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Voice of America, 23 July 1996

Voice of America Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] TUESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [02] BOSNIA / MOSTAR (L) BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)
  • [03] BOSNIA MINE AFRICA BY EVANS HAYS (SARAJEVO)
  • [04] CONGRESS-NATO BY PAULA WOLFSON (CONGRESS)
  • [05] E-U / SHEEP (L ONLY) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)
  • [06] GERMANY / ATTACKS (S ONLY) BY KYLE KING (BONN)
  • [07] TURKEY / HUNGER STRIKE (L ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)
  • [08] YUGO WAR CRIMES (L-ONLY) BY GILLIAN SHARPE (THE HAGUE)

  • [01] TUESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=07/23/96
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09692
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-S-T ON TUESDAY, JULY 23RD //

    INTRO: PRESUMED REPUBLICAN PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE BOB DOLE'S 73RD BIRTHDAY AND THE STATE OF HIS HEALTH, ALONG WITH THE LIKELY U-S APPROVAL OF A DRUG TO END PREGNANCY, TOP THE LIST OF TOPICS IN TODAY'S U-S EDITORIALS. OTHER SUBJECTS UNDER DISCUSSION INCLUDE: AIRPORT SECURITY; THE BANGLADESH ELECTION; THE WIDENING GAP BETWEEN RICH AND POOR AMERICANS, AND THE ON-GOING WAR IN CHECHNYA. NOW, HERE IS _________________WITH A QUOTE OR TWO IN TODAY'S U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: MONDAY WAS BOB DOLE'S 73RD BIRTHDAY, AND IF HE BECOMES THE REPUBLICAN NOMINEE FOR PRESIDENT, HE COULD BECOME THE OLDEST MAN EVER TO ENTER THE WHITE HOUSE, SHOULD HE WIN THE ELECTION. THE SUBJECT OF MR. DOLE'S AGE AND HIS HEALTH IS WIDELY DISCUSSED IN TODAY'S PAPERS. THE BALTIMORE SUN, IN ITS LEAD EDITORIAL, SAYS IN PART:

    VOICE: "POLITICALLY INCORRECT THOUGH IT MAY BE, THE NATION CANNOT AND SHOULD NOT IGNORE THE 23-YEAR AGE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE PROSPECTIVE REPUBLICAN PRESIDENTIAL NOMINEE AND DEMOCRATIC INCUMBENT BILL CLINTON... IN SEEKING TO PUT THE AGE ISSUE BEHIND HIM, MR. DOLE HAS PLEDGED TO SET UP AN INDEPENDENT MEDICAL REVIEW COMMISSION TO MONITOR HIS PHYSICAL AND MENTAL CONDITION. BUT WHETHER AND HOW HIS PRESIDENTIAL POWERS COULD BE TRANSFERRED TEMPORARILY TO THE VICE PRESIDENT IN EVENT OF HIS DISABILITY REMAINS A MATTER OF CONJECTURE"

    TEXT: MEANWHILE, THE WASHINGTON POST SUGGESTS:

    VOICE: "MR. DOLE, IF ELECTED, WOULD BE THE OLDEST MAN TO ASSUME THE PRESIDENCY. HE WOULD LIKE TO TURN THAT FACT TO HIS FAVOR ... BUT MANY VOTERS WORRY THAT MR. DOLE IS TOO OLD FOR THE JOB, ACCORDING TO POLLS. THAT MAY REFLECT ON HIS DEMEANOR AND CULTURAL SENSIBILITY RATHER THAN HIS CHRONOLOGICAL AGE..."

    TEXT: IN FLORIDA, THE MIAMI HERALD, ALSO ASSESSING MIXED POLLING DATA, SAYS OF MR. DOLE:

    VOICE: "THE POINT HERE IS THAT AGE IS NOT AN ALL-DETERMINING FACTOR OF PRESIDENTIAL LEADERSHIP. VIGOR AND GOOD HEALTH ARE IMPORTANT, HOWEVER, SIMPLY BECAUSE OF THE DEMANDS OF THE JOB. IN THAT REGARD, BOB DOLE HAS PASSED THE FIRST 'AGE' TEST."

    TEXT: THERE IS ALSO LOTS OF EDITORIAL COMMENT ON THE PENDING APPROVAL FOR AMERICAN WOMEN TO PURCHASE A FRENCH ABORTION PILL CALLED R-U-486. THE BOSTON GLOBE OFFERS THESE THOUGHTS:

    VOICE: "ALTHOUGH THE (R-U-486) PROCEDURE IS NEITHER SIMPLE NOR PAINLESS, IT IS LIKELY TO BE A PREFERABLE ALTERNATIVE FOR PATIENTS AND MEDICAL PERSONNEL DISCOURAGED BY THE POTENTIAL FOR VIOLENCE AND HARASSMENT AT MANY ABORTION CLINICS... MANY OPPONENTS OF THE TREATMENT FEIGN CONCERN FOR THE HEALTH OF WOMEN SEEKING ABORTIONS. HOWEVER, SOME OF THEIR TACTICS HAVE HELPED BUILD MOMENTUM FOR R-U-486'S APPROVAL."

    TEXT: THE NEW YORK TIMES SAYS APPROVAL OF THE ABORTION PILL WILL FINALLY GIVE AMERICAN AN IMPORTANT RIGHT:

    VOICE: "APPROVAL WILL PROVIDE AN ACCESSIBLE ALTERNATIVE TO SURGICAL ABORTIONS AND WILL BE WELCOMED BY ALL THOSE WHO FEAR ANTI-ABORTION PROTESTERS. .... THE RECOMMENDATION IS UNLIKELY TO DEFUSE AND MAY EVEN INTENSIFY THE ABORTION DEBATE, ESPECIALLY IF F-D-A APPROVAL COMES BEFORE THE NOVEMBER ELECTION."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: THE LEAD EDITORIAL IN TODAY'S MIAMI HERALD CALLS FOR THE GOVERNMENT TO "APPROVE R-U-486", ADDING:

    VOICE: "... THE PILL WILL EXPAND WOMEN'S ACCESS TO ABORTION WHERE DOCTORS ARE FEW AND OFTEN UNWILLING TO DO THE PROCEDURE FOR FEAR OF RETALIATION. APPROVAL OF R-U-486 WILL PROVIDE ADDED AVAILABILITY TO AMERICAN WOMEN AND PRIVACY TO DOCTORS SWORN TO TREAT THEM."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: TURNING TO THE TRAGEDY OF T-W-A FLIGHT 800 LAST WEEK, THERE ARE SEVERAL ASPECTS OF THE SUBJECT DEALT WITH IN TODAY'S EDITORIALS. THE LOS ANGELES TIMES NOTES THAT AFTER A TERRORIST ATTACK OR A SUSPICIOUS PLANE CRASH, AIRPORT SECURITY IS TIGHTENED. BUT AS EVENTS FADE, SECURITY RELAXES SOMEWHAT.

    VOICE: "SENIOR U-S COUNTER-TERRORISM OFFICIALS SAY U-S COMMERCIAL CARRIERS LAG BEHIND FOREIGN AIRLINES IN SECURITY PRECAUTIONS. AMERICAN CARRIERS ARE VULNERABLE, AND NOT ALL THE TACTICS AND TECHNOLOGIES THAT WOULD IMPROVE THE ODDS AGAINST TERRORIST ATTACKS HAVE BEEN IMPLEMENTED. WHY? ANALYSTS POINT TO PUBLIC IMPATIENCE ONCE THE MOTIVATION OF FEAR HAS BEEN LOST; THEY SAY AMERICANS WOULD NEVER AGREE TO THE STRICT AND TIME-CONSUMING STEPS OF THE ISRAELI NATIONAL AIRLINE, FOR EXAMPLE."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: ON LONG ISLAND, NEWSDAY COMMENTS ON CRITICISM OF THE SUFFOLK COUNTY MEDICAL EXAMINER [CORONER] FOR NOT QUICKLY ACCEPTING THE NEW YORK GOVERNOR'S OFFER OF ADDITIONAL PATHOLOGISTS TO SPEED IDENTIFICATION OF THE CRASH VICTIMS:

    VOICE: "...NO AMOUNT OF PERSONNEL CAN MAKE IDENTIFYING THE DEAD ANY LESS PAINSTAKING. PUBLIC OFFICIALS WHO WERE QUICK TO CRITICIZE [MEDICAL EXAMINER CHARLES] WETLI SHOULD SHOW MORE APPRECIATION FOR THE DIFFICULTIES INVOLVED... PIECING THE BODIES TOGETHER HAS BEEN COMPARED WITH ASSEMBLING THE JAGGED EDGES OF A JIGSAW PUZZLE."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: TODAY'S ATLANTA CONSTITUTION CONTINUES A SERIES OF EDITORIALS ON THE WIDENING GAP BETWEEN THE RICH AND POOR IN THIS COUNTRY AND THE DISASTROUS AFFECTS OF THE DIVISION. TODAY THE PAPER DEALS WITH WHAT IT CALLS THE ABANDONMENT OF THE PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM AND THE RISING COSTS OF A COLLEGE EDUCATION, NOTING:

    VOICE: "IN THE PAST DECADE, THE WAGES OF THOSE WITH LESS THAN A COLLEGE DEGREE HAVE PLUMMETED AND THE DISPARITY HAS GROWN BETWEEN THOSE WITH A COLLEGE DEGREE AND THOSE WITH A HIGH SCHOOL DIPLOMA. TODAY, 30-YEAR-OLD MEN WITH COLLEGE DEGREES EARN AT LEAST 13-THOUSAND DOLLARS MORE ANNUALLY THAN THOSE WITH JUST HIGH SCHOOL DIPLOMAS... AS COLLEGE COSTS HAVE CLIMBED, FEDERAL COLLEGE AID HAS DECLINED... SINCE THE TROUBLING INCOME GAP IN AMERICA IS, AT ITS FOUNDATION, AN EDUCATION GAP, YOU MIGHT THINK CONGRESS WOULD BE MAKING COLLEGE A TOP PRIORITY."

    TEXT: TURNING TO INTERNATIONAL CONCERNS, BRIEFLY, THE NEW YORK TIMES PRAISES LAST MONTH'S PEACEFUL ELECTIONS IN BANGLADESH, SUGGESTING:

    VOICE: "... THE NATION OPENED A POTENTIALLY HOPEFUL PERIOD BY HOLDING THE MOST PEACEFUL ELECTION IN ITS HISTORY, WITH NEARLY THREE-QUARTERS OF ELIGIBLE VOTERS GOING TO THE POLLS... A RENEWED COMMITMENT FROM FOREIGN INVESTORS AND AID DONORS WOULD NOW PROVIDE BANGLADESH WITH THE BEST OPPORTUNITY IT HAS HAD IN YEARS TO MOVE BEYOND THE TURMOIL AND TRAGEDIES OF ITS PAST."

    TEXT: TODAY'S BOSTON GLOBE IS HARSHLY CRITICAL OF BORIS YELTSIN FOR PROMISES HE MADE DURING THE RECENT RUSSIAN ELECTION CAMPAIGN TO END THE FIGHTING IN CHECHNYA, CALLING HIS CURRENT POLICY "YELTSIN'S BLOODY DOUBLECROSS."

    VOICE: "HIS RENEWED BRUTALITY IN CHECHNYA SIGNIFIES A DOUBLE CROSSING OF WASHINGTON AS WELL AS A HOODWINKING [FOOLING] OF RUSSIAN VOTERS..."

    TEXT: AND LASTLY, FROM THE NEW YORK DAILY NEWS, A LAMENT ABOUT THE RENEWED VIOLENCE IN NORTHERN IRELAND, AND A SUGGESTION AS TO WHAT IS GOING ON.

    VOICE: "PROBLEM IS, TOO MANY THUGS ON BOTH SIDES OBVIOUSLY 'WANT' [ITALICS FOR EMPHASIS] TO GO ON LIKE THIS. THEY'VE BEEN BATTLING FOR SEVERAL CENTURIES: WHY NOT SEVERAL MORE? WHAT THEY FAIL TO UNDERSTAND IS THAT THIS IS A CONFLICT NO ONE CAN WIN. IT IS NOT A WAR, IT'S TIT-FOR-TAT [REPRISAL DRIVEN]TERRORISM."

    TEXT: AND ON THAT NOTE WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF SOME OF THE TOPICS IN TODAY'S U-S PRESS EDITORIALS.
    NEB/ANG/PCH
    23-Jul-96 10:37 AM EDT (1437 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [02] BOSNIA / MOSTAR (L) BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)

    DATE=7/23/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-200596
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: CROAT OFFICIALS HAVE BOYCOTTED THE FIRST MEETING OF THE NEWLY ELECTED CITY COUNCIL IN MOSTAR, IN SOUTHERN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. THE CROATS LOST THE ELECTIONS IN MOSTAR THREE WEEKS AGO, BUT NOW, CITING VOTING IRREGULARITIES, THEY ARE REFUSING TO RECOGNIZE THE ELECTION RESULTS. DAVID FOLEY IN SARAJEVO REPORTS OFFICIALS SAY THE BOYCOTT IS A SERIOUS SETBACK TO HOPES FOR NATIONAL ELECTIONS IN BOSNIA IN SEPTEMBER.

    TEXT: THE ELECTION IN LATE JUNE WAS MEANT TO CHOOSE A UNIFIED CITY COUNCIL AND HELP RECONCILIATION IN MOSTAR, WHICH IS BITTERLY DIVIDED BETWEEN MUSLIMS AND CROATS.

    IN A SURPRISING RESULT, MUSLIMS, WITH THE HELP OF LOCAL SERB ALLIES, GAINED A NARROW MAJORITY ON THE COUNCIL. CROAT OFFICIALS HAVE REFUSED TO ACCEPT THE RESULT, AND HAVE BOYCOTTED THE FIRST COUNCIL MEETING.

    AT ISSUE ARE BALLOTS CAST BY BOSNIAN REFUGEES IN GERMANY, WHERE THERE WERE 26 MORE BALLOTS THAN VOTERS. THE VOTING WAS ORGANIZED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION, AND UNDER E-U RULES THE ELECTION IN GERMANY SHOULD HAVE BEEN RERUN. BUT USING WHAT SOME DESCRIBE AS "VERY THIN LEGAL TECHNICALITIES," THE E-U OMBUDSMAN SIMPLY INVALIDATED 26 VOTES AND LET THE RESULT STAND.

    SENIOR INTERNATIONAL OFFICIALS BLAME THE EUROPEAN UNION FOR THE PROBLEMS. TOM WALKER, THE E-U SPOKESMAN HERE DISAGREES.

    // ACT - WALKER //

    I THINK THAT CRITICISM IS HARSH. I CAN SEE THE CROATS POINT OF VIEW THAT MAYBE WE WERE A LITTLE BIT PREMATURE IN GOING WITH THE RESULT OF THE OMBUDSMAN. BUT THE OMBUDSMAN IS OUR LEGAL EXPERT IN THE FIELD, AND HE RULED THAT WAY, AND THAT HAS TO BE RESPECTED.

    // END ACT //

    E-U OFFICIALS SAY THE SMALL IRREGULARITIES IN GERMANY DID NOT SIGNIFICANTLY ALTER THE RESULT, AND THEY SAY THE ELECTION WENT FAR BETTER THAN ANYONE HAD HOPED. MR. WALKER SAYS E-U OFFICIALS HOPED THE CROATS COULD BE CONVINCED TO ACCEPT THE RESULT.

    // ACT - WALKER //

    WE WERE QUIETLY HOPEFUL THAT WE WERE GOING TO BE ABLE TO TURN IT ROUND WITH SOME QUIET DIPLOMACY DOWN ON THE GROUND IN MOSTAR, TO BRING THE CROATS IN.

    // END ACT //

    BUT THOSE EFFORTS HAVE APPARENTLY FAILED, AND CRITICS SAY BY IGNORING IT'S OWN RULES, THE E-U HAS GIVEN THE CROATS A LEGAL BASIS FOR REFUSING TO RECOGNIZE THE ELECTION RESULT. THEY SAY A PRECEDENT HAS NOW BEEN ESTABLISHED WHICH WILL ALLOW LOSING PARTIES TO IGNORE UNWANTED RESULTS IN NATIONAL ELECTIONS IN SEPTEMBER. MR. WALKER AGREES THIS COULD BE A PROBLEM.

    // ACT - WALKER //

    MOSTAR UNFORTUNATELY IS A MICROCOSIM OF THE PROBLEMS OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA, AND IF WE CAN'T GET IT RIGHT IN MOSTAR WE REALLY HAVE TO WONDER WHETHER WE CAN GET IT RIGHT NATIONWIDE IN SEPTEMBER.

    // END ACT //

    THE CROATS ARE NOW INSISTING THE MOSTAR ELECTION BE RERUN AS PART OF THE SEPTEMBER ELECTIONS, AND OFFICIALS SAY UNDER NEW RULES FOR THE NATIONAL VOTING, THE CROATS WILL BE ABLE TO BRING THOUSANDS OF CROAT REFUGEES TO MOSTAR TO GUARANTEE A CROAT VICTORY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DF/JWH/CF
    23-Jul-96 11:03 AM EDT (1503 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [03] BOSNIA MINE AFRICA BY EVANS HAYS (SARAJEVO)

    DATE=7/23/96
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-33884
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    // ATTENTION: ENGLISH TO AFRICA, PORTUGUESE TO AFRICA //

    INTRO: AUTHORITIES IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA ESTIMATE THERE ARE ABOUT THREE-MILLION LAND MINES LEFT OVER FROM THE WAR THAT ENDED LESS THAN A YEAR AGO. THE PROBLEM OF CLEARING MINES IS SO VAST THAT THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY AND THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT HAVE INVITED PRIVATE CONTRACTORS, SPECIALIZING IN MINE-CLEARANCE, TO HELP. ONE OF THE CONTRACTORS IS MINE-TECH, A FIRM BASED IN ZIMBABWE THAT HAS BEEN CLEARING MINES IN PARTS OF AFRICA FOR SEVERAL YEARS. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT EVANS HAYS IN SARAJEVO SPOKE WITH MINE-TECH DIRECTOR CHRIS PEARCE ABOUT THE SIMILARITIES AND THE DIFFERENCES OF MINE CLEARANCE IN BOSNIA AND IN AFRICAN COUNTRIES.

    TEXT: CHRIS PEARCE DOES NOT LIKE LANDMINES OR OTHER EXPLOSIVES LEFT AROUND AFTER A WAR TO KILL OR MAIM THE INNOCENT. IT DOES NOT TAKE LONG IN CONVERSATION TO FIND THAT OUT.

    WE MET IN A CAFE -- THE NEAREST MEETING POINT TO HIS WORK -- TO TALK ABOUT HIS VISIT TO BOSNIA AND THE COMPARISONS BETWEEN THE BOSNIAN WAR AND CONFLICTS IN AFRICA. THE SUN WAS SHINING ALMOST TOO BRIGHTLY AND THE CAFE MUSIC WAS OUT OF PLACE FOR THE SUBJECT AT HAND -- DEATH AND MAIMING BY HIDDEN EXPLOSIVES.

    // PEARCE ACT //

    NO, I DON'T LIKE MINES, I DON'T THINK ANYBODY WHOSE SANE CAN LIKE A LAND MINE. IT'S A PRETTY AWFUL AND LETHAL WEAPON. BUT I THINK I SHOULD ADD SOMETHING HERE, THAT'S MINES HAVE ALMOST BECOME A GENERIC TERM, COVERING MORE THAN JUST MINES. THERE ARE OTHER ITEMS OF UNEXPLODED ORDINANCE, OR U-X-O AS WE CALL THEM, WHICH CAN BE JUST AS LETHAL AS MINES, SUCH AS HAND GRENADES, ROCKETS, MORTAR BOMBS, ARTILLERY SHELLS, TANK AMMUNITION, EVEN AIRCRAFT BOMBS. PEOPLE TEND TO FORGET IT IS NOT JUST MINES WHICH ARE THE DETRITUS OF WAR. THERE ARE ALSO ALL THESE OTHER ITEMS OF U-X-O, WHICH ARE JUST AS VICIOUS AND JUST AS LETHAL.

    // END ACT //

    V-O-A ASKED, WHY ARE MINES SUCH A SPECIAL PROBLEM? THE RAPID ANSWER WAS CLEAR, CONCISE, AND TO THE POINT.

    // PEARCE ACT //

    THEY'RE CHEAP, THEY'RE NASTY, THEY'RE EFFECTIVE.

    // END ACT //

    MINES, INCLUDING THE MILLIONS IN BOSNIA, CAN BE MADE FOR ABOUT THREE DOLLARS. THEY ARE A CHEAP WEAPON IN THE ARSENAL OF ANY ARMY. AND THEY HAVE A LONG LIFE-SPAN. THEY CAN WAIT FOR YEARS, THROUGH MOST KINDS OF WEATHER, TO KILL SOMEONE WHO MAY NOT EVEN HAVE BEEN BORN WHEN THE MINE WAS PUT IN PLACE.

    CHRIS PEARCE SAYS THE USE OF MINES IS SOMEWHAT DIFFERENT IN AFRICA. IN BOSNIA, MINES WERE PLACED ALONG CONFRONTATION LINES THAT SHIFTED RAPIDLY, OFTEN INCLUDING LARGE, ISOLATED FARMS.

    IN MOZAMBIQUE, VILLAGES -- NOT ISOLATED FARMS -- WERE CUT OFF BY MINES.

    // PEARCE ACT //

    IN MOZAMBIQUE, FOR EXAMPLE, YOU HAD AREAS CUT OFF BECAUSE THE ROADS WERE MINED TO PREVENT ACCESS INTO AREAS. BUT ONE OF THE MAJOR PROBLEMS IN MOZAMBIQUE IS WHAT WE TERM THE VILLAGE MINEFIELD, WHERE THE POPULATION WAS CONCENTRATED BY THE GOVERNMENT FORCES TO PROTECT THEM FROM THE GUERRILLAS, TO DENY ACCESS TO THEM FOR POLITICIZATION, FOR FOOD. AND A CHEAP, EFFECTIVE WAY OF DOING THAT WAS TO PUT SMALL FORCES INTO THE VILLAGE AND SUPPLEMENT THEIR PROTECTION BY LANDMINES. SO FOR EXAMPLE, IN ARTS OF MOZAMBIQUE, A LOT OF MOZAMBIQUE, YOU WILL SEE MAJOR MINEFIELDS AROUND VILLAGES, RINGING VILLAGES, BOTH ABOVE GROUND AND SUBSURFACE MINES.

    // END ACT //

    HE SAID THE SITUATION IN ANGOLA IS SIMILAR.

    // PEARCE ACT //

    IN ANGOLA, YOU HAVE A SOMEWHAT SIMILAR PATTERN, BUT BY NO MEANS IDENTICAL. THERE, YOU WILL FIND ROADS MINED FOR THE SAME REASONS, TO DENY ACCESS, BUT YOU WILL ALSO FIND SOME PRETTY EXTENSIVE MINEFIELDS AROUND LARGER TOWNS. ALTHOUGH OF COURSE YOU DO FIND VILLAGE MINEFIELDS IN MUCH OF ANGOLA AS WELL.

    // END ACT //

    CHRIS PEARCE SAYS MANY OF THE MINES FOUND IN BOSNIA ARE MORE SOPHISTICATED, IN ENGINEERING TERMS, THAN THOSE COMMONLY FOUND IN MOZAMBIQUE, ANGOLA, OR ELSEWHERE IN AFRICA. ABOUT 30 TO 40 PERCENT ARE MADE EXCLUSIVELY WITH CHEMICALS, WHICH MAKES THEM IMPOSSIBLE TO FIND WITH METAL DETECTORS.

    AND THERE ARE BOOBY-TRAPS, DEVICES DELIBERATELY SET TO KILL EVEN THE MOST INNOCENT.

    // PEARCE ACT //

    BOOBY TRAPS ARE THE REAL PRODUCT OF A SICK MIND. THERE'S NO DOUBT ABOUT THAT,. BECAUSE AS I MENTIONED, A BOOBY TRAP IS PUT THERE WITH A DELIBERATE INTENT. AND IT'S PUT THERE IN A PARTICULARLY MALICIOUS WAY TO CATCH THE UNWARY AND TO KILL OR MAIM.

    // END ACT //

    CHILDREN, HE SAYS, ARE THE MOST VULNERABLE TARGETS IN THE WAR OF UNSEEN EXPLOSIVES.

    // PEARCE ACT //

    YOU KNOW, THE BIGGEST DANGER YOU FACE IS THE NATURAL CURIOSITY OF CHILDREN. CHILDREN HAVE INQUIRING MINDS, THEY ARE NOT EXPOSED TO THE VICIOUSNESS OF WAR, THEY DON'T THINK LIKE AN ADULT, STOP TO THINK ABOUT THIS THING, LOOK AT IT, TREAD WARILY AROUND IT, IT MIGHT BE DANGEROUS. TO THEM IT'S AN ARTICLE OF SOMETHING THEY HAVEN'T SEEN, IT'S SOMETHING TO PROVOKE CURIOSITY AND THE NATURAL INCLINATION OF COURSE IS TO PICK IT UP. AND I THINK THAT'S WHAT MAKES CHILDREN SO VULNERABLE ANYWHERE IN THE WORLD. IT'S REALLY SICK IF PEOPLE START DELIBERATELY MANUFACTURING TOYS WHICH ARE BOOBY-TRAPS OR MINES. WE HAVEN'T COME ACROSS THAT IN AFRICA. BUT CHILDREN ARE SO OFTEN THE VICTIMS, BECAUSE IT'S THEIR NATURAL CURIOSITY.

    // END ACT //

    HE SAID A CASE IN MOZAMBIQUE PROVIDED A CLEAR EXAMPLE OF THE DANGER TO CHILDREN.

    // PEARCE ACT //

    IN ONE OF THE VILLAGE MINEFIELDS I DESCRIBED EARLIER, IN A REMOTE VILLAGE IN CENTRAL MOZAMBIQUE, THERE WAS AN INCIDENT A COUPLE OF YEARS AGO WHERE KIDS WERE OUT WITH THEIR CATAPULTS (SLINGSHOTS), AS KIDS WILL BE, AND THEY STRAYED INTO A MINEFIELD. AND THREE DIED AS A RESULT.

    // END ACT //

    MINE AWARENESS, HE SAID, IS CRUCIAL TO MAKE PEOPLE LEARN ABOUT THE DANGERS AROUND THEM AND TO HELP PROFESSIONAL MINE CLEARANCE TEAMS FIND THOSE DANGERS AND ELIMINATE THEM. THE MESSAGE, ACCORDING TO CHRIS PEARCE, CANNOT BE REPEATED TOO OFTEN IN AREAS WHERE WAR HAS LEFT A HIDDEN BUT DEADLY TRAP. (SIGNED)
    NEB/EH/JWH/CF
    23-Jul-96 8:10 AM EDT (1210 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [04] CONGRESS-NATO BY PAULA WOLFSON (CONGRESS)

    DATE=7/23/96
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-33887
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE U-S CONGRESS WANTS TO GIVE A PUSH TO NATO EXPANSION. V-O-A'S PAULA WOLFSON REPORTS MEMBERS OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES HAVE APPROVED (BY A VOTE OF 353-65) LEGISLATION TO SET ASIDE 60 MILLION DOLLARS IN MILITARY ASSISTANCE TO HELP THREE FORMER MEMBERS OF THE WARSAW PACT PREPARE TO JOIN THE WESTERN ALLIANCE.

    TEXT: POLAND, HUNGARY AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC WILL BE THE FIRST COUNTRIES TO GET U-S AID SO THEY CAN STRIVE TO MEET THE CRITERIA FOR NATO MEMBERSHIP.

    THE SIXTY MILLION DOLLARS AUTHORIZED BY THE HOUSE WILL BE USED TO PAY FOR MILITARY TRAINING AND THE PURCHASE OF EQUIPMENT. REPUBLICAN BENJAMIN GILMAN OF NEW YORK, THE CHAIRMAN OF THE HOUSE INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS COMMITTEE, SAYS THE LEGISLATION IS OVERDUE.

    /// GILMAN ACT ///

    ALMOST SEVEN YEARS HAVE PASSED SINCE THE REVOLUTIONS OF 1989 SWEPT COMMUNISM FROM MOST OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE. AND SINCE THAT DAY, THE EMERGING DEMOCRACIES OF THAT REGION HAVE AWAITED PATIENTLY TO BE INVITED INTO WESTERN POLITICAL, ECONOMIC AND SECURITY STRUCTURES.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE AUTHORS OF THE BILL CHOSE TO WAIT UNTIL AFTER THE RUSSIAN ELECTIONS TO BRING THE LEGISLATION BEFORE CONGRESS. THEY STRESS IT DOES NOT DICTATE MEMBERSHIP POLICY TO NATO, BUT RATHER OFFERS HELP TO THE THREE FORMER SOVIET BLOC COUNTRIES THAT HAVE MADE THE GREATEST STRIDES IN IMPLEMENTING ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL REFORMS. CONGRESSMAN DOUG BEREUTER, A REPUBLICAN FROM THE STATE OF NEBRASKA, SAYS OTHER NATIONS WILL BE ELIGIBLE FOR U-S MILITARY AID WHEN THEY SHOW SIMILAR SIGNS OF PROGRESS. HE WARNS COUNTRIES THAT FAIL TO LIBERALIZE THEIR ECONOMIES AND SUPPORT DEMOCRACY WILL NOT BE WELCOME IN THE ALLIANCE.

    /// BEREUTER ACT ///

    THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION IS NOT A SOCIAL CLUB OR PAPER ORGANIZATION. RATHER IT IS THE MOST SUCCESSFUL COLLECTIVE DEFENSIVE ORGANIZATION IN THE HISTORY OF MANKIND.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. BEREUTER ARGUES NATIONS FIRMLY ON THE RIGHT PATH DESERVE NATO MEMBERSHIP. CONGRESSMAN SAM GEJDENSON AGREES. FOR THE CONNECTICUT DEMOCRAT, THE DRIVE TO BRING POLAND, HUNGARY AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC INTO NATO IS INTENSELY PERSONAL. HE WAS BORN IN A DISPLACED PERSONS CAMP IN GERMANY AFTER WORLD WAR TWO.

    //OPT// /// GEJDENSON ACT ///

    MY FATHER WAS IN THE POLISH ARMY IN THE LATE 1930'S -- 1939, AS THE WAR BROKE OUT. POLAND, LIKE CZECHOSLOVAKIA, POLAND SAW BOTH THE GERMANS AND THE RUSSIANS COME IN AND DIVIDE THEM. THEN THE RUSSIANS WERE PUSHED BACK AND THE GERMANS TOOK ALL OF POLAND AND MY FATHER'S ENTIRE FAMILY WAS EXTERMINATED. THEN THE RUSSIANS CAME IN AND TOOK OVER AND THE DARK DAYS IN POLAND CONTINUED.

    /// END ACT /////END OPT//

    MR. GEJDENSON SAYS THE PEOPLE OF THE REGION HAVE SUFFERED AND DESERVE TO LIVE FREE OF FEAR. HIS FELLOW DEMOCRAT -- HARRY JOHNSTON OF FLORIDA -- HOLDS A SOMEWHAT DIFFERENT VIEW OF NATO EXPANSION. HE SAYS CONGRESS AND THE AMERICAN PEOPLE DO NOT FULLY UNDERSTAND THE HIGH COST OF ENLARGING THE ALLIANCE -- BOTH IN CASH AND LIVES.

    /// JOHNSTON ACT ///

    ARE YOU WILLING TO SEND TROOPS TO LATVIA BECAUSE THEY HAVE A FIGHT WITH BELARUS? ARE YOU WILLING TO SEND TROOPS TO UKRAINE BECAUSE OF A CONFLICT WITH RUSSIA OVER THE BLACK SEA FLEET IN THE CRIMEA AREA? THINK ABOUT IT. LET ME MAKE THIS PERFECTLY CLEAR, I AM NOT AN ISOLATIONIST. I WANTED TO SEND TROOPS INTO RWANDA BEFORE THE SLAUGHTER THERE AND SERVING ON THE INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS COMMITTEE HAS GIVEN ME A GLOBAL VIEW. BUT HOW CAN WE GIVE A BLANK CHECK TO THE WHITE EUROPEAN COUNTRIES AND TOTALLY ABANDON BLACK AFRICA?

    /// END ACT ///

    ONLY A HANDFUL OF MEMBERS JOINED MR. JOHNSTON IN SPEAKING OUT AGAINST THE BILL. IT PASSED THE HOUSE BY A WIDE MARGIN AND FACES LITTLE OPPOSITION IN THE SENATE. PRESIDENT CLINTON IS EXPECTED TO SIGN THE LEGISLATION. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PW/LWM
    23-Jul-96 2:12 PM EDT (1812 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [05] E-U / SHEEP (L ONLY) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=7/23/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-200599
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: EUROPEAN UNION FARM OFFICIALS ARE STRUGGLING TO AVOID A NEW HEALTH SCARE OVER MEAT. JOHN FRASER IN BRUSSELS REPORTS THEY ARE INSISTING LAMB IS SAFE TO EAT -- DESPITE SCIENTISTS WARNINGS THE MAD COW DISEASE, KNOWN AS B-S-E, COULD SPREAD TO SHEEP.

    TEXT: E-U OFFICIALS SAY THEY ARE ALARMED THE NEWS OF A NEW POTENTIAL HEALTH RISK FROM LAMB COULD SEND CONSUMER CONFIDENCE PLUMMETING, DESTROYING DEMAND FOR THE MEAT.

    NEWS THE NEW STRAIN OF THE B-S-E DISEASE IN SHEEP HAS BEEN ENGINEERED BY FRENCH SCIENTISTS DURING EXPERIMENTS IN THE LABORATORY, WAS GIVEN MONDAY BY E-U FARM COMMISSIONER FRANZ FISCHLER, DURING A MEETING OF EUROPEAN AGRICULTURE MINISTERS IN BRUSSELS.

    THE COMMISSIONER SAID AS A RESULT, SOME CASES WHICH HAVE BEEN ASSUMED TO BE OF THE EXISTING SHEEP DISEASE SCRAPIE MAY ACTUALLY HAVE BEEN OF B-S-E.

    HE ARGUED IT IS NECESSARY TO ERR ON THE SIDE OF CAUTION. THEREFORE, HE PLANS TO PROPOSE, TO A COMMITTEE OF E-U VETERINARIANS, NEXT WEEK THE SPLEEN, SPINAL COLUMN, AND BRAINS OF SHEEP MUST BE REMOVED FROM THE HUMAN AND ANIMAL FOOD CHAINS.

    THE FRENCH HAVE ALREADY TAKEN THEIR OWN MEASURES, AND BRITISH FARM MINISTER DOUGLAS HOGG IS EXPECTED TO REACT WEDNESDAY BY ANNOUNCING A NATIONAL BAN ON THE USE OF THESE PARTS OF THE SHEEP.

    IRISH AGRICULTURE MINISTER IVAN YATES IS ONE OF SEVERAL POLITICIANS WHO IS TRYING TO PLAY DOWN THE RISKS TO HUMANS FROM LAMB AND MUTTON. HE SAYS THE CURRENT CONSUMER SCARE IS LIKE A FOREST FIRE -- STARTED WITH A SINGLE MATCH, BUT VERY DIFFICULT TO EXTINGUISH.

    HE SAYS SHEEP COULD BE INFECTED ONLY IF THEY ARE GIVEN PROCESSED FOOD, KNOWN AS MEAT AND BONE MEAL, WHICH IS INFECTED WITH B-S-E. BUT HE SAYS THAT IS NOT HAPPENING.

    /// ACT YATES ///

    /// OPT ///

    IT NEEDS TO BE POINTED OUT CLEARLY THAT SINCE 1994, AND IN THE CASE OF U-K AND IRELAND SINCE 1998, IT IS LEGALLY FORBIDDEN TO FEED TO ANY SHEEP MEAT AND BONE MEAL AT ALL. THEY ARE PREDOMINATELY GRASS-FED.

    /// END OPT ///

    SO IT IS ONLY IN EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS THAT THIS COULD OCCUR, AND I THINK THERE IS AN INFINITESIMAL RISK. BUT AS A PRECAUTIONARY MEASURE THE COMMISSIONER IS NOW PROPOSING TO THE TOP VETERINARY COMMITTEE THAT ALL OFFALS WILL BE REMOVED NOT ONLY FROM THE HUMAN FOOD CHAIN, BUT FROM THE ANIMAL FOOD CHAIN AS WELL, AND I FEEL THIS REMOVES EVERY SCINTILLA OF DOUBT OR QUESTION THAT COULD BE RAISED ABOUT THE SAFETY OF SHEEP MEAT.

    /// END ACT ///

    OFFICIALS SAY THE DANGER TO SHEEP PRODUCTION IS BEFORE THE EUROPEAN VETERINARIANS MEET NEXT WEEK, CONSUMER CONFIDENCE IN LAMB AND MUTTON WILL HAVE BEEN SEVERELY DAMAGED. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JF/JWH/RAE
    23-Jul-96 11:42 AM EDT (1542 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [06] GERMANY / ATTACKS (S ONLY) BY KYLE KING (BONN)

    DATE=7/23/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-200578
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: UNIDENTIFIED ATTACKERS FIREBOMBED TURKISH PROPERTIES IN SEVERAL NORTHEASTERN GERMAN CITIES OVERNIGHT. V-O-A'S KYLE KING IN BONN REPORTS GERMAN POLICE SAY ONE PERSON WAS INJURED IN THE ATTACKS, WHICH FOLLOW A SERIES OF SIMILAR FIRE BOMBINGS AGAINST TURKISH PROPERTIES IN RECENT WEEKS.

    TEXT: GERMAN POLICE SAY THE ATTACKS WERE CARRIED OUT IN THE CITIES OF BREMEN, DORTMUND, OBERHAUSEN, AND COLOGNE.

    ONE PERSON WAS INJURED IN BREMEN, WHEN UNIDENTIFIED ATTACKERS TOSSED A FIRE BOMB INTO A BUILDING HOUSING A TURKISH SOCIAL CLUB.

    IN COLOGNE, POLICE QUESTIONED SEVERAL TURKISH CITIZENS FOLLOWING AN ATTACK ON A MOSQUE. POLICE HAVE NO MOTIVE FOR THE ATTACK, WHICH WAS SIMILAR TO OTHERS AROUND THE COUNTRY IN RECENT WEEKS.

    LAST WEEK IN FRANKFURT, ATTACKERS FIREBOMBED A TURKISH PRAYER CENTER, WHERE AUTHORITIES FOUND A SHEET WITH THE INITIALS OF A LEFTWING TURKISH URBAN GUERRILLA GROUP. MONDAY, A MEMBER OF THE GROUP DIED IN A TURKISH PRISON, WHERE DOZENS OF LEFTIST PRISONERS HAVE BEEN ON A HUNGER STRIKE CALLED TO PROTEST CONDITIONS IN TURKISH JAILS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/KBK/JWH
    23-Jul-96 6:52 AM EDT (1052 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [07] TURKEY / HUNGER STRIKE (L ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)

    DATE=7/23/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-200595
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: A SECOND LEFTIST PRISONER HAS DIED IN A HUNGER STRIKE IN A TURKISH PRISON. AMBERIN ZAMAN IN ANKARA REPORTS MORE THAN 300 PRISONERS ARE TAKING PART IN THE FAST TO PROTEST LIVING CONDITIONS AND ALLEGED ILL-TREATMENT BY TURKISH AUTHORITIES.

    TEXT: A 28-YEAR-OLD PRISONER, ALTAN BERDAN KERIMGILLER, DIED IN ISTANBUL'S BAYRAMPASA JAIL ON TUESDAY. HE HAD BEEN ON TRIAL ON CAPITAL CHARGES SINCE 1993 FOR INVOLVEMENT IN SEVERAL MURDERS, INCLUDING THE KILLING OF ARMY OFFICERS AND A FORMER PROSECUTOR.

    ANOTHER LEFTIST PRISONER DIED DURING THE WEEKEND (SEVERAL DAYS AGO) IN THE HUNGER STRIKE, WHICH HAS BEEN CONTINUING FOR MORE THAN TWO MONTHS IN 33 DIFFERENT JAILS ACROSS THE COUNTRY. MORE THAN 300 INMATES ARE CONTINUING THE FAST TO PROTEST THE DISPERSAL OF LEFTIST INMATES TO PRISONS THAT ARE OUTSIDE THE PROVINCES WHERE THEY ARE BEING TRIED.

    THE SECRETARY GENERAL OF THE TURKISH HUMAN RIGHTS ASSOCIATION, HUSNU ONDUL, SAYS ABOUT 20 OTHER FASTING PRISONERS COULD -- IN HIS WORDS -- DIE AT ANY MOMENT.

    INDEPENDENT HUMAN RIGHTS GROUPS SAY ALL THE PRISONERS TAKING PART IN THE STRIKE ARE ACCUSED OR CONVICTED OF POLITICALLY MOTIVATED OFFENSES, MANY OF THEM VIOLENT.

    THE PRISONERS' DEMANDS ALSO INCLUDE AN END TO ALLEGED ILL TREATMENT BY SECURITY OFFICIALS. HUMAN RIGHTS GROUPS SAY POLITICAL PRISONERS ARE TORTURED DURING INTERROGATION AND ARE DENIED PROPER MEDICAL TREATMENT IN DETENTION.

    BUT TURKISH OFFICIALS DENY THE ACCUSATIONS AND SAY THE PROTESTS ARE AIMED AT DISCREDITING THE TURKISH STATE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/AZ/JWH/MMK
    23-Jul-96 11:00 AM EDT (1500 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [08] YUGO WAR CRIMES (L-ONLY) BY GILLIAN SHARPE (THE HAGUE)

    DATE=7/23/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-200607
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: IN THE NETHERLANDS, THE U-N'S YUGOSLAV WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL AT THE HAGUE HEARD EYEWITNESS TESTIMONY ON TUESDAY OF TORTURE AT THE OMARSKA PRISON CAMP. IN THE TRIBUNAL'S FIRST TRIAL, BOSNIAN SERB DUSAN TADIC IS ACCUSED OF CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY AND OTHER ATROCITIES, INCLUDING MURDER AND TORTURE ALLEGEDLY WHILE AT THE OMARSKA PRISON CAMP. FROM THE HAGUE, GILLIAN SHARPE MONITORS DEVELOPMENTS IN THE TRIAL.

    TEXT: MEHMED ALIC IS THE PROSECUTION'S 25TH EYEWITNESS AND THE STORY HE HAD TO TELL WAS A HORRIFYING ONE. THE INDICTMENT AGAINST DUSAN TADIC CHARGES HIM WITH KILLING ONE OF MR. ALIC'S SONS.

    MR. ALIC BROKE DOWN IN TEARS AS HE TOLD THE COURT THAT CAMP GUARDS HAD ORDERED HIM TO FETCH HIS SON, WHO WAS THEN BEATEN TO DEATH. AS THE WITNESS WAS BEING DRAGGED AWAY FROM THE SCENE, HE SAW HIS SON BEING KICKED BY SERB GUARDS. THE SON MADE THIS PLEA. MR. ALIC'S WORDS ARE SPOKEN BY A TRANSLATOR.

    // ALIC ACT -- TRANSLATOR //

    HE SAID TO ME, "FATHER, TAKE CARE OF MY CHILDREN. LOOK AFTER MY CHILDREN." AND AS I WENT TO THE RIGHT SIDE, I HEARD HIM SAYING "DULE -- BROTHER, HOW HAVE I WRONGED YOU? WHY DO YOU BEAT ME?" AND I HEARD THEM BEATING IN THE HANGER.

    // END ACT //

    THE NAME "DUSAN" IS OFTEN SHORTENED TO "DULE." MR. ALIC DID NOT IDENTIFY THOSE WHO HAD DONE THE BEATING, BUT SAID HE HAD SEEN MR. TADIC, EARLIER IN THE DAY.

    TUESDAY'S OTHER WITNESS TOLD OF WHAT HAS BECOME ONE OF THE MOST NOTORIOUS INCIDENTS OF CRUELTY ALLEGED TO HAVE HAPPENED IN THE OMARSKA PRISON CAMP. THE CHARGES AGAINST DUSAN TADIC ACCUSE HIM OF BEING PART OF A GROUP OF SERBS WHICH ORDERED A PRISONER TO BITE OFF THE TESTICLE OF ANOTHER. TWENTY-SIX-YEAR-OLD ARMIN KENJAR TOLD THE COURT WHAT HE HAD HEARD AFTER HIS FRIENDS HAD BEEN ORDERED FROM THE ROOM.

    // OPT //

    HIS WORDS ARE SPOKEN BY A TRANSLATOR.

    // OPT KENJAR ACT--TRANSLATOR //

    ONE COULD HEAR SCREAMS, BLOWS WITH SOME BLUNT INSTRUMENT, CRIES OF PAIN. ONE COULD HEAR NOISE, ONE COULD HEAR CRIES "BITE TO THE BALLS," "GIVE IT A BLOW" -- HORRIBLE, OBSCENE EXPRESSIONS. IT WAS THE MOST TERRIBLE THING I'VE EVER HEARD. THAT WAS REALLY HORRIBLE, IT WAS A NIGHTMARE.

    // END ACT., END OPT //

    THE DEFENSE SAYS BOTH WITNESSES ARE MISTAKEN AND THAT THEIR TESTIMONY HAS BEEN CLOUDED BY A NEED FOR REVENGE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/GS/PCF/CF
    23-Jul-96 2:36 PM EDT (1836 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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