY ADDED THIS UNWARRANTED 12-POINT-SIX BILLION DOLLARS TO PRESIDENT CLINTON'S 253-BILLION DOLLAR PENTAGON SPENDING REQUEST, THEY ALSO LIMITED DEBATE AND AMENDMENTS... THEY ALSO PREVENTED OTHER HOUSE MEMBERS FROM OFFERING AMENDMENTS TO TRIM THE BILL'S PREPOSTEROUS SPENDING... THE HOUSE DEFENSE BUDGET NEITHER SERVES THE INTERESTS OF U-S TAXPAYERS NOR RESPECTS THE RIGHTS OF THEIR MILITARY PROTECTORS."

    TEXT: USA TODAY CONTINUES THE THEME, SAYS THE PENTAGON BUDGET SHOULD NOT BE USED BY SOME CONGRESS MEMBERS TO, IN EFFECT, BUY VOTES BY CONTINUING, OR EXPANDING, MILITARY EXPENDITURES IN THEIR DISTRICTS.

    VOICE: "CONGRESS' WORST-KEPT SECRET IS OUT: MEMBERS ARE ACKNOWLEDGING, HOWEVER GRUDGINGLY, THAT DEFENSE SPENDING IS DRIVEN IN PART BY ITS VALUE AS A LOCAL JOBS PROGRAM., NOT NECESSARILY BY THE NATION'S PRIORITY NEEDS... THE SENATE TAKES UP THIS WEEK THE DEFENSE AUTHORIZATION FOR NEXT YEAR, ALREADY SWEETENED BY THE HOUSE WITH 12-POINT-FOUR BILLION DOLLARS MORE THAN THE ADMINISTRATION REQUESTED... MEANWHILE, THE SIX-YEAR NATIONAL BUDGET ADOPTED BY THE HOUSE THURSDAY ENVISIONS 700-MILLION IN SAVINGS THROUGH CURBS ON MEDICARE, MEDICAID, WELFARE, TAX CREDITS FOR LOW-INCOME FAMILIES AND MOST OTHER DOMESTIC PROGRAMS. AT A TIME OF SUCH CONSTRAINTS, THE DEFENSE BUDGET DESERVES SIMILARLY CLOSE SCRUTINY."

    TEXT: NOTING THE POSSIBILITIES OF A TRADE WAR WITH CHINA OVER THE PIRATING OF U-S INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, INCLUDING COMPACT DISCS AND VIDEO-TAPED MOVIES, THE MIAMI HERALD SAYS CHINA STANDS TO BE THE REAL LOSER:

    VOICE: "COUNT ON ONE THING AS THE UNITED STATES AND CHINA EDGE TOWARD A 'TRADE WAR': THOSE STANDING ON THE SIDELINES PLAN TO BENEFIT. IF THE UNITED STATES DOES DOUBLE THE TARIFFS ON CERTAIN CHINESE GOODS, HONG KONG, TAIWAN, MALAYSIA AND MEXICO WILL FILL THE GAPS IN U-S MARKETS. IF CHINA RETALIATES AS IT THREATENS, FRANCE, GERMANY, AND JAPAN -- THOUGH THEY MAY HAVE THE SAME CONCERNS AS THE UNITED STATES ABOUT THE PIRACY OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY -- WILL FILL THE GAPS IN CHINA'S MARKETS."

    TEXT: TODAY'S LOS ANGELES TIMES DECRIES WHAT IT CALLS THE RETURN OF "BAD OLD TIMES" IN PANAMA, REFLECTING ON EVENTS DURING THE DICTATORSHIP OF MANUEL NORIEGA:

    VOICE: "THE INITIAL WAVE OF PARDONS CAME FROM PANAMA'S PRESIDENT HIMSELF IN 1994. RIGHT AFTER HIS INAUGURATION, ERNESTO PEREZ BALLADARES GRANTED AMNESTY TO 222 ONETIME CRONIES OF MANUEL ANTONIO NORIEGA, PANAMA'S FORMER DICTATOR... NOW THE PRESIDENT OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY WANTS TO ... EXTEND THE AMNESTY TO ONE-THOUSAND MEMBERS OF THE DEMOCRATIC REVOLUTIONARY PARTY, THE BACKBONE OF THE CORRUPT NORIEGA REGIME, DRIVEN FROM POWER BY AN AMERICAN INVASION IN 1989 AND RETURNED TO POWER IN 1994 BY THE VOTERS... WITHOUT AN INTERNATIONAL OUTCRY, WHICH HAS YET TO BE HEARD, PANAMA FACES A RETURN TO POWER OF THUGS WHO COMMITTED INNUMERABLE ATROCITIES UNDER THE RULE OF [MR.] NORIEGA, WHO NOW SITS IN A U-S PRISON ON NARCOTICS CHARGES."

    TEXT: THE NEW YORK TIMES ALSO FOCUSES ON LATIN AMERICA AND TWO DEVELOPMENTS IT FEELS ARE THREATENING THE FLOW OF INFORMATION INSIDE COMMUNIST CUBA. ONE IS THE FORCED EXTRADITION OF CUBAN JOURNALIST RAFAEL SOLANO TO SPAIN, A CHOICE HE TOOK TO AVOID JAIL FOR HIS HONEST REPORTING, CONSIDERED SUBVERSION BY THE CASTRO GOVERNMENT. THE OTHER IS A PLANNED MOVE BY RADIO MARTI, THE V-O-A'S CUBAN BROADCAST SERVICE, FROM WASHINGTON TO MIAMI. SAYS THE TIMES:

    VOICE: "THE STATION ... IS BASED IN WASHINGTON ... TO PROTECT RADIO MARTI FROM JOSTLING RIVALRIES WITHIN THE CUBAN EXILE COMMUNITY IN MIAMI. BY COMMON CONSENT, THE ARRANGEMENT HAS WORKED WELL, AND THE STATION HAS PROVIDED A CLOSED SOCIETY WITH CREDIBLE REPORTS ON THE CASTRO REGIME. UNHAPPILY, CONGRESS HAS REVERSED ITSELF AND CALLED FOR MOVING THE STATION TO SOUTHERN FLORIDA, AND HAS DONE SO WITHOUT ANY HEARINGS OR DEBATE... THE INTEGRITY OF RADIO MARTI SHOULD NOT BE SACRIFICED TO THE WHIM OF A HANDFUL OF LAWMAKERS IN WASHINGTON CATERING TO THE DEMANDS AND FINANCIAL SUPPORT OF A PORTION OF THE CUBAN-EXILE COMMUNITY IN FLORIDA."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: THE ATLANTA CONSTITUTION IS CONCERNED ABOUT REPUBLICAN EFFORTS IN CONGRESS TO WEAKEN THE SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT BY EXEMPTING SMALL, RURAL WATER COMPANIES FROM STRICT, FEDERAL STANDARDS.

    VOICE: "NO ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE STRIKES CLOSER TO HOME THAN THE SAFETY OF OUR DRINKING WATER... THE UNITED STATES IS NOT A THIRD WORLD NATION TOO POOR TO PROVIDE SUCH BASICS AS SAFE DRINKING WATER... IF SMALL WATER SYSTEMS ARE NOT CAPABLE OF DELIVERING SAFE WATER TO THEIR CUSTOMERS, THEY SHOULD BE PUT OUT OF BUSINESS."

    TEXT: REGARDING STRAINS BETWEEN FRENCH AND ENGLISH-SPEAKING CANADA OVER THE SECESSION DEBATE IN THE PROVINCE OF QUEBEC, TODAY'S BALTIMORE SUN WRITES:

    VOICE: "PRIME MINISTER JEAN CHRETIEN, THE QUEBECER HOLDING FEDERAL CANADA TOGETHER, HAS REOPENED THE DEBATE ON QUEBEC SOVEREIGNTY JUST WHEN THE SEPARATIST QUEBEC PREMIER, LUCIENT BOUCHARD, WAS HIDING THE ISSUE FOR TWO YEARS WHILE GEARING THE ECONOMY UP TO IT. MR. CHRETIEN IS RIGHT TO BE PRO-ACTIVE AND NOT MERELY REACTIVE... MR. BOUCHARD ... CANNOT EXPECT THAT RELATIONS BETWEEN QUEBEC AND THE REST OF CANADA ARE FOR QUEBEC ALONE TO DECIDE. IT'S HIS CAUSE, AND HE CANNOT DENY ADVERSARIES THE RIGHT AND DUTY TO TALK ABOUT IT."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: AND FINALLY, TODAY'S WASHINGTON POST OFFERS A MEMORIAL TRIBUTE TO THE V-O-A'S LONG-TIME JAZZ PRESENTER, WILLIS CONOVER, WHO DIED LAST FRIDAY:

    VOICE: "TIME FINALLY ACCOMPLISHED WHAT COMMUNIST TECHNOLOGY COULD NOT: IT SILENCED THE VOICE OF AMERICA. WILLIS CONOVER ... MAY HAVE BEEN AMONG THE BEST-KNOWN AND MOST BELOVED OF AMERICANS [WHO] OUTLASTED EIGHT ADMINISTRATIONS -- [DWIGHT EISENHOWER] WAS PRESIDENT ON JANUARY 6TH, 1955, WHEN [MR.] CONOVER MADE THE FIRST OF MORE THAN 20-THOUSAND BROADCASTS. IN THE LONG RUN, HE PROVED TO BE PERHAPS THE MOST EFFECTIVE OF ALL AMBASSADORS..."

    TEXT: AND THAT BRINGS TO A CLOSE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF SOME OF TODAY'S EDITORIALS FROM THE U-S PRESS.
    NEB/ANG/PCH
    20-May-96 11:20 AM EDT (1520 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [02] BOSNIA / HOPE BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (VRANDUK, BOSNIA)

    DATE=5/20/96
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-33324
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE DAYTON PEACE PLAN SPARKED FRESH HOPE AMONG THE MORE THAN TWO-MILLION BOSNIANS FORCED TO FLEE THEIR HOMES DURING THREE-AND-ONE-HALF-YEARS OF WAR. ABOUT 70-THOUSAND REFUGEES HAVE ALREADY RETURNED. BUT U-N OFFICIALS INVOLVED IN THE REPATRIATION EFFORT ACKNOWLEDGE MANY OF THE DISPLACED WILL LIKELY NEVER BE ABLE TO GO BACK TO THEIR ORIGINAL HOMES. V-O-A'S DOUGLAS ROBERTS FILED THIS BACKGROUND REPORT FROM THE VILLAGE OF VRANDUK, IN CENTRAL BOSNIA.

    TEXT: VRANDUK IS A SMALL, PICTURE POSTCARD VILLAGE OF STONE COTTAGES SET BENEATH THE HILL-TOP RUINS OF A 14TH CENTURY CASTLE. IN THE FULLNESS OF A BALKAN SPRING, IT SEEMS AN UN-LIKELY PLACE FOR A REFUGEE SETTLEMENT.

    THE COUNTRYSIDE IS AWASH WITH PURPLE LILAC AND DELICATE WHITE PLUM BLOSSOMS. WILD FLOWERS DOT THE SLOPE ABOVE THE MEANDERING WATERS OF THE BOSNA RIVER. THE AIR IS HEAVY WITH THE SCENT OF MINT.

    THIS MUSLIM VILLAGE WAS LARGELY SPARED THE RAVAGES OF BOSNIA'S LONG CONFLICT. BUT SINCE LAST SUMMER, VRANDUK HAS HOSTED 193 PEOPLE WHO SURVIVED THE FULL HORROR OF THE WAR.

    /// OCICI ACT IN SERB-CROAT ///

    THERE IS A TIGHTNESS IN NAZIRA OCICI'S VOICE AS SHE RECOUNTS HER FLIGHT FROM ZEPA, THE SMALL MUSLIM ENCLAVE IN EASTERN BOSNIA CAPTURED BY SERB FORCES LAST SUMMER, SOON AFTER THE FALL OF NEARBY SREBRENICA.

    /// OCICI ACT IN SERBO-CROAT, FADE TO TRANSLATION. ///

    IT WAS VERY VERY DIFFICULT FOR US BECAUSE WE ALL FEARED VERY MUCH WHAT WOULD HAPPEN TO US. AND WE COULD NOT GO ALONG WITH OUR MEN. THEY HAD TO STAY BEHIND. AND WE HAD TO GO -- WOMEN, CHILDREN, ELDERLY PEOPLE.

    /// END ACT ///

    SHE IS A TALL WOMAN, DRESSED IN BAGGY SLACKS AND A GREEN SHIRT, HER THICK BLACK HAIR PULLED BACK FROM A PALE AND DRAWN FACE THAT MAKES HER LOOK FAR OLDER THAN HER 35-YEARS.

    SHE CLUTCHES A SMALL CHILD, HER BROTHER'S SON. HER OWN CHILDREN ARE PLAYING NEARBY, OUTSIDE THE TWO-STORY COMMUNITY CENTER ON THE EDGE OF THE VILLAGE THE REFUGEES FROM ZEPA NOW CALL HOME.

    NAZIRA HAS BEEN A REFUGEE TWICE. SHE CAME ORIGINALLY FROM THE TOWN OF ROGATICA, BUT FLED WHEN IT WAS ETHNICALLY CLEANSED BY SERB FORCES AT THE OUTSET OF THE WAR.

    SHE SAYS SHE CAN NEVER GO BACK THERE -- HER HOUSE WAS BURNED TO THE GROUND. AND SHE SAYS SHE HAS NO HOPE OF RETURNING TO ZEPA EITHER.

    THE DAYTON PEACE AGREEMENT STIPULATES ALL REFUGEES HAVE THE RIGHT TO RETURN TO THEIR ORIGINAL HOMES. THE U-N HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES HAS BEEN GIVEN THE TASK OF ORGANIZING THE REPATRIATION. BUT HIGH COMMISSIONER SADAKO OGATA SAYS THERE IS ONLY SO MUCH THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY CAN DO.

    /// OGATA ACT ///

    WE CAN COMMIT OURSELVES TO DOING EVERYTHING TO REBUILD THE MULTI-ETHNIC FABRIC OF BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. BUT ULTIMATELY I WILL HAVE TO SAY THAT THIS WILL DEPEND ON THE WILL OF THE PEOPLE THEMSELVES, THE LEADERS AND THE ORDINARY PEOPLE. WE CANNOT SUBSTITUTE FOR THEIR WILL. BUT AT THE SAME TIME, WE WILL DO EVERYTHING THAT WE CAN.

    /// END ACT ///

    PRIVATELY, U-N-H-C-R OFFICIALS ACKNOWLEDGE THERE IS LITTLE CHANCE THE MUSLIMS AND CROATS EXPELLED FROM SERB TERRITORY IN NORTHERN AND EASTERN BOSNIA WILL BE ABLE TO RETURN HOME SOON.

    THESE OFFICIALS SAY HARDLINE BOSNIAN-SERB LEADERS HAVE ISSUED INSTRUCTIONS TO BLOCK THE RETURN OF MUSLIMS AND CROATS, AND TO DISCOURAGE SERB REFUGEES FROM RETURNING TO AREAS INSIDE THE MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION.

    U-N-H-C-R OFFICIALS SAY IT IS CLEAR MANY OF THOSE SERBS COULD RETURN, INCLUDING THE 60-THOUSAND WHO FLED THE SUBURBS OF SARAJEVO IN MARCH. SPOKESMAN KRIS JANOWSKI SAYS U-N-H-C-R STANDS READY TO ASSIST ANY WHO WANT TO GO BACK.

    /// JANOWSKI ACT ///

    WE OPPOSED THIS WHOLE EXODUS OF SERBS FROM SERB SARAJEVO FROM THE VERY START. WE WERE QUITE UPSET BY THE FACT THAT IT WAS INSTIGATED TO A LARGE EXTENT BY THE AUTHORITIES, BY THE PROPAGANDA. AND WE ALWAYS KNEW THAT IT WOULD HAVE A KNOCK-ON EFFECT ON (IMPLICATIONS FOR) OTHER DEVELOPMENTS THROUGHOUT THE COUNTRY. AND THE SERB EXODUS FROM SARAJEVO HAS ALREADY BEEN USED BY OFFICIALS IN THE SERB REPUBLIC AS AN EXCUSE TO SAY THAT THEY HAVE NO SPACE FOR THE MUSLIMS BECAUSE THEY HAVE TO ACCOMMODATE THE SERBS FROM SARAJEVO. SO THESE THINGS ARE INTER-LINKED LIKE THIS.

    /// END ACT ///

    BUT SERB LEADERS ARE NOT THE ONLY ONES BLOCKING THE RETURN OF REFUGEES. BOSNIAN CROAT LEADERS AND SOME MUSLIM MUNICIPAL AUTHORITIES ARE ALSO REFUSING TO IMPLEMENT SO-CALLED PILOT PROJECTS, CALLING FOR THE RETURN OF SMALL NUMBERS OF REFUGEES INSIDE THE MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION.

    /// OPT ///

    HIGH COMMISSIONER OGATA SAYS U-N-H-C-R IS PREPARED TO USE ITS RE-CONSTRUCTION AID AS LEVERAGE TO ENSURE THOSE AGREEMENTS ARE HONORED.

    /// OPT // OGATA ACT ///

    AND WE HAVE MADE IT VERY CLEAR TO THE AUTHORITIES THAT WE WOULD LIKE TO HAVE FULL COMPLIANCE. I THINK IF THERE ARE CERTAIN CITIES WHERE THERE IS CLEAR BLOCKAGE, WE WILL HAVE TO GO TO THE AUTHORITIES AND MAKE IT CLEAR AND MAKE IT KNOWN. AND I THINK IT WILL AFFECT OUR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS.

    /// END ACT // END OPT ///

    U-N OFFICIALS AND NATO COMMANDERS INSIST, SINCE THE DAYTON ACCORD WAS SIGNED, CONSIDERABLE PROGRESS HAS BEEN MADE TOWARD CREATING AN ENVIRONMENT THAT WILL ALLOW THE REFUGEES TO RETURN. BUT THEY ACKNOWLEDGE THE CHANCES OF ETHNIC RE-INTEGRATION HERE REMAIN VERY MUCH IN DOUBT. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DBR/JWH/RAE
    20-May-96 12:07 PM EDT (1607 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [03] BOSNIA SITREP (L) BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)

    DATE=5/20/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-197451
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: INTERNATIONAL OFFICIALS SAY BOSNIAN SERBS HAVE SO FAR REFUSED TO SIGN A WRITTEN AGREEMENT CALLING FOR THE WITHDRAWAL OF BOSNIAN SERB PRESIDENT RADOVAN KARADZIC FROM PUBLIC LIFE. DAVID FOLEY IN SARAJEVO REPORTS THE OFFICIALS SAY THEY HAVE REACHED AN UNDERSTANDING WITH BOSNIAN SERB LEADERS, BUT THEY ARE SKEPTICAL MR. KARADZIC WILL RETREAT FROM THE PUBLIC EYE.

    TEXT: THE CRISIS OVER BOSNIAN SERB PRESIDENT RADOVAN KARADZIC'S GRIP ON POWER IS CONTINUING. THE CRISIS ERUPTED WHEN MR. KARADZIC -- WHO HAS BEEN INDICTED FOR WAR CRIMES -- FIRED HIS MODERATE PRIME MINISTER, AND REPLACED HIM WITH A HARD-LINE BOSNIAN SERB NATIONALIST. ANGRY OVER MR. KARADZIC'S ACTION, CARL BILDT, THE SENIOR INTERNATIONAL MEDIATOR IN BOSNIA, SPENT THE WEEKEND IN NEGOTIATIONS PRESSING FOR MR. KARADZIC'S WITHDRAWAL FROM PUBLIC LIFE.

    BUT MR. BILDT'S SPOKESMAN, COLUM MURPHY, SAYS THE BOSNIAN SERBS HAVE SO FAR REFUSED TO SIGN ANY FORMAL AGREEMENT.

    /// MURPHY ACT ///

    THE BOTTOM LINE IS THAT WE HAVE AN AGREEMENT THAT IS BETTER DESCRIBED PERHAPS AS A FIRM UNDERSTANDING, OR PROMISE, RATHER THAN A FORMAL AGREEMENT WITH THE BOSNIAN SERB LEADERSHIP, HARD WON AND HARD FOUGHT, THAT DR. KARADZIC LEAVES PUBLIC LIFE.

    /// END ACT ///

    THERE ARE SIGNS MR. KARADZIC IS PREPARED TO COMPLY TO SOME EXTENT. HE HAS APPOINTED BILJANA PLAVSIC TO OVERSEE ALL BOSNIAN SERB CONTACTS WITH NATO AND THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY. BUT MR. MURPHY SAYS MRS. PLAVSIC IS AN EXTREME HARD-LINER, AND THAT MR. KARADIZIC WILL RETAIN CONSIDERABLE INFLUENCE.

    /// MURPHY ACT ///

    WE ARE ASKED ISN'T THIS TRUE THAT BY THESE ARRANGEMENTS -- FOR EXAMPLE BEING REPLACED BY MADAME PLAVSIC -- THAT DR. KARADZIC SEEKS TO MAINTAIN HIS INFLUENCE UNDER CAMOUFLAGE AND COSMETIC ARRANGEMENTS? WE THINK THE ANSWER TO THAT IS VERY POSSIBLY.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. MURPHY SAYS CARL BILDT WILL CONTINUE TO PRESS FOR A SIGNED AGREEMENT FROM MR. KARADZIC, AND HE INSISTS MR. BILDT HAS NOT COME AWAY EMPTY-HANDED IN HIS SHOWDOWN WITH MR. KARADZIC.

    /// MURPHY ACT ///

    I THINK A SEA CHANGE (MAJOR CHANGE) HAS TAKEN PLACE IN THE BOSNIAN SERB LEADERSHIP, AT LEAST IN TERMS OF THEIR UNDERSTANDING THAT DR. KARADZIC MUST BE REMOVED AND MUST STAY OUT OF PUBLIC LIFE.

    /// END ACT ///

    DESPITE WARNINGS OF SERIOUS CONSEQUENCES AND THREATS OF OTHER ACTIONS THAT COULD BE TAKEN AGAINST MR. KARADZIC, OTHER ANALYSTS SAY THERE IS SO FAR LITTLE INDICATION OF SUCH "A SEA CHANGE." THEY ADD THAT THERE IS NO SIGN THE BOSNIAN SERBS WILL IMPROVE THEIR COOPERATION WITH THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE DAYTON PEACE AGREEMENT. . (SIGNED)
    NEB/DF/JWH/GPT
    20-May-96 11:27 AM EDT (1527 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [04] BULGARIA ECONOMY (L ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)

    DATE=5/20/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-197462
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE WORLD BANK SAYS IT IS PREPARED TO LEND EMERGENCY FUNDS TO BULGARIA TO HELP CUSHION THE BLOW OF THE PLANNED CLOSURE OF ABOUT 60 MONEY-LOSING STATE ENTERPRISES. V-O-A'S BARRY WOOD REPORTS THE SHUTDOWN OF THE BIG COMPANIES IS A CENTERPIECE OF THE GOVERNMENT'S NEW AUSTERITY PROGRAM.

    TEXT: THIS IS A CRITICAL WEEK FOR BULGARIA AS THE GOVERNMENT SEEKS TO WIN AGREEMENT FOR BIG LOANS FROM BOTH THE WORLD BANK AND THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND.

    THE LONG DELAYED PLANT CLOSURES ARE INTENDED TO CURTAIL A RISING BUDGET DEFICIT WHICH HAS UNDERMINED THE VALUE OF THE CURRENCY AND BROUGHT THE GOVERNMENT'S CREDIBILITY INTO QUESTION.

    BOTH I-M-F AND WORLD BANK EXPERTS HAVE RECENTLY ARRIVED IN SOFIA, AND PRIME MINISTER ZHAN VIDENOV MET WITH THE VISITING I-M-F REPRESENTATIVE DURING THE WEEKEND. THE I-M-F PRAISED THE GOVERNMENT'S COURAGE IN ADDRESSING THE PROBLEM OF UN-AFFORDABLE SUBSIDIES AND THE NEED TO RE-STRUCTURE STATE ENTERPRISES.

    THE WORLD BANK SAYS 90-MILLION DOLLARS COULD BE AVAILABLE TO COMPENSATE THE ESTIMATED 25-THOUSAND WORKERS LIKELY TO BECOME UN-EMPLOYED FROM THE PLANT CLOSURES. THE LOAN IS FROM A SPECIAL ACCOUNT SET UP TO CREATE A SOCIAL SAFETY NET IN TRANSFORMING ECONOMIES. THE MONEY WOULD BE USED TO PAY SIX-MONTHS SEVERANCE PAY TO LAID-OFF WORKERS.

    THE COMPANIES TO BE CLOSED ACCOUNT FOR 30-PERCENT OF THE LOSSES OF BULGARIAN STATE-OWNED ENTERPRISES.

    THERE HAVE BEEN ANGRY PROTESTS AGAINST THE AUSTERITY MEASURES AND A SHARP DEPRECIATION IN THE CURRENCY. BREAD WAS IN SHORT SUPPLY IN SEVERAL CITIES LAST WEEK.

    THE ECONOMIC ADVISOR TO THE 17-MONTH-OLD GOVERNMENT DEFENDS THE AUSTERITY MEASURES SAYING THE PRICE OF INACTION WOULD HAVE BEEN DEVASTATING.

    THE ADVISOR, IVAN ANGELOV, SAYS WITHOUT THE MEASURES, ECONOMIC GROWTH WOULD HAVE HALTED, INFLATION WOULD RISE TO TRIPLE DIGITS, AND THERE WOULD BE A STRING OF CORPORATE BANKRUPTCIES AND A BIG JUMP IN THE GOVERNMENT'S DEFICIT. MR. ANGELOV PROMISES A RESTRUCTURING OF MANAGEMENT IN REMAINING STATE ENTERPRISES AND A SPEED UP OF PRIVATIZATION.

    CRITICS ACCUSE THE GOVERNMENT OF WAITING TOO LONG TO ADDRESS BULGARIA'S STRUCTURAL PROBLEMS AND OF LACKING RESOLVE TO PURSUE FREE MARKET REFORMS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/BDW/JWH/RAE
    20-May-96 12:26 PM EDT (1626 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [05] U-S-TURKEY (L ONLY) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)

    DATE=5/20/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-197478
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: SECRETARY OF STATE WARREN CHRISTOPHER HAS MET WITH TURKEY'S FOREIGN MINISTER EMRE GONENSAY FOR A DISCUSSION OF TURKISH-GREEK RELATIONS AND THE CONTINUED OPERATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS PROGRAM TO AID THE KURDS IN NORTHERN IRAQ, KNOWN AS PROVIDE COMFORT. RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT.

    TEXT: THE TURKISH FOREIGN MINISTER PRESENTED THE SECRETARY OF STATE WITH HIS COUNTRY'S PROPOSAL TO SUBMIT ALL DISPUTES WITH GREECE ABOUT THE AEGEAN SEA TO INTERNATIONAL ARBITRATION. THUS FAR, THE GREEKS HAVE ONLY AGREED TO ARBITRATION OF THE SOVEREIGNTY OF AN UNPOPULATED ISLAND KNOWN AS IMIA TO THE GREEKS AND KARDAK TO THE TURKS.

    FOLLOWING THE MEETING, STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN NICHOLAS BURNS SAYS THE UNITED STATES WILL AGREE TO WHATEVER FORMULA GREECE AND TURKEY CAN WORK OUT.

    ///BURNS ACT///

    THE UNITED STATES WANTS TO ENCOURAGE TURKEY AND GREECE TO RESOLVE THEIR MANY PROBLEMS IN THE AEGEAN. WE HAVE SAID BEFORE THAT IF THE TWO DESIRE FOR THE UNITED STATES TO BE INVOLVED IN SEEKING A RESOLUTION OF THESE PROBLEMS, WE'LL BE GLAD TO DO SO. IF THEY BOTH WANT TO REFER THEIR PROBLEMS TO A THIRD PARTY, TO ARBITRATION, TO MEDIATION INTERNATIONALLY, WE COULD SUPPORT THAT BUT FUNDAMENTALLY THIS PROCESS WILL NOT GO FORWARD UNTIL TURKEY AND GREECE AGREE ON THE SAME MECHANISM.

    ///END ACT///

    THE SPOKESMAN SAYS THE NEXT STEP IS FOR GREECE TO CONSIDER THE TURKISH PROPOSAL FOR THE AEGEAN.

    FOREIGN MINISTER GONENSAY SUGGESTED THE MEETING ALSO TO DISCUSS THE TURKISH PARLIAMENT'S CONDITIONS FOR EXTENDING THE UNITED NATIONS MISSION FOR HELPING THE KURDS IN NORTHERN IRAQ.

    ///GONENSAY ACT///

    THE TURKISH PARLIAMENT HAS PROLONGED ONCE AGAIN PROVIDE COMFORT FOR THREE MONTHS ON CONDITION THAT THERE ARE SUBSTANTIAL CHANGES IN ITS OPERATION SO WE WILL BE DISCUSSING HOW WE CAN MEET THAT CHALLENGE.

    ///END ACT///

    THE STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN SAYS OPERATION PROVIDE COMFORT MUST BE EXTENDED SO IRAQ'S LEADER SADDAM HUSSEIN CANNOT BE GIVEN ANY OPENING IN NORTHERN IRAQ. U-S OFFICIALS SAY THE TURKISH GOVERNMENT CONTINUES TO SUPPORT BASING PROVIDE COMFORT ON ITS TERRITORY. THE STATE DEPARTMENT SAYS THE TURKISH FOREIGN MINISTER COMPLAINED ABOUT SYRIA'S SUPPORT FOR THE KURDISH WORKERS PARTY, THE P-K-K, WHICH LAUNCHES OPERATIONS AGAINST TURKEY.

    SECRETARY OF STATE CHRISTOPHER PRAISES TURKEY'S MILITARY COOPERATION WITH ISRAEL AND ITS SUPPORT FOR THE MIDDLE EAST PEACE PROCESS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/RP/GKT/MMK
    20-May-96 3:43 PM EDT (1943 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [06] YUGO WAR CRIMES (L ONLY) BY GILLIAN SHARPE (THE HAGUE)

    DATE=5/20/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-197470
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE PROSECUTION AT THE YUGOSLAV WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL HAS PRESENTED ITS FIRST EVIDENCE OF ALLEGED SERB HUMAN-RIGHTS ABUSES IN THE PRIJEDOR REGION OF NORTHWESTERN BOSNIA. THIS IS THE AREA WHERE THE DEFENDANT IN THE TRIBUNAL'S FIRST TRIAL, DUSAN TADIC, IS SAID TO HAVE COMMITTED CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY. GILLIAN SHARPE IN THE HAGUE REPORTS THE WITNESS, A NORWEGIAN JUDGE, IS THE AUTHOR OF A UNITED NATIONS REPORT, BUT THE THE DEFENSE OBJECTED TO HER TESTIMONY.

    TEXT: FOR THE FIRST TIME IN THE TRIAL OF DUSAN TADIC, THE COURT HEARD THE NAMES OF THE PLACES WHERE HE IS SAID TO HAVE MURDERED AND TORTURED -- THE REGION OF PRIJEDOR AND THE NOTORIOUS CAMPS AT OMARSKA AND KERATERM.

    THE WITNESS, HANNE SOPHIE GREBBE, WAS A MEMBER OF THE U-N COMMISSION OF EXPERTS, ASSIGNED TO LOOK INTO WHAT HAPPENED IN PRIJEDOR.

    HER EVIDENCE DOES NOT DIRECTLY IMPLICATE MR. TADIC. INSTEAD SHE IS BEING ASKED TO GIVE A PICTURE OF HOW THE DISTRICT WAS ETHNICALLY CLEANSED OF MOST OF ITS MUSLIM AND CROAT POPULATION. THE PROSECUTION SAYS HER TESTIMONY ILLUSTRATES THE WIDER POLITICAL ATMOSPHERE WHICH ALLOWED AND EVEN ENCOURAGED HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES.

    MISS GREBBE TOLD THE COURT THAT PRIJEDOR HAD BEEN VIRTUALLY SEALED OFF FROM THE OUTSIDE WORLD, AS THE SERBS BEGAN TO TURN MUSLIMS AND CROATS OUT OF THEIR HOMES.

    /// ACT - GREBBE ///

    THEIR MAIN SETTLEMENTS WERE SURROUNDED AND BOMBARDED AND INVADED, AFTER WHICH THE WOMEN AND CHILDREN UP TO 13 AND THE ELDERLY WOULD BE SEPARATED TO BE PUT INTO ONE DETENTION CAMP, ESSENTIALLY FOR THE PURPOSES OF DEPORTATION. AND A GROUP OF MALES BETWEEN 12 AND 15 AND 60, 65 WERE PUT INTO TWO DETENTION CAMPS -- KERATERM AND OMARSKA. MANY WERE KILLED IN THE MILITARY ATTACKS AND IN THE CAMPS.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE DEFENSE FIERCELY OBJECTS TO THIS TESTIMONY. IT SAYS MISS GREBBE CROSSES THE LINE BETWEEN EXPERT ILLUMINATION AND OPINION BASED ON HEARSAY. HER EVIDENCE DRAWS ON MEDIA REPORTS, U-N DOCUMENTS, AND INTERVIEWS WITH WITNESSES -- BUT NOT ON HER OWN EXPERIENCE. THAT, SAYS DEFENSE LAWYER, STEVEN KAY, IS A CRUCIAL FLAW.

    /// ACT KAY ///

    SHE DESCRIBES FOR INSTANCE OMARSKA AS BEING A VIRTUAL DEATH CAMP, SHE DESCRIBES THE CONDITIONS OF THE PRISONERS, SHE DESCRIBES PHYSICAL ABUSE AS ROUTINE. WELL SHE WAS NOT THERE AND WITNESSES ARE BEING CALLED TO DEAL WITH THAT.

    /// END ACT ///

    THROUGHOUT THE TESTIMONY, THERE WERE OBJECTIONS FROM THE DEFENSE, AND IT WILL HAVE ITS OPPORTUNITY TO CROSS-EXAMINE. EXPERTS SAY THESE KINDS OF OBJECTIONS ARE BOUND TO HAPPEN MORE FREQUENTLY AS THE TRIAL MOVES SLOWLY TOWARDS THE SPECIFIC CHARGES AGAINST DUSAN TADIC. (SIGNED)
    NEB/GS/JWH/RAE
    20-May-96 1:33 PM EDT (1733 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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