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Voice of America, 96-08-28

Voice of America Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] WEDNESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [02] BOSNIA / CROATS BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (VITEZ, BOSNIA)
  • [03] BOSNIA REFUGEES / GERMANY (L ONLY) BY KYLE KING (BONN)
  • [04] CYPRUS PEACEKEEPERS BY JENNIFER GRIFFIN (NICOSIA)
  • [05] TURKEY / ISRAEL (L-ONLY-RERUN) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)

  • [01] WEDNESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=08/28/96
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09751
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-S-T ON WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 28TH //

    INTRO: THE DEMOCRATIC CONVENTION AND A CONTROVERSIAL GIFT OFFER FROM LIBYA'S LEADER TO AMERICAN MUSLIMS ARE FAVORITE TOPICS OF U-S NEWSPAPER EDITORIAL WRITERS THIS WEDNESDAY. OTHER TOPICS INCLUDE: THE RUSSIAN QUAGMIRE IN CHECHNYA; THE TENSE SITUATION ON CYPRUS; THE COURT VERDICTS AGAINST TWO FORMER SOUTH KOREAN PRESIDENTS, AND THE MEDIA SAGA OF OLYMPIC SECURITY GUARD RICHARD JEWELL. WE GET A SAMPLING NOW FROM __________________ IN TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: AS THE DEMOCRATIC CONVENTION IN CHICAGO PREPARES TO NOMINATE BILL CLINTON AND AL GORE FOR A SECOND TERM IN THE WHITE HOUSE, TODAY'S LOS ANGELES TIMES TELLS READERS THAT "THE MIDDLE GROUND IS STILL THE POLITICAL SOIL OF AMERICA".

    VOICE: "AS THE DEMOCRATIC PARTY PREPARED TO NOMINATE BILL CLINTON ..... THERE'S MUCH ANGST ABOUT HOW THE PARTY IS NOT THE 'REAL' DEMOCRATIC PARTY ANYMORE. BUT WHAT DOES THAT MEAN? ... DESPITE SIMILAR G-O-P AND DEMOCRATIC CONVENTION THEMES THAT NO ONE COULD FAULT -- FAMILY, COMMUNITY, OPPORTUNITY AND RESPONSIBILITY -- THE SAME INTRAPARTY DIVISIONS THAT ALWAYS EXISTED STILL EXIST. THE LOUDEST PARTY ACTIVISTS IN THE G-O-P ARE STILL MORE CONSERVATIVE THAN MOST OF THE COUNTRY, AND THE LOUDEST ACTIVISTS IN THE DEMOCRATIC PARTY ARE STILL MORE LIBERAL THAN MOST AMERICANS."

    TEXT: THE BOSTON GLOBE SALUTES THE MANY SEMINARS AND DISCUSSIONS UNDERWAY IN CHICAGO ON ISSUES SUCH AS IMMIGRATION REFORM, THE ENVIRONMENT, HUMAN RIGHTS, WOMEN IN POLITICS, AND THE ECONOMY. BUT THE PAPER LAMENTS THE LACK OF TELEVISION COVERAGE BEING GIVEN THESE MEETINGS, AS COMPARED TO THE INTELLECTUALLY BLAND CONVENTION ITSELF.

    VOICE: "MOST AMERICANS FEEL SOME OBLIGATION TO WATCH THE QUADRENNIAL PARTY PROMENADE. IF THEY ARE SHOWN NOTHING AND ARE TOLD BY THE ECHO CHAMBER OF MEDIA PUNDITS THAT NOTHING IS HAPPENING, THEY WILL TUNE OUT, AND THE ELECTORATE WILL BECOME SMALLER AND MORE DOMINATED BY SINGLE-ISSUE ACTIVISTS."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: THE WASHINGTON POST TALKS ABOUT THE EMOTIONAL APPEAL OF THE CONVENTION'S OPENING NIGHT SPEAKERS, AND DEFENDS THEM AGAINST CRITICISM THAT THEIR ROLES WERE IRRELEVANT.

    VOICE: "THE DEMOCRATS HIT THEIR POLITICIANS ON OPENING NIGHT IN FAVOR OF A DOUBLE-BARRELED, DOUBLE-WHEELCHAIR ASSAULT ON VOTERS' HEARTSTRINGS. BUT NEITHER JIM AND SARAH BRADY NOR CHRISTOPHER REEVE [THE MOVIE ACTOR WHO PLAYED SUPERMAN AND NOW A QUADRIPLEGIC DUE TO AN ACCIDENT] WAS WILLING SIMPLY TO PLAY THE VICTIM. INSTEAD OF BEING EXPLOITED, THEY EXPLOITED THE OPPORTUNITY TO PROMOTE THEIR CAUSES WITH A DIGNITY THAT ROLE ABOVE POLITICS."

    TEXT: PORTLAND [MAINE'S] PRESS HERALD SAYS AS THE CONVENTION UNFOLDS, IT FITS NICELY WITH PRESIDENT CLINTON'S POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY.

    VOICE: "PREPARING THE WAY FOR PRESIDENT CLINTON'S ACCEPTANCE SPEECH LATER THIS WEEK, DEMOCRATS ARE STRESSING THEMES THAT FIT TONGUE AND GROOVE WITH THEIR CANDIDATE. [MR.] CLINTON IS RUNNING ON A COMBINATION OF FISCALLY CONSERVATIVE AND SOCIALLY MODERATE STANCES THAT PLACE HIM AS CLOSE TO CENTER AS A DEMOCRAT CAN GET."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: THE DAY'S OTHER DOMINANT TOPIC IS AN OFFER BY LIBYA'S MUAMMAR GADHAFI OF ONE-BILLION DOLLARS TO THE CONTROVERSIAL U-S BLACK MUSLIM LEADER LOUIS FARRAKHAN AND HIS NATION OF ISLAM. THE GIFT WOULD NEED THE CONSENT OF THE U-S GOVERNMENT, WHICH HAS BARRED COMMERCE WITH LIBYA DUE TO ITS INTERNATIONAL TERRORIST CONNECTIONS. [OPT] REACTING TO THE OFFER, THE NEW YORK POST URGES - "JUST SAY NO," ADDING:

    VOICE: "THAT IT'S TAKEN THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION MORE THAN A PERFUNCTORY MINUTE AND A HALF TO TELL THE NATION OF ISLAM TO FORGET ABOUT IT IS BOTH PECULIAR AND SHAMEFUL."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: THE NEW YORK DAILY NEWS SAYS HIS WILLINGNESS TO ACCEPT THE GIFT, WHETHER OR NOT IT IS APPROVED, SAYS A LOT ABOUT MR. FARRAKHAN.

    VOICE: "THE REVEREND LOUIS FARRAKHAN'S EAGERNESS TO ACCEPT A ONE-BILLION-DOLLAR 'GIFT' FROM LIBYAN STRONGMAN COLONEL MUAMMAR GADHAFI SHOWS HOW WILLINGLY HE DEALS WITH THE DEVIL. THE U-S GOVERNMENT MUST NOT LED HIM DO IT. .....ANY MONEY FROM [COLONEL] GADHAFI DRIPS WITH THE BLOOD OF TERRORISM. [MR.] GADHAFI ORCHESTRATED DEADLY TERRORIST ATTACKS ON AIRPORTS IN ROME AND VIENNA AND CONTINUES TO PROTECT SUSPECTS IN THE BOMBING OF PAN AM FLIGHT 103 OVER LOCKERBIE, SCOTLAND, IN WHICH 270 PASSENGERS WERE KILLED."

    TEXT: THE PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER HEADLINES ITS LEAD EDITORIAL ON THE LIBYAN MONEY OFFER, "PRESENT IMPERFECT", IN A PLAY ON WORDS, ADDING:

    VOICE: "IT'S A SAD COMMENTARY WHEN THE MOST PROMISING BENEFACTOR BLACK LEADERS SEEM TO BE ABLE TO FIND FOR AMERICA'S MINORITY COMMUNITIES IS THE HEAD OF A TERRORIST STATE... THERE IS NO WAY, DESPITE THE DEPRESSING IRONY AND THE POLITICAL FALLOUT, THAT THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION SHOULD ALLOW THIS GIFT. MR. FARRAKHAN AND THE NATION OF ISLAM SHOULD NOT BE EXEMPTED FROM THE BAN ON ECONOMIC TRANSACTIONS WITH LIBYA."

    TEXT: IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS, THE COLORADO SPRINGS GAZETTE TELEGRAPH FEELS THE DELIVERY OF THE MONEY WOULD BE HIGHLY UNLIKELY IF IT IS ALLOWED, BUT SAYS:

    VOICE: "SO LONG AS [MINISTER] FARRAKHAN IS ONLY OFFENDING A LOT OF AMERICANS OF EVERY RACE AND CREED WITH HIS OWN IRRESPONSIBLE BEHAVIOR -- BUT NOT BREAKING THE LAW OR OTHERWISE ENDANGERING OUR NATIONAL SECURITY -- DOESN'T HE HAVE THE RIGHT AS A FREE AMERICAN TO ACCEPT A GIFT FROM ABROAD...? WE DON'T CARE AT ALL FOR [COL.] GADHAFI ... BUT LET'S MAKE SURE THAT IN REINING IN THAT TIRESOME TYRANT AND BENEFACTOR OF TERRORISTS, WE DON'T IMPOSE SOME OF THE SAME RESTRICTIONS THAT [COL] GADHAFI HAS USED IN OPPRESSING HIS OWN PEOPLE."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST, THE OREGONIAN, FROM PORTLAND, CALLS THE GIFT "TAINTED MONEY," ADDING:

    VOICE: "FOR LIBYA, ABOUT ALL A BILLION BUCKS HEADING THIS WAY MIGHT BUY WOULD BE SOME PUBLIC GOOD WILL FROM THE TERMINALLY GULLIBLE. ASSUMING, OF COURSE, THAT THE MERCURIAL [COL] GADHAFI BOTH HAS THE MONEY TO GIVE AWAY AND, IF HE DOES, WOULD ACTUALLY FOLLOW THROUGH ON HIS OFFER."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: MOVING TO OTHER TOPICS, THE PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER, SAYS OF THE PRESENT SITUATION IN CHECHNYA:

    VOICE: "IN RUSSIA, CONTINUATION OF THE CHECHEN WAR, ALONG WITH DISHONORING THE WAR DEAD, COULD ROUSE RUSSIANS FROM ACROSS THE POLITICAL SPECTRUM AGAINST THE YELTSIN GOVERNMENT. HOW MUCH BETTER TO LET MR. LEBED FIND A WAY OF DECLARING VICTORY -- AND BRINGING THE TROOPS HOME."

    TEXT: REGARDING THE RECENT VIOLENCE ACROSS THE GREENLINE BUFFER ZONE BETWEEN THE TURKISH AND GREEK-CYPRIOT CONTROLLED AREAS OF THAT MEDITERRANEAN ISLAND, THE NEW YORK TIMES REMARKS:

    VOICE: "THE FORCIBLE DIVISION OF CYPRUS INTO GREEK AND TURKISH ZONES IS AS UNSATISFACTORY AND DANGEROUS AN ARRANGEMENT TODAY AS IT WAS WHEN TURKISH TROOPS FIRST PARTITIONED THE ISLAND IN 1974 IN RESPONSE TO A GREEK COUP ATTEMPT. ONLY A NEGOTIATED POLITICAL SETTLEMENT CAN ASSURE PEACE IN CYPRUS AND REMOVE THE DANGER OF MILITARY CONFLICT BETWEEN GREECE AND TURKEY... UNUSUALLY IMAGINATIVE DIPLOMACY WILL BE REQUIRED TO BREAK THE LONG AND DANGEROUS ... IMPASSE AND OPEN THE WAY TO PEACE."

    TEXT: THE DEATH PENALTY GIVEN ONE FORMER SOUTH KOREAN PRESIDENT, AND THE STIFF PRISON SENTENCE GIVEN ANOTHER, ELICITS THIS BIBLICAL RESPONSE FROM TODAY'S PORTLAND [MAINE] PRESS HERALD:

    VOICE: "'HOW ARE THE MIGHTY FALLEN!' CRIED A MOURNING DAVID UPON LEARNING OF THE DEATHS OF SAUL AND JONATHAN. IT IS A FITTING EPITAPH, THREE-THOUSAND YEARS LATER, FOR THE FALL OF CHUN DOO-HWAN AND ROH TAE-WOO."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: AND LASTLY, THE PRESS HERALD SAYS SOMETHING DEFINITELY HAS TO BE DONE IN THE CASE OF OLYMPIC SECURITY GUARD RICHARD JEWELL, WHO DISCOVERED THE BOMB THAT KILLED ONE AND INJURED MORE THAN 100 OLYMPIC FANS, AND THEN WAS IDENTIFIED AS THE BOMBING SUSPECT. THE PAPER SAYS:

    VOICE: "THE INTRUSION INTO THE JEWELLS' LIVES CONTINUES BECAUSE THE F-B-I HAS FAILED EITHER TO DETER SUSPICION FROM [MR.] JEWELL OR TO CHARGE HIM IN THE BOMBING. THE RESPONSIBLE MOVE -- AND THERE IS ONE -- SHOULD COME FROM THE MEDIA. AWARE THAT THEIR NEWS WATCH ON [MR.] JEWELL HAS DRAGGED ON FOR A MONTH WITHOUT RESOLUTION, NEWS OUTLETS SHOULD CONSIDER HOW MUCH THEY ARE BEING MANIPULATED AS INSTRUMENTS -- NOT OBSERVERS -- OF THE F-B-I'S INVESTIGATION. THEN THE CAMERA CREWS AND REPORTERS SHOULD PACK UP THEIR EQUIPMENT AND GO HOME UNTIL THERE IS NEWS TO REPORT."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: ON THAT [OPT] SELF-CRITICAL MEDIA [END OPT] NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS SAMPLING OF EDITORIALS FROM WEDNESDAY'S U-S PRESS.
    NEB/ANG/PCH
    28-Aug-96 11:59 AM EDT (1559 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [02] BOSNIA / CROATS BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (VITEZ, BOSNIA)

    DATE=8/28/96
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-34192
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: IN THE RUN-UP TO THE BOSNIAN ELECTIONS, ALL SIDES HAVE BEEN ACCUSED OF USING REFUGEES IN A BID TO SECURE POLITICAL CONTROL OVER STRATEGIC AREAS. THOUSANDS OF SERB REFUGEES WERE ENCOURAGED TO REGISTER TO VOTE IN FORMER MUSLIM TOWNS NOW INSIDE BOSNIA'S SERB REPUBLIC. BOSNIA'S MUSLIM LEADERS ALSO HAVE BEEN BEEN ACCUSED OF ELECTORAL ENGINEERING, ALTHOUGH ON A MUCH SMALLER SCALE. AND, THE DOMINANT CROAT POLITICAL PARTY, HAS ORGANIZED A MAJOR POPULATION TRANSFER TO SECURE ITS CONTROL OVER SOUTHWESTERN BOSNIA. THE MOVE HAS PROMPTED ANGER AND FEAR AMONG MANY OF THE CROATS WHO REMAIN IN CENTRAL BOSNIA, AS V-O-A'S DOUGLAS ROBERTS REPORTS FROM THE TOWN OF VITEZ.

    TEXT: THE TREND HAS BEEN APPARENT FOR SOME TIME, ACCORDING TO A VARIETY OF BOSNIAN AND FOREIGN OBSERVERS.

    CROATS DISPLACED BY THE WAR ARE BEING RE-SETTLED IN SOUTHWESTERN BOSNIA, IN A SUSTAINED CAMPAIGN ORGANIZED BY THE H-D-Z, THE BOSNIAN BRANCH OF THE PARTY LED BY CROATIA'S PRESIDENT FRANJO TUDJMAN.

    THE INITIAL GROUPS OF REFUGEES WERE SETTLED IN A STRING OF TOWNS PARALLELING THE CROATIAN BORDER, CAPTURED FROM SERB FORCES DURING THE CLOSING STAGES OF THE BOSNIAN CONFLICT.

    // OPT //

    TOWNS LIKE DRVAR, GLAMOC, AND BOSANSKO GRAHOVO WERE ALMOST EXCLUSIVELY SERB BEFORE THE WAR. NOW, ACCORDING TO FIGURES FROM THE U-N REFUGEE AGENCY, THE THREE TOWNS HAVE A COMBINED POPULATION OF JUST UNDER 10-THOUSAND RESIDENTS, AND VIRTUALLY ALL ARE CROATS. // END OPT //

    MORE RECENTLY, OTHER CROAT REFUGEES HAVE BEEN RE-SETTLED IN TOWNS FARTHER TO THE SOUTH IN WHAT IS SEEN AS AN ATTEMPT TO SECURE AN ELECTION VICTORY FOR THE H-D-Z OVER THE MAIN MUSLIM POLITICAL PARTY, THE S-D-A.

    // OPT //

    O-S-C-E AND U-N OFFICIALS SAY A STEADY STREAM OF CROAT SETTLERS ARRIVED IN TOWNS LIKE STOLAC AND CAPLJIANA IN THE WEEKS JUST PRIOR TO THE DEADLINE FOR VOTER REGISTRATION.

    // OPT //

    THERE WERE SUBSTANTIAL MUSLIM COMMUNITIES IN BOTH TOWNS BEFORE THE WAR, BUT VIRTUALLY ALL WERE EXPELLED DURING THE MUSLIM-CROAT FIGHTING OF 1993. AND H-D-Z LEADERS HAVE RESISTED ALL ATTEMPTS BY THE MUSLIMS TO RETURN TO THEIR HOMES. // END OPT
    //

    BOSNIAN AND FOREIGN ANALYSTS SAY THE POPULATION TRANSFER IS CONTINUING. AND THE H-D-Z CAMPAIGN, THEY SAY, NO LONGER TARGETS ONLY REFUGEES.

    LEAFLETS DISTRIBUTED AMONG LONG-TIME CROAT RESIDENTS OF SARAJEVO AND ELSEWHERE IN CENTRAL BOSNIA OFFER ECONOMIC INCENTIVES, INCLUDING LAND AND JOBS, TO THOSE WILLING TO MOVE TO THE TRADITIONAL CROAT STRONGHOLDS OF HERZEGOVINA.

    // OPT //

    IN ONE MUCH-PUBLICIZED CASE, H-D-Z LEADERS APPEALED TO THE ROMAN CATHOLIC ARCHBISHOP OF SARAJEVO, CARDINAL VINKO PULJIC, TO MOVE TO THE CROAT SIDE OF THE SOUTHERN TOWN OF MOSTAR. THE CARDINAL, AN ARDENT PROPONENT OF AN ETHNICALLY-INTEGRATED BOSNIA, REFUSED. // END OPT //

    THE H-D-Z CAMPAIGN HAS PROVOKED ANGUISH AMONG MANY CROATS IN CENTRAL BOSNIA, WHO FEAR THEIR POLITICAL LEADERS ARE PREPARING TO CEDE CONTROL OF THE AREA TO THE BOSNIAN MUSLIMS.

    IN THE END, WE WILL HAVE TO LEAVE, SAID ONE BUSINESSMAN HERE IN CROAT-CONTROLLED VITEZ. THE MUSLIMS WILL SIMPLY TAKE OVER, HE ADDED, AND NEITHER THE H-D-Z NOR THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY WILL DO ANYTHING ABOUT IT.

    THE LEGACY OF THE 1993 MUSLIM-CROAT WAR IS STILL READILY APPARENT IN VITEZ. THERE ARE NO LONGER ROADBLOCKS AT THE ENTRANCE TO THE TOWN'S SMALL MUSLIM ENCLAVE. BUT THE CROATS OF VITEZ SHOW NO DESIRE TO REINTEGRATE THE TWO COMMUNITIES, AND MANY ARE PURCHASING LAND IN CROATIA AS AN INSURANCE POLICY, IN THE EVENT THEIR LEADERS ABANDON THE TOWN.

    THE WORLD MUST KNOW WE CAN NEVER LIVE WITH THE MUSLIMS AGAIN, SAID ONE CROAT HERE. AND IF WE CANNOT CONTROL VITEZ, HE ADDED, WE WILL LEAVE.

    THE CROAT RE-SETTLEMENT CAMPAIGN HAS INEVITABLY PROMPTED A FLURRY OF CONSPIRACY THEORIES. MANY OBSERVORS BELIEVE THE CROAT LEADERSHIP IS LAYING THE GROUNDWORK FOR AN INDEPENDENT STATE OR A UNION WITH CROATIA.

    GRADIMIR GOJER, A CROAT AND A LEADER OF THE SMALL OPPOSITION SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC PARTY IN SARAJEVO, BELIEVES THE H-D-Z CAMPAIGN HAS THE TACIT SUPPORT OF LEADERS OF THE MUSLIM-DOMINATED S-D-A.

    // GOJER ACT, IN SERBO-CROAT - FADE UNDER //

    THESE TWO ULTRA-NATIONALIST PARTIES, HE SAYS, HAVE DECIDED TO RE-DRAW THE MAP, DIVIDING THE PARTS OF BOSNIA THEY CONTROL INTO ETHNICALLY PURE REGIONS.

    HUSSO ZVALJ, A SENIOR S-D-A OFFICIAL, DISMISSES THE ALLEGATION. HE SAYS HIS PARTY HAS QUIETLY COMPLAINED ABOUT THE POPULATION TRANSFER, BUT HAS AVOIDED A PUBLIC CONTROVERSY FOR THE SAKE OF THE FLEDGLING MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION.

    // ZVALJ ACT //

    WE ARE TRYING TO DO EVERYTHING TO SHOW GOOD WILL, TO SAVE (THE) FEDERATION FOR THE FUTURE, AS A MULTI-ETHNIC ENTITY, AND AFTER THAT TO REINTEGRATE IN THE FUTURE (THE) WHOLE (OF) BOSNIA AS (A) UNITED COUNTRY.

    // END ACT //

    MR. ZVALJ SAYS THE S-D-A IS LOOKING TO THE UNITED STATES, WHICH SPONSORED THE FEDERATION, TO PERSUADE BOSNIAN CROATS, AND THEIR PATRONS IN CROATIA, TO FULLY BACK THE ENTITY.

    WESTERN AND BOSNIAN ANALYSTS HAVE DETECTED SOMETHING OF A RAPPROCHEMENT BETWEEN MUSLIM AND CROAT LEADERS AS A RESULT OF PRESIDENT CLINTON'S RECENT MEETING WITH CROATIA'S PRESIDENT (FRANJO) TUDJMAN, AND SECRETARY OF STATE CHRISTOPHER'S TALKS WITH BALKAN LEADERS IN GENEVA EARLIER THIS MONTH.

    BUT EVEN THE MOST OPTIMISTIC SUPPORTERS OF THE FEDERATION ACKNOWLEDGE THAT THE FUTURE OF MUSLIM-CROAT RELATIONS HERE REMAINS UNCERTAIN AT BEST. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DBR/JWH/CF
    28-Aug-96 12:25 PM EDT (1625 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [03] BOSNIA REFUGEES / GERMANY (L ONLY) BY KYLE KING (BONN)

    DATE=8/28/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-202310
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: UNITED NATIONS OFFICIALS ARE URGING GERMAN OFFICIALS TO DELAY SENDING MORE THAN 300-THOUSAND BOSNIAN REFUGEES BACK HOME. V-O-A'S KYLE KING IN BONN REPORTS U-N OFFICIALS SAY THE REPATRIATION SHOULD NOT BEGIN UNTIL NEXT YEAR..

    TEXT: GERMAN OFFICIALS HAVE ALREADY TWICE DELAYED THEIR DECISION ON WHETHER THEY WILL GO AHEAD WITH PLANS TO START SENDING ABOUT 320-THOUSAND BOSNIAN REFUGEES BACK HOME.

    GERMAN INTERIOR MINISTER MANFRED KANTHER IS SCHEDULED TO MEET STATE INTERIOR MINISTERS ON SEPTEMBER 19TH TO DECIDE IF THE REPATRIATIONS SHOULD BEGIN AS SCHEDULED ON OCTOBER FIRST.

    A SPOKESMAN FOR THE U-N HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES, STEFAN TELOEKEN, SAYS IT IS STILL TOO EARLY TO BEGIN SENDING THE BOSNIANS HOME, AND THE GERMAN GOVERNMENT SHOULD WAIT UNTIL NEXT YEAR.

    // TELOEKEN ACT //

    WE HOPE THAT WITH THE ELECTIONS, THE POLITICAL FUTURE OF BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA WILL BE MUCH MORE CLEAR THAN WE KNOW IT NOW. THE MAIN PROBLEM FOR THE TIME BEING IS A SECURITY PROBLEM FOR THE BOSNIANS RETURNING TO HOME AREAS WHERE THEY DON'T BELONG TO THE DOMINANT GROUP.

    // END ACT //

    U-N OFFICIALS SAY THERE HAS BEEN SUBSTANTIAL PROGRESS IN RESTORING A DEGREE OF NORMALITY TO BOSNIA SINCE THE SIGNING OF THE DAYTON PEACE AGREEMENT LAST YEAR. BUT THEY SAY MOST OF THE REFUGEES IN GERMANY ARE FROM AREAS THAT WERE ETHNICALLY CLEANSED IN THE WAR.

    // TELOEKEN ACT //

    FOR THE TIME BEING FOR INSTANCE HERE IN GERMANY, 60-PERCENT, THIS IS AN ESTIMATE, 60 PERCENT OF THE REFUGEES ARE BOSNIAN MUSLIMS ORIGINATING FROM THE SERB (CONTROLLED) PART OF BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. THEY CAN'T RETURN TO THEIR HOME AREAS FOR THE TIME BEING.

    // END ACT //

    IN ADDITION TO THE PROBLEMS PRESENTED BY THE COUNTRY'S ETHNIC DIVISION, U-N OFFICIALS ESTIMATE MORE THAN ONE-POINT-TWO-MILLION HOMES WERE DESTROYED OR DAMAGED DURING THE 43 MONTH CONFLICT. THE PROBLEM OF RECONSTRUCTION AND RESETTLEMENT IS COMPOUNDED BY HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF DISPLACED PEOPLE WHO ARE NOW LIVING IN HOUSES THEY DO NOT OWN.

    INTERNATIONAL RELIEF OFFICIALS SAY IT WILL TAKE TIME TO FIND NEW HOUSING FOR REFUGEES THAT RETURN HOME AND TO PROVIDE THE BASIC SERVICES THEY WILL NEED TO SURVIVE.

    THEY ARE HOPING GERMAN OFFICIALS WILL TAKE THOSE FACTS INTO ACCOUNT IN SEPTEMBER, AS THEY DECIDE WHEN TO START SENDING REFUGEES HOME. (SIGNED)
    NEB/KBK/JWH/CF
    28-Aug-96 10:04 AM EDT (1404 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [04] CYPRUS PEACEKEEPERS BY JENNIFER GRIFFIN (NICOSIA)

    DATE=8/28/96
    TYPE=NEWS FEATURE
    NUMBER=5-34189
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: CLASHES EARLIER THIS MONTH BETWEEN GREEK AND TURKISH CYPRIOTS ON THAT DIVIDED ISLAND HIGHLIGHTS THE DIFFICULT ROLE PLAYED BY UNITED NATIONS PEACEKEEPING TROOPS IN ETHNIC AND TERRITORIAL CONFLICTS AROUND THE WORLD. JENNIFER GRIFFIN REPORTS FROM NICOSIA THE WORLD'S THIRD OLDEST PEACEKEEPING FORCE IS COMING UNDER FIRE BY THOSE WHO SAY THE TROOPS ARE DOING THEIR JOB ALMOST TOO WELL -- KEEPING THE TWO SIDES SO SEPARATE THAT THEY DON'T COME UP WITH A SOLUTION AND ARE NOT FIGURING OUT HOW TO LIVE TOGETHER.

    TEXT: // SOUND OF CAR'S ENGINE DRIVING - U-N ESCORT SPEAKING ABOUT HISTORY OF NICOSIA FADE //

    // WATSON-FLACK ACT //

    MOVING INTO THE SOUTH PART OF NICOSIA, LEAVING THE BUFFER ZONE (CAR HONKS)

    // END ACT //

    MY U-N ESCORT, CAPTAIN EMMA WATSON-FLACK, IS TAKING ME ON A TOUR OF THE U-N GUARDED GREEN LINE THAT DIVIDES CYPRUS BETWEEN GREEKS AND TURKS, AND MAKES NICOSIA THE LAST DIVIDED CAPITAL IN THE WORLD.

    // SECOND WATSON-FLACK ACT //

    MOVING THROUGH PAPHOS GATE. (HONK)

    // END ACT //

    AFTER PASSING SEVERAL U-N CHECK POINTS, OUR FOUR-WHEEL-DRIVE VEHICLE FINALLY ENTERS THE NARROW BUFFER ZONE THAT SLICES THROUGH THIS ISLAND'S CAPITAL. THE BIGGEST THREATS TO THE BUFFER ZONE, FOR THE MOST PART, ARE THE INVADING WEEDS. MOST OF THE STONE AND CONCRETE BUILDINGS ALONG THE GREEN LINE HAVE TURNED TO RUBBLE AFTER THREE DECADES OF ABANDON AND NEGLECT. // OPT // CAPTAIN WATSON-FLACK EXPLAINS HOW THE U-N HAS TRIED TO REDUCE TENSIONS ALONG THIS TENSE BORDER.

    // THIRD WATSON-FLACK ACT //

    WE'RE NOW IN CONSTANTINA DRIVE, WHICH IS THE NARROWEST AREA OF THE BUFFER ZONE. IT'S OFFICIALLY RECORDED AT FIVE METERS WIDE WHERE WE ARE NOW AND AT THE END OF THE ROAD THERE'S AN UNOFFICIAL RECORDING THAT IS THREE-POINT-FIVE METERS WIDE. IN 1989, BEFORE THE UNMANNING AGREEMENT WAS SIGNED, THESE BALCONIES WERE MANNED BY THE OP-FORS (OPPOSITION FORCES). WE HAD THE NATIONAL GUARD ON THE LEFT AND THE TURKISH FORCES ON THE RIGHT. THIS WAS ONE OF THE TENSEST AREAS OF THE BUFFER ZONE.

    // END ACT., END OPT //

    BEFORE THE GREEK AND TURKISH SIDES AGREE TO WITHDRAW TROOPS FROM THIS SPOT ON THE GREEN LINE, SOLDIERS FROM THE TWO SIDES WOULD SIT STARING AT EACH OTHER, DAY AND NIGHT. OCCASIONALLY THEY THREW ROCKS AT THE OPPOSING POST, AND AT TIMES THEIR POSITIONS WERE SO CLOSE THEY COULD REACH OUT AND JOUST WITH ONE ANOTHER.

    NEARBY AT AN ELEVATED U-N POST KNOWN AS "CENTURY," GUNNER IAN SHEPPARD IS PACING BACK AND FORTH UNDER THE SHADE OF HIS TREE HOUSE POST. THE ONLY SOUND HE HEARS ARE THE GRASSHOPPERS.

    HIS BIGGEST PROBLEM, HE SAYS, IS BOREDOM. HE ADDS THAT THE RECENT CLASHES ON THE GREEN LINE THAT LEFT TWO GREEKS DEAD AND TWO U-N SOLDIERS WOUNDED WAS UNUSUAL FOR CYPRUS.

    // SHEPPARD ACT //

    IT DOES GET VERY BORING HERE. BECAUSE WE ARE UP HERE FOR FOUR HOURS AT A TIME. (SOUND OF LOCUSTS, GRASSHOPPERS) ON OUR OWN.

    // END ACT //

    // OPT //

    HIS COLLEAGUE ANDY SUMNERS, WHO IS WAITING BACK AT THE BARRACKS TO TAKE OVER THE NEXT SHIFT, AGREES.

    // SUMNERS ACT //

    IT'S VERY BORING. WE SPEND FOUR HOURS UP THERE AT AT TIME THEN WE GET EIGHT HOURS OFF AFTERWARDS. THE FOUR HOURS UP THERE USUALLY NOTHING AT ALL HAPPENS, SO YOU JUST SIT THERE ON YOUR OWN, COMPLETELY BORED, NOTHING TO DO. QUITE A FEW OF THE LADS UP AT THE POST ... THERE'S, LIKE, 39 STEPS LEADING UP TO IT. SO WE RUN UP AND DOWN THE STEPS AND GET A BIT OF EXERCISE. APART FROM THE BOREDOM THAT'S ABOUT IT. I THINK THERE'S NOTHING YOU CAN DO. WE'RE NOT ALLOWED READING MATERIALS. WE'RE NOT ALLOWED RADIOS. WE'RE NOT ALLOWED WRITING MATERIALS. SO YOU'RE JUST UP THERE ON YOUR OWN, BASICALLY, AND THERE IS NOTHING TO DO.

    // END ACT., END OPT //

    HAVING BECOME A FAVORITE POST-COLD WAR FOREIGN POLICY TOOL, U-N PEACEKEEPERS "BUY TIME" (PROCRASTINATE) FOR POLITICIANS IN PLACES LIKE CYPRUS AND BOSNIA TO COME UP WITH A PERMANENT SOLUTION. BUT IN CYPRUS' CASE, SOME ANALYSTS SAY, THEY MAY HAVE BOUGHT TOO MUCH TIME. WHILE PULLING OUT TOO SOON CAN LEAD TO PROBLEMS, AS IN THE FIERY BALKANS, STAYING FOR 32 YEARS POSES ANOTHER DILEMMA, ACCORDING TO GREEK CYPRIOT ALEX EFTHYVOULOU WHO EDITS THE CYPRUS WEEKLY NEWSPAPER.

    // EFTHYVOULOU ACT //

    THE U-N ARRIVED HERE WITH THE MANDATE TO ASSIST IN THE RESTORATION OF NORMALITY. THEY HAVEN'T DONE THAT. THE ONLY THING THEY HAVE DONE IS THEY HAVE ASSISTED IN THE PERPETUATION OF THE SITUATION. THEY ARRIVED ON THE SCENE WHEN THERE WAS TROUBLE BETWEEN THE TWO COMMUNITIES AND THEY HAVEN'T DONE ANYTHING TO ELIMINATE THE CAUSES OR TO EVEN PUSH AND USE THEIR INFLUENCE ON WHOEVER IS WRONG. THEY'VE SAT BACK AND ALL THEY'VE SAID IS "YOU CANNOT CROSS THE BUFFER ZONE." WELL, THAT'S NOT HELPING RESTORATION OF NORMALITY. IN EFFECT THEY HAVE CONTRIBUTED TO THE DETERIORATION OF THE SITUATION BECAUSE THEIR MERE PRESENCE HAS PREVENTED THE KIND OF TENSION THAT WOULD HAVE BEEN THERE IF THEY HADN'T BEEN SORT OF MAINTAINING THE STATUS QUO WHICH WOULD HAVE PUSHED EITHER SIDE, BOTH SIDES OR THE WORLD TO INTERVENE.

    // END ACT //

    SUCH INSTITUTIONALIZED PEACEKEEPING, SOME ANALYSTS ARGUE, ALLOWS BOTH SIDES TO BECOME SO COMFORTABLE THAT THEY DON'T MAKE THE POLITICAL CONCESSIONS NEEDED TO SOLVE THE PROBLEM.

    THE RECENT SHOOTING AND BEATINGS ALONG THE GREEN LINE RESULTED IN A FLURRY OF DIPLOMATIC EFFORTS TO QUELL THE TENSION BETWEEN GREECE AND TURKEY -- TWO NATO ALLIES WHO HAVE A LONG HISTORY OF ENMITY, BOTH OF WHOM HAVE A VESTED INTEREST IN CYPRUS.

    // OPT //

    IT WAS THE FIRST TIME THAT CIVILIANS HAVE DIED IN CLASHES ALONG THE GREEN LINE SINCE THE TURKISH ARMY INVADED IN 1974, GRABBING THE NORTHERN THIRD OF THE ISLAND. THE 1974 INVASION FOLLOWED A BRIEF COUP BACKED BY MILITARY LEADERS IN ATHENS DESIGNED TO UNITE CYPRUS WITH GREECE. THE TURKISH CYPRIOTS -- WHO MAKE UP 12 PERCENT OF THE POPULATION -- SAY THE TURKISH ARMY CAME TO PROTECT THEM. // END OPT //

    UNTIL THIS MONTH, THE U-N TROOPS HAD MANAGED TO KEEP THE TWO SIDES SEPARATE. // OPT // THE BLUE HELMETS WERE FIRST CALLED TO CYPRUS IN 1964 AFTER BLOODY CLASHES BETWEEN ETHNIC GREEKS AND TURKS HAD LEFT HUNDREDS DEAD. THEY STAYED ON AFTER THE ISLAND'S DIVISION IN 1974. // END OPT //

    CHIEF U-N REPRESENTATIVE TO CYPRUS, GUSTAVE FEISSEL, SAYS IF THE TROOPS HAD NOT BEEN HERE, THE CONFLICT WOULD HAVE ESCALATED.

    // FEISSEL ACT //

    PEOPLE OFTEN SAY ARE YOU PART OF THE SOLUTION OR ARE YOU PART OF THE PROBLEM? AND THE OPTION IS EITHER YOU STAY OR YOU GO ... WHAT ARE THE MERITS OF STAYING OR GOING? THE (U-N) SECRETARY-GENERAL HAS OFTEN SAID THAT IF THE U-N WERE TO LEAVE THE LIKELIHOOD OF CONFLICT WOULD BE GREAT. THERE WOULD BE ALL KINDS OF LITTLE INCIDENTS THAT COULD EASILY MUSHROOM INTO SOMETHING MUCH MORE SERIOUS.

    // END ACT //

    THE U-N TROOPS HAVE BEEN SUCCESSFUL, SOME SAY TOO SUCCESSFUL, IN KEEPING THIS UNEASY TRUCE PEACEFUL, LEADING SOME ANALYSTS TO ARGUE THAT AFTER YEARS OF DIVISION AND SO FEW CASUALTIES THAT THE CYPRUS PROBLEM -- PARTITION -- MAY IN FACT BE THE CYPRUS SOLUTION AN EGREGIOUS NOTION TO THE MAJORITY GREEK CYPRIOTS WHO WANT THEIR LAND BACK AND TO U-N NEGOTIATORS SUCH AS FEISSEL.

    // SECOND FEISSEL ACT //

    THE DIVISION IS NOT THE SOLUTION. IT'S NOT A TENABLE OPTION. IT'S NOT A VIABLE ALTERNATIVE. THE TWO COMMUNITIES ARE CONDEMNED TO LIVE TOGETHER IN ORDER TO PROSPER AND IN ORDER TO PRESERVE THEIR INTEGRITY AS A COMMUNITY. SO WHAT WE HAVE IS NOT THE ANSWER.

    // END ACT //

    BUT OTHERS, PARTICULARLY THE TURKISH CYPRIOTS IN THE NORTH OF CYPRUS, WORRY THAT AFTER SO MANY YEARS APART AND SO MUCH NEGATIVE PROPAGANDA FROM LEADERS ON BOTH SIDES ABOUT THEIR NEIGHBORS, THAT IT WOULD BE DIFFICULT TO REINTEGRATE AFTER SO MANY YEARS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JG/PCF/CF
    28-Aug-96 8:32 AM EDT (1232 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [05] TURKEY / ISRAEL (L-ONLY-RERUN) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)

    DATE=8/28/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-202323
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:
    // RERUNNING TO KILL GRAF 3 OF TEXT. TURKEY IS DENYING PART ABOUT ISRAELI OVERHAUL OF TURKISH PHANTOM JETS //

    INTRO: TURKEY'S ISLAMIST-LED GOVERNMENT AND ISRAEL SIGNED A SECOND DEFENSE AGREEMENT WEDNESDAY, INCREASING MILITARY COOPERATION DESPITE STRONG OBJECTIONS BY SOME ARAB NATIONS. AMBERIN ZAMAN REPORTS FROM ANKARA.

    TEXT: TURKISH FOREIGN MINISTRY SPOKESMAN OMER AKBEL SAYS THE LATEST AGREEMENT COVERS THE EXCHANGE OF TECHNICAL KNOWHOW (EXPERTISE) IN THE MILITARY FIELD.

    MR. AKBEL SAID THE AGREEMENT WAS SIGNED BY THE DIRECTOR GENERAL OF ISRAEL'S DEFENSE MINISTRY, DAVID IVRY, AND VARIOUS TURKISH MILITARY OFFICIALS. HE DID NOT ELABORATE ON THE DEAL BUT SOUGHT TO PLAY DOWN ITS SIGNIFICANCE. HE SAID TURKEY HAD SIMILAR AGREEMENTS WITH 20 OTHER COUNTRIES, WHICH HE DESCRIBED AS STANDARD FRAMEWORK AGREEMENTS.

    ANALYSTS SAY SOME OF TURKEY'S ARAB NEIGHBORS AND SYRIA IN PARTICULAR ARE LIKELY TO TAKE A DIFFERING VIEW OF THE AGREEMENT WHICH THEY SAY UNDERSCORES THE DEEPENING MILITARY RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TURKEY AND ISRAEL.

    SYRIA HAD LED THE CHORUS OF ARAB PROTEST AGAINST AN EARLIER MILITARY COOPERATION AND TRAINING ACCORD REVEALED LAST FEBRUARY WHICH ALLOWS ISRAELI AIRFORCE PILOTS TO TRAIN OVER TURKEY AND TO USE TURKISH BASES. SYRIA SAID ITS NATIONAL SECURITY WAS DIRECTLY THREATENED BY THE DEAL AND CALLED ON TURKEY TO SCRAP IT IMMEDIATELY.

    OBSERVERS SAID SYRIA HOPED THAT UNDER TURKEY'S FIRST ISLAMIST PRIME MINISTER, THE COUNTRY WOULD SHIFT TOWARDS A MORE PRO-ARAB STAND. CERTAINLY THROUGHOUT HIS POLITICAL CAREER, PRIME MINISTER ERBAKAN HAS BEEN A VOCIFEROUS CRITIC OF ISRAEL AND A STRONG PROPONENT OF ISLAMIC SOLIDARITY.

    SINCE COMING TO POWER TWO MONTHS AGO IN A POWER SHARING DEAL WITH TANSU CILLER'S CONSERVATIVE TRUE PATH PARTY, MR. ERBAKAN HAS SOUGHT TO FORGE CLOSER TIES WITH MUSLIM STATES. HIS FIRST OFFICIAL TRIP ABROAD WAS TO IRAN, WHERE HE SIGNED A 23-BILLION DOLLAR DEAL TO BUY IRANIAN NATURAL GAS STARTING FROM 1999.

    AT THE SAME TIME, MR. ERBAKAN HAS ALSO SOUGHT TO PRESERVE TURKEY'S LONG STANDING TIES WITH ITS MOST IMPORTANT ALLY, THE UNITED STATES, AND HAS TONED DOWN MUCH OF HIS ANTI-WESTERN RHETORIC.

    ANALYSTS SAY MR. ERBAKAN IS WELL AWARE OF THE RISKS OF UPSETTING HIS COUNTRY'S WESTERN ALLIES. AND THEY NOTE TURKEY'S POWERFUL MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT IS RIGIDLY PRO-SECULAR AND PRO-WESTERN. (SIGNED)
    NEB/AZ/JWH/MMK
    28-Aug-96 1:30 PM EDT (1730 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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