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Voice of America, 96-10-11

Voice of America Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [02] BELARUS: EAST EUROPE'S "BLACK HOLE?" BY FRANCIS RONALDS (WASHINGTON)
  • [03] BOSNIA / MISSING (L ONLY) BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (GENEVA)
  • [04] GERMANY / BOSNIA REFUGEES BY PAUL HOCKENOS (BERLIN)
  • [05] U-S/IRAN/BOSNIA BY DAVID GOLLUST (WASHINGTON)

  • [01] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=10/11/96
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09827
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-S-T ON FRIDAY, OCTOBER 11TH //

    INTRO: THE VICE PRESIDENTIAL DEBATE IS THE LEAD EDITORIAL SUBJECT IN MANY OF FRIDAY'S MAJOR NEWSPAPERS AROUND THE COUNTRY, WITH A CONSENSUS THAT THE EVENT WAS MORE FACTUAL THAN EMOTIONAL. AMONG OTHER TOPICS UNDER DISCUSSION ARE: RACISM SMOULDERING IN THE SOUTH; ALLEGATIONS OF CRIMINAL CONDUCT BY BOTH DEMOCRATIC AND REPUBLICAN PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGNS; THE MIDEAST PEACE STALEMATE; LEGAL HELP FOR THE POOR, AND THE BOY WHO HELPED THE NEW YORK YANKEES WIN AN AMERICAN LEAGUE BASEBALL PLAYOFF GAME. NOW, HERE WITH A QUOTE OR TWO IS ____________ AND TODAY'S U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: WITH REGARDS TO WEDNESDAY NIGHT'S DEBATE BETWEEN VICE PRESIDENT AL GORE AND REPUBLICAN CHALLENGER JACK KEMP, MANY PAPERS ARE CONCEDING THAT IT WAS SOMEWHAT DULL, BUT DEVOID OF BITTER PERSONAL ATTACKS. NEWSDAY ON NEW YORK'S LONG ISLAND CALLS IT "CIVIL WARFARE," ADDING:

    VOICE: "THIS WAS THE DEBATE OF THE POLICY WONKS [PEOPLE WHO REVEL IN CITING STATISTICS AND SHOWING THEIR KNOWLEDGE OF OBSCURE GOVERNMENT SUBJECTS]. PLENTY OF SUBSTANCE, BUT NOT MUCH ELECTRICITY. ... IF YOU WANTED A SERIOUS DISCUSSION OF THE ISSUES, THIS WAS IT. THE DEBATE WAS ALSO A SHOWCASE FOR TWO POLITICIANS WHO COULD WELL BE THEIR PARTIES' NOMINEES FOR PRESIDENT IN FOUR YEARS. [MR.] KEMP PROVED TO BE UPBEAT [BUOYANT], ENTHUSIASTIC AND ARTICULATE... [MR.] GORE WAS POISED, EARNEST, WELL-INFORMED AND PAINFULLY PEDANTIC. "

    TEXT: FOR ITS PART THE WASHINGTON POST SAYS:

    VOICE: "MR. GORE WAS SAID BY MOST OF THE INSTANT ANALYZERS AND POLLSTERS WHO HAVE BECOME AS MUCH A PART OF THESE THINGS AS THE DEBATERS THEMSELVES TO HAVE 'WON' THE CONTEST. IT'S HARD TO KNOW EXACTLY WHAT THAT MEANS. WITH THE PRESIDENT SO STEADILY FAR AHEAD IN THE POLLS, WINNING MEANS SIMPLY GETTING THROUGH THE EVENT WITHOUT A HARMFUL GAFFE. SOME CRITICS ON THE REPUBLICAN SIDE WERE TESTY WITH MR. KEMP FOR NOT HAVING BEEN MORE COMBATIVE ON ANY NUMBER OF ISSUES, INCLUDING ... THE PRESIDENT'S CHARACTER."

    TEXT: TODAY'S ATLANTA CONSTITUTION RESPONDS TO A REPORT THIS WEEK BY THE FEDERAL CIVIL RIGHTS COMMISSION THAT RACISM SMOULDERS ON IN THE AMERICAN SOUTH.

    VOICE: "WHEN THE OLYMPICS CAME TO ATLANTA THIS SUMMER, THE WORLD SAW THE NEW SOUTH MUCH AS IT WANTS TO BE SEEN: A REGION WHERE RACISM NO LONGER REIGNS, WHERE BLACKS AND WHITES WORK IN HARMONY TOWARD COMMON GOALS. BUT THERE IS ANOTHER SOUTH THAT IS NOT SHOW-CASED OR EASILY SEEN ... THE SOUTH WHERE RACISM IS FAR FROM BANISHED. IN THE GLEAMING CITIES AND SUBURBS, IT CONSTANTLY LURKS BELOW THE SURFACE, RISING WHEN PENT-UP PASSIONS EXPLODE OR WHEN RACE IS A CONVENIENT POLITICAL TOOL OR CRUTCH... THAT IS THE SOUTH THE U-S COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS FOUND ... IN SIX SOUTHERN STATES... WE SHOULD SEARCH OUT THE VESTIGES OF RACISM AND RID OUR COMMUNITIES OF THEM. WE MUST FIGHT NOT ONLY THE FLAMES OF HATE THAT DESTROY CHURCHES, BUT ALSO THOSE THAT STILL BURN IN OUR OWN SOULS."

    TEXT: THE CITIZENS WATCHDOG GROUP COMMON CAUSE HAS CALLED ON THE JUSTICE DEPARTMENT TO INVESTIGATE BOTH THE DOLE AND CLINTON PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGNS FOR ALLEGED CRIMINAL VIOLATIONS OF THE CAMPAIGN FINANCING LAW. THE NEW YORK TIMES AGREES.

    VOICE: "A TROUBLING ASPECT OF THIS YEAR'S ... RACE HAS BEEN THE BRAZEN CIRCUMVENTION OF ... CAMPAIGN FINANCE LAWS BY BOTH PARTIES AND THEIR PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGNS. THIS BIPARTISAN TRICKERY HAS CREATED A FRUSTRATING SENSE THAT BETWEEN SUPREME COURT-SANCTIONED LOOPHOLES, CONGRESSIONAL INACTION AND A NOTORIOUSLY WEAK FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION, NOTHING CAN BE DONE TO CLEAN UP CAMPAIGN SPENDING... COMMON CAUSE SEEMS ON FIRM GROUND IN ARGUING THAT WHAT IS INVOLVED IS ... A WHOLESALE FLOUTING OF RULES DESIGNED TO LIMIT THE ROLE OF SPECIAL-INTEREST MONEY IN POLITICS."

    TEXT: TURNING TO THE MIDDLEAST, THE LOS ANGELES TIMES IS UNHAPPY WITH THE LACK OF PROGRESS IN TALKS BETWEEN ISRAEL AND THE PALESTINIANS SINCE THE WHITE HOUSE SUMMIT.

    VOICE: "THE STICKING POINTS CONTINUE TO BE ISRAELI PRIME MINISTER BENJAMIN NETANYAHU'S INSISTENCE THAT NEW SECURITY MEASURES BE ADOPTED IN AN EFFORT TO BETTER PROTECT THE 400 OR SO MILITANT ISRAELIS WHO LIVE AMONG 100-THOUSAND PALESTINIANS IN HEBRON, AND PALESTINIAN LEADER YASSER ARAFAT'S DETERMINATION THAT THE ARDUOUSLY NEGOTIATED ACCORDS GOVERNING THE PEACE PROCESS NOT BE TINKERED WITH... ISRAEL'S MILITARY PULLOUT FROM HEBRON WAS TO TAKE PLACE LAST SPRING. IF IT'S DELAYED MUCH LONGER, THE PEACE PROCESS COULD END."

    TEXT: RETURNING TO DOMESTIC MATTERS, THE BOSTON GLOBE IS VOICING CONCERN ABOUT CONGRESS REDUCING, FOR IDEOLOGICAL REASONS, LEGAL HELP FOR THE POOR.

    VOICE: "LAST YEAR CONGRESS IMPOSED A STRICT IDEOLOGICAL TEST ON LEGAL REPRESENTATION FOR THE POOR, CUTTING THE BUDGET FOR LEGAL SERVICES BY 40 PERCENT AND SINGLING OUT THOSE WHOM THE FEDERALLY SUPPORTED LAWYERS CAN REPRESENT, AND WHEN. UNDER THE NEW LAW, LEGAL AID ATTORNEYS ARE BARRED FROM TAKING ABORTION-RIGHTS CASES... THE ACTIONS BY CONGRESS UNDERMINE THE ASSURANCE THAT EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE IS A RIGHT OF ALL AMERICANS, RICH OR POOR... EVERY CITIZEN HAS AN INTEREST IN A JUSTICE SYSTEM THAT LIVES UP TO ITS CONSTITUTIONAL PROMISE TO SERVE ALL OF THE PEOPLE EQUALLY."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: ON A CENTRAL AMERICAN ISSUE, THE BOSTON GLOBE NOTES WHAT IT CALLS THE POLITICAL "TRANSMOGRIFICATION" OF NICARAGUA'S FORMER COMMUNIST LEADER DANIEL ORTEGA, COMMENTING:

    VOICE: "THE REPACKAGING OF [MR.] ORTEGA QUALIFIES AS THE EPITOME OF THE POLITICAL CONSULTANT'S CRAFT. THOUGH HE PRESIDED OVER SANDINISTA EXPROPRIATIONS OF PRIVATE PROPERTY, CANDIDATE ORTEGA TELLS THE 'CONFISCADOS' THAT HE FEELS THEIR PAIN. SINCE HE LIVES IN A MANSION CONFISCATED FROM THE CAMPAIGN MANAGER OF HIS MAIN RIVAL, ARNALDO ALEMAN, THE FORMER MAYOR OF MANAGUA, [MR.] ORTEGA CAN MAKE THE CASE THAT HE HAS CHANGED SIDES IN THE CLASS STRUGGLE."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: AND LASTLY, SEVERAL PAPERS ARE COMMENTING ON THE YOUNG BOY WHO REACHED OVER A WALL IN NEW YORK'S YANKEE STADIUM AND CAUGHT A FLY BALL, HELPING THE YANKEES WIN THEIR FIRST AMERICAN LEAGUE PLAYOFF GAME. WHILE THE BALL MIGHT POSSIBLY HAVE BEEN FIELDED BY THE BALTIMORE ORIOLES OUTFIELDER BELOW, IT WAS RULED A HOME RUN. THE CATCH TOUCHED OFF A NATIONAL DEBATE, AND MADE A CELEBRITY OF THE BOY, JEFFREY MAIER. IN PORTLAND, OREGON, THE OREGONIAN SAYS THE INCIDENT WAS A KIND OF POETIC JUSTICE.

    VOICE: "A 12-YEAR-OLD LAD ... HELPED ADMINISTER A SMALL BIT OF JUSTICE WEDNESDAY NIGHT -- POETIC JUSTICE, AT LEAST -- THAT ROBERTO ALOMAR AND THE BALTIMORE ORIOLES HAD COMING. ALOMAR, THE ORIOLE'S SECOND BASEMAN SPIT IN THE FACE OF AN UMPIRE AND WAS ALLOWED TO CONTINUE PLAYING IN MAJOR-LEAGUE BASEBALL'S POST-SEASON PLAYOFFS... A BAD CALL FOR THE ORIOLES. YES, AND IT'S NOT GOING TO BREAK ANY HEARTS HERE IF MORE UMPIRES' LINE CALLS GO AGAINST ALOMAR'S ORIOLES OVER THE NEXT FEW GAMES. THEY HAVE IT COMING..."

    TEXT: THAT SPORTS NOTE CONCLUDES THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF EDITORIALS TO BE FOUND IN TODAY'S U-S PRESS.
    NEB/ANG/PCH
    11-Oct-96 10:46 AM EDT (1446 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [02] BELARUS: EAST EUROPE'S "BLACK HOLE?" BY FRANCIS RONALDS (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=10/11/96
    TYPE=CLOSEUP (UPDATE)
    NUMBER=4-09394
    TELEPHONE=619-3937
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT= // TAPE INSERTS AND VOICED VERSION IN TAPE LIBRARY //
    [EDITOR'S NOTE: UPDATES 4-09392 WITH NEW INTRO AND REVISED FIRST GRAF OF TEXT TO REFLECT NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN THE LUKASHENKO-PARLIAMENT RIFT.]

    INTRO: PRESIDENT ALEXANDER LUKASHENKO OF BELARUS, A FORMER SOVIET REPUBLIC IN THE CENTER OF EASTERN EUROPE, HAS BROKEN OFF TALKS WITH HIS PARLIAMENT, FROM WHICH HE HAS BEEN DEMANDING THE RIGHT TO RULE BY DECREE FOR TEN YEARS. LEADERS OF MORE THAN 20 POLITICAL PARTIES CALLED FOR IMPEACHMENT PROCEEDING AGAINST THE PRESIDENT EARLIER THIS MONTH. WITH BACKGROUND ON THE POLITICAL STANDOFF, AND SOME OF THE ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES FOR THE

    BELARUSSIAN PEOPLE, HERE IS VOA'S FRANK RONALDS.

    HOST: BELARUS, A COUNTRY OF TEN-MILLION PEOPLE IN THE CENTER OF EASTERN EUROPE, HAS BEEN DESCRIBED AS A "BLACK HOLE, RADIATING INSTABILITY." BELARUS IS WEDGED BETWEEN RUSSIA TO THE EAST, POLAND TO THE WEST, UKRAINE TO THE SOUTH, AND THE BALTIC STATES OF LITHUANIA AND LATVIA TO THE NORTH. THEY HAVE ALL BEEN MOVING, WITH VARYING SUCCESS, TOWARD DEMOCRACY AND THE FREE MARKET. BUT BELARUS APPEARS TO BE GOING IN THE OPPOSITE DIRECTION. ITS PRESIDENT, ALEXANDER LUKASHENKO, HAS DEMANDED THAT PARLIAMENT GIVE HIM A RIGHT TO RULE BY DECREE, BUT PARLIAMENT HAS RESISTED HIS POWER PLAYS. THE PRESIDENT'S BRUTAL SECRET POLICE HAVE BEEN BREAKING UP OPPOSITION PROTESTS, ARRESTING LEGISLATORS, AND TAKING CONTROL OVER, OR CLOSING DOWN, THE INDEPENDENT MEDIA.

    ACCORDING TO PROFESSOR MARSHALL GOLDMAN, ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR OF THE DAVIS CENTER FOR RUSSIAN STUDIES AT HARVARD UNIVERSITY, ALEXANDER LUKASHENKO'S WANTS TO RETURN TO THE COMMUNIST PAST: TAPE; CUT ONE -- GOLDMAN "IF LUKASHENKO HAS HIS WAY, HE CERTAINLY WILL TURN OUT TO BE A DICTATOR. HE'S BEEN CALLING FOR AN EXTENDED TERM FOR HIS PRESIDENCY. BASICALLY, WHAT HE IS SAYING IS, 'I'M GOING TO PUT MYSELF IN OFFICE AND I'M GOING TO STAY THERE TILL I GET READY TO LEAVE.' SO CALL IT WHAT YOU WANT; THIS CERTAINLY BRINGS BACK MEMORIES OF THE OLD DICTATORIAL SOCIETY THAT WE ASSOCIATED WITH THE SOVIET UNION." HOST: PRESIDENT LUKASHENKO VOWS TO RE-NATIONALIZE SOME LARGER ENTERPRISES AND HAS BEEN SQUEEZING THE 178-THOUSAND SMALL BUSINESSES WHICH DEVELOPED DURING THE POST-SOVIET PERIOD. HE HAS CALLED FOR A UNION WITH RUSSIA, WHICH FOR POLITICAL -- BUT DEFINITELY NOT FOR ECONOMIC -- REASONS WON SOME SUPPORT IN MOSCOW. LAST APRIL, RUSSIA'S PRESIDENT BOSIR YELTSIN AND BELARUS' PRESIDENT LUKASHENKO SIGNED A SO-CALLED "UNION AGREEMENT." THIS SERVED PRESIDENT YELTSIN'S POLITICAL PURPOSES AT THE TIME, BUT IF ACTUALLY PUT INTO EFFECT, IT WOULD THREATEN THE ECONOMIC POLICIES OF PRIME MINISTER VIKTOR CHERNOMYRDIN, WHO HAS BROUGHT RUSSIA'S INFLATION RATE DOWN TO ZERO. AGAIN, MARSHALL GOLDMAN:

    TAPE: CUT TWO -- GOLDMAN "DURING THE CAMPAIGN FOR PRESIDENT IN RUSSIA, YELTSIN WAS WORRIED THAT THE COMMUNIST WOULD STEAL AN ISSUE FROM HIM BY SAYING THAT THEY WANTED TO BRING BACK SOME OF THE OTHER REPUBLICS INTO THE UNION. THEN LUKASHENKO CAME ALONG AND INDICATED HE WANTED TO GO BACK TO SOME KIND OF MERGER WITH RUSSIA. THAT WOULD HAVE BEEN A REAL PROBLEM FOR THE RUSSIANS BECAUSE THEY HAD BASICALLY SEVERED THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THEIR CURRENCY AND THE CURRENCY IN BELARUS AS A WAY OF TRYING TO STABILIZE INFLATION IN RUSSIA. LUKASHENKO DOES HAVE SOME SUPPORT FROM THE PEOPLE BECAUSE THE ECONOMY IS IN BAD SHAPE AND THEY KEEP SAYING, 'MAYBE IF HE DOES FORM THIS ALLIANCE WITH RUSSIA, RUSSIA WILL COME AND BAIL US OUT.' THAT'S A PARTICULARLY STRONG FEELING IN THE COUNTRYSIDE. IT'S IN THE CITIES WHERE YOU TEND TO HAVE MORE NATIONALISM AND THERE'S MORE RESISTANCE TO THAT NOTION." HOST: PRESIDENT LUKASHENKO HAS BUILT UP A POWERFUL SECRET POLICE ORGANIZATION, ESTIMATED AT 150-THOUSAND MEN, AND STILL KNOWN AS THE K-G-B. THESE POLICE HAVE BRUTALLY BROKEN UP DEMONSTRATIONS ORGANIZED BY OPPOSITION MEMBERS OF THE LEGISLATURE, AND HELPED THE PRESIDENT TO TAKE OVER CONTROL OF TELEVISION AND RADIO AND TO CLOSE DOWN INDEPENDENT NEWSPAPERS:

    TAPE: CUT THREE -- GOLDMAN "LUKASHENKO BEGAN TO MOVE EFFECTIVELY AGAINST THE NEWSPAPERS UNTIL SOME OF THEM MOVED OFF INTO THE BALTIC STATES TO DO THEIR WRITING AND PUBLISHING AND THEN SHIPPED THEIR PAPERS BACK INTO BELARUS. HE STOPPED THAT. HE CLOSED DOWN THE MORE OUTSPOKEN PAPERS WITHIN BELARUS. AND HE HAS NOT HESITATED TO USE FORCE AND VIOLENCE WHEN HE WANTED TO CRACK DOWN ON THE OPPOSITION. SOME OF THE OPPOSTION HAVE FLED, SEEKING POLITICAL ASYLUM, EVEN IN THE UNITED STATES. HE'S PLAYING FOR KEEPS. AND IT'S REMARKABLE THAT THE OPPOSITION AND PROTESTS HAVE CONTINUED AS LONG AS THEY HAVE." HOST: PROFESSOR GOLDMAN FEARS THAT IF PRESIDENT LUKASHENKO'S TACTICS SUCCEED, POLITICIANS IN SOME NEIGHBORING COUNTRIES MAY COPY HIM:

    TAPE: CUT FOUR -- GOLDMAN "I'M HOPEFUL THAT THE PROTESTORS WILL HOLD OUT. BUT IF YOU WERE TO ASK ME TO BET, I'M NOT SURE I WOULD BE CERTAIN THAT THEY WILL SUCCEED. IF BELARUS FAILS -- I WOULDN'T SAY ITS AUTOMATICALLY A DOMINO EFFECT, BUT IT CERTAINLY MAKES IT MORE DIFFICULT, BECAUSE THERE WILL BE OTHERS WHO SAY, 'IF HE GETS AWAY WITH IT, WE CAN DO THE SAME THING.'" HOST: WHILE THE BELARUSSIAN MEDIA MAY BE SILENCED, THE PEOPLE OF BELARUS ARE NOT SHUT OFF FROM THE OUTSIDE WORLD. AMONG OTHER SOURCES, THEY CAN LISTEN TO RADIO BROADCASTS FROM THE B-B-C, FROM RADIO LIBERTY, AND FROM THE VOICE OF AMERICA -- AS WELL AS FROM RADIO MOSCOW. (SIGNED)
    NEB/FR/PCH
    11-Oct-96 10:15 AM EDT (1415 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [03] BOSNIA / MISSING (L ONLY) BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (GENEVA)

    DATE=10/11/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-204491
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: A NEW INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION TOOK SHAPE IN GENEVA FRIDAY, IN A BID TO RAISE THE PROFILE OF EFFORTS TO DETERMINE THE FATE OF THOSE STILL MISSING FROM THE CONFLICTS IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. THE PANEL WAS ESTABLISHED ON THE INITIATIVE OF U-S PRESIDENT CLINTON, AND IS CHAIRED BY FORMER SECRETARY OF STATE CYRUS VANCE. V-O-A'S DOUGLAS ROBERTS REPORTS THE COMMISSION HELD ITS INAUGURAL SESSION IN GENEVA FRIDAY.

    TEXT: NO ONE REALLY KNOWS HOW MANY PEOPLE ARE STILL MISSING FROM THE WARS IN CROATIA AND BOSNIA.

    THE INTERNATIONAL RED CROSS ESTIMATES THERE ARE STILL SOME 12-THOUSAND TO 15-THOUSAND PEOPLE UNACCOUNTED FOR IN BOSNIA ALONE. BUT OTHER SOURCES PUT THE FIGURE MUCH HIGHER.

    THE DEPUTY CIVILIAN ADMINISTRATOR FOR BOSNIA, MICHAEL STEINER, BELIEVES THE EFFORT TO DETERMINE THE FATE OF THE MISSING MUST BE SEEN AS AN INTEGRAL PART OF THE BOSNIAN PEACE PROCESS.

    /// STEINER ACT ///

    WE HAVE TO ASSUME THAT MOST OF THESE PEOPLE ARE DEAD. BUT THE FAMILIES, OF COURSE, HOPE THAT THEY ARE NOT DEAD, AND THEREFORE BELIEVE THAT THEY ARE NOT DEAD. AND THEREFORE, IT IS SO IMPORTANT THAT THEY KNOW WHAT HAS HAPPENED. THE WORST THING FOR THEM IS, OF COURSE, THE UNCERTAINTY.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE NEWLY-FORMED COMMISSION HOPES TO BRING AN END TO THAT UNCERTAINTY BY FOCUSSING INTERNATIONAL ATTENTION ON EFFORTS TO TRACE THE MISSING AND TO IDENTIFY THE REMAINS IN THE MASS GRAVES THAT DOT THE BOSNIAN COUNTRYSIDE.

    MR. STEINER SAYS THE COMMISSION WILL ALSO TRY TO PROVIDE PSYCHOLOGICAL SUPPORT FOR THE FAMILIES OF THE MISSING, AND BRING THEM TOGETHER IN A COMMON EFFORT TO LEARN THE FATE OF THEIR LOVED ONES.

    /// STEINER ACT ///

    IF FAMILIES FROM THE SERB ENTITY AND FAMILIES FROM THE FEDERATION, THE OTHER ENTITY, IF THEY WORK TOGETHER (AND WORK IN A WORK DIVISION) ON THEIR DIFFERENT AUTHORITIES, THEY ARE QUITE A POWERFUL PRESSURE GROUP. AND THIS PRESSURE GROUP IS NECESSARY BECAUSE WHAT WE SEE AT THE LEVEL OF THE AUTHORITIES DOWN THERE IS THAT THERE IS STILL AN EXCHANGE MOOD OUT OF THE WAR. THERE IS NO READINESS TO DO ANYTHING WITHOUT GETTING ANYTHING FROM THE OTHER SIDE.

    /// END ACT ///

    IN ADDITION TO CHAIRMAN VANCE, THE COMMISSION INCLUDES FORMER BRITISH FOREIGN SECRETARY LORD CARRINGTON, FORMER FRENCH JUSTICE MINISTER ROBERT BADINTER, AND THE PRESIDENT OF THE INTERNATIONAL RED CROSS, CORNELIO SOMMARUGA. THEIR AIM, SAYS MR. STEINER, IS TO GIVE HIGH-LEVEL POLITICAL BACKING TO THE ONGOING EFFORTS TO DETERMINE THE FATE OF THE MISSING.

    /// STEINER ACT ///

    THIS COMMISSION ITSELF WILL TRY TO EXERCISE HIGH LEVEL PRESSURE WHERE NEED IS -- ON CAPITALS, ON GOVERNMENTS, ON AUTHORITIES IN BOSNIA BUT NOT ONLY IN BOSNIA. ALSO, BELGRADE AND ZAGREB ARE INVOLVED, BECAUSE AS YOU KNOW THIS WAR WAS A WAR GOING OVER THE INTERNATIONAL BORDERS. SO YOU HAVE PROBLEMS BOTH IN CROATIA OF MISSING PERSONS AS WELL AS IN BELGRADE. SO THE COMMISSION WILL DO SO TO SPEAK THE POLITICAL JOB, WILL ALSO RAISE THE ATTENTION OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY TO THIS ISSUE.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. STEINER SAID THE AUTHORITIES IN BOSNIA AND ELSEWHERE IN THE BALKANS MUST UNDERSTAND THEY HAVE AN OBLIGATION TO COOPERATE IN EFFORTS TO TRACE THE MISSING. IT IS A PROCESS, HE SAID, THAT WILL TAKE YEARS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DR/JWH/MMK
    11-Oct-96 2:02 PM EDT (1802 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [04] GERMANY / BOSNIA REFUGEES BY PAUL HOCKENOS (BERLIN)

    DATE=10/11/96
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-34644
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:
    /// EDS: FIRST USE OF THIS REPORT IN ENGLISH IS FOR THE DATELINE BOSNIA PROGRAM ///

    INTRO: THE GERMAN GOVERNMENT'S DECISION TO BEGIN SENDING BOSNIAN REFUGEES BACK TO BOSNIA HAS CREATED A STORM OF CONTROVERSY. PAUL HOCKENOS IN BERLIN REPORTS GERMANY'S CHURCHES AND RELIGIOUS GROUPS ARE AMONG THE VOICES OF DISSENT.

    TEXT: EVERY WEEK, HUMANITARIAN AID GROUPS, RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATIONS, LOCAL GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS AND BOSNIAN REFUGEES MEET TO DISCUSS THE PROBLEMS FACING THE CITY'S BOSNIAN REFUGEE POPULATION. BUT ONLY ONE ISSUE DOMINATES THIS WEEK'S PACKED MEETING -- THE GERMAN GOVERNMENT'S DECISION TO ALLOW THE FEDERAL STATES TO BEGIN SENDING REFUGEES BACK TO BOSNIA.

    ONE OF THE MOST PROMINENT CRITICS OF THE GOVERNMENT POLICY IS THE BISHOP OF BERLIN-BRANDENBERG, WOLFGANG HUBER, WHO HEADS THE ROUNDTABLE MEETING.

    /// ACT IN GERMAN / TRANSLATION ///

    MY OPINION IS THAT THE SENDING BACK REFUGEES BACK, ESPECIALLY FROM BERLIN IS NOT POSSIBLE. WE'VE SAID ALL ALONG THAT THE REPATRIATION OF REFUGEES SHOULD HAPPEN ACCORDING TO THE WAY IT WAS ENVISIONED IN THE DAYTON PLAN. THE DAYTON PLAN ENVISIONED THAT THE RETURN OF REFUGEES WOULD OCCUR VOLUNTARILY AND ACCORDING TO A PLAN LAID OUT BY THE U-N REFUGEE ORGANIZATION, THE U-N-H-C-R. THAT SHOULD BE KEPT TO. IN PARTICULAR, I CONDEMN THE WAY THAT THE BOSNIAN REFUGEES ARE MADE TO FEEL EVEN MORE INSECURE AND SCARED THROUGH THESE PUBLIC ANNOUNCEMENTS, EVEN THOUGH THE GOVERNMENT KNOWS THEY CAN'T BE CARRIED OUT.

    /// END ACT ///

    CHURCH LEADERS AND RELIGIOUS GROUPS -- CATHOLIC, PROTESTANT AND JEWISH -- ARE AMONG THE MOST VOCAL OPPONENTS OF THE GERMAN GOVERNMENT'S DECISION TO BEGIN SENDING REFUGEES BACK TO BOSNIA. THEY SAY THERE IS A MORAL IMPERATIVE TO COME TO THE REFUGEES' AID.

    A REGULAR PARTICIPANT IN THE ROUNDTABLE DISCUSSION IS HAJO FUNKE, A PROFESSOR AT BERLIN'S FREE UNIVERSITY AND GERMAN COORDINATOR OF A SARAJEVO-BASED GERMAN-JEWISH AID GROUP.

    /// ACT FUNKE ///

    THE ROUNDTABLE IS CREATED BY THE LEADING PERSONS OF BOTH THE DOMINANT CHURCHES, THE CATHOLIC ONE AND THE PROTESTANT CHURCH. BUT THERE ARE ALSO MEMBERS OF LA BENEVELENCJIA GERMANY, THIS MIXED JEWISH GROUP AND OTHER GROUPS ESPECIALLY WHO ARE HELPING BOSNIAN REFUGEES IN THE CITY. THAT INCLUDES ALL THE PARTIES WHO ARE ENGAGING IN THIS, ESPECIALLY THE GREEN PARTY AND ALSO THE SOCIAL DEMOCRATS, BUT ALSO SOME CHRISTIAN DEMOCRATS, TOO.

    /// END ACT ///

    HANJO FUNKE SAYS THE ROUNDTABLE IS THE ONLY PLACE WHERE SUCH DIVERSE PARTIES AND ORGANIZATIONS CAN MEET, AND REFUGEES CAN HAVE THEIR VOICES HEARD.

    /// ACT FUNKE ///

    IT'S A LITTLE MIRACLE THAT ALL THE GROUPS ARE JOINED, ESPECIALLY THAT THE CHURCHES ARE SO ACTIVE. AND I KNOW FROM BOTH OF THE BISHOPS THAT THEY ARE REALLY CONVINCED THAT THE COURSE OF THE MINISTER OF INTERIORS ARE INHUMANE. THEY'RE REALLY CONVINCED TO DO SOMETHING, VERY FORCEFULLY, VERY PUBLICLY.

    /// END ACT ///

    DURING THE FOUR-YEAR BOSNIAN WAR, GERMANY TOOK IN MORE THAN 400-THOUSAND REFUGEES -- MORE THAN MOST OF THE OTHER WESTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES COMBINED. THE GERMAN GOVERNMENT SAYS NOW THAT THERE IS PEACE IN BOSNIA, REFUGEES MUST GO BACK.

    BUT CHURCH LEADERS AND RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATIONS ARE PART OF A BROAD SPECTRUM OF GROUPS THAT SAY CONDITIONS ARE TOO VOLATILE IN BOSNIA FOR HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF REFUGEES TO RETURN.

    IN AN OPEN LETTER TO GERMANY'S INTERIOR MINISTERS, THE GREEN PARTY, THE CATHOLIC CARITAS ORGANIZATION, AND THE PROTESTANT CHARITY DIAKONISCHE WERK CALLED ON AUTHORITIES TO REVERSE THEIR DECISION. THE LETTER SAID THE REFUGEES' TRAUMA FROM ETHNIC CLEANSING SHOULD NOT BE EXACERBATED BY THE ADDITIONAL TRAUMA OF RETURNING UNDER PRESSURE.

    BOSILJKA SHEDLICH IS FROM THE SOUTHEAST CULTURAL UNION, A BERLIN REFUGEE ORGANIZATION.

    /// ACT IN GERMAN / TRANSLATION ///

    THE CHURCHES HAVE PLAYED A VERY POSITIVE ROLE IN THIS SITUATION. I THINK THEY'VE BECOME THE MORAL INSTITUTION IN GERMAN SOCIETY. AND BY THAT I MEAN IN THE WAY THEY'VE BECOME INVOLVED ON BEHALF OF FOREIGNERS, AND THE WAY THEY'VE TAKEN A STAND AGAINST HATE IN THE SOCIETY. THEY'VE ALSO ACTIVELY INVOLVED THEMSELVES IN INFLUENCING PUBLIC OPINION. I THINK THAT'S REALLY COMMENDABLE.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE CHURCH GROUPS HOPE TO POSTPONE THE START OF REPATRIATION, AT LEAST UNTIL SPRING. THEY ALSO ARE LOOKING TOWARD THE FUTURE, WHEN CONDITIONS IN BOSNIA ARE RIGHT FOR REFUGEES TO RETURN. PROJECTS ARE ALREADY UNDERWAY TO BUILD YOUTH CENTERS AND ESTABLISH CLINICS FOR THE TREATMENT OF TRAUMA. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PH/JWH/MMK
    11-Oct-96 2:35 PM EDT (1835 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [05] U-S/IRAN/BOSNIA BY DAVID GOLLUST (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=10/11/96
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-34640
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE POLITICAL CONTROVERSY OVER THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION'S DECISION TO TOLERATE IRANIAN ARMS SHIPMENTS TO BOSNIA TWO YEARS AGO HAS BEEN RE-IGNITED. CONGRESSIONAL REPUBLICANS HAVE ACCUSED ADMINISTRATION OFFICIALS OF LYING TO CONGRESS OVER THE ISSUE, AND HAVE ASKED FOR A CRIMINAL INQUIRY. VOA'S DAVID GOLLUST HAS DETAILS.

    TEXT: REPUBLICANS ON A HOUSE SUBCOMMITTEE INVESTIGATING THE IRANIAN ARMS SHIPMENTS ARE ACCUSING THE ADMINISTRATION OF MISLEADING CONGRESS AND THE PUBLIC ON THE ISSUE. AND THEY HAVE ASKED THE JUSTICE DEPARTMENT TO REVIEW TESTIMONY OF SENIOR OFFICIALS FOR POSSIBLE CRIMINAL CHARGES OF MAKING FALSE STATEMENTS.

    THE REPUBLICAN REPORT ISSUED THURSDAY -- WHICH WAS QUICKLY DENOUNCED BY DEMOCRATS AS ELECTION-YEAR POLITICS -- HAS SUDDENLY RETURNED THE QUESTION OF IRAN'S ROLE IN BOSNIA BACK TO THE POLITICAL AGENDA IN WASHINGTON.

    THE CONTROVERSY DATES BACK TO 1994, WHEN THE ADMINISTRATION OPENLY ADMITS THAT IT LOOKED THE OTHER WAY AS IRAN PROVIDED WEAPONS TO BOSNIA'S MUSLIM-LED GOVERNMENT -- THROUGH CROATIA -- IN VIOLATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL ARMS EMBARGO.

    DEMOCRATS AND ADMINISTRATION OFFICIALS SAY THE SO-CALLED "GREEN LIGHT" POLICY HELPED STAVE OFF THE MILITARY COLLAPSE OF THE SARAJEVO GOVERNMENT AT A TIME WHEN THE UNITED STATES COULD NOT OFFER ANY HELP. BUT, THE REPUBLICANS SAY THE POLICY WAS DECEPTIVE, AND HAS GIVEN IRAN AN UNPRECEDENTED FOOTHOLD IN EUROPE AND THUS ENDANGERED AMERICAN LIVES AND STRATEGIC INTERESTS.

    THEY SAY CONTRADICTIONS IN SWORN TESTIMONY BY VARIOUS ADMINISTRATION OFFICIALS, INCLUDING NATIONAL SECURITY ADVISER ANTHONY LAKE AND AMBASSADOR TO CROATIA PETER GALBRAITH, SUGGESTS DUPLICITY -- HENCE THEIR CALL FOR THE JUSTICE DEPARTMENT REVIEW. HOWEVER, MINORITY DEMOCRATS ON THE PANEL SAY THEIR VIEW IS THAT ADMINISTRATION WITNESSES DIFFERED ONLY IN MINOR DETAILS AND THAT THE SUGGESTION OF PERJURY IS OUTRAGEOUS.

    AT THE STATE DEPARTMENT, SPOKESMAN NICHOLAS BURNS SAID AMBASSADOR GALBRAITH AND OTHERS WERE FULLY TRUTHFUL, AND THAT THE TIMING OF THE REPUBLICAN CHARGES -- LESS THAN A MONTH BEFORE THE ELECTION MAKES THE POLITICAL MOTIVATION OBVIOUS:

    /// BURNS ACT. ///

    NO ONE MISLED ANYBODY. EVERYTHING WAS DONE ACCORDING TO THE LAW. AND I DON'T THINK PUBLIC SERVANTS OUGHT TO BE SUBJECTED TO GRAND-STANDING. AND IF THESE CONCERNS WERE WIDELY FELT IN THE CONGRESS, PERHAPS THEY SHOULD HAVE BEEN MADE IN OCTOBER, 1995 RATHER THAN IN OCTOBER OF 1996. AND I WOULD ASK YOU TO PAUSE AND REFLECT UPON THOSE TWO DATES. EVERYTHING THAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THIS POLICY WAS KNOWN IN OCTOBER, 1995 SO IT'S NOW BEING RAISED IN OCTOBER, 1996. I DON'T BELIEVE THAT'S A CO-INCIDENCE.

    ///END ACT///

    MR. BURNS SAID THE OVER-RIDING FACT IS THAT ADMINISTRATION POLICY HAS STOPPED THE WAR IN BOSNIA, AND THAT IRANIAN FIGHTERS WHO HAD BEEN SUPPORTING THE GOVERNMENT WERE FORCED OUT OF BOSNIA UNDER TERMS OF THE DAYTON ACCORDS.

    THE SENATE INTELLIGENCE COMMITTEE IS CONDUCTING ITS OWN PARALLEL INQUIRY INTO THE IRANIAN ARMS SHIPMENTS. IT IS EXPECTED TO ISSUE A REPORT -- AFTER THE NOVEMBER ELECTIONS -- CONCLUDING THAT ADMINISTRATION POLICY ON THE ISSUE WAS CONFUSED AND DIVIDED, BUT THAT THERE WAS NO CRIMINAL ASPECT. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DAG/SP
    11-Oct-96 12:57 PM EDT (1657 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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