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Voice of America, 96-10-04

Voice of America Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] ALBANIA / POLIO BY DAVID MCALARY (WASHINGTON)
  • [02] ARAFAT / FRANCE (S ONLY) BY JULIAN NUNDY (PARIS)
  • [03] SWISS/NATO BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (GENEVA)
  • [04] WORLD FORUM FRIDAY (L-ONLY) BY JAN SLUIZER (SAN FRANCISCO, CA)
  • [05] BOSNIA/COWS BY PHILIP SMUCKER (GORAZDE)
  • [06] BOSNIAN ELECTIONS (L-ONLY) BY KAREN COLEMAN (SARAJEVO)
  • [07] YUGO WAR CRIMES (L-ONLY) BY GILLIAN SHARPE (THE HAGUE)
  • [08] U-N WEEK-IN-REVIEW BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)
  • [09] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [01] ALBANIA / POLIO BY DAVID MCALARY (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=10/4/96
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-34578
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION AND THE UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND ARE LAUNCHING A MASS VACCINATION CAMPAIGN [MONDAY, OCTOBER 7TH] TO HALT THE SPREAD OF POLIO IN ALBANIA. THERE WERE 78 CASES AND 12 DEATHS AS OF WEDNESDAY [OCTOBER 2ND], AND THE W-H-O EXPECTS THE NUMBERS TO GROW, THREATENING NEARBY COUNTRIES. V-O-A SCIENCE CORRESPONDENT DAVID MCALARY SAYS THE PROBLEM IS ATTRIBUTED PARTLY TO THE OPENING OF ALBANIA'S BORDERS AFTER DECADES OF ISOLATION.

    TEXT: THE POLIO OUTBREAK BEGAN IN ALBANIA'S NORTHWESTERN COUNTRYSIDE, SPREADING LATER TO THE REST OF THE NATION. COINCIDENTALLY, IT BEGAN IN APRIL -- AT THE BEGINNING OF A MASS CAMPAIGN TO INOCULATE CHILDREN AGAINST THE DISEASE. THAT LED TO PRESS REPORTS LINKING THE OUTBREAK TO THE VACCINATION PROGRAM, SINCE THE VACCINE CONTAINS LIVE VIRUS.

    BUT THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION SAYS THE IMMUNIZATION CAMPAIGN SUCCEEDED IN ITS GOAL AND DID NOT CAUSE THE DISEASE BECAUSE THE VAST MAJORITY OF THE NEW CASES OCCURRED IN TEENAGERS AND ADULTS AND NOT AMONG CHILDREN UNDER FIVE. THE HEAD OF THE W-H-O'S POLIO ERADICATION PROGRAM IS DR. HARRY HULL.

    // HULL ACT //

    WE HAVE IDENTIFIED THE VIRUS, WE HAVE SUBJECTED IT TO VERY SOPHISTICATED GENETIC TESTING IN A NUMBER OF LABORATORIES IN EUROPE, AND WE CAN SAY WITHOUT ANY DOUBT THAT THIS IS WHAT WE CALL A WILD OR A NATURALLY OCCURRING POLIO VIRUS. IT WAS PROBABLY IMPORTED INTO ALBANIA FROM SOUTH ASIA.

    // END ACT //

    DR. HULL SAYS THE PREDOMINANCE OF NEW POLIO CASES AMONG TEENAGERS AND ADULTS INDICATES THEY WERE UNPROTECTED, DESPITE THE IMMUNIZATION EFFORTS OF ALBANIA'S FORMER COMMUNIST REGIME. ALBANIAN OFFICIALS HAVE TOLD THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION THAT POOR REFRIGERATION PROBABLY RENDERED MUCH OF THE OLD GOVERNMENT'S VACCINE INEFFECTIVE, LEAVING MANY WHO RECEIVED IT SUSCEPTIBLE TO STRAINS OF THE DISEASE FROM ABROAD.

    // HULL ACT //

    WE THINK THAT THE ISOLATION OF ALBANIA PROTECTED IT FROM POLIO VIRUSES BEING INTRODUCED FROM OUTSIDE THE COUNTRY IN THE PAST, AND THAT'S ONE REASON WHY WE ARE HAVING THE OUTBREAK NOW. THESE PEOPLE WERE NEVER EXPOSED TO POLIO VIRUSES FROM ELSEWHERE IN THE WORLD. THE OPENING UP OF ALBANIA HAS MEANT THAT PEOPLE FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD ARE TRAVELING THERE AND SO THE OPPORTUNITY TO IMPORT THE WILD VIRUS HAS PRESENTED ITSELF AT THIS POINT IN TIME.

    // END ACT //

    THE U-S CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION SUGGESTS AN ADDITIONAL CAUSE FOR THE ALBANIAN POLIO OUTBREAK: SANITATION PROBLEMS RESULTING FROM MIGRATION OF LARGE NUMBERS OF PEOPLE TO URBAN AREAS.

    THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION SAYS THE OUTBREAK HAS NOT YET PEAKED, AND IS SHOWING SIGNS OF SPREADING TO NEIGHBORING COUNTRIES. THREE CASES WERE REPORTED IN GREECE DURING JULY AND AUGUST, AND SIX OTHER SUSPECTED CASES WERE REPORTED IN THE KOSOVO REGION OF YUGOSLAVIA AT THE END OF SEPTEMBER.

    // HULL ACT //

    THERE ARE MANY WORKERS FROM ALBANIA WHO ARE EMPLOYED IN NEIGHBORING COUNTRIES. WE ALSO HAVE SEEN POLIO CASES OCCURRING IN KOSOVO, WHICH IS A REGION OF SERBIA WHICH HAS A VERY HIGH ALBANIAN POPULATION. APPARENTLY THERE WERE UN-IMMUNIZED CHILDREN THERE AND THE POLIO VIRUS HAS SPREAD TO THEM.

    // END ACT //

    TO HALT THE ALBANIAN OUTBREAK, THE W-H-O AND THE UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND ARE RAISING MONEY FOR AN EMERGENCY MASS VACCINATION CAMPAIGN TO IMMUNIZE MORE THAN THREE-MILLION PEOPLE UNDER AGE 50. W-H-O OFFICIALS SAY IT MAY BE NECESSARY TO CONDUCT A DOOR-TO-DOOR EFFORT TO REACH ENOUGH PEOPLE TO CONTROL THE DISEASE.

    THE TWO AGENCIES -- TOGETHER WITH ROTARY INTERNATIONAL -- ARE ALSO HELPING ORGANIZE A MASS POLIO VACCINE DRIVE IN YUGOSLAVIA, MOLDOVA, ROMANIA, AND UKRAINE.

    DESPITE THE OUTBREAK IN ALBANIA, THE NUMBER OF POLIO CASES WORLDWIDE HAS DECLINED DRAMATICALLY IN RECENT YEARS BECAUSE OF AN INTERNATIONAL EFFORT TO ERADICATE IT. THERE HAVE BEEN NO CASES REPORTED IN THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE SINCE 1991 -- AND THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION HAS SET THE YEAR 2000 AS THE GOAL FOR GLOBAL ERADICATION. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DEM/RRM
    04-Oct-96 2:42 PM EDT (1842 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [02] ARAFAT / FRANCE (S ONLY) BY JULIAN NUNDY (PARIS)

    DATE=10/4/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-204155
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: PALESTINIAN LEADER YASSER ARAFAT HELD TALKS LATE FRIDAY WITH FRENCH PRESIDENT JACQUES CHIRAC IN AN EFFORT TO GAIN EUROPEAN SUPPORT FOR THE PALESTINIANS IN THEIR DISPUTES WITH ISRAEL. JULIAN NUNDY REPORTS FROM PARIS.

    TEXT: CONTINUING A SERIES OF STOP-OVERS IN EUROPEAN AND ARAB COUNTRIES SINCE THE MIDDLE EAST SUMMIT ENDED IN WASHINGTON, MR. ARAFAT HELD BRIEF TALKS WITH FRENCH PRESIDENT JACQUES CHIRAC.

    //OPT//

    HE WAS THEN FLYING TO CAIRO TO SEE EGYPTIAN PRESIDENT HOSNI MUBARAK BEFORE RETURNING HOME TO GAZA. //END OPT//

    MR. ARAFAT SAW MR. CHIRAC AFTER STOPPING IN NAPLES FOR SIMILAR TALKS WITH ITALIAN PRIME MINISTER ROMANO PRODI. FRANCE AND ITALY ARE TWO OF THE PALESTINIANS' STRONGEST SUPPORTERS INSIDE THE EUROPEAN UNION. IN PARIS, FRENCH OFFICIALS -- AFTER PRAISING THE UNITED STATES FOR ORGANIZING THE WASHINGTON SUMMIT -- SAID THEY ALSO UNDERSTOOD THE REASONS WHY MR. MUBARAK REFUSED TO ATTEND. THE FRENCH OFFICIALS SAID THE EGYPTIAN LEADER COULD NOT ATTEND A MEETING THAT PROMISED NO REAL RESULTS.

    THE OFFICIALS SAID MR. CHIRAC TOLD MR. ARAFAT THAT FRANCE WOULD DO ALL IT COULD TO ENSURE THAT EUROPE HELPS THE PALESTINIANS AND ISRAELIS CEMENT A REAL PEACE ACCORD.

    MR. CHIRAC ALSO HELD TALKS WITH ITALIAN LEADERS IN NAPLES FRIDAY. AFTERWARD, FRANCE AND ITALY SAID THEY WOULD PROPOSE AN INITIATIVE AT THE EUROPEAN UNION'S SUMMIT IN DUBLIN THIS WEEKEND TO TRY TO RE-INVIGORATE THE PALESTINIAN-ISRAELI PEACE PROCESS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JN/PCF/RRM
    04-Oct-96 2:56 PM EDT (1856 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [03] SWISS/NATO BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (GENEVA)

    DATE=10/4/96
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-34577
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    ///EDS -- WILL HOLD THRU WEEKEND AND BEYOND ///

    INTRO: THE SWISS PARLIAMENT THIS WEEK CLEARED THE WAY FOR THE COUNTRY TO JOIN NATO'S "PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE" PROGRAM. SOME CRITICS SEE THE MOVE AS A STEP AWAY FROM SWITZERLAND'S LONGSTANDING POLICY OF NEUTRALITY. DOUGLAS ROBERTS FILED THIS BACKGROUND REPORT FROM GENEVA.

    TEXT:

    /// ACT -- AMBIENT SOUND FROM ARMY EXERCISE ///

    WAR GAMES IN THE PASTORAL COUNTRYSIDE OF NORTHWESTERN SWITZERLAND, AS DEFENSE MINISTER ADOLPH OGI ESCORTS A GROUP OF REPORTERS TO WITNESS MANEUVERS BY THE 222ND TANK BATALLION.

    THE TANKS RUMBLE ACROSS A MUDDY TRACK IN MOCK BATTLE. NO LIVE AMMUNITION IS USED HERE, AND THE NOISE FROM THE SIMULATED CANNON AND MORTAR FIRE HAS ALMOST NO AFFECT ON THE HERD OF COWS, LACONICALLY WATCHING THE SCENE FROM A NEARBY HILL UNDER WARM AUTUMN SUNSHINE.

    SWITZERLAND COUNTS FEWER THAN TWO-THOUSAND PROFESSIONAL SOLDIERS. BUT THE CITIZEN'S MILITIA NUMBERS AROUND 400-THOUSAND, AND MILITARY SERVICE IS MANDATORY FOR ALL MALES BETWEEN THE AGES OF 20 AND 42.

    THE SWISS MAY BE FAMOUS FOR THEIR DEVOTION TO NEUTRALITY. THE COUNTRY HAS NOT BEEN INVOLVED IN A WAR IN MORE THAN TWO CENTURIES. BUT SWISS COMMENTATORS CONSTANTLY STRESS THAT IT IS AN ARMED NEUTRALITY, AND THAT ONLY BY MAINTAINING A STRONG DEFENSE FORCE HAS SWITZERLAND AVOIDED THE BLOODSHED THAT HAS PLAGUED EUROPEAN HISTORY.

    ///ADOLPH OGI ACT///

    THE ARMY IS LIKE AN INSURANCE. (DUE TO THE FACT THAT) WE WERE NOT ENGAGED IN WORLD WAR ONE AND TWO, I THINK IT IS DUE TO THE FACT THAT WE WERE ALWAYS PREPARED.

    ///END ACT///

    DEFENSE MINISTER OGI HAS BEEN AT THE HEART OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT'S EFFORTS TO REFORM THE ARMED FORCES AND TO RETHINK THE COUNTRY'S NATIONAL SECURITY POLICIES FOLLOWING THE END OF THE COLD WAR.

    DEFENSE EXPENDITURES HAVE BEEN TRIMMED. BUT THE MILITARY BUDGET REMAINS IN EXCESS OF FOUR BILLION DOLLARS PER YEAR -- AROUND 11 PERCENT OF TOTAL GOVERNMENT SPENDING.

    MR. OGI HAS COMMISSIONED A BLUE RIBBON PANEL TO EXPLORE THE SECURITY ISSUES THAT ARE LIKELY TO AFFECT THE COUNTRY OVER THE NEXT DECADE. BUT AT EVERY OPPORTUNITY, HE HAS ASSURED SWISS VOTERS THERE WILL BE NO ABANDONING THE POLICY OF NEUTRALITY.

    //OPT//

    OPINION POLLS SHOW THAT MORE THAN 80 PERCENT OF THE SWISS WANT TO REMAIN NEUTRAL.

    ///SECOND OGI ACT///

    AND THEREFORE WE CANNOT DO SOMETHING AGAINST NEUTRALITY. NEUTRALITY IS VERY IMPORTANT FOR SWITZERLAND. AND AS A NEUTRAL COUNTRY, I THINK WE CAN ALSO OFFER SOME SERVICES TO OTHER COUNTRIES WHICH NEED OUR HELP AND OUR COORDINATION.

    ///END ACT///

    THOSE SERVICES HAVE INCLUDED TRANSIT RIGHTS FOR NATO TROOPS OF THE "IFOR" PEACEKEEPING FORCE IN BOSNIA. SEVENTY SWISS SOLDIERS ARE PARTICIPATING IN IFOR OPERATIONS. THEY CARRY NO WEAPONS, BUT PROVIDE LOGISTICAL SUPPORT FOR THE PEACEKEEPING FORCE. //END OPT//

    SWITZERLAND IS NOW ON THE VERGE OF FURTHER STRENGTHENING ITS TIES WITH NATO. //OPT// IN PARLIAMENT THIS WEEK, //END OPT// THE GOVERNMENT WON APPROVAL TO GO AHEAD WITH ITS PLAN TO JOIN THE PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE PROGRAM. THE DEBATE WAS LARGELY OVER A TECHNICALITY -- WHETHER THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT HAS THE AUTHORITY TO MAKE THE MOVE WITHOUT PARLIAMENTARY APPROVAL.

    DEFENSE MINISTER OGI ARGUED THAT IT DOES, SINCE NO TREATY COMMITMENTS ARE INVOLVED. AND THE DEPUTIES ULTIMATELY BACKED THAT VIEW, BUT NOT WITHOUT ANGRY PROTESTS FROM BOTH SIDES OF THE POLITICAL SPECTRUM.

    RIGHT AND LEFT WING POLITICIANS CLAIMED THE GOVERNMENT IS BREACHING SWITZERLAND'S NEUTRALITY, AND THEY PREDICTED THAT IT WILL ONLY BE A MATTER OF TIME BEFORE THE COUNTRY BECOMES A FULL-FLEDGED MEMBER OF NATO.

    DEFENSE MINISTER OGI DISMISSED THE ALLEGATIONS.

    ///THIRD OGI ACT///

    IT IS WRONG. YOU HAVE NEARLY ALL COUNTRIES IN EUROPE WHICH TAKE PART IN PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE, AND YOU HAVE A LOT OF COUNTRIES WHICH DO NOT WANT TO ENTER NATO. OF COURSE, YOU HAVE EASTERN COUNTRIES WHO WANT TO BECOME AS FAST AS POSSIBLE MEMBER(S) OF NATO. WE DO NOT WANT TO BECOME (A) MEMBER OF NATO, BUT WE WANT TO TAKE PART IN PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE //OPT// BECAUSE WE THINK THAT IT IS IMPORTANT THAT WE SHOW TOWARDS EUROPE AND TOWARDS THE WORLD THAT WE CAN BRING IN SOMETHING, AS A COUNTRY OF FOUR DIFFERENT CULTURES, FOUR DIFFERENT LANGUAGES, TWENTY SIX STATES (CANTONS). //END OPT//

    ///END ACT///

    ALTHOUGH THE GOVERNMENT EMERGED VICTORIOUS FROM THE PARLIAMENTARY DEBATE, THE CONTROVERSY IS CLEARLY FAR FROM OVER. OPPOSITION PARTIES COULD STILL CALL FOR ONE OF SWITZERLAND'S SEEMINGLY INNUMERABLE REFERENDA.

    //OPT//

    DEFENSE MINISTER OGI ACKNOWLEDGES THAT IF A REFERENDUM WERE HELD TODAY, SWISS VOTERS WOULD LIKELY REJECT INVOLVEMENT IN PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE. BUT HE SAYS HE PLANS TO TRAVEL THE COUNTRY, TO BOLSTER SUPPORT FOR THE MOVE.

    /// OPT // FOURTH OGI ACT///

    WHEN I GO AND EXPLAIN FROM GENEVA TO ZURICH, AND FROM BASEL TO LUGANO, THEN PEOPLE WILL FOLLOW ME. (REPORTER'S QUESTION: WHAT IS YOUR MAIN ARGUMENT IN FAVOR OF THAT?) THE MAIN ARGUMENT IS SOLIDARITY, AND (TO) DO SOMETHING IN EUROPE FOR FREEDOM, FOR PEACE AND FREEDOM.

    ///END ACT/////END OPT//

    WITH VOTER SENSITIVITIES IN MIND, THE GOVERNMENT IS CAREFULLY CRAFTING ITS APPROACH TO NATO. THE DOCUMENT OUTLINING SWITZERLAND'S PROJECTED ROLE IN PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE IS EXPECTED TO BE SENT TO NATO HEADQUARTERS IN BRUSSELS LATER THIS YEAR.

    // OPT //

    SWISS OFFICIALS FORESEE THE DISPATCH OF A PERMANENT REPRESENTATIVE TO NATO'S MILITARY COMMAND, AND THEY PLAN TO PARTICIPATE IN ALLIANCE CONFERENCES AND SEMINARS. THEY ALSO PLAN TO OFFER TRAINING COURSES IN HUMANITARIAN OPERATIONS AND SECURITY POLICY. // END OPT //

    BUT THEY ARE SHYING AWAY FROM ANY DIRECT INVOLVEMENT IN MILITARY OPERATIONS.

    SWISS AUTHORITIES SAY THEY ARE PREPARED TO DISPATCH OBSERVERS TO NATO MANEUVERS AND TRAINING EXERCISES, BUT SWISS TROOPS WOULD PARTICIPATE ONLY IF THE OPERATION IS DEVOTED TO PEACEKEEPING. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DBR/PCF/MMK
    04-Oct-96 2:05 PM EDT (1805 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [04] WORLD FORUM FRIDAY (L-ONLY) BY JAN SLUIZER (SAN FRANCISCO, CA)

    DATE=10/4/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-204160
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: ON THE THIRD DAY OF THE GORBACHEV FOUNDATION'S STATE OF THE WORLD FORUM, SCIENTISTS, DOCTORS AND ENVIRONMENTALISTS HELD A PANEL DISCUSSION TO CALL ATTENTION TO TOXIC POLLUTANTS AND THE DANGER THEY PRESENT TO THE EARTH AND THE PEOPLE WHO LIVE ON IT. JAN SLUIZER REPORTS.

    TEXT: THE EMINENT SCIENTISTS, DOCTORS AND ENVIRONMENTALISTS ON THE PANEL ARE CONCERNED ABOUT THE GROWING EVIDENCE THAT CHEMICAL POLLUTANTS ARE HAVING A DEVASTING IMPACT ON HUMAN HEALTH.

    DR. PETER HAUSER IS A PROFESSOR OF PSYCHIATRY AT THE UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND SCHOOL OF MEDICINE.

    /// HAUSER ACT ///

    "I THINK THERE'S SUFFICENT EVIDENCE FROM ANIMAL AND HUMAN RESEARCH STUDY TO SUGGEST THAT CERTAIN MAN-MADE ENVIRONMENTAL TOXINS CAN ADVERSELY AFFECT BEHAVIORAL, NEUROLOGICAL AND SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT IN WILDLIFE AND IN HUMANS BY DISRUPTING ENDOCRINE SYSTEMS. THIS IS OF CONCERN FOR US AS SCIENTISTS BUT OF PARTICULAR CONCERN FOR OUR CHILDREN".

    /// END ACT ///

    DR. FREDERICK VOM SAAL IS A PROFESSOR OF REPRODUCTIVE AND NEUROLOGICAL BIOLOGY AT THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI. HE BELIEVES THAT THE EFFECTS OF TOXIC POLLUTANTS THAT ARE BEING SEEN NOW ARE JUST THE TIP OF AN ICEBERG.

    /// FREDERICK VOM SAAL ACT ///

    "THERE ARE CHANGES OCCURING IN THE INCIDENTS OF VARIOUS TYPES OF ABNORMALITIES IN CHILDREN THAT ARE BEING OBSERVED. THERE ARE INCREASES IN TESTICULAR CANCER AND WE SEEM TO HAVE IN PLACES THROUGHOUT THE WORLD A DECREASE IN SPERM COUNT GOING ON - NOT EVERYWHERE BUT IN SELECTED AREAS OF THE WORLD THERE ARE DECREASES GOING ON."

    /// END ACT ///

    THE PANELISTS ALL AGREED THAT THE TOXIC POLLUTION PROBLEM SHOULD BE DEALT WITH IMMEDIATELY. AT THE CONCLUSION OF THEIR PANEL, THEY CALLED FOR MORE PUBLIC AWARENESS AND EDUCATION AND MORE RESEARCH TO BE CONDUCTED.

    MR. NICHOLAS ASHFORD IS A PROFESSOR OF POLICY AND TECHNOLOGY AT THE MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY.

    /// ASHFORD ACT ///

    "WE ARE IN A DANGEROUS STATE OF AFFAIRS WHERE THE ONLY ITEM ON THE TABLE IN REGARD TO INTERNATIONAL GLOBAL DEVELOPMENT IS ECONOMIC GROWTH. AT THE ASIAN CONFERENCE IN SINGAPORE NEXT MONTH ENVIRONMENTAL AND LABOR STANDARDS HAVE BEEN TAKEN OFF THE TABLE. THEY ARE NOT FOR DISCUSSION."

    /// END ACT ///

    AS A FINAL NOTE TOM SPENCER - A MEMBER OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT MADE THE POINT THAT A LACK OF CONCRETE SOLUTIONS DOES NOT ENTITLE ANYONE TO GIVE UP ON SOLVING THE TOXIC POLLUTANTS PROBLEM. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JS/PT
    04-Oct-96 5:25 PM EDT (2125 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [05] BOSNIA/COWS BY PHILIP SMUCKER (GORAZDE)

    DATE=10/4/96
    TYPE=BACKGROUND FEATURE
    NUMBER=5-34576
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: AS WINTER APPROACHES IN BOSNIA, U-S SOLDIERS WORKING WITH THE WORLD BANK ARE TRYING TO GIVE A BOOST TO THE AGRARIAN ECONOMY. CATTLE -- ONCE A STAPLE FOR MANY VILLAGERS IN THE MOUNTAINS -- ARE A PRIORITY ITEM, AND ARE BEING SHIPPED INTO THE MUSLIM-DOMINATED ENCLAVE AND FORMER "SAFE AREA," GORAZDE. REPORTER PHILIP SMUCKER WAS ALONGSIDE ONE OF THE ROADS THE CATTLE CAR CONVOY TOOK TO GORAZDE.

    // ACT OF COWS MOO-ING (TO BE INTERSPERSED WHERE NECESSARY THROUGHOUT), THEN HERDING CATTLE ONTO TRUCKS. SOUNDS OF CATTLE AND MEN YELLING AT THEM TO "GET UP." //END ACT//

    TEXT: FARMHANDS HERE ARE TWISTING THE TAILS OF GERMAN COWS -- HEAVING AND HOEING (PUSHING) WITH A WOODEN CROWBAR TO LOAD THEM ONTO A CATTLE CAR. THE PREGNANT BEASTS APPEAR AS RELUCTANT AS MOST BOSNIAN REFUGEES IN NORTHERN EUROPE, WHO REMAIN LESS-THAN-WILLING TO COME BACK TO A WAR-TORN COUNTRYSIDE.

    THIS LOT OF MORE THAN 100 COWS IS ENROUTE TO THE EASTERN TOWN OF GORAZDE, A ONCE-EMBATTLED MUSLIM ENCLAVE THAT WITNESSED STARVATION AND MASS KILLING DURING BOSNIA'S WAR, WHICH ENDED JUST LAST YEAR. WITH ANOTHER NASTY WINTER CLOSING IN ON BOSNIA, MOST REFUGEES AND DISPLACED PERSONS HAVE STILL NOT RETURNED TO THEIR HOMES. SOME HAVE EVEN FLED TO THE URBAN COMFORTS OF SARAJEVO, AFTER LOSING FAITH IN NATO AND THE WORLD'S RESOLVE TO PROVIDE SECURITY FOR RETURNEES.

    THE COWS ARE CRUCIAL TO REBUILDING BOSNIA'S WAR-RAVAGED ECONOMY. SIX THOUSAND PREGNANT COWS WILL BE DELIVERED THIS YEAR ALONE. THAT PRESENTS HUGE LOGISTICAL HANG-UPS.

    TO GET COWS OUT TO BOSNIA'S FARMS WHERE THEY ARE NEEDED, THE WORLD BANK HAS HIRED SOLDIERS -- NOT COWBOYS. IT HAS CALLED ON NATO FORCES -- CIVIL AFFAIRS EXPERTS AND VETERINARIANS ATTACHED TO THE U-S MILITARY'S 352ND RESERVE UNIT BASED NEAR WASHINGTON D-C

    THE DAY'S JOURNEY BEGINS TRAILING A FOUR CATTLE CAR CONVOY IN A U-S MILITARY "HUMVEE." AT THE WHEEL IS LIEUTENANT COLONEL JOHN WILLIAMS, A RESERVE VETERINARIAN EMPLOYED BY THE U-S DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.

    OUR CONVOY CREEPS UP AND DOWN STEEP SLOPES THROUGH A PASTEL RED AND ORANGE LANDSCAPE, PASSING HOMES POCK-MARKED BY AUTOMATIC WEAPONS FIRE.

    COLONEL WILLIAMS EXPLAINS HOW THE WORLD BANK PLANS TO FILL AN ANIMAL VACUUM IN BOSNIA AND HELP RE-POPULATE THE COUNTRY'S BARREN SLOPES, AFTER NEARLY 600-THOUSAND HEAD OF CATTLE DISAPPEARED DURING THE WAR. ACCORDING TO COLONEL WILLIAMS, THIS CONVOY CARRIES SIMMENTAL, BROWN SWISS AND GRAY TYROL COWS WORTH ABOUT 15-HUNDRED DOLLARS EACH. THEY HAVE BEEN QUARANTINED AND CHECKED FOR DISEASE FOR 30 DAYS NEAR SARAJEVO.

    ///WILLIAMS ACT///

    IT IS AN EFFORT THAT WILL HOPEFULLY START THE GRASS ROOTS OF PLACING ANIMALS AT THAT LEVEL OF WHICH THE INDIVIDUAL PEOPLE CAN BEGIN TO START THEMSELVES -- KIND OF JUMP-START (BOOST) THEMSELVES -- IN WHICH THEY WILL HAVE AN ANIMAL THAT WILL SOON GIVE BIRTH TO A CALF WITHIN A MONTH OR TWO. FROM THAT TIME, THEY WILL HAVE MILK FOR THE FAMILY, BUTTER AND CHEESE IN MANY CASES.

    ///END ACT///

    AS WE DESCEND OVER A MOUNTAIN PASS ON OUR APPROACH TO GORAZDE, SEVERAL FARMERS, ANXIOUS FOR THEIR COWS, RUN ALONGSIDE US WAVING LEGAL DOCUMENTS AND ASKING FOR A LIFT INTO TOWN.

    WITHIN MOMENTS OF THE CONVOY'S ARRIVAL, A WELCOME CHAOS HAS ENGULFED RAINY GORAZDE. THE SCENE OF HORNED COWS DASHING THROUGH CROWDS OF ONLOOKERS MIGHT HAVE INTERESTED AMERICAN AUTHOR, ERNEST HEMINGWAY. IT REMINDS ONE NATO OFFICER OF, AS HE PUT IT, A "DISORGANIZED RUNNING OF THE BULLS." THE COWS, HEAVY WITH THEIR UNBORN OFFSPRING AND ANXIOUS AFTER HOURS ON THE ROAD, SPRINT FOR GREEN GRASS AS THEIR NEW MASTERS DESPERATELY TRY TO CORRAL THEM.

    MAJOR MARC ZUFFA, WHO HEADS UP THIS 50-MILLION DOLLAR COW PROJECT, PROVIDES THE COMMENTARY.

    ///ZUFFA ACT///

    WE HAVE POURING RAIN. THE TOWNSFOLK ARE GATHERED HERE IN WHAT LOOKS TO BE -- SORT OF -- THE TOWN'S SQUARE, AND WE HAVE PEOPLE RANGING IN AGE FROM FOUR YEARS OLD TO SOMEWHERE IN THEIR MID-80'S, SOME WITH UMBRELLAS, SOME SOAKING WET, GETTING THEIR CATTLE AND SOME OF THEM GETTING DRAGGED ALONG THE SIDEWALK. IT IS MAYHEM.

    ///END ACT///

    THE CATTLE HAVE BEEN EARMARKED FOR FAMILIES THAT SUFFERED THE MOST IN THE WAR.

    HADIA FORCE IS STANDING ALONE IN A FLOWERED DRESS HOLDING A ROPE. SHE WATCHES THE NUMBERS ON THE COWS' EARS AS THEY WALK DOWN A RAMP INTO TOWN. SUDDENLY, SHE SPOTS HER NEW COW AND TRIES TO LASSO THE BEAST. SEVERAL SOLDIERS TRY TO HELP.

    WHEN WE CATCH UP TO HER, HADIA HAS BEEN DRAGGED INTO A ROW OF BUSHES. AS HER NEW BOVINE FRIEND CHOMPS OFF A FEW LEAVES -- OBLIVIOUS TO THE RAIN AND WIND -- SHE EXPLAINS WHY SHE NEEDS THIS COW.

    /// SOUND OF WOMAN HOLDING THE COW AND TALKING BREATHLESSLY (5 SECS, THEN FADE UNDER) ///END ACT///

    SEVERAL OF HADIA'S COWS WERE KILLED BY STRAY SHELLS DURING THE SIEGE OF GORAZDE.

    BUT WHETHER THESE COWS CAN QUELL THE FEARS AND ABJECT POVERTY IN THIS MOUNTAIN VALLEY IS STILL UNCLEAR. WHAT IS MORE OBVIOUS IN THE EYES OF BOTH THE BOSNIANS AND THEIR NEW ANIMALS IS A LONGING FOR A BYGONE PASTORAL LIFE -- ONE THEY STILL BELIEVE THE ENTIRE WORLD HAS A STAKE IN. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PS/PCF/MMK
    04-Oct-96 12:14 PM EDT (1614 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [06] BOSNIAN ELECTIONS (L-ONLY) BY KAREN COLEMAN (SARAJEVO)

    DATE=10/4/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-204153
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: A DECISION HAS FINALLY BEEN MADE TO GO AHEAD WITH LOCAL ELECTIONS IN BOSNIA NEXT MONTH. AFTER DAYS OF INTENSE DEBATE, THE HEAD OF THE ELECTION-SUPERVISING GROUP IN BOSNIA ANNOUNCED FRIDAY IT WILL GO AHEAD AND HOLD THE ELECTIONS, AS PLANNED, ON NOVEMBER 22ND. FROM SARAJEVO, KAREN COLEMAN REPORTS.

    TEXT: THE DECISION FOLLOWS DAYS OF DEBATE OVER WHETHER OR NOT THE O-S-C-E -- THE ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE -- SHOULD PROCEED WITH THE LOCAL ELECTIONS.

    THE ELECTIONS SHOULD HAVE BEEN HELD LAST MONTH, BUT WERE POSTPONED UNTIL NOVEMBER BECAUSE OF VOTER REGISTRATION ABUSE AND OTHER IRREGULARITIES. BUT FOLLOWING A NUMBER OF ERRORS MADE BY THE O-S-C-E IN ITS CALCULATION OF LAST MONTH'S FEDERAL ELECTION RESULTS, DOUBT WAS CAST OVER THE WISDOM OF GOING AHEAD WITH THE MUNICIPAL VOTE. SEVERAL SENIOR O-S-C-E OFFICIALS WERE RECOMMENDING POSTPONEMENT, SAYING IT WAS NOT FEASIBLE TO SORT OUT THE HUGE OBSTACLES AND ORGANIZE LOCAL ELECTIONS IN TIME.

    ON WEDNESDAY, THE INTERNATIONAL MEDIATOR FOR BOSNIA -- CARL BILDT SAID HIGHER STANDARDS WERE REQUIRED FOR LOCAL ELECTIONS. HE WANTS SUPERVISION IN ALL POLLING STATIONS. THIS PLACES THE O-S-C-E UNDER EVEN MORE PRESSURE. YET DESPITE THE OBSTACLES AND THE OPPOSITION, O-S-C-E MISSION CHIEF ROBERT FROWICK ANNOUNCED THE ELECTIONS WOULD STILL BE HELD IN NOVEMBER.

    //FROWICK ACT//

    MY PRINCIPAL REASON FOR STAYING ON TRACK WITH MUNICIPAL ELECTIONS BEFORE THE END OF THE YEAR IS TO TAKE FULL ADVANTAGE OF THE STRENGTH OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY'S PRESENCE, IN BOTH ITS CIVIL AND MILITARY DIMENSIONS, BEFORE THAT PRESENCE IS SIGNIFICANTLY DIMINISHED IN 1997.

    //END ACT//

    THE DECISION FOLLOWED A MEETING EARLIER WITH MEMBERS OF THE PROVISIONAL ELECTION COMMISSION. THAT IS THE BODY MADE UP OF LOCAL AND INTERNATIONAL REPRESENTATIVES THAT MAKES KEY ELECTION POLICIES. AMBASSADOR FROWICK SAID THE NOVEMBER DATE WAS ULTIMATELY SUPPORTED BY FIVE OF THE SIX COMMISSION MEMBERS.

    THE O-S-C-E NOW FACES HUGE CHALLENGES TO GET THE ELECTION ORGANIZED IN LESS THAN EIGHT WEEKS. ROBERT FROWICK IS CALLING ON THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY TO PROVIDE THE STAFF AND RESOURCES NEEDED TO GET THE JOB DONE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/KC/PCF/RRM
    04-Oct-96 1:51 PM EDT (1751 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [07] YUGO WAR CRIMES (L-ONLY) BY GILLIAN SHARPE (THE HAGUE)

    DATE=10/4/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-204148
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: AT THE HAGUE IN THE NETHERLANDS, THE UNITED NATIONS' YUGOSLAV WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL ANNOUNCED FRIDAY THE DATE OF WHAT WILL BE ITS SECOND TRIAL. ON JANUARY EIGHTH, THE CASE AGAINST CROATIAN GENERAL TIHOMIR BLASKIC -- ACCUSED OF COMMITTING ATROCITIES AGAINST MUSLIM CIVILIANS -- BEGINS. DETAILS FROM THE HAGUE AND REPORTER GILLIAN SHARPE:

    TEXT: TIHOMIR BLASKIC WAS A COMMANDER IN THE BOSNIAN CROAT MILITIA WHEN CROAT FORCES WERE FIGHTING THE MUSLIMS OF CENTRAL BOSNIA. THE INDICTMENT AGAINST GENERAL BLASKIC SAYS TROOPS UNDER HIS COMMAND SYSTEMATICALLY "ETHNICALLY CLEANSED" THE CENTRAL LASVA VALLEY OF ITS MUSLIM POPULATION -- SO THOROUGHLY THAT MOST OF THE AREA'S MUSLIMS WERE EITHER KILLED OR DEPORTED.

    THE CHARGES TELL OF VILLAGES THAT WERE DESTROYED, OFTEN WHILE THE INHABITANTS WERE STILL ASLEEP. AT LEAST 100 CIVILIANS -- INCLUDING CHILDREN, THE ELDERLY, WOMEN AND THE INFIRM -- WERE KILLED.

    THE GENERAL IS NOT ACCUSED PERSONALLY OF THESE MURDERS, BUT THE CHARGES SAY HE KNEW -- OR SHOULD HAVE KNOWN -- THAT THEY WERE HAPPENING.

    GENERAL BLASKIC BECAME A FOCUS OF INTERNATIONAL ATTENTION WHEN CROATIAN PRESIDENT FRANJO TUJMAN PROMOTED HIM TO A SENIOR ARMY POSITION, ONLY DAYS AFTER THE INDICTMENT AGAINST HIM HAD BEEN ISSUED. HE SURRENDERED TO THE TRIBUNAL IN APRIL, FOLLOWING PRESSURE ON THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT BY THE UNITED STATES.

    THE CASE AGAINST THE FIRST DEFENDANT TO STAND TRIAL AT THE U-N WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL -- BOSNIAN SERB DUSAN TADIC -- IS EXPECTED TO END NEXT MONTH, WITH A JUDGMENT EARLY IN THE NEW YEAR. (SIGNED)
    NEB/GS/PCF/RRM
    04-Oct-96 12:22 PM EDT (1622 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [08] U-N WEEK-IN-REVIEW BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)

    DATE=10/4/96
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-34581
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL ENDS SANCTIONS ON SERB-LED YUGOSLAVIA; HIGH-LEVEL VISITORS TO THE NEW SESSION OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY COMPLAIN OF PERSISTENT REGIONAL TENSIONS; AND, SECRETARY-GENERAL BOUTROS BOUTROS-GHALI FINDS STRONG SUPPORT AMONG AFRICANS FOR HIS RE-ELECTION HOPES. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT ELAINE JOHANSON REVIEWS THE MAIN DEVELOPMENTS OF THE PAST WEEK:

    TEXT: THE SECURITY COUNCIL HAS FORMALLY ENDED TRADE SANCTIONS ON THE YUGOSLAV REPUBLICS OF SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO -- A PAYBACK PRESCRIBED UNDER THE DAYTON PEACE ACCORD FOR SUCCESSFUL ELECTIONS IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. THE MEASURES WERE IMPOSED IN 1992 FOR BELGRADE'S ROLE IN FOMENTING THE BOSNIAN WAR.

    THE COUNCIL RESERVED THE RIGHT TO CONSIDER PUTTING THE SANCTIONS BACK ON IF THERE IS ANY SERIOUS BACK-SLIDING ON THE PEACE ACCORD.

    WHAT THE COUNCIL'S RESOLUTION DOES NOT DO IS RELEASE BELGRADE'S FROZEN ASSETS, BECAUSE OF CLAIMS BY OTHER FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLICS. SERB-LED YUGOSLAVIA ALSO REMAINS SUSPENDED FROM THE U-N GENERAL ASSEMBLY AND OTHER INTERNATIONAL BODIES WHILE ITS LEGAL STATUS AS THE SUCCESSOR STATE TO THE OLD YUGOSLAVIA IS BEING DISPUTED.

    -0-

    WHILE THE BALKANS MAY BE ON THE MEND, TENSIONS APPEAR TO HAVE SHARPENED ELSEWHERE. PAKISTAN'S PRIME MINISTER, BENAZIR BHUTTO, REMINDED THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY THIS PAST WEEK THAT RELATIONS WITH INDIA ARE PRECARIOUS. SHE SAID INDIA'S REFUSAL TO SIGN THE NEW GLOBAL TREATY BANNING NUCLEAR TEST EXPLOSIONS COULD LEAD TO A NUCLEAR ARMS RACE IN SOUTH ASIA. MRS. BHUTTO PROMISED PAKISTAN WOULD MATCH INDIA WEAPON FOR WEAPON:

    //BHUTTO ACT//

    JUST AS WE ARE PREPARED TO SIGN ANY AND ALL NUCLEAR TREATIES IF INDIA SIMULTANEOUSLY SIGNS WITH US, ANY STEP ON NUCLEAR ESCALATION BY OUR NEIGHBOR WILL FIND A RESPONSE FROM *US* TO PRESERVE OUR NATIONAL SECURITY.

    //END ACT//

    THE TWO COUNTRIES ARE ALSO AT ODDS OVER THE FATE OF INDIAN-RULED KASHMIR -- A PREDOMINANTLY MUSLIM AREA STRAINED BY VIOLENT SEPARATIST ACTIVITIES. THE PAKISTANI PRIME MINISTER SAID INDIA SHOULD HONOR U-N RESOLUTIONS THAT CALL FOR A PLEBISCITE IN KASHMIR TO LET ITS PEOPLE DECIDE THEIR OWN POLITICAL FUTURE.

    -0- MEANWHILE, THAT NUCLEAR TEST BAN TREATY -- OPENED FOR SIGNATURE SEPTEMBER 24 -- HAS BEEN SIGNED TO DATE BY AT LEAST 111 GOVERNMENTS. HOWEVER, INDIA'S AND PAKISTAN'S SIGNATURES ARE REQUIRED BEFORE IT CAN ENTER FORCE. BOTH COUNTRIES HAVE UNDECLARED NUCLEAR WEAPONS PROGRAMS. INDIA SAYS IT OPPOSES THE TREATY BECAUSE IT FAILS TO SET A TIMETABLE FOR NUCLEAR DISARMAMENT AND, IN EFFECT, ALLOWS THE MAJOR POWERS TO RETAIN THEIR HUGE ARSENALS.

    -0-

    THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY ALSO FOCUSED ON STABILITY IN CENTRAL AFRICA THIS PAST WEEK. ZAIRE'S FOREIGN MINISTER WARNED HIS GOVERNMENT WILL EXPEL OVER A MILLION RWANDAN REFUGEES IF THEY REFUSE TO GO WILLINGLY. HE CALLED ON RWANDA TO MAKE ARRANGEMENTS FOR AN ORDERLY EXODUS.

    THE HUTU REFUGEES ARE AFRAID TO RETURN TO RWANDA, BECAUSE MANY ARE ACCUSED OF RESPONSIBLITY FOR THE 1994 GENOCIDE THAT CLAIMED THE LIVES OF UP TO ONE MILLION MINORITY TUTSI AND MODERATE HUTUS. THE TUTSIS SEIZED POWER AFTER THE MASSACRES AS THE OUTCOME OF CIVIL WAR.

    -0-

    MANY AFRICAN GOVERNMENTS HAVE SIGNALLED SUPPORT FOR SECRETARY-GENERAL BOUTROS-GHALI, WHOSE HOPES FOR RE-ELECTION THIS YEAR ARE THREATENED BY AN AMERICAN VETO. MR. BOUTROS-GHALI TOOK OFFICE IN 1992 AS AN AFRICAN CANDIDATE.

    NIGERIAN FOREIGN MINISTER TOM IKIMI REMINDED THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF MR. BOUTROS-GHALI'S ENDORSEMENT BY THE ORGANIZATION OF AFRICAN UNITY:

    //IKIMI ACT//

    BOUTROS BOUTROS-GHALI IS THE ONLY CANDIDATE RECOMMENDED BY THE ORGANIZATION OF AFRICAN UNITY. LIKE HIS PREDECESSORS, DR. BOUTROS BOUTROS-GHALI SHOULD BE GIVEN A SECOND TERM TO SERVE OUR ORGANIZATION. IT IS THE ONLY CREDIBLE THING TO DO.

    //END ACT//

    IT IS CUSTOMARY FOR SECRETARIES-GENERAL TO SERVE MORE THAN ONE TERM.

    THE NIGERIAN FOREIGN MINISTER DISMISSED AMERICAN CLAIMS THAT THE INCUMBENT IS NOT SUFFICIENTLY REFORM-MINDED. HE ARGUED THE SECRETARY-GENERAL IS A COMMITTED REFORMER.

    THE SECURITY COUNCIL HAS UNTIL THE END OF THE YEAR TO MAKE ITS CHOICE, WHICH THEN GOES FOR APPROVAL TO THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/EJ/MMK
    04-Oct-96 3:03 PM EDT (1903 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [09] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=10/04/96
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09815
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-S-T ON FRIDAY, OCTOBER 4TH //

    INTRO: FROM PORTLAND, MAINE, TO PORTLAND, OREGON, NEWSPAPER EDITORIAL WRITERS ARE ASSESSING THE JUST-COMPLETED MIDDLE EAST SUMMIT AND WHAT THE FUTURE HOLDS FOR ISRAELI-PALESTINIAN RELATIONS. OTHER TOPICS TODAY INCLUDE: BOB DOLE'S RHETORIC ABOUT THE SUMMIT; THE ANTI-DEMOCRACY CRACKDOWN IN BURMA; A POLICY SHIFT ON BOSNIA; A NEW COMPUTER SOFTWARE CONTROVERSY, AND THE POLISH POET WHO WINS THE NOBEL PRIZE FOR LITERATURE. NOW, FOR A CLOSER LOOK, HERE IS ___________________ WITH TODAY'S U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: FROM ONE COAST TO THE OTHER, FRIDAY'S PAPERS ARE WRITING ON THE WASHINGTON SUMMIT THAT BROUGHT TOGETHER ISRAELI AND PALESTINIAN LEADERS IN HOPES OF REVIVING THE MIDEAST PEACE PROCESS. IN MAINE, THE PORTLAND PRESS HERALD COUNSELS AGAINST JUDGING THE SUMMIT A FAILURE AND SAYS, "LET'S GIVE PEACE A CHANCE."

    VOICE: "CRITICS OF THE TWO-DAY SUMMIT MEETING BETWEEN ISRAELI PRIME MINISTER BENJAMIN NETANYAHU AND P-L-O CHAIRMAN YASSER ARAFAT ARE BEING TOO HARD ON PRESIDENT CLINTON AND THE PARTICIPANTS THEMSELVES FOR NOT ACCOMPLISHING MORE. THEY ACCOMPLISHED AN INCREDIBLE AMOUNT SIMPLY BY AGREEING TO MEET AND TALK UNDER THE WORST POSSIBLE CIRCUMSTANCES. FOR THESE TWO SWORN ENEMIES TO MEET IN THE PRESENCE OF [MR.] CLINTON AND KING HUSSEIN OF JORDAN AND CALL ONE ANOTHER 'PARTNERS AND FRIENDS,' AS REPORTEDLY HAPPENED WHEN THE SUMMIT GOT UNDERWAY ... IS A TECTONIC SHIFT."

    TEXT: WHILE THOUSANDS OF KILOMETERS AWAY, IN PORTLAND, OREGON, FRIDAY'S OREGONIAN HAS A DIFFERENT VIEW.

    VOICE: "THE STONY FACES OF THE ISRAELI AND PALESTINIAN LEADERS AS THEY SAT BEHIND PRESIDENT CLINTON THIS WEEK MADE IT UNNECESSARY FOR THEM TO SPEAK. THE DISAPPOINTING OUTCOME OF THEIR SUMMIT WAS OBVIOUS. REGARDLESS, THE UNITED STATES ... HAD TO DO SOMETHING, EVEN IF THE OUTCOME WASN'T SATISFACTORY, BECAUSE IT HAS AN ABIDING INTEREST IN PEACE IN THE MIDEAST. [OPT] ...THE UNITED STATES MUST KEEP UP THE PRESSURE; THE PEACE PROCESS MUST GO FORWARD; THE LEADERS MUST CONTINUE TO TALK. WE DON'T CARE IF THEY WEAR STONE FACES -- AS LONG AS THEY ARE WORKING IN GOOD FAITH TO END THE THROWING OF STONES."[END OPT]

    TEXT: AND FROM THE NATION'S SOUTHEASTERN TIP, TODAY'S MIAMI HERALD OFFERS A MORE BALANCED ASSESSMENT, WRITING:

    VOICE: "THE WASHINGTON SUMMIT ... WAS NEITHER A ROARING SUCCESS NOR A DISMAL FAILURE. RATHER, IT WAS A RESPITE, A TIME OUT. IT ALLOWED TWO LEADERS WHO INTENSELY DISTRUST ONE ANOTHER TO PONDER THE UNACCEPTABLE CONSEQUENCES, FOR ISRAELIS AND PALESTINIANS ALIKE, OF ALLOWING THAT DISTRUST TO DESTROY THE PEACE PROCESS."

    TEXT: THE MIDEAST SUMMIT ALSO BECAME A TOPIC OF THE U-S PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN, AND TODAY'S BOSTON GLOBE IS ANGRY AT BOB DOLE FOR WHAT THE PAPER FEELS WAS HIS UNJUSTIFIED CRITICISM OF PRESIDENT CLINTON'S ROLE.

    VOICE: "THE CRITICISM BOB DOLE HAS DIRECTED AT PRESIDENT CLINTON'S EFFORTS TO RENEW THE MIDEAST PEACE PROCESS BESPEAKS A CERTAIN DESPERATION. IN THE PAST, [MR.] DOLE HAS BEEN A BELIEVER IN THE NOSTRUM THAT A PRESIDENT SHOULD BE ABLE TO COUNT ON BIPARTISAN BACKING IN THE CONDUCT OF FOREIGN POLICY ... AFTER SO MANY YEARS OF DISCRETION, HOWEVER, [MR.] DOLE HAS CHOSEN TO CARP AT [PRESIDENT] CLINTON IN A MANNER THAT IS CONTRADICTORY AND FRIVOLOUS."

    TEXT: AND SPEAKING OF U-S POLITICS, THE FIRST OF TWO PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN DEBATES IS SCHEDULED FOR THIS SUNDAY IN HARTFORD, CONNECTICUT. TODAY'S LOS ANGELES TIMES THEREFORE TELLS READERS:"THE DEBATES ARE COMING: VOTERS' NAP CAN STOP NOW."

    VOICE: "HOWEVER FRUSTRATING IN THEIR LACK OF DEPTH THEY MIGHT BE, THEY REMAIN A PART OF THE DEMOCRATIC PROCESS, A 90-MINUTE SHOWCASE THAT'S AT LEAST AN IMPROVEMENT ON THE VAPID 30-SECOND SOUND BITES THE NEWS BROADCASTS USUALLY GIVE US BY WAY OF POLITICAL COVERAGE. OUR ADVICE IS TO TUNE IN..."

    TEXT: TURNING TO ASIA, THE WASHINGTON POST IS SHARPLY CRITICAL OF THE LATEST ACTION BY "SLORC", THE ACRONYM FOR BURMA'S MILITARY DICTATORSHIP, TO CRACK DOWN ON DEMOCRACY ACTIVISTS.

    VOICE: "EIGHT HUNDRED CIVILIANS, MOST OF THEM PEACEFUL ACTIVISTS FOR DEMOCRACY, HAVE BEEN ROUNDED UP AND JAILED; HISTORY SUGGESTS THAT MANY ARE BEING MISTREATED. BURMA'S RIGHTFUL LEADER -- AUNG SAN SUU KYI, [OPT] THE BRAVE WOMAN WHO OVERWHELMINGLY WON AN ELECTION SIX YEARS AGO BUT NEVER WAS PERMITTED TO TAKE OFFICE -- [END OPT] HAS BEEN PLACED AGAIN UNDER HOUSE ARREST... SHE SAID THE ... ACTION REFLECTED 'THE EXTENT OF THEIR [SLORC'S] FEAR, THEIR NERVOUSNESS ... AND THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY AGREES NOW THE SLORC IS GETTING WORSE, NOT BETTER,' THE NOBEL PEACE LAUREATE SAID. NOW IT IS UP TO THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY TO PROVE HER CORRECT."

    TEXT: CONCERNING ANOTHER OF THE WORLD'S TROUBLES SPOTS -- BOSNIA -- THE SUN IN BALTIMORE IS UPSET WITH WHAT IT SEES AS A WHITE HOUSE POLICY SHIFT ON HOW LONG U-S TROOPS WILL BE DEPLOYED THERE AS PART OF THE NATO PEACEKEEPING FORCE.

    VOICE: "... THE ADMINISTRATION IS DRIBBLING OUT ACKNOWLEDGMENT THAT THE U-S TROOP PRESENCE THERE WILL EXTEND WELL BEYOND THE DECEMBER 20TH WITHDRAWAL DEADLINE PROMISED BY PRESIDENT CLINTON. THIS CAN HARDLY COME AS A SURPRISE TO ANYONE PAYING CLOSE ATTENTION TO THE SITUATION. IT HAS LONG BEEN APPARENT THAT THE CLINTON TIMETABLE WAS TOO OPTIMISTIC, THAT BOSNIA COULD PLUNGE BACK INTO WAR ... COMPLAINTS ABOUT THE POLICY SWITCH BY REPUBLICAN SENATORS ARE UNDERSTANDABLE, GIVEN THE ADMINISTRATION'S RELUCTANCE TO SPEAK CANDIDLY OF ITS INTENTIONS BEFORE AMERICANS VOTE..."

    TEXT: THE ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALIST TALEBAN ADMINISTRATION THAT HAS SEIZED POWER IN AFGHANISTAN HAS SAID IT WANTS TO DEVELOP FRIENDLY TIES WITH THE UNITED STATES, WHICH PLANS TO SEND AN ENVOY TO KABUL. TODAY'S LOS ANGELES TIMES THINKS IT IS A GOOD IDEA:

    VOICE: "THE GESTURE FROM THE RELIGIOUS TALIBAN MILITIA LEADERSHIP IS ENCOURAGING, ESPECIALLY WHEN SET AGAINST THE AMERICAN EXPERIENCE IN IRAN AFTER THE REVOLUTION THERE BROUGHT RADICAL CLERICS TO POWER IN 1979... AFGHANISTAN IS ONE OF THOSE UNHAPPY PLACES WHERE NOTHING EVER SEEMS TO BE REALLY SETTLED. THAT'S A POWERFUL STRATEGIC REASON FOR THE UNITED STATES TO ESTABLISH ITS PRESENCE IN KABUL, SEVEN YEARS AFTER THE FEROCIOUS CIVIL WAR FORCED THE U-S EMBASSY TO CLOSE."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: SEVERAL PAPERS ARE ENGAGED IN A DEBATE OVER A NEW COMPUTER SOFTWEAR CONTROVERSY INVOLVING THE U-S EXPORT OF ENCRYPTION -- OR CODING -- SOFTWEAR, THAT SCRAMBLES COMPUTER TRAFFIC TO PROTECT IF FROM UNAUTHORIZED READERS. THE NEW YORK TIMES CALLS THE PRESIDENT'S POLICY "FLAWED."

    VOICE: "THE NEW WHITE HOUSE PROPOSAL TO KEEP HIGHPOWERED ENCRYPTION SOFTWARE OUT OF THE HANDS OF FOREIGN TERRORISTS AND CRIMINALS IS NEEDLESSLY RESTRICTIVE AND PROBABLY UNWORKABLE. THE NEW PLAN ... RISKS DOING MORE HARM THAN GOOD... POWERFUL ENCRYPTION SYSTEMS MADE BY FOREIGN COMPANIES ARE ALREADY AVAILABLE IN EUROPE AND ASIA, AND AMERICAN EXPORTERS WILL NEED TO SELL STATE-OF-THE ART SOFTWARE TO KEEP COMPETITIVE."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: AND LASTLY ON THE RECLUSIVE POLISH POET WISLAWA SZMBORSKA, WHO WON THIS YEAR'S NOBEL PRIZE FOR LITERATURE, THESE COMMENTS FROM THE LOS ANGELES TIMES.

    VOICE: "POLAND ... HAS BEEN CARVED UP SO MANY TIMES BY INVADERS SINCE THE LATE 18TH CENTURY THAT ITS HEART HAS REMAINED WHOLE ONLY IN ITS LITERATURE. THIS IS WHAT MAKES WISLAWA SZYMBORSKA, WHO THURSDAY WAS AWARDED THE NOBEL PRIZE ... BOTH A POLITICAL AND ARTISTIC LEADER. THE INTELLECTUAL POLISH WRITER CZESLAW MILOSZ MAY BE BETTER KNOWN ABROAD, BUT [MS.] SZYMBORSKA IS THE REAL 'PEOPLE'S POET' OF HER NATION."

    TEXT: WITH THAT WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF SOME EDITORIALS FROM THE NATION'S PRESS THIS FIRST FRIDAY IN OCTOBER.
    NEB/ANG/PCH
    04-Oct-96 11:16 AM EDT (1516 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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