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Voice of America, 22 May 1996

Voice of America Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] WEDNESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [02] BOSNIA SITREP (L) BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)
  • [03] BOSNIAN REFUGEE COUPLE BY ROSANNE SKIRBLE (WASHINGTON)
  • [04] BRITAIN / EUROPEAN UNION BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (LONDON)
  • [05] THE SHOWDOWN OVER KARADZIC BY PAMELA TAYLOR (WASHINGTON)
  • [06] U-S / SERBIA (L) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)
  • [07] U-S / YUGO (L UPDATE) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)
  • [08] YUGO/U-S (L) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)
  • [09] YUGO WAR CRIMES (L ONLY) BY GILLIAN SHARPE (THE HAGUE)

  • [01] WEDNESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=05/22/96
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09587
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-S-T ON WEDNESDAY, MAY 22ND //

    INTRO: AN EXTREMELY CONTROVERSIAL DECISION BY THE U-S SUPREME COURT CONCERNING THE RIGHTS OF HOMOSEXUALS IS A FIXTURE ON MANY EDITORIALS PAGES ACROSS THE U-S THIS WEDNESDAY. OTHER TOPICS UNDER SCRUTINY INCLUDE: THE U-N OIL SALES DEAL WITH IRAQ; RENEWAL OF CHINA'S M-F-N STATUS; THE DEATH OF ADMIRAL BOORDA, AND THE FOOD CRISIS IN NORTH KOREA. NOW, HERE IS ___________________WITH A CLOSER LOOK IN TODAY'S U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: MANY, MANY PAPERS ARE COMMENTING ON A DECISION REACHED BY THE SUPREME COURT ON MONDAY THAT STRUCK DOWN A COLORADO STATE CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISION DENYING HOMOSEXUALS PROTECTION FROM VARIOUS KINDS OF DISCRIMINATION. THE SUBJECT OF HOMOSEXUAL RIGHTS AND THE HOMOSEXUAL LIFESTYLE IS ONE OF THE MOST DIVISIVE TOPICS IN U-S SOCIETY TODAY, AND THE DECISION BROUGHT AN OUTPOURING OF OPINION. IN NEW YORK, THE DAILY NEWS BACKED THE COURT DECISION THIS WAY:

    VOICE: "BY STRIKING DOWN COLORADO'S ONEROUS ANTI-GAY AMENDMENT, THE SUPREME COURT HAS SOUNDLY REASSERTED A BASIC CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHT -- EQUAL PROTECTION OF THE LAW. FOR ALL AMERICANS ... THE RULING CUTS THROUGH THE HAZE TO EXPOSE THE AMENDMENT FOR WHAT IT IS: A TEXTBOOK EXAMPLE OF BLATANT DISCRIMINATION."

    TEXT: IN THE SOUTH, TODAY'S ATLANTA CONSTITUTION DEVOTES ITS LEAD EDITORIAL TO SUPPORTING THE COURT RULING, AND MAKES ITS CASE BY CITING THE VIEWS OF ONE WHO STRONGLY DISAGREES WITH THE MAJORITY OPINION:

    VOICE: "IRONICALLY, THE IMPORTANCE OF THE DECISION WAS CAPTURED BEST BY SOMEONE WHO OPPOSED IT BITTERLY. GARY BAUER, PRESIDENT OF THE CONSERVATIVE FAMILY RESEARCH COUNCIL, COMPLAINED THAT 'THE JUDGES SEEM TO BE SAYING THAT THERE ARE SOME MATTERS SO IMPORTANT THAT WE WILL NOT ALLOW THE AMERICAN PEOPLE TO DECIDE THEM.' [MR.] BAUER IS RIGHT. THAT'S EXACTLY WHAT THE JUDGES RULED, AND GOOD FOR THEM... "

    TEXT: SYNDICATED COLUMNIST GEORGE WILL, WRITING IN TODAY'S BALTIMORE SUN, DRAWS ON THE DISSENTING REMARKS OF JUSTICE ANTHONY SCALIA'S TO ARGUE THAT THE MAJORITY COURT OPINION DOES NOT REFLECT THE VIEWS OF MOST AMERICANS.

    VOICE: "THE COURT, SAYS JUSTICE SCALIA, HAS DEPARTED FROM ANYTHING RECOGNIZABLE AS CONSTITUTIONAL REASONING. INSTEAD, IT HAS TAKEN SIDES IN A CULTURAL STRUGGLE ON BEHALF OF THE VIEWS PREVALENT IN A PARTICULAR CLASS AND AGAINST THE VIEWS REPRESENTED IN CONGRESS, WHICH HAS REPEATEDLY REFUSED TO EXTEND TO HOMOSEXUALS THE PROTECTIONS OF FEDERAL CIVIL-RIGHTS LAWS."

    TEXT: THE DECISION CAUSED COLUMNIST WILL TO EXCLAIM IN FRUSTRATION:

    VOICE: "THIS IS WHAT CONSTITUTIONAL LAW HAS COME TO [EVOLVED INTO] ... A SIX-PERSON MAJORITY OF THE SUPREME COURT HELD THAT AMERICA'S TRADITIONAL AND MAJORITY OPPOSITION TO HOMOSEXUALITY IS BIGOTRY AKIN TO RACISM... TO WHAT HAS CONSTITUTIONAL LAW COME? 'TERMINAL SILLINESS,' SAYS MR. SCALIA. MONDAY'S DECISION INDICATES THAT THE CONDITION IS INDEED TERMINAL IF CONSTITUTIONAL LAW IS SUPPOSED TO BE THE APPLICATION OF PRINCIPLES DERIVED FROM ... AN INTERPRETATION OF ... THE CONSTITUTION'S ... STRUCTURE, IN THE LIGHT OF THE FRAMERS' INTENTIONS."

    TEXT: THE PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER, ON THE OTHER HAND, CALLS THE SUPREME COURT DECISION "CRISP JUSTICE," WHILE IN CALIFORNIA, THE LOS ANGELES TIMES SAYS "THE ... COURT'S DECISIVE REJECTION OF COLORADO'S ANTI-GAY AMENDMENT CLOSES A NASTY CHAPTER IN THAT STATE'S HISTORY... IS THIS ONE EMOTIONAL ISSUE THE NATION CAN NOW PUT TO REST? WE HOPE SO." THE WASHINGTON POST CALLS THE DECISION:"A STRONG AFFIRMATION OF THE PRINCIPLE THAT ONE GROUP MAY NOT BE SINGLED OUT AND FORCED, UNFAIRLY, TO BEAR A SPECIAL BURDEN," WHILE "THE WALL STREET JOURNAL" CRITICIZES THE DECISION AS "THE LATEST EGREGIOUS EXAMPLE OF THE COURT WAVING AWAY THINGS PEOPLE VOTED ON, AS WITH LAST YEAR'S TERM LIMITS DECISION."

    ANOTHER POPULAR TOPIC IN TODAY'S EDITORIALS IS THE UNITED NATIONS' TEMPORARY SUSPENSION OF THE CRUDE OIL EMBARGO AGAINST IRAQ SO THAT NATION CAN SELL OIL TO BUY EMERGENCY FOOD AND MEDICINE SUPPLIES. THE MIAMI HERALD LEAD EDITORIAL TIES THE DECISION INTO THE CONGRESSIONAL DECISION TO LOWER THE FEDERAL GASOLINE TAX:

    VOICE: "IT SEEMS A WORKABLE ARRANGEMENT THAT PROMISES TIMELY AND DESPERATELY NEEDED RELIEF TO THE HUNGRY WHILE MAINTAINING ARMS-CONTROL PRESSURE ON IRAQ. FOR U-S MOTORISTS WORRYING ABOUT THE PRICE OF GAS, IRAQ'S RETURN TO THE WORLD OIL MARKET ALSO MEANS RELIEF... THAT IS FURTHER EVIDENCE THAT AN ELECTION-YEAR REPEAL OF THE FOUR-POINT-THREE CENTS-A-FALLON FEDERAL GAS TAX EARMARKED FOR DEFICIT REDUCTION IS AS UNNECESSARY AS IT IS FOOLISH."

    TEXT: FROM MINNESOTA, TODAY'S MINNESPOLIS STAR TRIBUNE, COMMENTING ON THE MOST FAVORED NATION TRADE STATUS RECENTLY RENEWED FOR CHINA, CALLS IT "ANOTHER WISE TRADE MOVE BY [PRESIDENT] CLINTON:

    VOICE: "IN EXPLAINING HIS DECISON ... [MR] CLINTON ... SAID ... REVOKING M-F-N ... 'WOULD DRIVE US BACK INTO A PERIOD OF MUTUAL ISOLATION AND RECRIMINATION THAT WOULD HARM AMERICA'S INTERESTS, NOT ADVANCE THEM.' HE'S RIGHT. CHINA IS NOT ABOUT TO BE BULLIED INTO SUBMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS OR OTHER ISSUES ... AND IS DETERMINED TO SECURE THE INTERNATIONAL RESPECT IT BELIEVES IS ITS DUE."

    TEXT: THE NEW YORK TIMES TODAY OFFERS SOME THOUGHTS ON THE SUICIDE LAST WEEK OF THE U-S NAVY'S TOP COMMANDER, ADMIRAL JEREMY BOORDA:

    VOICE: "ADMIRAL BORDA LEFT A SUICIDE NOTE SUGGESTING HE WAS CONCERNED THAT QUESTIONS ABOUT HIS USE OF TWO COMBAT DECORATIONS WOULD ENGULF THE NAVY IN NEW CONTROVERSY... SUICIDES BY THEIR NATURE LEAVE UNANSWERABLE QUESTIONS. IN THE CASE OF ADMIRAL BOORDA, THE QUESTIONS SHOULD NOT OVERSHADOW A LIFETIME OF DISTINGUISHED SERVICE TO THE NAVY AND THE COUNTRY."

    TEXT: ANOTHER NEW YORK TIMES EDITORIAL IS CONCERNED WITH THE WORSENING FAMINE IN NORTH KOREA AND HOW THE UNITED STATES SHOULD RESPOND:

    VOICE: "AMERICA'S GOAL SHOULD BE TO FEED THE HUNGRY WITHOUT REINFORCING THE ALREADY DANGEROUS MILITARY CAPACITIES OF AN ERRATIC, BELLIGERENT AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD REGIME. [OPT] THIS CAN BE DONE BY PROVIDING GENEROUS AMOUNTS OF GRAIN AND OTHER BASIC FOODSTUFFS, BUT INSISTING ON A REASONABLE DEGREE OF INTERNATIONAL MONITORING TO MAKE SURE THE AID IS DISTRIBUTED THROUGHOUT THE COUNTRY AND NOT HOARDED OR SOLD BY THE COMMUNIST PARTY AND THE MILITARY ELITE." [END OPT]

    TEXT: LASTLY, FROM THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST, CONCERN ABOUT THE HUGE SLICE OF THE 1997 FEDERAL BUDGET DEDICATED TO THE U-S MILITARY, AND AN EFFORT BY CONGRESSIONAL REPUBLICANS TO ADD 12-POINT-FOUR BILLION DOLLARS MORE THAN PRESIDENT CLINTON ASKED FOR, "THE OREGONIAN" IN PORTLAND NOTES:

    VOICE: "... SOME HOUSE MEMBERS ... WONDER WHY, FIVE YEARS AFTER THE SOVIET UNION DISINTEGRATED, THE UNITED STATES IS STILL ARMING ITSELF AS IF THE SOVIETS LOOMED JUST OVER THE HORIZON. AS EVERY PART OF THE FEDERAL BUDGET IS SUPPOSED TO GET LEAN AND MEAN UNDER DEFICIT PRESSURE, THE HOUSE IS FORCE-FEEDING THE PENTAGON -- AND REFUSING ....ANY DEBATE ON ITS DIET. "

    TEXT: THAT CONCLUDES THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF OPINION FROM AMONG THE EDITORIALS PAGES OF SOME OF THE NATION'S LEADING DAILIES.
    NEB/ANG/PCH
    22-May-96 10:54 AM EDT (1454 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [02] BOSNIA SITREP (L) BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)

    DATE=5/22/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-197570
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO COMMANDERS IN BOSNIA INSIST THEY WILL NOT ATTEMPT TO CAPTURE BOSNIAN-SERB PRESIDENT RADOVAN KARADZIC, WHO HAS BEEN INDICTED FOR WAR CRIMES. DAVID FOLEY IN SARAJEVO REPORTS THE STATEMENTS COME DESPITE GROWING PRESSURE FROM THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY FOR MR. KARADZIC TO LEAVE OFFICE.

    TEXT: INTERNATIONAL OFFICIALS ARE INCREASING THE PRESSURE ON RADOVAN KARADZIC TO STEP DOWN AS PRESIDENT OF THE BOSNIAN SERBS.

    DURING THE WEEKEND, THE TOP CIVILIAN MEDIATOR IN BOSNIA, CARL BILDT, SAID HE HAD AN UNDERSTANDING WITH BOSNIAN-SERB LEADERS MR. KARADZIC WOULD LEAVE PUBLIC LIFE AND WOULD BE NEITHER SEEN NOR HEARD. SO FAR THE BOSNIAN SERBS HAVE REFUSED TO SIGN A FORMAL AGREEMENT TO THAT EFFECT. TUESDAY, BOSNIAN PRESIDENT ALIA IZETBEGOVIC SAID THE REMOVAL OF MR. KARADZIC FROM POWER WOULD BE CRUCIAL IF CONDITIONS WERE TO BE CREATED FOR FREE ELECTIONS SCHEDULED TO TAKE PLACE LATER THIS SUMMER. MR. BILDT HAS ACCUSED MR. KARADZIC OF POISONING THE CHANCES OF SUCCESS FOR THE DAYTON PEACE AGREEMENT.

    MR. BILDT IS KEEPING UP PRESSURE ON THE BOSNIAN SERBS. HE HELD SEVERAL HOURS OF TALKS TUESDAY WITH BOSNIAN-SERB LEADERS AT THEIR HEADQUARTERS IN PALE, NEAR SARAJEVO. FOLLOWING THE MEETING, MR. BILDT SAID HE WAS NOT BACKING OFF FROM HIS EFFORTS TO END MR. KARADZIC'S ROLE IN THE BOSNIAN-SERB LEADERSHIP.

    THE COMMANDER OF NATO GROUND FORCES IN BOSNIA, LIEUTENANT GENERAL MICHAEL WALKER, ALSO ATTENDED THE MEETING IN PALE WITH MR. BILDT. HE SAID HE WENT TO THE MEETING TO LEND THE AUTHORITY OF NATO IN BOSNIA TO MR. BILDT'S EFFORTS.

    GENERAL WALKER CONCEDES THE DAYTON PEACE PROCESS IS NOT GOING SMOOTHLY.

    /// ACT - WALKER ///

    THINGS AT THE MOMENT DO NOT LOOK AS PROMISING AS THE AUTHORS OF DAYTON PERHAPS ENVISAGED AT THIS STAGE. NONETHELESS, WE HAVE ALL GOT TO WORK TOGETHER TO TRY AND CREATE THOSE CONDITIONS, TO CREATE THAT CONFIDENCE.

    /// END ACT ///

    DESPITE THE DIFFICULTIES CAUSED BY THE BOSNIAN SERBS, GENERAL WALKER RE-ITERATED THE POSITION NATO SOLDIERS WOULD NOT TRY TO ARREST MR. KARADZIC OR OTHERS INDICTED FOR WAR CRIMES.

    /// ACT - WALKER ///

    WE HAVE MADE IT QUITE CLEAR THAT WE ARE NOT GOING ON A WAR CRIMINAL HUNT.

    /// END ACT ///

    A SENIOR U-S DIPLOMAT, JOHN KORNBLUM, IS IN THE REGION TO TALK WITH THE SERBIAN, BOSNIAN, AND CROATIAN PRESIDENTS. THE REPLACEMENT FOR RICHARD HOLBROOKE, THE ARCHITECT OF THE DAYTON AGREEMENT, IS EXPECTED TO APPLY STRONG PRESSURE TO SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC TO HAND OVER MR. KARADZIC FOR WAR CRIMES PROSECUTION.

    SO FAR MR. MILOSEVIC HAS IGNORED ALL SUCH EFFORTS TO FORCE HIS COMPLIANCE ON THIS ISSUE, AND MR. KORNBLUM HAS SAID RECENTLY ECONOMIC SANCTIONS COULD BE RE-IMPOSED ON SERBIA AND THE BOSNIAN SERBS IF THERE IS NOT FULL COMPLIANCE WITH THE PEACE AGREEMENT. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DF/JWH/RAE
    22-May-96 11:02 AM EDT (1502 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [03] BOSNIAN REFUGEE COUPLE BY ROSANNE SKIRBLE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=5/22/96
    TYPE=CURRENT AFFAIRS FEATURE
    NUMBER=3-25097
    TELEPHONE=619-3903
    EDITOR=NANCY SMART
    CONTENT= [INSERTS IN AUDIO SERVICES]
    // ED NOTE: THIS IS THE THIRD IN A SERIES OF FEATURES ON CHICAGO'S MULTI-ETHNIC COMMUNITY, WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON THE BOSNIAN REFUGEE COMMUNITY.//

    INTRO: THE WINDS OF WAR HAVE BROUGHT APPROXIMATELY 22,000 REFUGEES FROM BOSNIA TO THE UNITED STATES. WHILE U.S. RESETTLEMENT POLICY CALLS FOR THE EQUAL DISTRIBUTION OF REFUGEES THROUGHOUT THE FIFTY STATES, CHAIN OR SECONDARY MIGRATION HAS LANDED THE LARGEST CONCENTRATION OF BOSNIANS IN CHICAGO. SINCE 1993 CHICAGO HAS RESETTLED SOME 1,500 NEWCOMERS A YEAR FROM BOSNIA, AND EXPERTS EXPECT THAT LEVEL TO CONTINUE FOR SEVERAL YEARS.

    VOA'S ROSANNE SKIRBLE TAKES US INTO THE CHICAGO HOME OF

    A YOUNG REFUGEE COUPLE WHO FLED BOSNIA WITH THEIR TWO SMALL CHILDREN ONE YEAR AGO.

    TEXT: MAJDA (MY-DA) AND MIRZET (MIR-ZET) AZUBUR (AH-ZOO-BOR) WELCOME ME INTO THEIR THREE ROOM APARTMENT, AN APARTMENT FURNISHED WITH TOUCHES OF HOME -- THE INVITING SMELL OF BOSNIA COFFEE AND PASTRIES, A TABLECLOTH FROM BOSNIA AND PORTRAITS MIRZET HAD SKETCHED IN A REFUGEE CAMP OF THE COUPLE'S TWO YOUNG BOYS, HARIS AND ADNAN.

    TAPE CUT ONE, REEL A: MAJDA AZUBUR (:04) "THIS MONTH IS MY BIG HOLIDAY. MY BIG HOLIDAY('S) NAME IS BAJRAM (BY-RAM)."

    TEXT: MAJDA HAS MADE BAKLAVAH FOR BAJRAM (BY-RAM), A HOLIDAY IN THE ISLAMIC CALENDAR THAT CELEBRATES MOHAMMED'S PILGRIMAGE TO MECCA. OVER COFFEE AND CAKES WE TALK ABOUT LIFE IN BOSNIA AND REFUGEE LIFE IN THE UNITED STATES.

    TAPE CUT TWO, REEL A: MAJDA AZUBUR IN BOSNIAN ESTABLISH AND FADE UNDER TEXT THAT FOLLOWS

    TEXT: MAJDA TELLS ME SHE LIVED A COMFORTABLE LIFE IN BOSNIA. SHE AND HER HUSBAND HAD GOOD JOBS, A HOUSE, A CAR AND THE CHILDREN WERE HAPPY AT SCHOOL.

    THEY ARE MUSLIMS FROM PRIJEDOR, A TOWN IN NORTHWESTERN BOSNIA THAT WAS ETHNICALLY CLEANSED OF NON-SERBS IN 1992. TWENTY THOUSAND PEOPLE LOST THEIR LIVES IN PRIJEDOR, MANY AT THE INFAMOUS OMARSKA CONCENTRATION CAMP. THOUSANDS OF YOUNG MUSLIMS LIKE MIRZET LOST THEIR JOBS AND WERE FORCED INTO HARD LABOR. HIS FAMILY BECAME PRISONERS IN THEIR OWN HOME WITH MAJDA TRADING HOUSEHOLD GOODS FOR FOOD.

    BUT STILL THEY STAYED. THEY STAYED TO TAKE CARE OF MIRZET'S PARENTS WHO LIVED NEXT DOOR AND HAD REFUSED TO LEAVE. MIRZET REFUSED TO LEAVE THEM ALONE.

    TAPE CUT THREE, REEL A: MIRZET AZUBUR IN BOSNIAN FADE UNDER TEXT THAT FOLLOWS

    TEXT: BUT BY THE CLOSE OF 1994, MIRZET AND MAJDA HAD HAD ENOUGH. THE WAR HAD COME TOO CLOSE TO THEIR FRONT DOOR. MIRZET WAS FORCED TO DIG TRENCHES ON THE FRONT LINES AND WAS DODGING BULLETS. SO, LEAVING HIS PARENTS, MIRZET PAID HIS WAY OUT, SIGNING OVER HIS HOUSE AND ALL IT CONTAINED TO SERB OFFICIALS.

    TAPE CUT FOUR, REEL A: MIRZET AZUBUR IN BOSNIAN FADE UNDER TEXT THAT FOLLOWS

    TEXT: MIRZET SAYS THEY LEFT AT DAWN TAKING THE BACK STREETS SO THAT THE SERBIAN CITIZENS WOULDN'T NOTICE THE LAST MUSLIMS LEAVING THE CITY.

    THE BUS RIDE TOOK THE FAMILY TO CROATIA AND TO A REFUGEE CAMP THAT WAS CLOSED TO BOSNIANS. THEY WERE ONLY ALLOWED TO STAY BECAUSE THEY HAD PAPERS TO GO SOMEWHERE ELSE. THAT SOMEWHERE ELSE WAS CHICAGO, WHERE MAJDA'S COUSIN, A CONCENTRATION CAMP SURVIVOR, HAD FLED THREE MONTHS BEFORE.

    TAPE CUT FIVE, REEL A: IN BOSNIAN FADE UNDER TEXT THAT FOLLOWS

    TEXT: ALL THE TIME ON THE PLANE, MAJDA SAYS, SHE WAS THINKING ABOUT THE UNCERTAINTY OF LIFE IN AMERICA. HER COUSINS MET THEM AT THE AIRPORT, AND GAVE THEM THE KEY TO AN APARTMENT. SHE COULDN'T BELIEVE THAT AFTER YEARS OF LIVING WITH WAR SHE COULD FINALLY UNPACK HER BAGS AND HANG UP HER CLOTHES.

    BUT LIFE HASN'T BEEN EASY FOR THE COUPLE. FOR ABOUT A YEAR, UNTIL MIRZET FOUND A JOB AS A PARKING LOT ATTENDANT, THEY DEPENDED ON GOVERNMENT ASSISTANCE OR WELFARE. THEY STRUGGLE WITH A NEW LANGUAGE AND SUFFER FROM THE POST TRAUMA OF WAR. THE CHILDREN ARE ADAPTING BETTER AND ARE FLUENT IN ENGLISH AND HAVE MADE AMERICAN FRIENDS.

    THE FAMILY HAS PULLED TOGETHER TO MAKE THEIR LIFE IN A NEW LAND. MAJDA HAS JOINED THE PARENT'S COUNCIL AT THE CHILDREN'S SCHOOL AND MIRZET HAS STARTED A BOSNIAN FOLK DANCE GROUP.

    TAPE CUT ONE, REEL B: BOSNIAN INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC, SNEAK ABOVE AND HOLD UNDER TEXT THAT FOLLOWS

    TEXT: SPREAD OVER THE KITCHEN TABLE ARE PICTURES FROM MIRZET AND MAJDA'S PAST -- HARIS AND ADNAN AS BABIES, MIRZET'S SMILING PARENTS, MAJDA IN HER ROSE GARDEN, MIRZET PERFORMING FOLK DANCES, MAJDA'S EMACIATED COUSIN ON HIS RELEASE FROM A CONCENTRATION CAMP, AND THE RUBLE OF A BOMBED MOSQUE IN PRIJEDOR.

    TAPE CUT SIX, REEL A: MAJDA AZUBUR IN BOSNIAN FADE UNDER TEXT THAT FOLLOWS

    TEXT: WITH AN ANCHOR IN THE PAST, MAJDA AND MIRZET AZUBUR ARE BUILDING A FUTURE IN AMERICA, WHERE IN MAJDA'S WORDS, "WE CAME TO LIVE A PEACEFUL LIFE, AND WE ARE TRYING TO TEACH OUR CHILDREN TO BE GOOD, TO LISTEN, TO DO WELL IN SCHOOL -- VALUES THAT ARE IMPORTANT TO US. WE ARE LIVING ONE STEP AND ONE DAY AT A TIME." (SIGNED)
    RS/NES
    22-May-96 3:30 PM EDT (1930 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [04] BRITAIN / EUROPEAN UNION BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (LONDON)

    DATE=5/22/96
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-33347
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: BRITISH PRIME MINISTER JOHN MAJOR HAS THREATENED TO DISRUPT THE BUSINESS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION IF THE E-U PERSISTS WITH ITS BAN ON THE EXPORTS OF BRITISH BEEF AND BY-PRODUCTS. FROM LONDON, V-O-A'S ANDRE DE NESNERA ASSESSES THE REACTION OF BRITISH POLITICIANS AND LOOKS AT THE POSSIBLE REPERCUSSIONS ON THE EUROPEAN AND DOMESTIC FRONTS.

    TEXT: POLITICAL ANALYSTS AND COMMENTATORS HERE AGREE BRITISH PRIME MINISTER JOHN MAJOR IS INVOLVED IN A HIGH-RISK GAME WITH EUROPE. AN EDITORIAL IN THE "FINANCIAL TIMES" NEWSPAPER SAYS BRITAIN'S CURRENT ROW WITH EUROPE CARRIES THE POTENTIAL TO CREATE THE MOST SERIOUS CRISIS YET IN THE UNITED KINGDOM'S TROUBLED RELATIONSHIP WITH ITS CONTINENTAL PARTNERS.

    ON TUESDAY, MR. MAJOR TOLD PARLIAMENT HIS GOVERNMENT THREATENS TO PARALYSE THE EUROPEAN UNION'S DECISION-MAKING PROCESS UNTIL PROGRESS WAS MADE ON LIFTING THE BAN ON BEEF EXPORTS. MR. MAJOR SAID HE HAD NO ALTERNATIVE BECAUSE OF THE LACK OF GOODWILL SHOWN BY SOME EUROPEAN NATIONS DURING THE CURRENT CRISIS OVER BEEF.

    MR. MAJOR'S TOUGH STANCE HAS DELIGHTED MEMBERS OF HIS CONSERVATIVE PARTY KNOWN AS EURO-SCEPTICS -- THOSE WHO BELIEVE THE INCREASING POWERS OF EUROPEAN INSTITUTIONS SHOULD BE CURTAILED IF NOT ABOLISHED ALTOGETHER.

    ONE SUCH EURO-SCEPTIC IS LAWMAKER PETER TAPSELL. HE DESCRIBES WHAT MR. MAJOR HAD IN MIND WHEN HE SAID HIS GOVERNMENT WILL NO LONGER COOPERATE WITH EUROPE.

    // TAPSELL ACT //

    EVERYTHING THAT REQUIRES UNANIMOUS VOTING -- AND THERE ARE STILL A GREAT MANY DECISIONS WHICH CAN ONLY BE TAKEN UNANIMOUSLY -- EVERY ONE OF THOSE WILL BE BLOCKED BY BRITAIN. SO WE WILL BRING THE INTERGOVERNMENTAL CONFERENCE'S AGENDA TO A COMPLETE STANDSTILL. AND EVERY OTHER MEASURE WHICH COMES FORWARD WE WILL BLOCK UNTIL SUCH TIME AS THE BEEF ISSUE IS RESOLVED.

    // END ACT //

    IN HIS STATEMENT TO PARLIAMENT, MR. MAJOR SAID HE WILL USE EVERY POSSIBLE EUROPEAN FORUM TO URGE THE LIFTING OF THE BEEF BAN. ONE MINISTER WAS QUOTED AS SAYING IF WE ARE THERE TO TALK ABOUT TRANSPORT, WE WILL TALK ABOUT BEEF. IF FISHING IS ON THE TABLE, WE WILL TALK ABOUT BEEF.

    ANALYSTS SAY IF NO PROGRESS IS MADE ON THE BEEF ISSUE IN THE NEXT FEW WEEKS, MR. MAJOR COULD COMPLETELY DISRUPT THE E-U SUMMIT SCHEDULED FOR LATE JUNE IN FLORENCE, ITALY.

    MR. TAPSELL SAYS IT IS TIME FOR BRITAIN TO FLEX ITS MUSCLES AND SHOW ITS EUROPEAN PARTNERS IT MEANS BUSINESS WHEN BRITISH INTERESTS ARE AT STAKE. HE SAYS IN THE FINAL ANALYSIS, BRITAIN CAN SURVIVE WITHOUT EUROPE.

    // 2ND TAPSELL ACT //

    AS IT HAPPENS WE HAVE A LARGE ADVERSE TRADE BALANCE WITH CONTINENTAL EUROPE AND SO IF THERE WAS TO BE ANY INTERFERENCE WITH OUR TRADING RELATIONS WITH CONTINENTAL EUROPE, THE CONTINENTALS WILL SUFFER FAR MORE FROM IT THAN WE WOULD. IF YOU TAKE THE 500 BIGGEST BRITISH COMPANIES, THEY EARN ONLY 10 PERCENT OF THEIR PROFITS IN EUROPE. WE ARE AN INTERNATIONAL TRADING NATION AND OUR TRADE IN THE FAR EAST AND IN NORTH AMERICA IS MORE IMPORTANT TO US THAN OUR EUROPEAN TRADE.

    // END ACT //

    THE PRO-EUROPEAN FACTION WITHIN THE CONSERVATIVE PARTY TAKES THE OPPOSING VIEW. ITS MEMBERS SAY MR. MAJOR'S DECISION TO NO LONGER COOPERATE WITH EUROPE WAS HASTY, ILL-ADVISED AND COULD LEAD TO DISASTROUS CONSEQUENCES -- SUCH AS RETALIATORY TRADE MEASURES. THEY SAY BRITAIN NEEDS ALL THE FRIENDS IT CAN GET INSIDE THE EUROPEAN UNION AND THESE THREATS CAN ONLY IRRITATE E-U MEMBERS.

    THAT VIEW IS SHARED BY IRISH GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS. IRELAND TAKES OVER THE E-U PRESIDENCY JULY FIRST AND IRISH PRIME MINISTER JOHN BRUTON TOLD REPORTERS WHAT IS NEEDED NOW IS COOPERATION -- NOT CONFRONTATION.

    // BRUTON ACT //

    REASSURANCE TO CONSUMERS IS BEST DELIVERED BY CONCERTED, COOPERATIVE ACTION BETWEEN POLITICIANS AND SCIENTISTS AND CONMSUMER INTERESTS. IT IS NOT NECESSARILY ASSISTED BY CONFLICTS AND HIGH-PITCHED RHETORIC.

    // END ACT //

    MANY ANALYSTS SAY MR. MAJOR'S HIGH-PITCHED RHETORIC AND THREATS AGAINST EUROPE ARE ESSENTIALLY AIMED AT A DOMESTIC AUDIENCE -- AND MORE SPECIFICALLY AT THE EURO-SCEPTIC MEMBERS OF HIS PARTY WHO HAVE BEEN EXTREMELY CRITICAL OF HIS EUROPEAN POLICIES. ANALYSTS SAY HIS TOUGH WORDS ARE MEANT TO APPEASE THEM AS THE COUNTRY NEARS A GENERAL ELECTION. BUT AS THE LEAD EDITORIAL IN THE NEWSPAPER "THE DAILY TELEGRAPH" POINTS OUT: IF THIS GAMBLE PAYS OFF, THE ELECTORAL REWARDS WILL BE GREAT. IF IT FAILS, THE END IS NEAR. (SIGNED)
    NEB/ADEN/MH/CF
    22-May-96 10:25 AM EDT (1425 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [05] THE SHOWDOWN OVER KARADZIC BY PAMELA TAYLOR (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=5/22/96
    TYPE=CLOSEUP
    NUMBER=4-09157
    TELEPHONE=619-1101
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT= // TAPE INSERTS AVAILABLE FROM AUDIO SERVICES //

    INTRO: THE CHIEF COORDINATOR OF U-S POLICY IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA, JOHN KORNBLUM, IS IN THE BALKANS FOR TALKS WITH SERBIAN, CROATIAN AND BOSNIAN LEADERS ABOUT HOW TO FORCE BOSNIAN SERB LEADER RADOVAN KARADZIC FROM POWER. MR. KARADZIC HAS RECENTLY MOVED TO CONSOLIDATE HIS POWER, IN DEFIANCE OF THE DAYTON PEACE AGREEMENT WHICH PROHIBITS INDICTED WAR CRIMINALS FROM REMAINING IN

    LEADERSHIP ROLES. VOA'S PAMELA TAYLOR TALKED WITH SOME

    BALKAN ANALYSTS ABOUT THE STEPPED-UP CALLS FOR THE REMOVAL OF MR. KARADZIC.

    TEXT: DIPLOMATS AND OTHERS SAY THE NUMBER ONE PRE-CONDITION FOR FREE AND FAIR ELECTIONS IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA IS THE REMOVAL FROM POWER OF INDICTED WAR CRIMINALS RADOVAN KARADZIC AND GENERAL RATKO MLADIC. A RECENT C-I-A DRAFT REPORT CONCURS, GIVING A PESSIMISTIC ASSESSMENT OF SEPTEMBER'S ELECTION RESULTS AND CHANCES FOR A LASTING PEACE IF MR. KARADZIC RETAINS POWER.

    STILL, MR. KARADZIC REMAINS DEFIANT. LAST WEEK (5/14), HE DISMISSED HIS MODERATE PRIME MINISTER -- RAJKO KASAGIC [RAIE-KOH KASSA-GHITCH]-- WHO HAD RECEIVED THE SUPPORT OF BOTH THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY AND SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC. MR. KARADZIC THEN ANNOUNCED PLANS TO RUN IN SEPTEMBER'S SCHEDULED ELECTIONS. THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT PROMPTLY THREATENED TO WITHDRAW FROM THE ELECTIONS ALTOGETHER UNLESS MR. KARADZIC IS REMOVED. JANUSZ BUGAISKY OF THE CENTER FOR STRATEGIC AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES (CSIS) THINKS THE BOSNIAN SERB LEADER MAY HAVE GONE TO FAR THIS TIME:

    TAPE: CUT # 1 BUGAISKY RUNS [:30] "THERE ARE OBVIOUSLY OPERATIONAL CONTIGENCY PLANS FOR TAKING OUT KARADZIC AND I THINK SOME OF THE NATO COMMANDERS HAVE GOT A BIT FRUSTRATED THAT THE POLITICAL DECISION HASN'T COME TO DO IT BECAUSE THEY'RE VERY CAPABLE AND READY TO DO IT IF THE WORD WAS TO COME FROM ABOVE. THERE'S NO POLITICAL WILL FROM THE SIDE OF THE NATO LEADERSHIP TO DO IT FOR TWO REASONS. ONE THEY'RE AFRAID OF CASUALTIES WHICH FOR CLINTON IN AN ELECTION YEAR WOULDN'T LOOK GOOD. SECONDLY THEY'RE AFRAID OF A REACTION WHICH COULD STRENGTHEN THE MARTYRDOM OF KARADZIC."

    TEXT: IT IS THIS LAST REASON WHICH WORRIES BALKAN ANALYST OBRAD KESIC OF THE IREX RESEARCH INSTITUTE. HE SAYS THE PEOPLE IN THE SERB REPUBLIC (REPUBLIKA SRPSKA) FEEL THE WHOLE WORLD IS AGAINST THEM AND THAT MR. KARADZIC AND GENERAL MLADIC HAVE BEEN UNFAIRLY SINGLED OUT FOR CONDEMNATION:

    TAPE: CUT # 2 KESIC RUNS [:22] "THIS IS REFLECTED IN IN THE FACT EVERYONE IS TRYING TO TELL THEM WHO THEIR LEADERS SHOULD BE AND THERE'S THAT TRADITIONAL STUBBORNESS AND THAT QUALITY KNOWN AS 'INAT', THE BOSNIAN SERBS ARE SAYING 'LOOK IF ANYONE DECIDES WHO OUR LEADERS ARE GOING TO BE IT WILL BE US, NOT SOME BUREAUCRAT SITTING AROUND THE TABLE IN DAYTON."

    TEXT: BY WAY OF ILLUSTRATION, HE TOLD A STORY ABOUT A MEETING HE HAD ON A RECENT VISIT TO THE REGION:

    TAPE: CUT # 3 KESIC RUNS [:36] "ON MY TRIP IN FEBRUARY TO THE BANJA LUKA REGION, I WAS WITH A GROUP OF BOSNIAN SERB REFUGEES FROM THE TOWNS OF GRAJO AND GLAMOC AND KARADZIC'S PICTURE CAME ON THE TELEVISION SCREEN AND A NUMBER OF THE REFUGEES TURNED AND SPIT ON THE GROUND WHICH SURPRISED ME A LITTLE BIT. A FEW SECONDS LATER THEY LOOKED AT ME, KNOWING I WAS FROM THE (UNITED) STATES AND SAID ' LOOK, DON'T GET THE WRONG IDEA, YOU GO BACK AND TELL YOUR AMERICANS THAT IF THEY TRY TO ARREST THEM, WE'LL BE THE FIRST ONES TO TAKE UP ARMS TO PROTECT THEM'."

    TEXT: MR. KESIC SAYS SOME OF THAT IS BRAVADO, SOME OF IT 'INAT', WHICH IN THEIR LANGUAGE MEANS 'SPITE'. [OPT] BUT MR. KESIC WARNS, ALTHOUGH BOSNIAN SERBS MAY SPIT ON THE GROUND AT THE MENTION OF MR. KARADZIC'S NAME, THEY CONSIDER GENERAL MLADIC THEIR HERO. AS IN ALL THE REPUBLICS OF THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA, THE TREND THESE DAYS IS TO BLAME POLITICIANS FOR THE HORRORS OF THE WAR AND TO DEPICT OTHERS AS MERELY FOLLOWING ORDERS. MR. KESIC EXPLAINS WHY THE BOSNIAN SERBS DO NOT CONSIDER GENERAL MLADIC A WAR CRIMINAL:

    TAPE: CUT # 4 KESIC RUNS [:32] "MY INTERPRETATION OF WHAT HE'S CONSISTENTLY SAID IS, ONE, HE DIDN'T ACTUALLY COMMIT THE ACTS HE'S BEEN CHARGED WITH AND TWO, THAT IN THIS CONFLICT, MANY OF THE CHARGES HE'S BEEN ACCUSED OF IN HIS EYES STEM FROM THE FACT HE'S BEEN BRANDED AN AGGRESSOR AND IN NO WAY DOES HE VIEW HIMSELF AS AN AGRESSOR BECAUSE HE'S FOUGHT WITHIN THE BORDERS OF HIS OWN COUNTRY AS FAR AS HE'S CONCERNED."

    TEXT: BUT HAGUE WAR CRIMES PROSECUTORS DON'T SEE IT THAT WAY AND HAVE HANDED DOWN TWO INDICTMENTS AGAINST GENERAL MLADIC AND RADOVAN KARADZIC. THE FIRST CHARGES THEM WITH MASTERMINDING THE BOMBARDEMENT AND SIEGE OF THE CITIZENS OF SARAJEVO, THE SECOND WITH ORDERING THE ATTACK ON THE U-N DESIGNATED 'SAFE AREA' OF SREBRENICA IN WHICH THOUSANDS OF MUSLIM MEN ARE ALLEGED TO HAVE BEEN EXECUTED. [END OPT]

    JANUSZ BUGAISKY SAYS INTERNATIONAL POLITICIANS HAD BETTER MAKE UP THEIR MINDS SOON ABOUT HOW TO FORCE MR. KARADZIC FROM POWER BECAUSE TIME IS RUNNING OUT FOR FREE AND FAIR ELECTIONS BY SEPTEMBER:

    TAPE: CUT # 5 BUGAISKY RUNS [:13] "IF NATO WOULD ENGAGE IN SOME KIND OF CAPTURE OPERATION, I DON'T THINK IT WOULD BE THAT DIFFICULT. THERE COULD BE SOME CASUALTIES WHICH OF COURSE COULD BECOME COUNTERPRODUCTIVE; WE DON'T WANT ANY CASUALTIES. BUT ON THE OTHER HAND THERE'S ALWAYS A RISK IN SUCH AN OPERATION."

    TEXT: MR. BUGAISKY BELIEVES IF MR. KARADZIC IS REMOVED SOON, THERE WILL BE ENOUGH TIME BEFORE THE ELECTIONS FOR SOME OTHER SERB LEADER TO CLAIM HIS INDEPENDENCE FROM THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY AND THEREBY AVOID A SERB ELECTION BOYCOTT. HE SAYS WHILE THERE IS NOT THAT MUCH DIFFERENCE AMONG THE VARIOUS BOSNIAN SERB LEADERS, WHAT'S IMPORTANT IS THAT WAR CRIMINALS AND AVOWED SEPARATISTS NOT REMAIN IN POWER. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PAM/PCH
    22-May-96 3:42 PM EDT (1942 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [06] U-S / SERBIA (L) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)

    DATE=5/22/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-197587
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: A SENIOR U-S DIPLOMAT HAS MET SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC IN BELGRADE AND THREATENED THE RE-IMPOSITION OF U-N SANCTIONS AGAINST SERBIA. RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT, THE CONTINUED PRESENCE IN BELGRADE OF THOSE ACCUSED OF WAR CRIMES REMAINS AN ISSUE.

    TEXT: BEFORE STATE DEPARTMENT OFFICIAL JOHN KORNBLUM MET WITH PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC, TELEVISION PICTURES SHOWED BOSNIAN-SERB GENERAL RATKO MLADIC DRESSED IN HIS UNIFORM AT THE BELGRADE FUNERAL OF ANOTHER SERB MILITARY MAN ACCUSED OF WAR CRIMES.

    THE STATE DEPARTMENT SAYS MR. KORNBLUM REMINDED PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC OF SERBIA'S OBLIGATION UNDER THE BOSNIA PEACE AGREEMENT TO TURN OVER GENERAL MLADIC AND BOSNIAN-SERB PRESIDENT RADOVAN KARADZIC TO FACE CHARGES BEFORE THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL. PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC MAINTAINS SERBIA COMPLIES WITH THE PEACE AGREEMENT, BUT STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN NICHOLAS BURNS DISAGREES.

    /// BURNS ACT ///

    PART OF THE ACCORDS SAY THAT THE PARTIES HAVE A RESPONSIBILITY TO APPREHEND INDICTED WAR CRIMINALS. MLADIC IS AN INDICTED WAR CRIMINAL. HE WAS IN FULL UNIFORM IN BELGRADE YESTERDAY. IT IS OUTRAGEOUS THAT HE SHOWED UP IN THE LIGHT OF DAY, AND YES THE SERBIAN GOVERNMENT SHOULD HAVE ARRESTED HIM, AND YES THEY ARE NOT IN COMPLIANCE WITH THE DAYTON ACCORDS ON THAT QUESTION.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE SPOKESMAN SAYS MR. KORNBLUM, THE ACTING ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE, WARNED PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC THE ECONOMIC SANCTIONS LIFTED AFTER THE SIGNING OF THE PEACE AGREEMENT CAN STILL BE RE-IMPOSED ON SERBIA. MR. BURNS SAYS SERBIA IS STILL SUBJECT TO THE OUTER WALL OF SANCTIONS SUCH AS, NO FULL DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS WITH THE UNITED STATES, NO SEAT IN THE UNITED NATIONS AND NO ASSISTANCE FROM INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS.

    AT THE SAME TIME, THE STATE DEPARTMENT IS NOT PUSHING IMMEDIATELY TO RE-IMPOSE THE ECONOMIC SANCTIONS AGAINST SERBIA. THE SPOKESMAN SAYS PATIENT DIPLOMACY WILL BE USED FOR THE TIME BEING. SECRETARY OF STATE WARREN CHRISTOPHER WILL BE RAISING THE ISSUE AGAIN WITH PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC NEXT MONTH WHEN THEY MEET IN WESTERN EUROPE.

    MR. BURNS REJECTED THE SUGGESTION OF BOSNIA'S GOVERNMENT TO POSTPONE ELECTIONS PROPOSED FOR NEXT SEPTEMBER IF MR. KARADZIC AND GENERAL MLADIC CONTINUE IN POWER.

    /// BURNS ACT ///

    THE FACT IS THAT AN ELECTORAL COMMISSION HAS BEEN ESTABLISHED AND THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT IS PART OF THAT. THEY HAVE ALREADY WORKED OUT THE RULES OF THE ROAD FOR THESE ELECTIONS, THEY HAVE ALREADY WORKED OUT SOME OF THE CONDITIONS FOR THESE ELECTIONS. THIS WAS NOT ONE OF THEM. IT IS NOT USEFUL AT THIS TIME TO SUGGEST NEW IDEAS, NEW CONDITIONS THAT WOULD EFFECTIVELY PUT OFF THE ELECTIONS. THE ELECTIONS MUST BE HELD.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. BURNS INSISTS THE ELECTIONS CAN BE HELD EVEN IF MR. KARADZIC IS STILL IN -- WHAT HE CALLED -- HIS LAIR, IN PALE OUTSIDE SARAJEVO. THE SPOKESMAN SAID DURING A VISIT TO WASHINGTON THIS WEEK WAR CRIMES PROSECUTOR RICHARD GOLDSTONE ASKED FOR THE BOSNIA PEACE FORCE TO BE MORE ACTIVE IN ARRESTING MR. KARADZIC AND GENERAL MLADIC.

    BUT MNR. BURNS SAID THE UNITED STATES BELIEVES THE PEACE FORCE MUST CONCENTRATE ON MILITARY MISSIONS, NOT POLICE WORK. (SIGNED)
    NEB/RAE
    22-May-96 2:48 PM EDT (1848 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [07] U-S / YUGO (L UPDATE) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

    DATE=5/22/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-197586
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    // EDITORS: UPDATES WITH NEW INFO THROUGHOUT //

    INTRO: THE UNITED STATES HAS BEGUN NEW DIPLOMATIC CONTACTS AS PART OF THE INTERNATIONAL ATTEMPTS TO FORCE BOSNIAN SERB LEADER RADOVAN KARADZIC FROM POWER. V-O-A CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT WAYNE COREY REPORTS AMERICAN ENVOY JOHN KORNBLUM HAS MET WITH SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC AT THE START OF VISITS TO BELGRADE, ZAGREB, AND SARAJEVO.

    TEXT: MR. KORNBLUM AND PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC DISCUSSED THE APPARENT FAILURE OF THE LATEST INTERNATIONAL ATTEMPTS TO WEAKEN BOSNIAN SERB LEADER RADOVAN KARADZIC'S GRIP ON POWER.

    THE U-S ENVOY RETURNED TO THE BALKANS EARLIER THAN PLANNED AFTER MR. KARADZIC REPLACED HIS MODERATE PRIME MINISTER, WHO WAS BEING COURTED BY THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY, WITH A HARDLINE SERB OFFICIAL.

    MR. KORNBLUM SAYS HE REMINDED MR. MILOSEVIC THAT INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC SANCTIONS COULD BE REIMPOSED ON YUGOSLAVIA UNLESS THE SERBIAN PRESIDENT FULLY SUPPORTS THE BOSNIAN PEACE PROCESS.

    THE AMERICAN ENVOY SAYS PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC MUST CARRY OUT HIS OBLIGATIONS AS A SIGNATORY TO THE PEACE AGREEMENT FOR BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA.

    THE PEACE ACCORD DOES NOT ALLOW SUSPECTED OR CONVICTED WAR CRIMINALS TO HOLD POWER. RADOVAN KARADZIC AND THE BOSNIAN SERB ARMY COMMANDER, GENERAL RATKO MLADIC, BOTH FACE INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES CHARGES.

    MR. KORNBLUM SAYS THE UNITED STATES EXPECTS BOTH MEN TO STEP DOWN AND NOT TO INFLUENCE BOSNIAN SERB POLICIES IN ANY WAY.

    THE SERBIAN PRESIDENT APPEARS TO BELIEVE MR. KARADZIC WOULD BE DEFEATED IF HE COMPETES IN POST-WAR ELECTIONS DUE TO BE HELD IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA NO LATER THAN SEPTEMBER. BUT, IT IS NOW WIDELY BELIEVED THAT MEANINGFUL, DEMOCRATIC ELECTIONS ARE IMPOSSIBLE UNLESS MR. KARADZIC IS REMOVED BEFORE THEY TAKE PLACE.

    THE INTERNATIONAL OFFICIAL IN CHARGE OF ORGANIZING THE ELECTIONS, ROBERT FROWICK, SAYS THE MOMENT OF TRUTH IS APPROACHING WHEN IT WILL HAVE TO BE DECIDED WHETHER THE ELECTIONS SHOULD BE HELD AS PLANNED. THE UNITED STATES FEARS A DELAY IN THE ELECTIONS COULD DELAY THE PLANNED DEPARTURE OF 18-THOUSAND AMERICAN TROOPS FROM BOSNIA AROUND THE END OF THE YEAR.

    OTHER COUNTRIES INVOLVED IN THE NATO-LED INTERNATIONAL PEACE FORCE IN BOSNIA HAVE WARNED THAT THEIR TROOPS WILL NOT STAY IN THE COUNTRY IF THE AMERICAN TROOPS LEAVE. MEANWHILE, NATO SECRETARY-GENERAL JAVIER SOLANA SAYS NATO FORCES WILL BE DEPLOYED IN A WAY TO PREVENT ALLEGED WAR CRIMINALS FROM MOVING AROUND BOSNIA WITHOUT BEING DETAINED. HE GAVE NO DETAILS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/WC/JWH/CF
    22-May-96 2:39 PM EDT (1839 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [08] YUGO/U-S (L) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

    DATE=5/22/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-197571
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED STATES HAS BEGUN FRESH DIPLOMATIC CONTACTS AS PART OF THE INTERNATIONAL ATTEMPTS TO FORCE HARDLINE BOSNIAN SERB LEADER RADOVAN KARADZIC FROM POWER. AMERICAN ENVOY JOHN KORNBLUM HAS MET WITH THE SERBIAN PRESIDENT AT THE START OF VISITS TO BELGRADE, SARAJEVO AND ZAGREB. V-O-A'S CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT, WAYNE COREY, REPORTS.

    TEXT: MR. KORNBLUM MET WITH THE SERBIAN PRESIDENT, SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC, IN BELGRADE. THEY ARE BELIEVED TO HAVE DISCUSSED INTERNATIONAL ATTEMPTS TO FORCE BOSNIAN SERB LEADER RADOVAN KARADZIC TO GIVE UP POWER.

    THE U-S ENVOY RETURNED TO THE BALKANS EARLIER THAN PLANNED AFTER MR. KARADZIC REPLACED HIS MODERATE PRIME MINISTER WITH ANOTHER HARDLINER.

    MR. KARADZIC, WHO FACES INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES CHARGES, ALSO ANNOUNCED THAT YET ANOTHER HARDLINER, BILJANA PLAVSIC, WILL BE THE CHIEF SERB REPRESENTATIVE IN CONTACTS WITH INTERNATIONAL MEDIATORS.

    MRS. PLAVSIC SAID MR. KARADZIC IS STILL SERB PRESIDENT. AT THE SAME TIME, THE OUSTED SERB PRIME MINISTER, RAJKO KASAGIC, SAID HE ACCEPTS HIS DISMISSAL.

    THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER MAJOR POWERS HAVE BEEN SEEKING THE SERBIAN PRESIDENT'S HELP IN TOPPLING THE RESILIENT BOSNIAN SERB LEADER.

    PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC MET WITH MRS. PLAVSIC AND OTHER BOSNIAN SERB OFFICIALS IN BELGRADE ON TUESDAY. IN A REPORT ON THE MEETING, THE YUGOSLAV NEWS AGENCY TWICE REFERRED TO MRS. PLAVSIC AS ACTING BOSNIAN SERB PRESIDENT.

    MR. MILOSEVIC APPEARS TO BELIEVE RADOVAN KARADZIC WOULD BE DEFEATED IF HE COMPETES IN POST-WAR ELECTIONS DUE TO BE HELD IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA NO LATER THAN SEPTEMBER. BUT, THE UNITED STATES IS ANXIOUS TO GET RID OF MR. KARADZIC BEFORE THE ELECTIONS SO HE COULD NOT INFLUENCE THEIR OUTCOME.

    THE UNITED STATES DOES NOT WANT THE ELECTIONS DELAYED BECAUSE THAT COULD DELAY THE PLANNED DEPARTURE AROUND THE END OF THE YEAR OF 18-THOUSAND AMERICAN PEACE-KEEPING TROOPS NOW IN NORTHERN BOSNIA. (SIGNED)
    NEB/WC/MH/JM
    22-May-96 11:07 AM EDT (1507 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [09] YUGO WAR CRIMES (L ONLY) BY GILLIAN SHARPE (THE HAGUE)

    DATE=5/22/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-197585
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE CHIEF PROSECUTOR AT THE YUGOSLAV WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL SAYS THE CREDIBILITY OF THE INSTITUTION STILL HANGS IN THE BALANCE. GILLIAN SHARPE AT THE HAGUE REPORTS SOUTH AFRICAN LAWYER RICHARD GOLDSTONE SAYS THAT UNLESS MAJOR FIGURES IN THE BOSNIAN WAR ARE PUT ON TRIAL, THE TRIBUNAL WILL NOT HAVE SUCCEEDED IN ITS TASK.

    TEXT: CHIEF PROSECUTOR RICHARD GOLDSTONE PRESIDES OVER AN OFFICE WHICH HAS ISSUED 57 WAR CRIMES INDICTMENTS, BUT HAS ONLY A HANDFUL OF SUSPECTS IN CUSTODY.

    THE TRIBUNAL'S FIRST TRIAL -- THAT OF BOSNIAN SERB DUSAN TADIC -- IS UNDER WAY, AND SEVERAL MORE SUSPECTS ARE EXPECTED TO STAND IN THE DOCK BEFORE THE END OF THE YEAR. BUT JUSTICE GOLDSTONE SAYS THERE IS STILL A LONG WAY TO GO.

    // ACT GOLDSTONE //

    ULTIMATELY, CREDIBILITY IS GOING TO DEPEND ON WHETHER WE ARE ABLE TO PUT ON TRIAL IN THE HAGUE THE MAJOR PEOPLE WHO HAVE BEEN INDICTED. THERE'S AN EXPECTATION IN THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY, AND WHAT'S MORE IMPORTANT TO ME, THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY HAS RAISED THE EXPECTATION OF THE VICTIMS IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA AND IF THE PEOPLE THEY SEE AS THE MAJOR VILLAINS, THE MAJOR CULPRITS, ARE GOING TO BE WALKING AROUND AND GOING ON SKI SLOPES, THEN THE CREDIBILITY OF THE TRIBUNAL IS GOING TO BE SERIOUSLY IMPUGNED.

    // END ACT //

    THE PEOPLE HE IS REFERRING TO ARE THE BOSNIAN SERB POLITICAL AND MILITARY LEADERS, RADOVAN KARADZIC AND RATKO MLADIC, WHO HAVE BEEN INDICTED ON CHARGES OF GENOCIDE. THE TRIBUNAL HAS ANNOUNCED IT WILL BE HOLDING PUBLIC HEARINGS NEXT MONTH INTO THE EVIDENCE AGAINST THE TWO MEN.

    THIS IS NOT A TRIAL IN ABSENTIA, BUT JUSTICE GOLDSTONE SAYS IT STILL HAS AN IMPORTANT ROLE

    // ACT GOLDSTONE //

    IN A WAY, IT IS A CHILD OF FRUSTRATION BECAUSE OUR FIRST PRIORITY WOULD BE TO LEAVE MORE DETAILED EVIDENCE FOR A TRIAL AGAINST THEM. BUT WE FEEL THAT MAKING PUBLIC THE EVIDENCE WILL SERVE A NUMBER OF PURPOSES. FIRSTLY, IT WILL MEAN SOMETHING TO THE VICTIMS IN BOSNIA. IT WILL BE THE FIRST TIME THAT THERE IS PROOF IN THE FORMAL SETTING OF A COURT AS TO WHAT HAPPENED IN SREBRENICA AND SARAJEVO AND OTHER PLACES. IT WILL ALSO INCREASE THE PRESSURE ON THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY TO DO SOMETHING ABOUT GETTING THEM TO THE HAGUE.

    // END ACT //

    AND THAT HAS ALWAYS BEEN ONE OF THE TRIBUNAL'S BIGGEST PROBLEMS. IT CAN ISSUE INDICTMENTS, BUT IN THE MAJORITY OF CASES CANNOT GET THE ACCUSED IN THE DOCK. IN THE CASE OF MR KARADZIC AND GENERAL MLADIC, THE NATO-LED PEACE IMPLEMENTATION FORCE -- I-FOR HAS NOT BEEN WILLING TO BECOME DIRECTLY INVOLVED.

    DOES THIS MEAN THEN THAT THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY HAS FAILED THE TRIBUNAL?

    // ACT GOLDSTONE //

    WELL, I DON'T THINK IT CAN BE SAID YET THAT IT HAS FAILED. I-FOR IS ABOUT TO COMPLETE ITS FIFTH MONTH. THERE'S STILL SEVEN MONTHS TO GO. NOTWITHSTANDING THE PRESENT ATTITUDE, I'M HOPEFUL THAT THERE'S AT LEAST A PROSPECT OF THAT ATTITUDE BEING CHANGED. THERE'S ALSO A PROSPECT THAT THE POLITICAL EVENTS IN BOSNIA -- THEY'RE MOVING VERY QUICKLY IN BOSNIA -- THEY'RE MOVING FROM DAY TO DAY. ONE DAY KARADZIC IS OUT, THE NEXT DAY HE'S IN, THE NEXT DAY HE'S IN MORE FIRMLY THAN EVER. THINGS ARE CHANGING AND IT MAY WELL BE, AND THIS IS PERHAPS MORE LIKELY THAN I-FOR BEING PRO-ACTIVE, THAT THE PEOPLE IN BOSNIA THEMSELVES START TO FIND THAT IT'S IN THEIR OWN INTEREST TO TURN HIM IN.

    // ENDS ACT //

    JUSTICE GOLDSTONE SAYS THAT REALISTICALLY, THERE IS MORE CHANCE OF SEEING RADOVAN KARADZIC ON TRIAL IN THE HAGUE THAN HIS MILITARY COMMANDER, GENERAL MLADIC. THE GENERAL, SAYS MR. GOLDSTONE, PROBABLY HAS TOO FIRM A POWER BASE AND MAY NEVER FACE CHARGES IN THE DOCK AT THE INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL. (SIGNED)
    NEB/GS/JWH/CF
    22-May-96 2:31 PM EDT (1831 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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