Looking for info on Diploma validation in Greece (a.k.a. DIKATSA)? Read the Convention Relating to the Regime of the Straits (24 July 1923) Read the Convention Relating to the Regime of the Straits (24 July 1923)
HR-Net - Hellenic Resources Network Compact version
Today's Suggestion
Read The "Macedonian Question" (by Maria Nystazopoulou-Pelekidou)
HomeAbout HR-NetNewsWeb SitesDocumentsOnline HelpUsage InformationContact us
Friday, 27 May 2022
 
News
  Latest News (All)
     From Greece
     From Cyprus
     From Europe
     From Balkans
     From Turkey
     From USA
  Announcements
  World Press
  News Archives
Web Sites
  Hosted
  Mirrored
  Interesting Nodes
Documents
  Special Topics
  Treaties, Conventions
  Constitutions
  U.S. Agencies
  Cyprus Problem
  Other
Services
  Personal NewsPaper
  Greek Fonts
  Tools
  F.A.Q.
 

Voice of America, 96-08-20

Voice of America Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] TUESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY DAN NOBLE (WASHINGTON)
  • [02] BOSNIA PROPAGANDA WARS, PT. 1 BY PAMELA TAYLOR (WASHINGTON)
  • [03] BOSNIA'S PROPAGANDA WAR, PT. 2 BY PAMELA TAYLOR (WASHINGTON)
  • [04] IRAQ / KURDS (L ONLY) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (CAIRO)
  • [05] UNITED NATIONS / HELMS (L - ONLY) BY MAX RUSTON (NEW YORK)

  • [01] TUESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY DAN NOBLE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=08/20/96
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09738
    TELEPHONE=619-1014
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 PM ON TUESDAY, AUGUST 20TH //

    INTRO: ROSS PEROT, THE WEALTHY BUSINESSMAN WHO RAN AS A "THIRD PARTY" CANDIDATE FOR PRESIDENT IN 1992, IS RUNNING AGAIN THIS YEAR UNDER THE BANNER OF HIS REFORM PARTY. SEVERAL AMERICAN NEWSPAPERS COMMENT ON MR. PEROT'S ACTIONS. OTHER EDITORIAL TOPICS TODAY INCLUDE CITIZEN UNREST IN JORDAN, AND A TREATY TO BAN NUCLEAR WEAPONS TESTS. NOW, HERE IS ___________________ WITH A CLOSER LOOK IN TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: FOUR YEARS AGO, WHEN ROSS PEROT CAMPAIGNED, HE USED A CONSIDERABLE AMOUNT OF HIS OWN MONEY. THIS YEAR, THINGS WILL BE DIFFERENT FOR THE TEXAS BILLIONAIRE. IN ITS LEAD EDITORIAL TODAY, THE WASHINGTON TIMES SAYS, IN ITS WORDS, "PERHAPS THE MOST TELLING DETAIL OF ROSS PEROT'S NEW CANDIDACY FOR THE WHITE HOUSE IS THE FACT THAT HE WILL BE ACCEPTING FEDERAL MATCHING FUNDS TO FINANCE HIS BID -- NOT BECAUSE IT REVEALS ANY PARTICULAR HYPOCRISY, BUT BECAUSE IT REVEALS MR. PEROT ISN'T VERY SERIOUS ABOUT WINNING."

    VOICE: "WITHOUT OUTSPENDING HIS RIVALS, SOMETHING HE CAN'T DO WHILE TAKING FEDERAL FUNDS, (ROSS PEROT) WILL BE HARD-PRESSED TO GET HIMSELF IN THE RUNNING. IF MR. PEROT ISN'T IN THE RACE TO WIN, THEN WHY IS HE IN IT? IS IT BECAUSE HE IS SO PASSIONATELY CONCERNED ABOUT THE ISSUES? NOT HARDLY. THOUGH MR. PEROT GOES ON AND ON ABOUT THE ISSUES, THERE IS ONLY ONE TOPIC -- TRADE -- ON WHICH HIS VIEWS ARE NOT REPRESENTED IN ONE PARTY OR THE OTHER... IF MR. PEROT ISN'T SERIOUS ABOUT CREATING A THIRD PARTY WITH THE POWER TO PUSH A REFORM AGENDA, THEN WHY IS HE BOTHERING WITH ALL THE TRAPPINGS? THE ANSWER, SADLY, MAY BE THAT MR. PEROT IS INTERESTED IN THE TRAPPINGS FOR THEIR OWN SAKE."

    TEXT: THE PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER HAS THIS TO SAY ABOUT ROSS PEROT'S CANDIDACY:

    VOICE: "MR. PEROT PROMISES, ONCE AGAIN, TO PUT THE SPOTLIGHT ON ISSUES THAT HIS MAJOR-PARTY RIVALS WOULD RATHER GLOSS OVER. AT THE CENTER OF HIS CRITIQUE IS THE POLITICAL SYSTEM ITSELF. IT'S TOO BAD THAT THE BANNER OF REFORM IS CARRIED BY A BILLIONAIRE WHO BOUGHT HIS WAY TO POLITICAL RESPECTABILITY IN 1992... STILL, IT'S BETTER TO HAVE MR. PEROT PUSHING A POLITICAL CLEANUP, THAN TO LET BOB DOLE AND BILL CLINTON GET AWAY WITH IGNORING IT... [OPT] AS MR. PEROT HITS THE CAMPAIGN TRAIL IN EARNEST, POLLS SHOW MOST AMERICANS DON'T THINK HE'S PRESIDENTIAL MATERIAL. BUT IF THE PUBLIC ZEROS IN ON HIS CRITIQUE OF THE MAJOR-PARTY CANDIDATES -- SUCH AS THEIR POLICIES ON CHRONIC DEFICITS AND ON THE CORRUPTING INFLUENCE OF SPECIAL-INTEREST MONEY -- IT MIGHT COME TO ASK: WHAT'S SO PRESIDENTIAL ABOUT THEM?" [END OPT]

    TEXT: THE BALTIMORE SUN, COMMENTING ON MR. PEROT, TELLS READERS "THERE ARE NO SECOND ACTS FOR THIRD PARTIES, BUT THAT MAY BE ABOUT TO CHANGE."

    VOICE: "THIS TIME A THIRD PARTY IS GOING TO BE GREATLY SUBSIDIZED BY THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT. BECAUSE ROSS PEROT GOT 19 PERCENT OF THE POPULAR VOTE IN THE 1992 PRESIDENTIAL CONTEST, HE, AS NOMINEE OF THE MOVEMENT NOW CALLED THE REFORM PARTY, IS ENTITLED TO $29.2 MILLION FROM THE TREASURY. THAT IS ONLY HALF AS MUCH AS THE DEMOCRATIC AND REPUBLICAN NOMINEES WILL RECEIVE -- BUT IT IS HARDLY CHICKEN FEED. IF IT IS ENOUGH TO GET AND KEEP A PEROT CANDIDACY UP IN THE POLLS, HE SHOULD BE GUARANTEED A PLACE IN THE CLINTON-DOLE DEBATES. THAT SEEMS TO BE HIS GOAL. HIS 1996 GOAL."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: THE LOS ANGELES TIMES BELIEVES THAT THE REPUBLICAN PARTY STANDS TO BE HURT THE MOST BY MR. PEROT'S CAMPAIGN.

    VOICE: "(ROSS) PEROT CONTINUES TO PRESENT HIMSELF, DISINGENUOUSLY IN THE LIGHT OF HIS HISTORY, AS THE UNTAINTED OUTSIDER WHO SPEAKS FOR ALL WHO HATE THE STATUS QUO. NO DOUBT THAT REMAINS A POTENT VOTE-GETTING POSTURE. BUT A POSTURE IS A LONG WAY FROM BEING A COHERENT PROGRAM. JUST WHAT KIND OF ALTERNATIVE PEROT IN FACT PRESENTS REMAINS TO BE DEFINED. THE GREATEST VALUE HE COULD BRING TO THIS YEAR'S ELECTION WOULD BE TO CONTINUE TO HARP ON THE DEFICIT AND ENTITLEMENTS, IF FOR NO OTHER REASON THAN TO EGG ON DOLE AND CLINTON TO RESPOND WITH SPECIFIC PROPOSALS."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: LAST WEEKEND, THERE WAS RIOTING IN JORDAN AFTER THE GOVERNMENT RAISED THE PRICE OF BREAD. THE NEW YORK TIMES TAKES THE VIEW THAT "THE CURRENT TROUBLE ACTUALLY AROSE FROM A WISE IMPULSE OF THE KING AND HIS ADVISERS."

    VOICE: "SEEING REGIONAL PEACE SPREADING -- JORDAN SIGNED A TREATY WITH ISRAEL IN 1994 -- THE JORDANIANS THOUGHT TO UNDERTAKE STRUCTURAL REFORMS AND MAKE THEMSELVES MORE APPEALING TO FOREIGN INVESTORS. THEY DID WHAT SENSIBLE COUNTRIES TRY TO DO: THEY STARTED CUTTING THEIR BUDGET DEFICIT IN ORDER TO PICK UP GROWTH AND LOWER INFLATION TO WESTERN LEVELS. BREAD HAD BEEN NOTORIOUSLY SUBSIDIZED. TO CUSHION THE BLOW OF MORE THAN DOUBLING ITS PRICE, THE GOVERNMENT LED A BROAD PUBLIC DISCUSSION OF THE CHANGE BEFORE THE FACT. IT ALSO INAUGURATED AN UNUSUAL PROGRAM OF TARGETED CASH SUBSIDIES FOR THE POOREST FAMILIES. STILL, THE BREAD PRICE INCREASE TURNED OUT TO BE MORE THAN THE STREET COULD BEAR, ESPECIALLY AMONG THE NON-PALESTINIAN TRIBAL AND BEDOUIN ELEMENTS THAT MAKE UP THE KING'S BEDROCK SUPPORT."

    TEXT: THE WALL STREET JOURNAL, ON ITS EDITORIAL PAGE, TODAY ASKS: "WHO'S LEADING RUSSIA?"

    VOICE: "FOR THE FIRST TIME SINCE DEFIANTLY CLIMBING ATOP THAT TANK ALMOST FIVE YEARS AGO TO THE DAY, BORIS YELTSIN IS NOT OCCUPYING CENTER STAGE IN RUSSIA. AS MR. YELTSIN RULES FROM A DISTANCE, TWO OF HIS TOP OFFICIALS ARE BUSY CONSOLIDATING THEIR POSITIONS... THE STAKES FIVE YEARS AGO SEEMED SO MUCH MORE DRAMATIC WHEN BORIS YELTSIN FACED DOWN THE FORCES OF AUTHORITARIANISM. THE DECREASE OF DRAMA IS A GOOD SIGN THAT RUSSIA'S DEMOCRACY IS MATURING. STILL, WE'LL ALL REST EASIER WHEN RUSSIA HAS A LEADER AT CENTER STAGE AGAIN."

    VOICE: TODAY'S BOSTON GLOBE FOCUSES ON ANOTHER RUSSIAN ISSUE, AND DEEPENING PROBLEM FOR BORIS YELTSIN -- THE CHECHEN AUTONOMY CRISIS.

    VOICE: "THE SWIFTNESS WITH WHICH CHECHEN REBELS SEIZED CONTROL OF GROZNY FROM RUSSIAN TROOPS LAST WEEK EMPHASIZES THE DEADLY PERIL THIS RELATIVELY SMALL WAR INFLICTS ON YELTSIN AND HIS POTENTIALLY FRACTIOUS NATION. A SHAKY CEASEFIRE INKED ON SATURDAY DID NOT SURVIVE THE WEEKEND. CHECHEN FIGHTERS POSSESS ONE WEAPON DENIED RUSSIAN TROOPS: A RELENTLESS SENSE OF PURPOSE IN THEIR PURSUIT OF INDEPENDENCE. RUSSIAN SOLDIERS, DISPIRITED BY THEIR OWN DOUBTS ABOUT THE VALIDITY OF THEIR MISSION, HAVE SUFFERED ANOTHER HUMILIATION WITH THE LOSS OF GROZNY."

    TEXT: "SOME HOPE HAS EMERGED IN RECENT DAYS," SAYS THE NEW YORK TIMES, "THAT THE IMPASSE BLOCKING COMPLETION OF A TREATY BANNING ALL NUCLEAR WEAPONS TESTS MAY YET BE OVERCOME."

    VOICE: "INDIA, THOUGH DETERMINED TO PRESERVE ITS OWN FREEDOM TO TEST, NOW SUGGESTS IT MIGHT WITHDRAW ITS THREAT TO PREVENT THE LARGELY COMPLETED TREATY FROM BEING SENT TO THE UNITED NATIONS NEXT MONTH. IN RETURN, IT ASKS FOR SOME DIFFICULT ADJUSTMENTS IN TREATY LANGUAGE ON DISARMAMENT AND RATIFICATION REQUIREMENTS BUT MAY BE WILLING TO SETTLE FOR GUARANTEES THAT NEW DELHI WILL NOT FACE PENALTIES FOR ITS REFUSAL TO SIGN THE TREATY THIS YEAR. THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION, WHICH HAS BEEN THE PRIME SPONSOR OF THE TREATY, SHOULD EXPLORE THIS OPENING THOROUGHLY, EVEN IF THAT MEANS ALLOWING THE DRAFTING PROCESS IN GENEVA TO RUN PAST THIS WEEK'S DEADLINE. [OPT] THE ONLY DEADLINE THAT MATTERS IS GETTING THE TREATY TO THIS YEAR'S UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY SESSION, WHICH OPENS ON SEPT. 17. IF THAT TARGET IS MISSED, MOST OF THE DIPLOMATIC MOMENTUM FOR A TREATY WILL BE LOST." [END OPT]

    TEXT: AND, FINALLY, THE USA TODAY NEWSPAPER REFLECTS ON BINTI JUA, THE LOWLAND GORILLA THAT RESCUED A THREE-YEAR-OLD BOY AFTER THE YOUNGSTER FELL INTO THE GORILLA EXHIBIT AT THE BROOKFIELD, ILLINOIS, ZOO.

    VOICE: "THE APE CRADLED THE UNCONSCIOUS CHILD AND CARRIED HIM TO ONE OF THE EXHIBIT'S ACCESS DOORS. TALK ABOUT YOUR GREAT APES. STORIES OF WILD ANIMALS RESCUING DISTRESSED HUMANS ARE NOT RARE... STILL, THE SIGHT OF A GROWN GORILLA ACTING SO TENDERLY TOWARD A HUMAN CHILD STRIKES A POWERFUL CHORD, IN PART BECAUSE IT FLOUTS OUR PRECONCEPTIONS ABOUT THE WORKADAY CRUELTY OF NATURE AND IN PART BECAUSE IT SO TOTALLY BELIES THE GORILLA'S FIERCE COUNTENANCE. BINTI JUA IS STILL ONE UGLY PRIMATE. BUT SHE'S ALSO THE NEW REIGNING MISS APE. GIVE THAT PRIMATE A BANANA TIARA."

    TEXT: AND ON THAT POSITIVE NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF THE EDITORIALS TO BE FOUND THIS TUESDAY IN THE U-S PRESS.
    NEB/DN/PCH
    20-Aug-96 9:06 AM EDT (1306 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [02] BOSNIA PROPAGANDA WARS, PT. 1 BY PAMELA TAYLOR (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=8/20/96
    TYPE=CLOSEUP
    NUMBER=4-09356
    TELEPHONE=619-1101
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT= // TAPE INSERTS AVAILABLE FROM AUDIO SERVICES //

    INTRO: ALL SIDES IN THE WAR IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA HAVE ACCUSED EACH OTHER OF MANIPULATING PUBLIC OPINION AND ENGAGING IN A PROPAGANDA WAR. SUCH ACTIVITIES ARE NOTHING NEW IN TIMES OF CONFLICT BUT EXPERTS SAY THEY REACHED NEW EXTREMES IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. SOME SAY IT BEGAN WITH THE DEBATE OVER WHETHER THE WAR IN BOSNIA WAS A 'CIVIL WAR' OR A 'WAR OF AGGRESSION'. TWO AMERICAN AUTHORS RECENTLY PUBLISHED STUDIES WHICH CHRONICLE EFFORTS TO INFLUENCE INTERNATIONAL AND DOMESTIC PUBLIC OPINION ABOUT THE NATURE AND ORIGINS OF THE BALKAN CONFLICT AND THE WORST ATROCITIES SEEN IN

    EUROPE SINCE WORLD WAR TWO. VOA'S PAMELA TAYLOR

    REPORTS:

    TEXT: DR. PHILIP COHEN (M.D.), AUTHOR OF A NEW BOOK ENTITLED 'SERBIA'S SECRET WAR: PROPAGANDA AND THE DECEIT OF HISTORY', (TEXAS A & M UNIVERSITY PRESS) BELIEVES THE BIGGEST DECEIT IN THIS CONFLICT HAS BEEN THE SERBIAN EFFORT TO CONVINCE THE WORLD THAT SERBS WERE THE REAL VICTIMS IN THE BALKAN CONFLICT. HE SAYS IT BEGAN WITH TWO DOCUMENTS ISSUED IN 1989, ONE BY THE PRESTIGIOUS SERBIAN ACADEMY OF ARTS AND SCIENCES, A DOCUMENT VIEWED BY MANY AS A VIRTUAL BLUEPRINT FOR THE WAR THAT WAS TO FOLLOW. THE OTHER, HE SAYS, CAME FROM THE SERBIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH ITSELF:

    TAPE: CUT # 1 COHEN RUNS [:48] "IT WAS ANOTHER VICTIMIZATION DOCUMENT THAT CLAIMED THAT SERBS WERE THE MOST VICTIMIZED PEOPLE OF YUGOSLAVIA, HAD THE RIGHT TO REDRAW THE BORDERS OF THE SERBIAN REPUBLIC TO ENLARGE IT SO THAT WHEREVER ANY ETHNIC SERB STOOD IN YUGOSLAVIA, HE WOULD NOW STAND IN SERBIA PROPER AND THAT WAS THE GOAL. THIS IS CLEARLY EVIDENCE THAT THE SERBIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH PLAYED A VERY EARLY ROLE IN PREPARING A PROPAGANDA CAMPAIGN BOTH TO MOBILIZE THE SERBIAN COMMUNITY AND TO MOBILIZE WESTERN OPINION IN FAVOR OF THE SERBIAN COMMUNITY."

    TEXT: DR. COHEN SAYS THESE DOCUMENTS WERE SO EFFECTIVE THAT MOST SERBS TODAY GENUINELY BELIEVE THAT THE WAR IN BOSNIA WAS NECESSARY TO PREVENT THEM FROM BEING DOMINATED BY RADICAL MUSLIMS. IN REALITY, HE SAYS, THE MUSLIMS OF BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA ARE SLAVS WHO CONVERTED TO ISLAM UNDER OTTOMAN TURKISH RULE. FAR FROM BEING RADICAL HE SAYS, BEFORE THIS WAR, MOST WERE SECULAR MUSLIMS WITH A HIGH RATE OF INTER-MARRIAGE WITH OTHER RELIGIONS.

    DR. COHEN IS SUPPORTED IN THIS VIEW BY BRAD BLITZ OF STANFORD UNIVERSITY IN CALIFORNIA, WHO CONTRIBUTED TO AN ARTICLE ABOUT SERB LOBBYING EFFORTS TO AN ANTHOLOGY ENTITLED, 'THIS TIME WE KNEW: WESTERN RESPONSES TO GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA' (NEW YORK UNIVERSITY PRESS). MR. BLITZ SAYS THE SERBIAN PROPAGANDA CAMPAIGN WAS NOT ONLY DIRECTED AT WORLD OPINION, BUT AT ORDINARY SERBS AS WELL, TO CONVINCE THEM THAT THEIR CAUSE WAS JUST AND NECESSARY. IT BEGAN, HE SAYS WITH A REVIVAL OF ANCIENT LEGENDS ABOUT SERB VALOR IN THE FACE OF DEFEAT BY THE OTTOMAN TURKS AT THE LEGENDARY BATTLE OF KOSOVO 600 YEARS AGO.

    TAPE: CUT # 2 BLITZ RUNS [:50] "YOU HAVE SERBIAN ORTHODOX LEADERS WHO KEEP REPEATING THE SAME MYTHS THAT GO BACK FOR HUNDREDS AND HUNDREDS OF YEARS. THE MYTHS OF SERBIAN GRANDEUR, THE IDEA OF SERBIAN VICTIMIZATION. IT'S ALL ROOTED AROUND THE MYTHS SURROUNDING KOSOVO, THE BATTLE OF KOSOVO IN 1389, AND THE DEFEAT AT THE HANDS OF THE OTTOMANS. SO ITS VERY HARD TO SEPARATE THIS OUT. YOU HAVE THE CHURCH BASED IN KOSOVO, AT THE SAME TIME ITS THE SITE OF BATTLE, MARTYRDOM AND THIS IS PART OF BOTH THE RELIGIOUS AND NATIONAL IDEOLOGIES AND THEY'RE INSEPARABLE."

    TEXT: THERE WAS THE NOW-FAMOUS 1989 VISIT BY A YOUNG POLITICIAN NAMED SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC TO KOSOVO FOR THE 600TH ANNIVERSARY COMMEMORATION OF THE BATTLE OF KOSOVO. MORE THAN TWO-MILLION SERBS FROM YUGOSLAVIA AND AROUND THE WORLD GATHERED THAT DAY TO HEAR THE MAN WHO WOULD BECOME SERBIA'S PRESIDENT. HE EXTOLLED THE VIRTUES OF SERBIA AS DEFENDER OF EUROPE AGAINST THE MUSLIM INFIDEL. THUS, HE SAYS, THE ORTHODOX CHURCH BECAME INVOLVED, NOT ONLY AS A DEFENDER OF CHRISTIANITY BUT OF ALL THE ANCIENT SERBIAN MONASTERIES LOCATED IN KOSOVO PROVINCE, WHICH TODAY IS MORE THAN 90 PERCENT POPULATED BY ETHNIC ALBANIAN MUSLIMS. MR. BLITZ AGREES WITH DR. COHEN THAT THE CHURCH PLAYED A KEY ROLE IN THIS SERBIAN REVIVAL MOVEMENT. AND IN ORDER TO INFLUENCE THE COURSE OF THE WAR, HE SAID, THE CHURCH TOOK ITS CAMPAIGN TO THE LARGE SERBIAN IMMIGRANT POPULATION IN THE UNITED STATES IN 1990 AND 91:

    TAPE: CUT # 3 BLITZ RUNS [1:03] "IT STARTED WITH THE CHURCH AND THAT IS WHERE THESE COMMUNITY GROUPS WERE BASED. THEY WOULD ORGANIZE IN CHURCHES. THE CHURCHES WOULD RECEIVE SPEAKERS, FOREIGN EMISSARIES AND ALSO SERVE AS FOCAL POINTS FOR FUNDRAISING. THERE WERE REGISTERED FOREIGN AGENTS SENT OVER FROM THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA AND THEY WERE REGISTERED WITH THE U-S JUSTICE DEPARTMENT. THE SERBIAN UNITY CONGRESS, SERBNET, THE SERBIAN-AMERICAN VOTERS ALLIANCE, ALL CROPPED UP IN 1991-1992 AND THEY WERE VERY MUCH COMMUNITY ORGANIZATIONS MADE UP OF A GRASSROOTS BASE, BUT IF YOU LOOKED AT WHAT THEY WERE SAYING, IT WAS ABSOLUTELY NO DIFFERENT FROM WHAT WE WERE HEARING AND SEEING IN PALE AND BELGRADE."

    TEXT: THE GOVERNMENTS OF CROATIA AND BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA, OR COURSE, HAVE HAD PUBLIC RELATIONS REPRESENTATIVES OF THEIR OWN IN BOTH THE UNITED STATES AND IN EUROPE. BUT ACCORDING TO MR. BLITZ AND DR. COHEN THERE IS NO COMPARISON WITH THE LEVEL OF POLITICAL LOBBYING, DENIAL AND REVISIONISM WHICH HAS BEEN UNDERTAKEN BY THE SERBS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PAM/PCH
    20-Aug-96 9:13 AM EDT (1313 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [03] BOSNIA'S PROPAGANDA WAR, PT. 2 BY PAMELA TAYLOR (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=8/20/96
    TYPE=CLOSEUP
    NUMBER=4-09357
    TELEPHONE=619-1101
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT= // TAPE INSERTS AVAILABLE FROM AUDIO SERVICES //

    INTRO: ALL SIDES IN THE WAR IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA HAVE ACCUSED EACH OTHER OF MANIPULATING PUBLIC OPINION AND ENGAGING IN A PROPAGANDA WAR. WHILE EXPERTS AGREE THAT IS COMMON IN ANY CONFLICT, IT MIGHT HAVE REACHED NEW EXTREMES IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. TWO AMERICAN AUTHORS RECENTLY PUBLISHED STUDIES DETAILING SERBIAN EFFORTS TO INFLUENCE WESTERN AND DOMESTIC PUBLIC OPINION ON THE NATURE AND COURSE OF THE WAR IN THE BALKANS. FOR THE

    SERBIAN SIDE OF THE STORY, VOA'S PAMELA TAYLOR TALKED

    WITH RETIRED PROFESSOR ALEX DRAGNICH OF TENNESSEE'S VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY. HE IS ALSO A LEADER IN THE SERBIAN-AMERICAN COMMUNITY IN WASHINGTON D.C. PROFESSOR DRAGNICH SAYS SERBS BELIEVE THEIR SIDE OF THE STORY HAS NOT BEEN FAIRLY REPORTED IN THE WEST: AD: I GUESS WHAT THE SERBS HAVE BEEN COMPLAINING ABOUT IS THAT WAR CRIMES HAVE BEEN COMMITTED BY ALL SIDES. BUT YET WHEN IT COMES TO THE MEDIA, ALL YOU HEAR IS WAR CRIMES COMMITED BY SERBS. FOR EXAMPLE, NOT LONG AGO THEY DUG UP SOME GRAVES IN SREBRENICA AND SAID THEY'D FOUND EIGHT BODIES OF MUSLIMS THAT HAD BEEN MASSACRED. WELL, EARLIER THE U-N WITNESSED THE EXHUMING OF 181 SERB BODIES THAT HAD BEEN MASSACRED BY THE CROATS AT MRKONIC GRAD IN THEIR PUSH IN 1995, AND YET THAT DOESN'T GET MENTIONED AT ALL. O-K, IF SERBS HAVE COMMITTED CRIMES, PUBLICIZE IT. BUT WHAT ABUT THE OTHERS? WHAT ABOUT THE OVER 20-THOSAND SERBS IN MOSTAR AND NOW DURING RECENT ELECTIONS, MUSLIMS AND CROATS WERE ELECTED TO THE COUNCIL. WHAT HAPPENED TO THE 20-THOSAND SERBS WHO LIVED THERE AND WERE CLEANSED, MOVED OUT BY THE CROATS AND MUSLIMS? NOBODY SEEMS TO ASK ABOUT THAT. PT: THOSE ARE VERY GOOD POINTS... AD: AND THIS QUESTION ABOUT SAFE HAVENS. IN HIS BOOK, (FORMER E-U NEGOTIATOR) DAVID OWEN SAYS THIS WAS THE MOST IRRESPONSIBLE DECISION DURING THE TIME OF HIS CO-CHAIRMANSHIP, ESTABLISHING SO-CALLED SAFE HAVENS WITHOUT DEMILITARIZING THEM. HE SAID THIS SIMPLY ENABLED THE MUSLIMS TO CONDUCT WAR AGAINST THE SERBS UNDER U-N COVER. PT: MOST PEOPLE SAY THE REASON THE SAFE HAVENS WERE SUCH A MOCKERY WAS THEY PREVENTED ANYONE FROM GOING IN TO PROTECT THE MUSLIMS FROM SERB ATTACKS. AD: WELL, BACK IN WORLD WAR TWO, FOR EXAMPLE, PARIS WAS DECLARED AN 'OPEN CITY', WHICH MEANT IT WOULD NOT BE DEFENDED, WHICH WOULD PREVENT THE GERMANS FROM BOMBING IT AND DESTROYING IT. THE SAFE HAVEN WAS SUPPOSED TO BE THE SAME KIND OF THING SO THAT SOMEBODY TAKING IT WOULD NOT DESTROY IT, WOULD NOT KILL SCADS OF CIVILIANS, ETC. THE U-N DID NOTHING TO DEMILITARIZE THEM. PT: ON A WIDER QUESTION, WHAT IS YOUR OPINION ABOUT WHY (THIS WAR WAS STARTED)? AD: IT WAS STARTED BECAUSE THE SLOVENES DECIDED TO SECEDE FROM YUGOSLAVIA AND SO DID THE CROATS. PT: BUT WHY DID THEY DECIDE THAT? AD: WHY DID THEY? BECAUSE THEY THOUGHT THEY WOULD BE BETTER OFF AS LITTLE, INDEPENDENT STATES. PT: WELL, WHAT IS THE RATIONALE, AS FAR AS YOU ARE CONCERNED, THEN FOR WHY THE WAR SPREAD TO BOSNIA? AD: THE MAIN REASON IN SPREAD TO BOSNIA WAS THERE WERE THREE SEPARATE ENTITIES AND ONCE BOSNIA DECLARED ITS INDEPENDENCE OR SECESSION, THE SERBS FELT THREATENED BECAUSE THEY WERE PART OF THE NAZI SATELLITE STATE IN WORLD WAR TWO AND A LOT OF THEM WERE MASSACRED, HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS MASSACRED. PT: MY UNDERSTANDING IS THAT A RELATIVELY SMALL NUMBER OF MUSLIM UNITS DID PARTICIPATE IN A RELATIVELY SMALL NUMBER OF MASSACRES. SO I'M WONDERING THEN WHY WAS A WHOLE NATION THEREBY DEEMED BY SERBS TO BE SUCH A THREAT? AD: WELL, IT'S A WHOLE INVOLVED THING... LET'S PUT IT THIS WAY: THE SERBS WHO WERE THERE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA HAD LIVED THERE AS PART OF A COMMON STATE SINCE 1918 AND THOSE SERBS WANTED TO REMAIN PART OF THAT STATE. PT: WHY I FIND THIS SO CONFUSING IS BECAUSE WE HEAR THAT THIS IS WHAT THE SERBS WANTED. THEY WANTED TO REMAIN IN A UNITED YUGOSLAVIA, WHICH PRESUMABLY MEANS MULTI-ETHNIC YUGOSLAVIA, AND YET TODAY ALL WE'RE HEARING IS THAT SERBS DO NOT WANT TO LIVE WITH CROATS AND MUSLIMS EVER AGAIN AND WANT THEIR OWN SEPARATE STATE WHERE ALL SERBS CAN LIVE TOGETHER IN A SINGLE STATE. TO ME THAT'S A CONTRADICTION. AD: WELL, IT'S PARTLY THE RESULT OF THIS TRAGIC CONFLICT. MY OWN PERSONAL VIEW IS ONCE YOU HAD THIS BITTER CONFLICT, ITS DIFFICULT FOR ANYONE TO SAY THEY WANT TO LIVE IN A MULTI-ETHNIC STATE; IT'S TOO BAD. BUT LEST WE DAMN THE CROATS, THE SLOVENES AND THE SERBS, LET'S THINK ABOUT THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE OUTSIDE WORLD. I'M NOW WRITING AN ARTICLE ABOUT WAR CRIMES AND THE SITUATION THERE AND I THINK OVERWHELMINGLY THE RESPONSIBILITY IS GOING TO BE ON OUTSIDE FORCES MORE THAN ON INSIDE FORCES. PT: WHY WOULD OUTSIDE FORCES HAVE MORE RESPONSIBILITY? AD: WELL, SEVERAL THINGS. THE HASTY RECOGNITIONS (OF THE INDEPENDENCE DECLARATIONS), THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF OUTSIDE FORCES IN THE DESTRUCTION OF YUGOSLAVIA IN THE FIRST PLACE. SECOND, THE TERRIBLE MISTAKE -- AND DAVID OWEN POINTS THIS OUT IN HIS BOOK -- THAT THE HASTY RECOGNITION OF THE SUCESSIONS WAS NOT AS BAD AS THE DECISION THAT NO CHANGES IN THE BORDERS COULD BE MADE.

    [ REST OPT ] PT: OK, NOW TO ME THAT'S A GOOD EXPLANATION FOR WHY ONE OR ANOTHER PARTY MIGHT BE MORE 'POLITICALLY' RESPONSIBLE, BUT YOU SAID THIS IN THE CONTEXT OF WAR CRIMES. HOW COULD THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY ... (BE RESPONSIBLE FOR WAR CRIMES)? AD: ALL I'M SAYING MS. TAYLOR IS CONDITIONS WERE CREATED BY THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY, BY FOREIGN COUNTRIES, WHICH MADE IT FERTILE GROUND FOR SOME OF THESE ACTS TO OCCUR. NOW I'VE BEEN DISTURBED BY THE FACT THAT ALL KINDS OF THINGS HAPPEN BUT THE MEDIA SEEMS TO BE DEAD. PT: IT SOUNDS LIKE YOU'RE SAYING IT'S THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY'S FAULT FOR CREATING A CLIMATE THAT ALLOWED SERBS THEMSELVES TO BEHAVE BADLY. AD: YEAH, I THINK TO A CERTAIN EXTENT THAT'S TRUE. I GO BACK TO THE BASIC POSITION THAT THE SERBS BASICALLY DID NOT WANT TO DESTROY YUGOSLAVIA AND WHEN THE DESTRUCTION BEGAN, WELL OF COURSE ALL OF THEM, INCLUDING THE SERBS, COMMITTED CERTAIN ACTS THAT WE NOW ARE CONDEMNING. WE KNOW A LOT OF PEOPLE GOT KILLED. WHEN THE CROATS CLEANSED THE KRAJINA, THERE WERE A LOT OF OLD PEOPLE WHO COULD NOT FLEE AND WERE SHOT AND WE HAVE U-N REPORTS ON THAT. THE CROATS KILLED QUITE A FEW OF THESE OLDER PEOPLE WHO DIDN'T GO. NOW WHEN IF YOU WANT TO SAY WHEN SERBS FORCED PEOPLE OUT OF CERTAIN AREAS AND SOME WERE KILLED, ALRIGHT I CAN ACCEPT THAT. PT: WELL, WHAT ABOUT THE THOUSANDS WHO WERE KILLED IN THE SHELLING OF SARAJEVO? HOW ABOUT THE MANY THOUSANDS THAT WE SUSPECT WERE KILLED AT SREBRENICA? AD: WELL, THERE ARE THESE STATEMENTS THAT A LOT ARE MISSING. WERE THEY KILLED? HOW MANY WERE COMBATANTS? AND A LOT OF CIVILIANS CARRIED GUNS, SO ITS HARD TO SAY WHETHER THOSE KILLED WERE CIVILIANS OR COMBATANTS. SO ALL I'M SAYING IS LET'S NOT RUSH TO JUDGEMENT. WE HAVE A HISTORY IN THIS COUNTRY AT LEAST OF SAYING BEFORE WE CONVICT SOMEBODY, LET'S HAVE SOME PROOF. WHEN THE EVIDENCE IS THERE, FINE. HOST: THAT WAS VOA'S PAMELA TAYLOR TALKING WITH RETIRED PROFESSOR ALEX DRAGNICH, A LEADER IN THE SERBIAN-AMERICAN COMMUNITY IN WASHINGTON, DC.
    NEB/PAM/PCH
    20-Aug-96 9:14 AM EDT (1314 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [04] IRAQ / KURDS (L ONLY) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (CAIRO)

    DATE=8/20/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-201930
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: TWO RIVAL KURDISH FACTIONS IN NORTHERN IRAQ BROKE A YEAR-LONG CEASE-FIRE LAST WEEKEND. CLASHES BETWEEN THE PATRIOTIC UNION OF KURDISTAN -- THE P-U-K -- AND THE KURDISTAN DEMOCRATIC PARTY -- THE K-D-P -- ERUPTED IN NORTHEASTERN IRAQ NEAR THE IRANIAN BORDER. V-O-A MIDDLE EAST CORRESPONDENT LAURIE KASSMAN REPORTS THE FACTIONS ARE BLAMING EACH OTHER FOR THE NEW OUTBREAKS.

    TEXT: A COMMUNIQUE FROM THE P-U-K FACTION LED BY JALAL TALABANI, ACCUSES ITS RIVAL OF COLLABORATING WITH IRAQ. FOR ITS PART, THE K-D-P -- LED BY MASSOUD BARZANI -- SAYS ITS RIVAL IS TIED TO IRAN, AND ACCUSES IRAN OF LETTING THE P-U-K USE IRANIAN TERRITORY TO ATTACK K-D-P FORCES AROUND THE BORDER TOWN OF HAJ OMRAN.

    THE CLASHES DURING THE WEEKEND WERE ALSO REPORTED AROUND THE NORTHEASTERN IRAQI TOWN OF RAWANDUZ, NEAR THE IRANIAN BORDER. THE P-U-K STATEMENT ACCUSED ITS RIVAL OF ALSO TRYING TO CUT OFF ACCESS TO THE CITY OF ERBIL, WHICH HAS BEEN UNDER P-U-K CONTROL. IN 1992, THE RIVAL FACTIONS AGREED TO SHARE POWER IN A SHAKY POLITICAL MARRIAGE SET UP AFTER PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS. BUT THE COALITION QUICKLY DISINTEGRATED. THE TWO FACTIONS HAVE BEEN LOCKED IN A POWER FEUD EVER SINCE. FACTIONAL FIGHTING ERUPTED IN EARNEST IN MAY OF 1994 AND CLAIMED MORE THAN TWO-THOUSAND VICTIMS.

    AFTER SEVERAL ATTEMPTS AT A CEASE-FIRE, U-S OFFICIALS STEPPED IN AND BROKERED A TRUCE LAST YEAR. IT HELD UNTIL CLASHES ERUPTED LAST WEEKEND. REPORTS FROM THE AREA SAY SKIRMISHES HAVE CONTINUED. ON MONDAY, TURKEY'S GOVERNMENT REACTED STRONGLY TO THE FIGHTING. FOREIGN MINISTER TANSU CILLER WARNED THAT TURKEY WILL NOT ACCEPT ANY CHANGES IN THE POWER STRUCTURE IN NORTHERN IRAQ.

    TURKEY HAS EXPRESSED CONCERN THAT FIGHTING BETWEEN RIVAL IRAQI KURDS LEAVES A POWER VACUUM THAT LETS TURKEY'S KURDISH SEPARATISTS OPERATE THERE. A YEAR AND A HALF AGO, WHEN SHE WAS PRIME MINISTER, MRS. CILLER ORDERED MORE THAN 30-THOUSAND TROOPS ACROSS THE BORDER INTO NORTHERN IRAQ TO CUT OFF THE TURKISH REBELS' SUPPLY ROUTES AND ALLEGED SAFE HAVENS. TURKEY HAS ALSO PUSHED FOR IRAQI KURDS TO TAKE UP MORE RESPONSIBILITY FOR SECURITY IN THE BORDER AREA.

    /// REST OPT ///

    SINCE THE END OF THE 1991 GULF WAR, NORTHERN IRAQ HAS BEEN PROTECTED BY A U-S LED AIR PATROL, WHICH USES TURKISH BASES FOR ITS OPERATIONS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LK/JWH/MMK
    20-Aug-96 8:32 AM EDT (1232 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [05] UNITED NATIONS / HELMS (L - ONLY) BY MAX RUSTON (NEW YORK)

    DATE=8/20/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-201953
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: A SPOKESMAN FOR THE UNITED NATIONS TODAY (TUESDAY) DISMISSED A LEADING U-S SENATOR'S CALLS FOR FURTHER COST CUTTING AND REFORMS AT THE INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION. FROM NEW YORK, V-O-A'S MAX RUSTON REPORTS ON THE U-N REACTION TO AN ARTICLE WRITTEN BY THE CHAIRMAN OF THE U-S SENATE COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN RELATIONS, JESSE HELMS.

    TEXT: IN THE ARTICLE, MR. HELMS QUESTIONS WHETHER THE UNITED STATES SHOULD CONSIDER WITHDRAWING ITS SUPPORT FOR THE UNITED NATIONS. HE CRITICIZES THE ORGANIZATION FOR TRYING TO TAKE OVER DUTIES WHICH HE SAYS SHOULD BE LEFT TO INDIVIDUAL NATIONS TO HANDLE.

    THE SENATOR'S ARTICLE INCLUDES A LIST OF GOALS FOR REFORM. IT SAYS U-N SECRETARY-GENERAL BOUTROS BOUTROS-GHALI SHOULD BE REPLACED, U-N BUREAUCRACY SHOULD BE CUT BY 50 PERCENT, UNNECESSARY CONFERENCES AND COMMITTEES SHOULD BE TERMINATED, THE U-N BUDGET PROCESS SHOULD BE RADICALLY OVERHAULED AND PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS SHOULD BE BETTER DEFINED AND MORE CLOSELY MONITORED.

    U-N SPOKESMAN AHMAD FAWZI TOLD REPORTERS THE REPUBLICAN SENATOR DOES NOT HAVE HIS FACTS RIGHT.

    /// FAWZI ACT ///

    SADLY, ONCE AGAIN THE ARTICLE IS LOADED WITH INACCURACIES ABOUT THE UNITED NATIONS. DESPITE ALL THE COST-CUTTING AND REFORMS THAT WE HAVE BEEN IMPLEMENTING OVER THE PAST THREE YEARS, THAT ALL OF YOU HERE IN THIS ROOM ARE AWARE OF, HE SAYS THAT U-N BUREAUCRACY IS PROLIFERATING, ITS COSTS ARE SPIRALING. THIS IS TOTALLY INACCURATE. I AM SORRY TO SAY ONCE AGAIN HE HAS NOT DONE HIS HOMEWORK.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. HELMS' ARTICLE AND THE U-N RESPONSE FOLLOW THE RELEASE EARLIER IN THE WEEK OF A PRIVATE STUDY ON U-N REFORM. THE REPORT, SPONSORED BY THE COUNCIL ON FOREIGN RELATIONS, SAYS KEY NATIONS SHOULD NOT SPEAK OF U-N REFORM AS IF IT IS SOMETHING DEALING ONLY WITH THE UNITED NATIONS ITSELF. THE REPORT SAYS COUNTRIES SUCH AS THE UNITED STATES NEED FIRST TO REFORM THEIR OWN APPROACH TOWARDS THE ORGANIZATION. IT SAYS ONLY AFTER WASHINGTON HAS CLEARLY DEFINED WHAT ROLE IT WANTS THE UNITED NATIONS TO PLAY, CAN MEANINGFUL CHANGES TAKE PLACE. (SIGNED) NEB/NY/MPR/LSF/MMK
    20-Aug-96 3:22 PM EDT (1922 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    Voice of America Directory - Previous Article - Next Article
    Back to Top
    Copyright © 1995-2022 HR-Net (Hellenic Resources Network). An HRI Project.
    All Rights Reserved.

    HTML by the HR-Net Group / Hellenic Resources Institute, Inc.
    voa2html v2.02 run on Wednesday, 21 August 1996 - 0:10:41