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Voice of America, 22 July1996

Voice of America Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] MONDAY'S EDITORIALS BY DAN NOBLE (WASHINGTON)
  • [02] BLINKEN ON NATO EXPANSION
  • [03] BOSNA / MINES CHILDREN BY EVANS HAYS (SARAJEVO)
  • [04] BOSNIA / GRAVES (L) BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)
  • [05] BOSNIA ELECTION BY EVANS HAYS (SARAJEVO)
  • [06] BOSNIA/SANCTIONS (L ONLY) BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)
  • [07] CONGRESS-ROMANIA (L) BY PAULA WOLFSON (CONGRESS)
  • [08] NATO / HUNGARY (L ONLY) BY STEFAN BOS (SZOLNOK, HUNGARY)
  • [09] ROMANIA/PARTNERSHIP (S-ONLY) BY DAVID GOLLUST (PENTAGON)

  • [01] MONDAY'S EDITORIALS BY DAN NOBLE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=07/22/96
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09690
    TELEPHONE=619-1014
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=_
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M ON MONDAY, JULY 22ND //

    INTRO: ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION BEING CONSIDERED BY THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS, BOB DOLE'S PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN, AND THE SUMMER OLYMPIC GAMES ARE SOME OF THE SUBJECTS DISCUSSED IN THE NATION'S EDITORIAL COLUMNS THIS MONDAY. FOR DETAILS, HERE IS _______________ WITH TODAY'S U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: RECENTLY, THE U-S HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES COMMERCE COMMITTEE UNANIMOUSLY REPORTED OUT A PESTICIDES CONTROL BILL SUPPORTED BY BOTH THE FOOD AND CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES AND NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL GROUPS. THE LEGISLATION WOULD -- IN THE WORDS OF THE WASHINGTON POST -- "RATIONALIZE THE REGULATION OF PESTICIDES."

    VOICE: "THE GREAT DISPUTE WITH REGARD TO PESTICIDES HAS ALWAYS BEEN WHAT SHOULD BE THE STANDARD OF SAFETY. THE LAW IS UNEVEN. FOR RESIDUES ON CERTAIN PROCESSED FOODS, IT SETS A STANDARD -- THE SO-CALLED DELANEY CLAUSE -- WIDELY REGARDED AS TOO STRICT, WHILE IN OTHER CASES CRITICS SAY IT HAS BEEN TOO LAX. THE COMMITTEE BILL WOULD REPEAL DELANEY, THEREBY PLEASING THE GROCERY MANUFACTURERS, BUT IN ITS PLACE IMPOSE THE SINGLE STRONG STANDARD, 'REASONABLE CERTAINTY OF NO HARM', ON ALL FOODS, RAW AS WELL AS PROCESSED, THEREBY SATISFYING MOST ADVOCATES OF CAREFUL REGULATION AS WELL. SPECIAL CONSIDERATION WOULD HAVE TO BE GIVEN TO THE PARTICULAR SUSCEPTIBILITIES OF INFANTS AND CHILDREN. AND WHILE THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY COULD TAKE INTO ACCOUNT THE COST OF REGULATIONS TO GROWERS OF PARTICULAR PRODUCTS -- ANOTHER CONCESSION TO INDUSTRY -- IT COULD ONLY DO SO IN FAIRLY NARROW CIRCUMSTANCES.... EVERYONE WINS IF THIS ONE PASSES."

    TEXT: THE NEW YORK TIMES CALLED THE LEGISLATION "A WELCOME AND INDEED SURPRISING ACHIEVEMENT."

    VOICE: "APART FROM ITS DETAILS, THE AGREEMENT IS MOST REMARKABLE FOR HOW QUICKLY IT CAME TOGETHER. UPDATING THE DELANEY CLAUSE HAS BEEN A SUBJECT OF CONGRESSIONAL DEBATE SINCE ABOUT 1980. A 1993 CLINTON ADMINISTRATION PROPOSAL, OFFERED IN RESPONSE TO A FEDERAL APPEALS COURT DECISION THAT WOULD HAVE REQUIRED THE E-P-A (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) TO STRINGENTLY ENFORCE DELANEY IN PESTICIDES, WENT NOWHERE. BUT WITH THE COURT RULING STILL DRIVING E-P-A PESTICIDE POLICY AND AN ELECTION CAMPAIGN AROUND THE CORNER, LONGTIME HOUSE MEMBERS AND FREQUENT ADVERSARIES -- THOMAS BLILEY, A VIRGINIA REPUBLICAN, AND HENRY WAXMAN OF CALIFORNIA AND JOHN DINGELL OF MICHIGAN, BOTH DEMOCRATS -- SAT DOWN AND IN JUST ABOUT A WEEK REACHED AGREEMENT. AFTER AN EXPECTED FAVORABLE VOTE BY THE FULL HOUSE THIS WEEK, THE HARD WORK OF THREE DETERMINED CONGRESSMEN DESERVES APPROVAL BY THE SENATE AND THE ADMINISTRATION."

    TEXT: AS THE 104TH CONGRESS HEADS TOWARD A SUMMER RECESS, NEW YORK'S NEWSDAY HAS SOME THOUGHTS ON HOW THE REPUBLICAN-DOMINATED BODY HAS FUNCTIONED.

    VOICE: "WHAT A DIFFERENCE TWO YEARS MAKE. THEN, THE REPUBLICANS WERE CONVINCED THEY HAD A MANDATE TO UNDO NOT ONLY THE GREAT SOCIETY BUT MUCH OF THE NEW DEAL. THEY SOUGHT TO SHRINK THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, TO TRANSFER POWER TO THE STATES, TO LOOSEN REGULATIONS ON PRIVATE INDUSTRY AND TO STOP PAYMENT -- IN SOME CASES, COLD TURKEY -- ON A LABYRINTH OF PROGRAMS THAT HAVE BEEN WOVEN INTO AMERICAN LIFE OVER TWO GENERATIONS. NOW, AS CONGRESS PREPARES TO FLEE WASHINGTON TO CAMPAIGN FOR RE-ELECTION THIS SUMMER, THE INCUMBENTS' BOASTS WILL BE ABOUT ACHIEVEMENTS FAR MORE MODEST: CONGRESS HAS REWRITTEN THE LAWS GOVERNING THE TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND SECURITIES INDUSTRIES, BOTH NECESSARY BECAUSE TECHNOLOGY AND OTHER CHANGES MADE THE PREVIOUS REGULATORY FRAMEWORK ARCHAIC. IT HAS WISELY, AND AFTER GREAT POLITICAL STRUGGLE, REVAMPED FARM-SUBSIDY PROGRAMS THAT HAVE TOO LONG COMMITTED THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT TO PROPPING UP PRICES ARTIFICIALLY... THESE CHANGES ARE NOT INSIGNIFICANT. BUT EXCEPT FOR WELFARE REVISION, WHICH CLINTON HIMSELF CAME INTO OFFICE SUPPORTING, IT IS HARDLY A LIST OF HISTORIC MILESTONES. THE CORE PROMISES OF THE REPUBLICAN TAKEOVER -- A BALANCED BUDGET, BIG TAX CUTS AND A DRAMATICALLY SMALLER FEDERAL GOVERNMENT -- WERE NOT KEPT."

    TEXT: LAST WEEK, THE UNITED NATIONS' SECOND CLIMATE CONVENTION WAS HELD IN GENEVA, SWITZERLAND. TIMOTHY WIRTH, THE UNDERSECRETARY OF STATE FOR GLOBAL AFFAIRS, SAID THAT THE UNITED STATES IS COMMITTED TO -- AS HE PUT IT -- "REALISTIC, VERIFIABLE AND BINDING" TARGETS FOR REDUCING THE THREAT OF GLOBAL WARMING. SAYS AN EDITORIAL IN THE LOS ANGELES TIMES: "...MOST SCIENTISTS SAY THERE'S LITTLE DOUBT THAT HUMANS ARE AUGMENTING A TEN-THOUSAND-YEAR-OLD WARMING TREND BY BURNING FOSSIL FUELS, CAUSING HEAT TO BE TRAPPED IN THE EARTH'S ATMOSPHERE."

    VOICE: "INEVITABLY, GLOBAL WARMING WILL PRODUCE WINNERS AND LOSERS IN NATURE, AS SOME PLANTS AND ANIMALS THRIVE AND OTHERS DIE. BUT IN POLITICAL CULTURE, POLICYMAKERS OUGHT TO STRIVE TO KEEP THE HUMAN DAMAGE TO A MINIMUM. THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR DOING THIS FALLS LARGELY ON THE UNITED STATES, FOR IT BURNS MORE FOSSIL FUEL THAN ANY OTHER COUNTRY. WASHINGTON ASSUMED SOME RESPONSIBILITY IN GENEVA...BY AT LEAST ACKNOWLEDGING THAT CLIMATE CHANGE IS HAPPENING AND THAT SOMETHING MUST BE DONE ABOUT IT. BUT THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION SHOULD COMMIT ITSELF TO SPECIFIC, LEGALLY BINDING TARGETS. OTHERWISE, THE 1996 GENEVA CONFERENCE MAY BEGIN TO LOOK LIKE THE 1992 ONE IN RIO, AT WHICH NATIONS PROMISED REDUCTIONS IN GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS THAT MOST OF THEM HAVE YET TO CARRY OUT."

    TEXT: AN EDITORIAL IN TODAY'S CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR SAYS "THE CONDITION OF LIFE FOR LOW-INCOME BLACK (AMERICANS), AND THE CONTINUING DISINTEGRATION OF THE URBAN COMMUNITIES, WHERE MANY BLACKS LIVE, SHOULD INTEREST ANY SERIOUS CONTENDER FOR HIGH OFFICE IN THE UNITED STATES."

    VOICE: "THAT'S WHY WE REGRETTED CANDIDATE BOB DOLE'S RECENT DECISION NOT TO ADDRESS THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF COLORED PEOPLE. MR. DOLE WAS RIGHT -- IT WOULD HAVE BEEN A CHILLY CROWD AND NAACP (PRON.: N - DOUBLE A - C - P) LEADER KWEISI MFUME IS A COMMITTED LIBERAL DEMOCRAT. BUT IT WAS AN OPPORTUNITY, NONETHELESS, TO PUT ON RECORD THE REPUBLICAN RESPONSE, AND PERHAPS BOB DOLE'S PERSONAL RESPONSE, TO THE NEEDS OF BLACK AMERICANS... [OPT] DOLE PLEADS A STRONG RECORD ON CIVIL RIGHTS IN THE SENATE AND SAYS HE WILL CHOOSE ANOTHER FORUM FOR SPEAKING WITH BLACK AMERICANS. HE MUST FOLLOW THROUGH. REPUBLICANS CAN'T AFFORD TO SIMPLY CONCEDE THE BLACK VOTE TO THE DEMOCRATS. UNDERSTANDING ACROSS RACIAL LINES REMAINS AN AMERICAN NECESSITY. WOULD-BE PRESIDENTS HAVE A DUTY TO SHOW THEY CAN PROMOTE IT." [END OPT]

    TEXT: FINALLY, A COMMENT ON THE SUMMER GAMES IN ATLANTA BY THE USA TODAY NEWSPAPER, WHICH ASKS: "WHAT CAN BECOME AN OLYMPIC SPORT?"

    VOICE: "THE ANSWER IS: JUST ABOUT ANYTHING. BEACH VOLLEYBALL MAKES ITS DEBUT...DESPITE THE CONTINUED PRESENCE OF THE IN-THE-GYM VARIETY. MOUNTAIN BIKING AND SOFTBALL, WHICH OPENED SUNDAY, ARE THIS YEAR'S OTHER NEW ENTRIES... INCREASINGLY, THE OLYMPICS ARE ABOUT ENTERTAINMENT AS WELL AS PURE ATHLETIC ABILITY. THIS TEMPTS ORGANIZERS TO FAVOR SHOWY SPORTS. AND OFTEN, THOSE SPORTS -- THIS SUMMER, GYMNASTICS, DIVING, SYNCHRONIZED SWIMMING; NEXT TIME, MAYBE SURFING -- ARE SUBJECTIVE ONES IN WHICH JUDGES ARE ASKED TO EVALUATE SUCH INTANGIBLES AS GRACE AND CHARISMA AND BEAUTY. FOR PURISTS, THIS IS A DISMAYING TURN."

    TEXT: AND THAT BRINGS TO A CLOSE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF SOME OF MONDAY'S EDITORIALS FROM THE U-S PRESS.
    NEB/DN/PCH
    22-Jul-96 10:58 AM EDT (1458 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [02] BLINKEN ON NATO EXPANSION

    DATE= JULY 23, 1996
    TYPE= EDITORIAL
    NUMBER= 0-06893
    CONTENT=THIS IS THE ONLY EDITORIAL BEING RELEASED FOR BROADCAST
    JULY 23, 1996.

    ANNCR: THE VOICE OF AMERICA PRESENTS DIFFERING POINTS OF VIEW ON A WIDE VARIETY OF ISSUES. NEXT, AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT.

    VOICE:

    AS DONALD BLINKEN, U.S. AMBASSADOR TO HUNGARY SAID, NATO ENLARGEMENT IS VITALLY IMPORTANT BOTH TO AMERICA AND TO NEW DEMOCRACIES OF CENTRAL EUROPE. THE U.S. HAS LEARNED THE HARD WAY THAT IT CANNOT CONTROL WHEN OR WHERE CONFLICT MAY BREAK OUT ON THE EUROPEAN CONTINENT. NATO HAS PROVEN ITSELF TO BE THE MOST POLITICALLY COHESIVE, COST EFFECTIVE, AND MILITARILY RESPONSIVE INSTITUTION YET DEVISED. THAT IS WHY IT MAKES SENSE TO EXPAND THE FRONTIERS OF STABILITY AND DEMOCRACY EASTWARD.

    ENLARGEMENT OF NATO WOULD OFFER NEWLY FREE NATIONS OF THE FORMER SOVIET BLOC THE SAME BENEFITS THE ALLIANCE HAS PROVIDED WEST EUROPEAN NATIONS FOR NEARLY HALF A CENTURY: THE SECURITY ESSENTIAL FOR DEMOCRACY, FREE MARKETS, AND PEACE TO FLOURISH. CENTRAL EUROPEAN NATIONS UNDERSTAND THAT THERE IS MORE TO SECURITY THAN A MILITARY ALLIANCE: IT HAS POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, AND SOCIAL COMPONENTS, TOO. TRUE SECURITY REQUIRES THE FULL OBSERVANCE OF WESTERN VALUES.

    LAST SEPTEMBER, NATO COMPLETED A STUDY TO DEFINE BASIC REQUIREMENTS FOR NEW NATO MEMBERS. TO BE CONSIDERED FOR MEMBERSHIP, A COUNTRY MUST HAVE ESTABLISHED A DEMOCRATIC SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT, ENACTED SUBSTANTIAL ECONOMIC REFORM, ACHIEVED CIVILIAN CONTROL OVER THE MILITARY, AND DEMONSTRATED PEACEFUL INTENTIONS TOWARDS ITS NEIGHBORS. AT THE SAME TIME, THE PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE WILL ENSURE THAT NATIONS THAT DO NOT JOIN NATO WILL BE ABLE TO DEVELOP STRONG TIES TO THE ALLIANCE.

    AMBASSADOR BLINKEN SAID EVERY EUROPEAN NATION SHOULD HAVE THE OPPORTUNITY TO ENSURE ITS SECURITY WITHIN A COOPERATIVE STRUCTURE. THAT INCLUDES NOT JUST NATO, BUT ALSO AN ENLARGED EUROPEAN UNION, A STRENGTHENED ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE, AND THE PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE. FOR THE U.S., SAID AMBASSADOR BLINKEN, "SUCH AN APPROACH IS THE BEST MEANS FOR PROTECTING ITS INTERESTS AND VALUES IN AN UNPREDICTABLE AND OFTEN DANGEROUS WORLD."

    ANNCR:

    THAT WAS AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO BE HEARD ON THIS ISSUE, PLEASE WRITE TO EDITORIALS, VOICE OF AMERICA, WASHINGTON, D-C, 20547, U-S-A. YOU MAY ALSO SEND US A FAX AT (202) 619-1043. YOUR COMMENTS MAY BE USED ON THE AIR.
    22-Jul-96 3:41 PM EDT (1941 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [03] BOSNA / MINES CHILDREN BY EVANS HAYS (SARAJEVO)

    DATE=7/22/96
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-33878
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    // EDITORS -- RESERVED FIRST ENGLISH USE BY DATELINE BOSNIA //

    INTRO: THE UNITED NATIONS AND OTHER INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS ARE TRYING TO DEAL WITH THE MINE FIELDS LEFT IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA BY THE ARMIES THAT HAVE NOW RETURNED TO THEIR NEW, PEACETIME BOUNDARIES. THOSE ARMIES LEFT BEHIND KILLING FIELDS WAITING TO CLAIM VICTIMS TODAY, TOMORROW AND EVEN YEARS FROM NOW. VOA CORRESPONDENT EVANS HAYS IN SARAJEVO HAS SPOKEN WITH WITH UNITED NATIONS OFFICIALS AND OTHER EXPERTS ABOUT THE SITUATION AND FILES THIS REPORT.

    TEXT: THE UNITED NATIONS MINE ACTION CENTER IS HOUSED IN SEVERAL TRAILERS PARKED AT THE BACK OF WHAT USED TO BE THE MARSHALL TITO BARRACKS IN SARAJEVO, NEAR THE CENTER OF TOWN.

    THE BARRACKS IS IN RUINS, APART FROM WHAT THE INTERNATIONAL PEACE-KEEPING FORCE HAS REPAIRED FOR ITS OWN TROOPS. THE MINE ACTION CENTER, TUCKED LIKE AN AFTERTHOUGHT IN A PARKING LOT, LOOKS OUT OF PLACE, AS IF SOMEONE WANTED TO MOVE IT TO MORE PERMANENT QUARTERS BUT FORGOT ABOUT THE MOVE.

    BUT THE PEOPLE AT THE U-N CENTER ARE CLEARLY NOT FORGOTTEN. IF ANYTHING, THEY ARE AT THE FOREFRONT OF ONE OF THE DEADLIEST JOBS IN BOSNIA TODAY. THEY, ALONG WITH INTERNATIONAL TROOPS AND PRIVATE CONTRACTORS, ARE TRYING TO CLEANSE THE COUNTRY OF WHAT PRESS OFFICER MONIKA STEDUL CALLS THE HIDDEN ENEMY -- THE LAND MINES AND OTHER EXPLOSIVES LEFT BEHIND AT THE WAR'S END.

    V-O-A ASKED HER HOW SERIOUS THE PROBLEM IS NOW? THE SHOOTING HAS ENDED, THE SNIPING HAS ENDED, MOST ROADS ARE CLEAR. WHY DOES THE DANGER OF KILLING REMAIN?

    // STEDUL ACT //

    THE SITUATION HERE IS VERY BAD AFTER THE WAR. THE PROBLEM NOW IS THAT THERE ARE A LOT MORE PEOPLE MOVING AROUND AND ABOUT AND, THEREFORE, THE SITUATION WE HAVE AT THE MOMENT IS APPROXIMATELY THREE MILLION MINES STILL OUT THERE SOMEWHERE WAITING. IT'S BEEN CALLED THE HIDDEN ENEMY, WHICH IS EXACTLY WHAT IT IS. IT CAN WAIT THERE FOR HOWEVER MANY YEARS IT TAKES TO ACTIVATE THE MINES. THE MAIN PROBLEM IS WE JUST HAVE TO WARN PEOPLE THAT THE SITUATION EXISTS LIKE THAT AND THE ONLY THING THEY CAN DO TO SAVE THEIR LIVES OR STOP THEMSELVES BEING MAIMED IS TO CHANGE THEIR BEHAVIOR.

    // END ACT //

    SHE SAYS THE PROBLEM IS ESPECIALLY BAD BECAUSE THE CONFRONTATION LINES DURING THE WAR CHANGED SO OFTEN THAT MINE FIELDS CAN BE ANYWHERE. OFTEN, SOLDIERS LEAVING A BATTLE AREA WOULD PLANT THEIR OWN MINES ON TOP OF THOSE PLACED BY AN ENEMY.

    // SECOND STEDUL ACT //

    THE PROBLEM IS MAINLY LIMITED TO THE CONFRONTATION LINES. WE HAVE MAPS WHICH GIVE A GOOD IDEA WHERE THESE MINES HAVE BEEN LAID. THE PROBLEM WITH THE WAR HERE IS THAT BECAUSE IT WAS SO COMPLICATED, THE FRONT LINES WERE MOVING ALL THE TIME, THEREFORE, YOU HAD SOLDIERS COMING AND PLANTING MINES, THEN GOING AWAY. THE LAND WAS TAKEN OVER BY THE OTHER SIDE, AND THEY CAME AND PLANTED MINES ON TOP OF THAT. SO EVEN THE MINE RECORDS WE HAVE ARE VERY, VERY SKETCHY. THEY HELP US A LITTLE BIT, BUT IT MAKES IT DIFFICULT FOR US TO KNOW WHERE THE MINES ARE. SO WE TREAT THE WHOLE AREA AS A MINE FIELD, AS A POTENTIAL MINEFIELD. AND SO AS WE START TO CLEAR MINES OUT OF THAT AREA, THEN WE CAN START TO DESIGNATE THESE AREAS AS BEING SAFE.

    // END ACT //

    SHE SAYS ONCE A MINEFIELD HAS BEEN IDENTIFIED, IT HAS TO BE MARKED FOR CLEARANCE BY THE EXPERTS. THIS INVOLVES INFORMATION FROM LOCAL RESIDENTS AND FORMER COMBATANTS. THEN COMES THE DANGEROUS WORK, CARRIED OUT BY TROOPS WHO DIG OUT THE MINES OR DE-ACTIVATE THE BOOBY-TRAPS.

    THE ENTIRE EFFORT, SHE SAYS, REQUIRES A MASSIVE EDUCATION CAMPAIGN TO TEACH PEOPLE HOW TO LIVE WITH MINES UNTIL THEY CAN BE CLEARED -- AND THAT PROCESS COULD TAKE YEARS. MS. STEDUL SAYS PEOPLE IN BOSNIA HAVE TO BEGIN THINKING ABOUT THE DANGER OF MINE FIELDS JUST AS OTHERS MUST THINK ABOUT AN EPIDEMIC, SUCH AS AIDS.

    // OPT THIRD STEDUL ACT //

    THE MAIN POINT OF IT ALL IS THERE HAS TO BE A CHANGE IN BEHAVIOR IN THE SAME WAY THERE WOULD BE TO AN EPIDEMIC SUCH AS AIDS. THE WHOLE POINT IS LEARNING TO LIVE WITH MINES AND TRYING TO CHANGE YOUR BEHAVIOR IN ORDER TO LIVE SAFELY. THAT'S THE MESSAGE THAT WE'RE TRYING TO GET ACROSS. IF EVERYONE COULD GET TO THE SAME STAGE THAT I AM NOW, WHERE THEY WON'T WALK ACROSS A GRASSY VERGE (PATH OR ROADSIDE) EVEN IN SARAJEVO WITHOUT THINKING TWICE, BECAUSE IT'S NOT ONLY MINES, THERE'S ALSO UNEXPLODED ORDINANCE. IF EVERYONE COULD GET TO THAT STAGE, WHERE THEY WON'T DO THAT WITHOUT THINKING TWICE, THEN WE'LL HAVE SUCCEEDED.

    // END ACT., END OPT //

    FROM MONIKA STEDUL'S OFFICE, WE WALKED TO A TRAILER WHERE MINE AWARENESS OFFICERS EXPLAINED HOW THEY TEACH CHILDREN IN THE CLASSROOM TO BE AWARE OF MINES AND -- ABOVE ALL -- TO BE CAREFUL. ONE STORY ABOUT CLASSROOM TRAINING, TOLD BY CARL CORDNER, MAKES CLEAR THAT THE CHILDREN IN BOSNIA KNOW ALL TOO WELL WHERE MINES ARE, EVEN IF THEY DO NOT KNOW THE DANGERS INVOLVED.

    // CORDNER AND HAYS ACT //

    A COLLEAGUE OF OURS WAS WORKING UP IN GORNY VAKUF AND TOOK THE INITIATIVE AND WENT INTO A SCHOOL TO TRY AND GET A FEEL FOR WHAT THE KIDS KNOW AND HOW THEY'RE DEALING WITH THE SITUATION. SO THE WAY HE DID IT WAS TO GO IN WITH -- HE HAD A BIG BLOCK OF PAPER AND A LOT OF PENCILS AND HE GAVE THEM OUT TO THE KIDS AND HE SAID, RIGHT, I'LL BE BACK IN A WEEK, DRAW ME SOMETHING TO DO WITH MINES. HE DIDN'T TEACH THEM ANYTHING, OR SHOW THEM ANYTHING, HE JUST SAID DRAW SOMETHING TO DO WITH MINES. HE CAME BACK A WEEK LATER AND AS YOU CAN SEE FROM THE PICTURES, THEY ARE ALL QUITE GRAPHIC. I MEAN, THERE'S A PICTURE HERE OF A GRENADE IN SUCH DETAIL, THAT I WOULD BELIEVE THAT THE KID ACTUALLY HAD THE GRENADE IN FRONT OF HIM WHEN HE WAS DRAWING IT. THIS IS JUST A SELECTION OF THE PICTURES, WE HAVE SOME MORE HERE. MOST OF THE KIDS HAVE TAKEN THE OPTION OF DRAWING EACH INDIVIDUAL MINE. AND SOME OF THEM ARE REALLY ACCURATE. (HAYS:) WELL, FOR EXAMPLE, WHAT DOES THIS ONE SHOW, THE ONE WITH ALL THE VARIOUS MINES ON IT? (CORDNER:) THIS PARTICULAR PICTURE HERE, WE'VE GOT TWO GRENADES THAT HAVE BEEN JOINED BY A TRIP WIRE, WHICH IS QUITE A COMMON TACTIC, AN EASY WAY TO IMPROVISE A MINE OR DENY A PIECE OF GROUND OR SOMETHING. THIS PICTURE HERE CLEARY SHOWS A "P-M-A-2," WHICH IS AN ANTI-PERSONNEL MINE, IT'S ACCURATE EVEN UP TO THE WAY THE BODY OF THE MINE HAS BEEN CAST IN PLASTIC ... THE MINE SIGNS ARE ALL ACCURATE AS WELL. HERE WE'VE GOT A MORTAR BOMB AND THIS PICTURE HERE IS PROBABLY THE BOTTOM OF THIS MINE ... (HAYS:) SO THESE CHILDREN MUST HAVE ACTUALLY BEEN OUT THERE AND HELD THEM OR BEEN SO CLOSE THEY COULD DO THESE INCREDIBLY SPECIFIC DRAWINGS. (CORDNER:) YEAH. I THINK THEY COULD ONLY DRAW SOME OF THESE IF THEY'D HAD PHYSICALLY GOT THE MINE IN FRONT OF THEM, BECAUSE THEY'RE IN SUCH DETAIL. WE'VE GOT A MINE DOWN HERE (IN THE PICTURE) THAT'S ELECTRONICALLY OPERATED, IT'S FIRED ELECTRICALLY, AND THIS (PICTURE) IS ACCURATE DOWN TO THE RIGHT COLORS OF THE WIRES.

    // END ACT //

    MINE EXPERTS TOLD V-O-A THAT SOME DEVICES THEY HAVE FOUND ARE NOT EVEN LISTED IN THE ARSENALS OF THE ARMIES THAT WERE FIGHTING HERE.

    MANY MILITARY OFFICIALS FROM ALL SIDES ARE COOPERATING TO HELP THE UNITED NATIONS, THE INTERNATIONAL PEACE FORCE AND OTHERS CLEAR THE COUNTRY OF HIDDEN EXPLOSIVES THAT CAN KILL WITHOUT WARNING. BUT THERE IS A BITTER ANIMOSITY LEFT FROM THE WAR HERE IN BOSNIA AND IT MAY BE THAT FOR SOME FEW, POLITICS OR ETHNIC HATRED MAY BE MORE IMPORTANT THAN THE LIFE OF A CHILD. (SIGNED)
    NEB/EH/PCF/CF
    22-Jul-96 1:52 PM EDT (1752 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [04] BOSNIA / GRAVES (L) BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)

    DATE=7/22/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-200528
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: WAR CRIMES INVESTIGATORS IN BOSNIA HAVE BEGUN EXCAVATIONS AT A SUSPECTED MASS GRAVE SITE NEAR SREBRENICA IN EASTERN BOSNIA. DAVID FOLEY IN SARAJEVO REPORTS OFFICIALS BELIEVE THE SITE MAY HOLD THE BODIES OF AS MANY AS 27-HUNDRED MUSLIMS ALLEGEDLY MURDERED BY THE BOSNIAN SERBS LAST JULY.

    TEXT: THE WAR CRIMES INVESTIGATORS HAVE FINISHED EXCAVATING THE FIRST MASS GRAVE NEAR SREBRENICA, AND HAVE NOW BEGUN DIGGING AT WHAT COULD BE THE LARGEST GRAVE IN BOSNIA.

    IN THE PAST TWO WEEKS, THE INVESTIGATORS REMOVED MORE THAN 150 BODIES FROM THE FIRST GRAVE, THREE TIMES MORE THAN EXPECTED. ALL THE BODIES WORE CIVILIAN CLOTHES, AND MANY HAD THEIR HANDS WIRED BEHIND THEIR BACKS. ON MONDAY, THE TEAM BEGAN WORK AT THE FOOTBALL FIELD AT NOVA KASABA, NEAR SREBRENICA. AMERICAN SATELLITE PHOTOGRAPHS HELPED PINPOINT THE SITE, WHERE THREE SUSPECTED MASS GRAVES LIE AROUND THE FIELD.

    SEVERAL MONTHS AGO, INVESTIGATORS FOUND SEVERAL BODIES, SOME WITH HANDS ALSO WIRED TOGETHER, WHEN THEY DUG TEST TRENCHES AT THE SITE. NOW INVESTIGATORS ARE ATTEMPTING TO DISCOVER THE LIMITS OF THE GRAVES. AND THEY SAY THEY HAVE ALREADY FOUND A SHOE, ATTACHED TO A BODY, PROTRUDING THROUGH THE SURFACE.

    ALEX IVANKO, THE SPOKESMAN FOR THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL TRIBUNAL, KNOWN AS THE I-C-T-Y, SAYS INVESTIGATORS WILL COLLECT AS MUCH EVIDENCE AS POSSIBLE.

    // ACT - IVANKO //

    WHAT I-C-T-Y IS CONDUCTING IS A CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION. WHAT THEY ARE TRYING TO ESTABLISH IS A PATTERN. WAS THERE A MASS EXECUTION CONDUCTED? IN WHAT WAY WERE THESE PEOPLE WERE KILLED.

    // END ACT //

    FOR THIS REASON, MR. IVANKO SAYS NOT ALL BODIES WILL NECESSARILY BE RECOVERED BY THE INVESTIGATORS. AND HE SAID HE CANNOT SAY HOW LONG THE EXCAVATION WILL LAST.

    // ACT - IVANKO //

    IT'S USUALLY A WEEK TO TWO WEEKS. DON'T FORGET THE I-C-T-Y TEAM IS HERE FOR THREE MONTHS, AND THEY EXPECT TO GO OVER 10 TO 12 SITES.

    // END ACT //

    RECOVERING AND IDENTIFYING BODIES IS ONE OF THE MOST EMOTIONAL AND DIVISIVE TASKS IN BOSNIA. ON SUNDAY, A TEAM OF SERBS, INCLUDING PATHOLOGISTS, CROSSED INTO MUSLIM TERRITORY TO COLLECT BODIES OF SERBS FROM BATTLEFIELD GRAVES.

    NATO SPOKESMAN BRETT BOUDREAU SAYS THAT EVEN THOUGH THE VISIT WAS PRE-ARRANGED AND ESCORTED BY THE U-N INTERNATIONAL POLICE, KNOWN AS THE I-P-T-F, TROUBLE STILL BROKE OUT.

    // ACT - BOUDREAU //

    THAT GROUP WAS MET BY ABOUT 100 HOSTILE BOSNIAN MUSLIMS ARMED WITH STICKS AND STONES, AND FEDERATION POLICE DID LITTLE TO DISCOURAGE THE CROWD, AND THE DISCRETE DEPLOYMENT OF I-FOR TROOPS IN SUPPORT OF THE I-P-T-F HELPED DEFUSE THE SITUATION.

    // END ACT //

    THE ACTION OF THE NATO TROOPS PREVENTED ANY VIOLENCE. BUT THE SERBS WERE ABLE TO COLLECT ONLY 20 BODIES BEFORE THEY HAD TO LEAVE THE AREA.

    NATO AND U-N OFFICIALS HAVE CRITICIZED THE BOSNIAN FEDERATION POLICE FOR FAILING TO RESTRAIN THE MUSLIM CROWD. AND OFFICIALS SAY THEY HOPE THE INCIDENT WILL NOT LEAD TO TROUBLE FOR THE WAR CRIMES INVESTIGATORS WORKING AROUND SREBRENICA. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DF/JWH/CF
    22-Jul-96 11:04 AM EDT (1504 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [05] BOSNIA ELECTION BY EVANS HAYS (SARAJEVO)

    DATE=7/22/96
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-33871
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:
    // EDITORS: FIRST USE OF THIS REPORT -- IN ENGLISH -- IS FOR THE "DATELINE BOSNIA" PROGRAM //

    INTRO: PLANS ARE MOVING AHEAD FOR BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA'S GENERAL ELECTION IN SEPTEMBER. NO ONE EXPECTS THE PROCESS TO BE EASY. ABOUT ONE-HALF THE ELIGIBLE VOTERS REGISTERED BEFORE THE BOSNIAN WAR BEGAN ARE EITHER REFUGEES LIVING ABROAD OR ARE DISPLACED PERSONS WITHIN THEIR OWN COUNTRY. V-O-A'S EVANS HAYS IN SARAJEVO WENT TO THE ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE (OSCE), WHICH IS SUPERVISING THE ELECTION CAMPAIGN, TO FIND OUT HOW VOTING IS BEING ORGANIZED IN A COUNTRY ONLY NOW RECOVERING FROM WAR.

    TEXT: LINDA TRUDELL IS THE O-S-C-E'S CHIEF SPOKESPERSON FOR VOTER REGISTRATION IN BOSNIA, AND IN THAT ROLE HAS BEEN KEEPING A CLOSE WATCH ON THE ELECTION PROCESS.

    IN AN INTERVIEW WITH V-O-A AT HER OFFICE IN SARAJEVO, MS. TRUDELL SAID HER IMPRESSION IS THAT MOST PEOPLE IN BOSNIA WANT THE ELECTION TO TAKE PLACE AS SCHEDULED EVEN THOUGH THE VOTING ITSELF WILL NOT CURE ALL THE COUNTRY'S PROBLEMS.

    // TRUDELL ACT //

    // OPT //

    I MUST SAY THAT MOST OF THE PEOPLE WANT THE ELECTION. PEOPLE WANT TO GET OVER THE LAST FOUR YEARS OF WAR. AS YOU KNOW, IT WAS A HORRIBLE WAR. AND SO I THINK, I SUSPECT THE TURNOUT FOR THE ELECTION WILL BE VERY HIGH FOR DIFFERENT REASONS, BUT BASICALLY BECAUSE PEOPLE WANT TO HAVE COMMON INSTITUTIONS IN THE COUNTRY. AND ALSO WHAT WE'RE TRYING TO SAY IS THAT THE ELECTION WON'T RESULT (RESOLVE) EVERYTHING. // END OPT // WE ARE NOT GOING TO WAKE UP (ON) THE 15TH OF SEPTEMBER WITH DEMOCRACY IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. BUT WE ARE TRYING TO EXPLAIN THAT THE ELECTION IS A STEP TOWARD DEMOCRATIZATION, ECONOMIC RECONSTRUCTION, AND ALSO LASTING PEACE. SO BASICALLY THAT'S THE KIND OF MESSAGE THAT WE'RE TRYING TO PASS ON TO THE PEOPLE OF BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA.

    // END ACT //

    TO PASS ON THIS MESSAGE, SHE SAYS THE O-S-C-E IS PRODUCING RADIO AND TELEVISION REPORTS EXPLAINING HOW PEOPLE CAN REGISTER TO VOTE AND WHAT THEY SHOULD DO ON ELECTION DAY. PRINTED MATERIAL IS BEING DISTRIBUTED. AND THE O-S-C-E IS GOING ON THE WORLD-WIDE COMPUTER LINK -- THE INTERNET -- TO REACH BOSNIAN REFUGEES AROUND THE WORLD WHO MAY BE ELIGIBLE TO CAST ABSENTEE BALLOTS.

    BUT THE REAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR CONDUCTING A FREE ELECTION IS IN THE HANDS OF LOCAL OFFICIALS. AND THIS, SHE SAYS, HAS LED TO SOME PROBLEMS. DISPLACED PERSONS ARE BEING DENIED FOOD AID IN SOME AREAS UNLESS THEY REGISTER TO VOTE IN AN AREA LIKELY TO SUPPORT A SPECIFIC PARTY. OTHER PRESSURES ARE BEING EXERTED BY POLITICAL PARTIES TO FORCE THE ELECTION IN THEIR FAVOR.

    MS. TRUDELL SAYS THE O-S-C-E IS AWARE OF THE PROBLEM, WHICH SHE SAYS IS OCCURRING MAINLY IN SERB-HELD TERRITORY.

    // TRUDELL ACT //

    // OPT //

    IT IS A PROLEM WE HAVE SEEN MOSTLY IN REPUBLIKA SRPSKA. LIKE A DISPLACED PERSON LIVING NOW IN THE REPUBLIKA SRPSKA, WHO USED TO LIVE IN THE (BOSNIAN) FEDERATION. IN MANY PLACES THEY ARE TOLD IF THEY DON'T SHOW FORM NUMBER TWO, JUST TO EXPLAIN FOR YOU, FORM NUMBER TWO, WHEN YOU FILL OUT THAT FORM, YOU'RE SAYING YOUR INTENTION TO VOTE WHERE YOU ARE LIVING NOW. AND WE KNOW IT'S A PROBLEM. // END OPT // AND THE ELECTION APPEALS SUBCOMMISSION HAS MADE A JUDGMENT CALLING FOR ALL LOCAL ELECTION TO STOP THIS PRACTICE. THIS IS ONE OF THE PROBLEMS O-S-C-E IS FACING, IS THAT WE ARE NOT REALLY CONDUCTING THE ELECTION BECAUSE WE ARE WORKING WITH OUR LOCAL PARTNERS, WHICH ARE THE LOCAL ELECTION COMMISSIONS. AND WE CANNOT HAVE O-S-C-E PERSONNEL BEHIND EVERY LOCAL ELECTION COMMISSION. BUT WE ARE PERFECTLY AWARE OF THAT (PROBLEM).

    // END ACT //

    MS. TRUDELL SAYS THE PROBLEM IS AGGRAVATED BY THE FACT THAT ABOUT HALF THE VOTERS LISTED ON THE LAST CENSUS, CONDUCTED BEFORE THE WAR, ARE NOW REFUGEES IN OTHER COUNTRIES OR DISPLACED PERSONS WITHIN BOSNIA. THAT IS MORE THAN ONE-AND-ONE-HALF MILLION PEOPLE.

    // OPT TRUDELL ACT //

    THE STATISTIC WE HAVE IS THAT OVER 900-THOUSAND PEOPLE ARE REFUGEES, 900-THOUSAND PEOPLE ARE DISPLACED PERSONS INSIDE BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. SO BASICALLY HALF THE POPULATION IS NOT LIVING WHERE THEY USED TO LIVE IN 1991.

    // END ACT., END OPT //

    DESPITE THESE OBVIOUS PROBLEMS, SHE SAYS THE MOOD OF THE VOTERS IS GENERALLY GOOD. MS. TRUDELL SAYS BOSNIAN VOTERS SHE HAS MET UNDERSTAND THE NEED FOR THE ELECTION PROCESS, ALTHOUGH FOR NOW, AT LEAST, THEY ARE INCLINED TO VOTE ALONG ETHNIC LINES BECAUSE THAT IS WHAT THEY KNOW BEST.

    // TRUDELL ACT //

    WELL I MUST SAY PEOPLE ARE VERY RATIONAL. THEY KNOW THAT THE ELECTION HAS TO TAKE PLACE, THAT IT WILL HELP THE COUNTRY TO AT LEAST START BUILDING COMMON INSTITUTIONS. ON THE OTHER HAND, BECAUSE IT IS A LACK OF INFORMATION, MANY FEEL THAT POLITICIANS ARE ALL THE SAME IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA AND THAT NO REAL LEADER, ESPECIALLY FROM THE OPPOSITION PARTY IS EMERGING TO GIVE THEM AN ALTERNATIVE.

    // END ACT //

    THE ELECTION IS SET FOR SEPTEMBER 14TH, A SATURDAY. IT IS CLEAR THE O-S-C-E WILL HAVE A LOT OF WORK TO DO BEFORE THEN, AS WILL THE REGIONAL POLITICAL PARTIES VYING FOR POWER IN A NEW, POST-WAR BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. (SIGNED) NEB/EH/DW/JWH/AC/CF
    22-Jul-96 8:34 AM EDT (1234 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [06] BOSNIA/SANCTIONS (L ONLY) BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)

    DATE=7/22/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-200536
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE GOVERNMENT OF BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA HAS ASKED THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL TO CONSIDER RE-IMPOSING SANCTIONS ON SERB-LED YUGOSLAVIA, CHARGING THAT BELGRADE IS NOT COOPERATING WITH THE INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL. BOSNIAN U-N AMBASSADOR MOHAMED SACIRBEY SAYS ECONOMIC PRESSURE MAY HELP PERSUADE SERBIAN LEADER SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC TO SURRENDER INDICTED PERSONS. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT ELAINE JOHANSON REPORTS:

    TEXT: AMBASSADOR SACIRBEY WELCOMES U-S LEADERSHIP IN GETTING BOSNIAN SERB LEADER RADOVAN KARADZIC TO STEP DOWN FROM POWER. BUT HE SAYS THAT WAS NOT QUITE ENOUGH BECAUSE PEACE IN BOSNIA DEPENDS ON THE FULL IMPLEMENTATION OF LAST YEAR'S PEACE AGREEMENT. THE DAYTON ACCORD CALLS FOR THE ARREST AND PROSECUTION OF WAR CRIMINALS.

    AT THE SAME TIME, THE BOSNIAN AMBASSADOR DOES NOT APPEAR OPTIMISTIC THAT SANCTIONS WILL BE RE-IMPOSED. THE MEASURES -- PUT ON IN 1992 TO PUNISH SERBIA FOR INCITING THE BOSNIAN WAR -- WERE SUSPENDED AFTER PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC SIGNED THE DAYTON AGREEMENT. AMBASSADOR SACIRBEY SAYS WASHINGTON MAY NOT BE INCLINED TO PUSH THE SERBIAN LEADER TOO MUCH -- AT LEAST NOT BEFORE THE SEPTEMBER ELECTIONS IN BOSNIA:

    //SACIRBEY ACT//

    CLEARLY SANCTIONS AGAINST THE NON-COMPLIANT HERE ARE DESERVED, ARE WARRANTED. AND WE DO BELIEVE THEY WOULD BE A STEP IN THE RIGHT DIRECTION. BUT IF THERE IS NO POLITICAL WILL TO TAKE THIS NECESSARY STEP IN WASHINGTON, THEN OBVIOUSLY THAT'S NOT GOING TO HAPPEN.

    //END ACT//

    THE BOSNIAN AMBASSADOR BELIEVES THE UNITED STATES IS PAYING TOO HIGH A PRICE TO SERBIA TO KEEP THE ELECTIONS ON COURSE. HE SAYS HE DOUBTS THE ELECTIONS WILL BE FREE AND FAIR ANYWAY -- AS PRESCRIBED BY THE DAYTON AGREEMENT:

    //SACIRBEY ACT//

    THE O-S-C-E (ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE) MONITORS WHO ARE NOW PREPARING THE ELECTIONS, ARE ALREADY SAYING THAT IN FACT THE OBJECTIVE OF FREE AND FAIR ELECTIONS WILL NOT BE MET -- THAT IS, THEY'RE USING DIFFERENT DEFINITIONS, INCLUDING "EFFECTIVE" ELECTIONS. WE CONTINUE TO DEMAND THAT THE TERMS OF THE DAYTON AGREEMENT BE MET STRICTLY.

    //END ACT//

    WHATEVER HAPPENS IN SEPTEMBER, THERE APPEARS AT THIS POINT TO BE NO MOVEMENT TOWARD RE-IMPOSING SANCTIONS. RUSSIA, FOR ONE, IS OPPOSED.

    THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT INSISTS BOSNIAN SERB LEADER KARADZIC -- WHILE OUT OF POWER -- IS NOT OUT OF THE PICTURE AND PLANS TO USE THE ELECTIONS TO FURTHER HIS OWN AGENDA. IT WANTS HIM OUT OF THE COUNTRY AND IN THE HAGUE, WHERE HE WOULD STAND TRIAL FOR WAR CRIMES. (SIGNED)
    NEB/MMK
    22-Jul-96 1:01 PM EDT (1701 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [07] CONGRESS-ROMANIA (L) BY PAULA WOLFSON (CONGRESS)

    DATE=7/22/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-200539
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: COMMENTS BY ROMANIAN PRESIDENT ION ILIESCU HAVE ANGERED AND EMBOLDENED HIS CRITICS IN THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS. V-O-A'S PAULA WOLFSON REPORTS THESE LAWMAKERS VOW THEY WILL NOT FORGET.

    TEXT: THEY SAY THEY WERE LIED TO BY THE ILIESCU GOVERNMENT. AND THEY SAY THEY HAVE LITTLE REASON TO BELIEVE ANYTHING SAID BY OFFICIALS IN BUCHAREST.

    JUST LAST WEEK, THE HOUSE AND SENATE VOTED TO GIVE PRESIDENT CLINTON THE ABILITY TO GRANT PERMANENT MOST FAVORED NATION (MFN) TRADE STATUS TO ROMANIA. BEFORE THE HOUSE TOOK UP THE MATTER, HUMAN RIGHTS ACTIVISTS IN THE LEGISLATURE WERE ASSURED BY ROMANIA'S AMBASSADOR TO WASHINGTON THAT M-F-N WOULD NOT BECOME AN ISSUE IN THAT COUNTRY'S NATIONAL ELECTION.

    BUT ONE DAY AFTER THE HOUSE VOTE, PRESIDENT ILIESCU BROUGHT M-F-N INTO THE CAMPAIGN. CONGRESSMAN CHRIS SMITH -- THE CHAIRMAN OF THE OFFICIAL U-S COMMITTEE MONITORING THE HELSINKI ACCORDS ON HUMAN RIGHTS IN EUROPE -- WAS OUTRAGED AND SENT OFF A LETTER TO THE ROMANIAN PRESIDENT.

    // SMITH ACT //

    THE ILIESCU ADMINISTRATION -- ILIESCU HIMSELF BROKE HIS WORD! AND THAT MEANS SOMETHING! IT MEANS A LOT TO ME!

    // END ACT //

    THE REPUBLICAN FROM THE STATE OF NEW JERSEY PUSHED TO HAVE THE VOTE ON PERMANENT M-F-N STATUS DELAYED UNTIL AFTER THE ROMANIAN ELECTIONS ON NOVEMBER THIRD. HE SAID HE HAS NOT DISCUSSED THE MATTER WITH THE WHITE HOUSE, BUT HE SAID HE HOPES PRESIDENT CLINTON WILL WAIT BEFORE IMPLEMENTING THE LEGISLATION.

    WITH M-F-N NO LONGER A SOURCE OF LEVERAGE, CONGRESSMAN SMITH STRESSED THERE ARE OTHER THINGS THE UNITED STATES CAN DO TO KEEP PRESSURE ON BUCHAREST. HE SAID THE UNITED STATES WILL KEEP A CLOSE WATCH ON THE ROMANIAN ELECTIONS. AND HE VOWED TO PERSONALLY MONITOR THE BALLOTING TO DETERMINE IF IT IS FREE AND FAIR.

    // SMITH ACT //

    ...AND I CAN ASSURE YOU THAT I WILL BECOME EITHER ROMANIA'S BEST FRIEND OR WORST NIGHTMARE IF ROMANIA RENEGES ON ITS PROMISES VIS-A-VIS (REGARDING) OPENNESS, HUMAN RIGHTS AND DEMOCRATIZATION.

    // END ACT //

    MR. SMITH'S COMMENTS CAME ON THE EVE OF HOUSE DEBATE ON A BILL TO FACILITATE THE TRANSITION TO FULL NATO MEMBERSHIP FOR THE EMERGING DEMOCRACIES OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE. THE BILL FOCUSES ON POLAND, HUNGARY AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC. DURING A SESSION WITH REPORTERS, CONGRESSMAN SMITH INDICATED THE LATEST COMMENTS FROM PRESIDENT ILIESCU DAMAGED ROMANIA'S CHANCES FOR ACCEPTANCE IN THE ALLIANCE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PW/CF
    22-Jul-96 1:14 PM EDT (1714 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [08] NATO / HUNGARY (L ONLY) BY STEFAN BOS (SZOLNOK, HUNGARY)

    DATE=7/22/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-200512
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO TROOPS AND FORCES FROM EIGHT PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE NATIONS IN EASTERN AND CENTRAL EUROPE ARE TAKING PART IN AN AIR FORCE EXERCISE IN HUNGARY -- THE FIRST-EVER SUCH EXERCISE BY NATO AIR TROOPS OUTSIDE NATO TERRITORY. STEFAN BOS REPORTS FROM THE MILITARY BASE IN THE HUNGARIAN TOWN OF SZOLNOK THERE IS SOME OPPOSITION TO THIS EVENT.

    TEXT: DEMONSTRATORS OUTSIDE THE MILITARY BASE IN SZOLNOK, ABOUT 100 KILOMETERS EAST OF BUDAPEST, TRIED TO BLOCK THE WEEK-LONG MILITARY EXERCISE. THE RALLY WAS ORGANIZED BY HUNGARY'S COMMUNIST WORKERS PARTY, WHICH OPPOSES COOPERATION WITH NATO.

    BUT A SPOKESMAN WITH THE GERMAN AIR FORCE, WULF SCHONBERG, SAYS HE HAS NO HARD FEELINGS TOWARDS THE DEMONSTRATORS.

    // SCHONBERG ACT //

    THERE WAS JUST A LITTLE DEMONSTRATION AGAINST THIS EXERCISE. BUT IF YOU SEE THIS DEMONSTRATION, I THINK THAT IS THE MOST IMPORTANT STEP TOWARDS DEMOCRACY AND PART OF A DEMOCRACY. AND IF YOU CAN SEE THIS DEMONSTRATION HERE IN SZOLNOK, ALSO, WE CAN SAY: "OK THEY HAVE THE DEMOCRACY AND THEY KNOW WHAT IT IS."

    // END ACT //

    DESPITE THE DEMONSTRATION, NATO AND PARTNERSHIP COUNTRIES BEGAN THEIR FIRST EVER AIR FORCE EXERCISE OUTSIDE NATO TERRITORY.

    // SOUND OF PLANES -- ESTABLISH, AND FADE //

    DURING THE OPENING CEREMONY SOME OF THE 50 MILITARY PLANES AND HELICOPTERS INVOLVED IN THE EXERCISE FLEW LOW OVER THE CROWD. PARATROOPERS CARRYING NATO AND HUNGARIAN FLAGS JUMPED OUT AND LANDED SAFELY JUST IN FRONT OF TELEVISION CREWS.

    THE MOST DIFFICULT PART OF THE EXERCISE, CODE NAMED COOPERATIVE CHANGE '96, HAS YET TO COME. THIS WEEK, TROOPS FROM THE 16 PARTICIPATING COUNTRIES SUPPORTED BY EIGHT OBSERVER STATES, WILL TEAM UP AND LEARN HOW TO ENFORCE A NO-FLY ZONE, SUCH AS THE ONE IN FORMER YUGOSLAVIA.

    THEY WILL ALSO RE-ENACT A TRAGEDY NEAR THE HUNGARIAN BALATON LAKE, AS U-S AIRFORCE PILOT TODD MARTIN EXPLAINS.

    // MARTIN ACT //

    THE EXERCISE IF ABOUT (THERE IS) AN EARTHQUAKE IN "BIG LAND" OVER BY THE LAKE OVER THERE. WE WILL BE FLYING MONDAY, TUESDAY, AND WEDNESDAY. WE WILL BE DOING AIRDROPS AND MEDEVACS (MEDICAL EVACUATION EXERCISES) OUT OUT OF A LANDING ZONE THERE.

    // END ACT //

    // OPT //

    UKRAINE IS NOT PARTICIPATING IN THE EXERCISE. HUNGARY'S UNDER SECRETARY OF STATE AT THE MINISTRY OF DEFENCE, ISTVAN GYARMATI, WHO DISCUSSED THE MATTER WITH UKRAINIAN OFFICIALS, EXPLAINS WHY.

    // OPT GYARMATI ACT //

    I WAS JUST COMING BACK FROM UKRAINE YESTERDAY AND I ASKED THE MINISTER WHY ARE THEY ARE NOT PARTICIPATING. HE SAID, "NO MONEY, THAT IS THE ONLY REASON."

    // END ACT., END OPT //

    EXERCISE CO-DIRECTOR KAREL VERVOORT IS UPBEAT ABOUT THE MILITARY EXERCISE. MAJOR GENERAL VERVOORT SAYS HE HOPES THEY WILL HELP COUNTRIES SUCH AS HUNGARY TO BE BETTER PREPARED FOR VIOLATIONS OF THEIR AIRSPACE WHICH HAPPENED DURING THE WAR IN FORMER YUGOSLAVIA.

    // OPT //

    HE REFERS TO AN ACCIDENTAL SERB AIR ATTACK ON A HUNGARIAN VILLAGE NEARBY THE CROATIAN BORDER. NOBODY WAS KILLED OR WOUNDED IN THE INCIDENT. // END OPT //

    GENERAL VERVOORT SAYS THE EXERCISE ALSO MARKS THE BEGINNING OF A NEW ERA OF COOPERATION IN PEACE AND RESCUE OPERATIONS BETWEEN NATO AND FORMER WARSAW PACT NATIONS.

    // OPT VERVOORT ACT //

    FOR THE FIRST TIME IN HISTORY, WE ARE GOING TO HAVE A NATO AND PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE AIR EXERCISE. UP TO NOW THE GROUND FORCES HAVE TRAINED SEVERAL TIMES AND HAD SIMILAR EXERCISES OF THE COOPERATIVE SERVICE AS WE CALL THEM. BUT THE AIR FORCES NEVER HAD (AN EXERCISE) YET. THERE WERE A NUMBER OF PEOPLE THAT THOUGHT AIR FORCES HAD NO ROLE IN PEACEKEEPING PEACE SUPPORT OPERATIONS. HERE WE TRY TO DEMONSTRATE THE CONTRARY.

    // END ACT., END OPT //

    HUNGARY HOPES THE FACT THAT IT HOSTS THIS KIND OF EXERCISES WILL SPEED ITS APPLICATION TO BECOME A FULL MEMBER OF THE NATO ALLIANCE. OPINION POLLS PUBLISHED DURING THE WEEKEND SHOWED MORE THAN 60 PERCENT OF HUNGARIANS ARE IN FAVOR OF MEMBERSHIP.

    FEWER THEN HALF SAID THEY WANT FOREIGN TROOPS ON HUNGARIAN SOIL.. OFFICIALS SAY THIS HAS MUCH TO DO WITH THE FACT THAT SOVIET TROOPS OCCUPIED HUNGARY FOR MORE THEN 40 YEARS. (SIGNED) NEB/SB/JWH/AC/CF
    22-Jul-96 8:01 AM EDT (1201 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [09] ROMANIA/PARTNERSHIP (S-ONLY) BY DAVID GOLLUST (PENTAGON)

    DATE=7/22/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-200535
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: ROMANIA IS PLAYING HOST TO THE LARGEST SET OF NAVAL EXERCISES TO BE HELD TO DATE BY NATO'S PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE. TEN COUNTRIES -- SEVEN NATO MEMBERS ALONG WITH ROMANIA, BULGARIA AND UKRAINE -- ARE TAKING PART. VOA'S DAVID GOLLUST HAS DETAILS FROM THE PENTAGON.

    TEXT: AT TOTAL OF 31 NAVY SHIPS FROM THE 10 COUNTRIES ARE IN THE EXERCISE, UNDER WAY IN INTERNATIONAL WATERS IN THE BLACK SEA OFF THE ROMANIAN PORT CITY OF CONSTANZA.

    A U-S NAVY SPOKESMAN FOR THE OPERATION IN CONSTANZA TOLD V-O-A THE WEEK-LONG OPERATION WILL INCLUDE A JOINT LANDING BY U-S, ITALIAN AND ROMANIAN MARINES IN A MOCK RESCUE OF A BELEAGUERED PEACEKEEPING FORCE. ABOUT 600 U-S SERVICEMEN ARE INVOLVED, MOST OF THEM MARINES ABOARD THE AMPHIBIOUS ASSAULT SHIP U-S-S AUSTIN. IT IS THE THIRD ANNUAL NAVAL EXERCISE BY THE NATO PARTNERSHIP AND ACCORDING TO THE NAVY SPOKESMAN IS THE BIGGEST TO BE HELD THUS FAR.

    ROMANIA HAS MADE CLEAR IT HOPES THE PARTNERSHIP EXERCISE WILL ADVANCE ITS CANDIDACY FOR FULL MEMBERSHIP IN NATO WHEN THE ALLIANCE BEGINS ITS PROMISED EASTWARD EXPANSION NEXT YEAR.

    ROMANIA IS IN THE PROCESS OF REORGANIZING ITS ARMED FORCES TO CONFORM MORE CLOSELY WITH NATO STANDARDS. AND ROMANIAN OFFICIALS STRESS THE COUNTRY'S STRATEGIC POSITION -- ALONG THE DANUBE AND BLACK SEA -- AS A BRIDGE BETWEEN EUROPE AND CENTRAL ASIA. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DAG/CF
    22-Jul-96 12:36 PM EDT (1636 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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