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Voice of America, 96-11-18

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] MONDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [02] !!! VOA DAILY BOSNIA REPORT -- NOVEMBER 18, 1996
  • [03] CONGRESS / BOSNIA (S-O) BY JOHN PITMAN (WASHINGTON)
  • [04] EURO MARKETS (S-ONLY) BY PAUL FRANCUCH (LONDON)
  • [05] NATO/ BOSNIA (L-ONLY) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)
  • [06] ROMANIA VOTES BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)
  • [07] ROMANIA ELECTION (L) BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)
  • [08] YUGO WAR CRIMES (L ONLY) BY GILLIAN SHARPE (THE HAGUE)

  • [01] MONDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=11/18/96
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09887
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-S-T ON MONDAY, NOVEMBER 18TH //

    INTRO: AS PRESIDENT CLINTON SETS OFF ON A TOUR OF ASIA, SEVERAL EDITORIAL WRITERS ARE COMMENTING ON U-S TRADE WITH ASIA AND RELATIONS WITH CHINA. MOST OTHER TOPICS ARE WEIGHTED TOWARD DOMESTIC ISSUES, INCLUDING: NEW INFORMATION ABOUT THE VALUJET CRASH IN THE FLORIDA EVERGLADES AND THE CHALLENGE OF BALANCING THE FEDERAL BUDGET. NOW, HERE IS _________________ WITH A CLOSER LOOK AND SOME QUOTES IN TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: THE LEAD EDITORIAL IN NEW YORK'S LONG ISLAND NEWSDAY TALKS ABOUT U-S TRADE WITH ASIA, AS PRESIDENT CLINTON BEGINS A VISIT TO THE REGION AND ATTEND THE ASIA-PACIFIC ECONOMIC COMMSSION SUMMIT IN THE PHILIPPINES. NEWSDAY SAYS IN PART:

    VOICE: "WITH HIS ELEVEN-DAY TRIP TO ASIA ... PRESIDENT BILL CLINTON IS SENDING THE WORLD AND THE AMERICAN PEOPLE A CLEAR MESSAGE: ASIA AND FREE TRADE WILL RECEIVE A MAJOR PART OF HIS ATTENTION IN HIS SECOND TERM IN OFFICE. IT'S A WELCOME SIGNAL, PARTICULARLY SINCE [MR.] CLINTON HAD IGNORED BOTH THE CONTINENT AND THE TRADE ISSUE IN HIS CAMPAIGN FOR RE-ELECTION... BUT ASIA IS A REGION IN WHICH [PRESIDENT] CLINTON ALSO FACES SOME OF HIS MOST DAUNTING CHALLENGES -- CHINA FOREMOST AMONG THEM."

    TEXT: THE PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER, COMMENTING ON SECRETARY OF STATE WARREN CHRISTOPHER'S TRIP TO BEIJING THIS WEEK TO PREPARE FOR PRESIDENT CLINTON'S UPCOMING MEETING WITH PRESIDENT JIANG ZEMIN, SAYS IN PART:

    VOICE: "... THERE ARE MANY REASONS WHY AMERICA NEEDS TO MAINTAIN A STEADY DIALOGUE WITH PRICKLY CHINA. CONTAINING CHINA, AS SOME CONSERVATIVES ADVOCATE, IS NOT AN OPTION. CHINA IS NOT THE SOVIET UNION, NOR SHOULD IT BE THE OBJECT OF A NEW COLD WAR. THE CHINESE VARIANT OF COMMUNISM IS AUTHORITARIAN RULE SUPERIMPOSED ON AN INCREASINGLY CAPITALIST SYSTEM. CHINA IS NOT OUT TO BURY AMERICA, SIMPLY TO EMULATE OUR ECONOMY... [OPT] AS FOR HUMAN RIGHTS, THE BEST CHANCE FOR PROGRESS IS TO WAIT OUT THE CHINESE POLITICAL TRANSITION, AND IN THE MEANTIME TO KEEP PUSHING IN PRIVATE... CONSTANT PERSUASION MIXED WITH OCCASIONAL PRODDING IS THE ONLY TACK THAT MAY BRING BETTER RESULTS." [END OPT]

    TEXT: THE WASHINGTON POST SAYS U-S ATTENTION TO CHINA, AND THE REST OF ASIA, SHOULD BE A TOP PRIORITY OF PRESIDENT CLINTON'S SECOND TERM. THE POST SAYS IT IS TIME FOR A REASSESSMENT OF U-S POLICY:

    VOICE: "NOW IS THE TIME TO FORMULATE A CONSISTENT POLICY BASED NEITHER ON CONTAINMENT NOR ON APPEASEMENT. THE UNITED STATES SHOULD RESPECT CHINA, AS CHINA DEMANDS, FOR ITS GROWING ECONOMIC AND STRATEGIC POWER IN ASIA AND THE WORLD. BUT THE UNITED STATES SHOULD NOT UNDERESTIMATE ITS OWN STRENGTH IN THE RELATIONSHIP, NOR THE EXTENT TO WHICH CHINA NEEDS THE UNITED STATES. [OPT] ACROSS THE SPECTRUM OF THE RELATIONSHIP -- TRADE, HUMAN RIGHTS AND SECURITY -- CHINA SHOULD BE WELCOMED INTO THE WORLD COMMUNITY TO THE EXTENT IT IS WILLING TO PLAY BY RULES THE WORLD COMMUNITY HAS ESTABLISHED AND TO LIVE UP TO COMMITMENTS CHINA ITSELF HAS MADE." [END OPT]

    TEXT: TURNING TO DOMESTIC CONCERNS, THE MIAMI HERALD NOTES THE UPCOMING PUBLIC HEARINGS BY THE NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD TO DISCUSS THE VALUJET CRASH INTO THE EVERGLADES LAST MAY THAT KILLED 110 PEOPLE. AND THE HERALD PRAISES THE MOVE TO EQUIP FREIGHT COMPARTMENTS ON COMMERCIAL JETS WITH SMOKE DETECTION DEVICES.

    VOICE: "THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION LAST THURSDAY FINALLY REVERSED ITSELF AND PROPOSED A NEW RULE REQUIRING EQUIPMENT TO DETECT AND SUPPRESS FIRES IN ALL AIRLINER CARGO HOLDS... IN THE PAST THE [AIRLINE] INDUSTRY AND THE FAA HAD BALKED AT THE RULE AS NOT WORTH THE COST. NOW, IN LIGHT OF THE VALUJET CRASH, AN FAA SPOKESMAN CONCEDES THAT 'THE COST OF HUMAN LIFE IS AN ELEMENT IN THE EQUATION.' THUS, IF THE PROPOSED RULE IS ADOPTED, THE VALUJET TRAGEDY ULTIMATELY MAY HELP PREVENT SIMILAR OCCURRENCES IN THE FUTURE."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST, THE PORTLAND OREGONIAN DISCUSSES SOME POSSIBLE WAYS TO ASSURE THE FINANCIAL SOUNDNESS OF MEDICARE, THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT HEALTH INSURANCE SYSTEM FOR THE ELDERLY.

    VOICE: "ONE IS FOR THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT TO BEGIN PILOT PROJECTS IN HIGH-COST CITIES AND COUNTIES REQUIRING HEALTH CARE PLANS TO BID AGAINST ONE ANOTHER TO QUALIFY FOR MEDICARE CLIENTS. THIS WOULD REWARD EFFICIENT PLANS, DRIVE OUT EXPENSIVE ONES AND BENEFIT BOTH CLIENTS AND TAXPAYERS. THE SECOND IS FOR THE GOVERNMENT TO BEGIN PILOT TESTS TO SEE WHETHER IT CAN LOWER ITS TOTAL MEDICARE OUTLAYS BY INCREASING [ITALICS FOR EMPHASIS] THE MINIMUM FOR H-M-O (HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATION) PAYMENTS SO THAT NO COUNTY IS GROSSLY BENEATH THE NATIONAL AVERAGE."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: IN FLORIDA, THE MIAMI HERALD NOTES THE JUST CONCLUDED U-N WORLD FOOD SUMMIT IN ROME AND THE "DAUNTING CHALLENGE" OF FEEDING THE MILLIONS OF PEOPLE AROUND THE WORLD WHO GO HUNGRY.

    VOICE: "THE MOST BEDEVILING PROBLEM ... IS THE INABILITY TO MOVE FOOD FROM PRODUCTIVE AREAS TO WHERE IT'S NEEDED, PARTICULARLY TO UNDERDEVELOPED AREAS OF ASIA AND SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA. THERE IS A CLEAR NEED FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATIONS TO FOCUS ON SUCH BASIC INFRASTRUCTURE AS FARM-TO-MARKET ROADS, BRIDGES, AND RAILROADS. ALL IS NOT BLEAK. SINCE THE LAST CONFERENCE ON WORLD HUNGER, IN 1974, THE PROPORTION OF CHRONICALLY HUNGRY PEOPLE HAS FALLEN TO 13-POINT-SEVEN PERCENT FROM 24-POINT-FOUR PERCENT OF THE WORLD'S POPULATION. CONFOUNDING THE PREDICTIONS MADE AT THAT CONFERENCE, WORLD FOOD PRODUCTION HAS 'INCREASED' [ITALICS] DRAMATICALLY..."

    TEXT: THE SUN IN BALTIMORE, MARYLAND, TAKES ISSUE WITH THE BALANCED BUDGET AMENDMENT SOON TO BE PROPOSED IN CONGRESS. THE SUN CALLS IT "A BAD IDEA WHOSE TIME HAS COME":

    VOICE: "...A MISCHIEVOUS GIMMICK SEEMS DESTINED FOR THE U-S CONSTITUTION -- A GIMMICK [FAULTY PROBLEM-SOLVING IDEA] THAT WILL NOT BALANCE THE BUDGET BUT MERELY GIVE POLITICIANS AN EASY VOTE FOR PRETENDING THIS IS SO. IT IS A BAD IDEA WHOSE TIME, UNFORTUNATELY, MAY HAVE COME."

    TEXT: TURNING ONCE AGAIN TO INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS, THE BALTIMORE SUN ALSO WONDERS ABOUT THE FUTURE OF SOUTH AFRICA AFTER NELSON MANDELA LEAVE OFFICE.

    VOICE: "MIDWAY THROUGH HIS TERM, PRESIDENT NELSON MANDELA, 78, IS VERY MUCH IN CHARGE IN SOUTH AFRICA. HE IS ALSO EXERTING MORAL LEADERSHIP THROUGHOUT THE CONTINENT, TRYING TO BRING DEMOCRACY TO NIGERIA AND INTERVENING IN A POLITICAL CRISIS IN ZAMBIA. YET HIS HIGH PROFILE AND ENERGY MASK A MOMENTOUS CHANGE: POWER IS GRADUALLY SHIFTING FROM ANTI-APARTHEID PATRIARCHS TO YOUNGER AFRICAN NATIONAL CONGRESS MEMBERS... AS A-N-C PATRIARCHS RETIRE, COMMITMENT TO NON-RACIALISM WILL BE TESTED."

    TEXT: AND LASTLY, THE NEW YORK TIMES TAKES NOTICE OF CHANGES SWEEPING SOME FORMERLY COMMUNIST EAST EUROPE NATIONS.

    VOICE: "A WAVE OF ELECTIONS HELD IN FORMERLY COMMUNIST EUROPE IN THE LAST FEW MONTHS CONFIRMS THAT THE NEW DEMOCRACIES THERE HAVE FOUND A NEW IDEOLOGY -- COMPETENCE... SINCE EARLY SUMMER, SOCIALIST PARTIES HAVE LOST ELECTIONS IN LITHUANIA AND BULGARIA, AND YESTERDAY IN ROMANIA, PRESIDENT ION ILIESCU LOST TO A MODERATE REFORMER. IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC, THE RIGHT-WING GOVERNMENT OF VACLAV KLAUS DID POORLY IN ELECTIONS IN EARLY SUMMER AND IS GOVERNING AS A MINORITY. IN SLOVENIA EARLIER THIS MONTH THE RULING PARTY LOST SEATS IN PARLIAMENT AND MAY NOT BE ABLE TO FORM A GOVERNMENT. ONLY IN ESTONIA, WHERE THE FIGUREHEAD PRESIDENT WAS RE-ELECTED, DID INCUMBENTS WIN A CLEAR VICTORY. THE REBELLION ... IS WELCOME NEWS."

    TEXT: ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF MONDAY'S EDITORIAL COMMENT FROM SOME OF THE NATION'S LARGER DAILY PAPERS.
    NEB/ANG/PCH
    18-Nov-96 11:07 AM EST (1607 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] !!! VOA DAILY BOSNIA REPORT -- NOVEMBER 18, 1996

    DATE=11/18/96
    TYPE=ADVISORY
    CONTENT=_

    VOA DAILY BOSNIA REPORT -- 11/18/96 THE FOLLOWING IS A SYNOPSIS OF SIGNIFICANT REPORTING ON BOSNIA BY THE VOICE OF AMERICA THAT HAD BEEN BROADCAST OR FIRMLY SCHEDULED AT THE TIME OF PUBLICATION. THIS SELECTION IS NOT INTENDED TO BE EXHAUSTIVE, AND DOES NOT INCLUDE LATE-BREAKING NEWS OR THE MANY REPORTS IN ALL VOA LANGUAGES THAT ARE BASED ON COMMERCIAL WIRE SERVICES OR OTHER SECONDARY SOURCES. WE REGRET THAT WE CANNOT RESPOND TO REQUESTS FOR TRANSCRIPTS OF SPECIFIC BROADCASTS OR PROGRAM SEGMENTS. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, CONTACT VOA, OFFICE OF EXTERNAL AFFAIRS. TELEPHONE: +1-202-619-2538. ELECTRONIC MAIL: LETTERS@VOA.GOV (FOR CORRESPONDENCE FROM OUTSIDE THE UNITED STATES); LETTERS-USA@VOA.GOV (FOR CORRESPONDENCE WITHIN THE UNITED STATES).

    REPORTS BY VOA NEWS SERVICES:

    CONGRESS / BOSNIA -- PRESIDENT CLINTON'S DECISION TO EXTEND THE AMERICAN MILITARY COMMITMENT IN BOSNIA BY ANOTHER EIGHTEEN MONTHS HAS RAISED SOME CONCERNS IN CONGRESS ABOUT THE ADMINISTRATION'S OVERALL POLICY IN THE BALKANS. STAFFER JOHN PITMAN REPORTS. (11/17)

    US / BOSNIA GOVERNMENT -- THE UNITED STATES IS FOCUSSING ITS PRESSURE ON THE CROAT PRESIDENT OF THE BOSNIAN FEDERATION TO AGREE TO THE REMOVAL OF TWO DEFENSE OFFICIALS FROM THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT. CORRESPONDENT RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT. (11/15)

    PARIS MEET / REACT -- YUGOSLAV FOREIGN MINISTER MILAN MILUTINOVIC EXPRESSED SATISFACTION WITH THE OUTCOME OF PARIS CONFERENCE ON BOSNIA. THE SERB MEMBER OF THE BOSNIAN PRESIDENCY, MOMCILAO KRAJISNIK IS ALSO SATISFIED WITH SUMMIT RESULTS, BUT BLAMED THE LEADERSHIP OF THE FEDERATION FOR LACK OF PROGRESS IN FORMING THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS. STRINGER DUSAN MASIC REPORTS FROM BELGRADE. (SERBIAN 11/15)

    BOSNIA / LONDON SEMINAR -- THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION FOR CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE HOLDS IN LONDON TWO-DAY SEMINAR TITLED 'RECONCILIATION IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA.' TWENTY FOUR REPRESENTATIVES FROM BOSNIAN ENTITIES, INCLUDING GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS, LEADERS OF POLITICAL PARTIES, INTELECTUALS AND JOURNALISTS ATTENDED THE GATHERING. STRINGER BORO KONTIC REPORTS FROM LONDON. (SERBIAN 11/15)

    YALE CONFERENCE / BOSNIA -- A CONFERENCE ON BOSNIA, SPONSORED BY YALE UNIVERSITY, OPENS IN NEW HAVEN, CONNECTICUT. STAFFER JOVAN DJUKANOVIC REPORTS. (SERBIAN 11/15)

    AAASS / BOSTON -- THE ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR ADVANCEMENT OF SLAVIC STUDIES CONTINUES IN BOSTON. THE SECOND DAY SESSION WAS MAINLY DEDICATED TO THE SUBJECT 'CROATS, SERBS, AND YUGOSLAVISM IN THE 20TH CENTURY.' STAFFER NIKOLETA ILIC REPORTS. (SERBIAN 11/15)

    AAASS / CONFERENCE -- CROATIAN STAFFER MIRJANA DEDAIC IS COVERING SLAVIC CONFERENCE IN BOSTON. IN TODAYS PANEL ON CROATIAN THEATER AFTER 1990. PARTICULARLY INTERESTING SPEECH WAS GIVEN BY SANJA NIKCEVIC, ADVISER IN CROATIAN MINISTRY OF CULTURAL AFFAIRS. SHE SPOKE ABOUT HISTORIC DRAMAS IN NATIONS SEARCHING FOR NATIONAL IDENTITY. INTERVIEW IN CROATIAN FROM BOSTON. (CROATIAN 11/17)

    USA / BOSNIA -- STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN NICK BURNS SAYS THE PRESIDENT OF BOSNIAN PRESIDENCY, ALIJA IZETBEGOVIC INFORMED THE US EMBASSY IN SARAJEVO ON THE FOLLOWING: A FORMAL REQUEST WILL BE FORWARDED TO PRESIDENT OF BOSNIAN FEDERATION, KRESIMIR ZUBAK TO RECEIVE MINISTER OF DEFENSE, VLADIMIR SOLJIC, AND HIS DEPUTY, HASAN CENGIC. IN CASE MR.ZUBAK ACTS FAVOURABLY AND DISMISSES THOSE TWO OFFICIALS FROM THEIR DUTIES, US WILL PROCEED WITH DELIVERY OF ARMS, THAT ARE CURRENTLY WAITING OUTSIDE THE CROATIAN PORT OF PLOCE. STAFFER IVANA KUHAR REPORTS. (CROATIAN 11/15)

    BOSNIA / PRIME MINISTER -- IN AN EXCLUSIVE INTERVIEW FOR VOA, BOSNIAN PRIME MINISTER HASAN MURATOVIC SAID THAT BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT DID NOT APPROVE RETURN OF FOUR HUNDRED MUSLIM REFUGEES INTO THE NORTH EAST VILLAGES WHERE CONFLICTS ERUPTED THREE DAYS AGO. TALKING ABOUT RECENT PARIS MEETING, THE PRIME MINISTER DID NOT EXPRESS HIGH HOPES FOR THE MINISTERIAL COUNCIL TO BE FORMED ANY TIME SOON. INTERVIEW BY STAFFER IVICA PULJIC. (CROATIAN 11/15)

    CROATIA / YUGOSLAVIA -- CROATIAN INTERIOR MINISTER, IVAN JARNJAK, MET IN BELGRADE WITH HIS YUGOSLAV COUNTERPART VLADISLAV JOKANOVIC. THE TWO MINISTERS EASED VISA REQUIREMENTS AND DISCUSSED WAYS OF PREVENTING DRUG-TRAFFICING BETWEEN THE TWO COUNTRIES. STRINGER ZELJKO MATIC REPORTS. (CROATIAN 11/15)

    INTERNATIONAL CRISIS GROUP / BOSNIA -- IN AN INTERVIEW WITH VOA CROATIAN CHRISTOPHER BENETT OF THE INTERNATIONAL CRISIS GROUP IN SARAJEVO SAYS THAT UNLESS FUNDAMENTAL CHANGES TAKE PLACE IN BOSNIA, THERE IS A POSSIBILITY OF ANOTHER WAR. PRIMARY ISSUES ARE THE EXTRADITION OF WAR CRIMINALS, ECONOMIC GROWTH, AND RETURN OF REFUGEES. THE FLOW OF INVESTMENT MONEY SHOULD BE LINKED WITH POLITICAL IMPROVEMENTS. MR BENETT THINKS THAT THERE IS PLENTY OF TIME TO PREPARE LOCAL ELECTIONS IN BOSNIA, AND OSCE SHOULD IMMEDIATELY INTERVENE ON ANY ELECTION IRREGULARITY. HE WAS INTERVIEWED IN SARAJEVO BY STRINGER VLADIMIR BILIC. (CROATIAN 11/15)

    CROATS IN VARES / BOSNIA -- HIGHEST BOSNIAN AND INTERNATIONAL OFFICIALS IN BOSNIA RECEIVED WRITTEN COMPLAINT FROM CROATS LIVING IN VARES REGARDING VIOLATIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS. THE SCHEDULED REMOVAL OF ONE CROATIAN RESIDENT FROM HIS PREWAR APARTMENT WAS CANCELLED. CROATIAN STRINGER VLADIMIR BILIC SPOKE WITH CROATIAN REPRESENTATIVE IN VARES WHO STATED THAT GRAVE VIOLATIONS ARE RARE, BUT A LOT OF CROATS WERE TRYING TO GET TO OTHER PARTS OF BOSNIA, WITH MORE JOBS OFFERED AND LESS PRESSURE BASED ON ETHNIC BACKGROUND. STRINGER VLADIMIR BILIC REPORTS FROM VARES. (CROATIAN 11/16)

    LOCAL ELECTIONS / SERBIA -- ON SUNDAY, VOTERS IN YUGOSLAVIA CAST BALLOTS IN SECOND ROUND OF LOCAL ELECTIONS. YUGOSLAVS WILL DECIDE ON 5.603 LOCAL AND CITY REPRESENTATIVES. ELECTIONS ARE IMPORTANT BECAUSE THE OUTCOME COULD HAVE GREAT IMPACT ON FURTHER BALANCE OF POWER BETWEEN RULING SOCIALIST PARTY AND SERBIAN OPPOSITION. STRINGER BRANKA VUJNOVI REPORTS FROM BELGRADE. (CROATIAN 11/16)

    FALL OF VUKOVAR / ANNIVERSARY -- CROATIAN STRINGER LINDA MILISA SPOKE WITH CROATIAN REFUGEES WHO ARE NOT ABLE TO GO BACK AND LIVE IN THEIR OWN HOMES. MOTHERS OF FORMER PATIENTS IN VUKOVAR CITY HOSPITAL SPOKE ABOUT THEIR PAIN AND RECALLED THE MOMENT WHEN FEDERAL FORCES OF FORMER YUGOSLAVIA, SUPPORTED BY SERBIAN PARAMILITARY UNITS CAPTURED THE CITY. THE FATE OF THEIR MISSING FAMILY MEMBERS IS YET TO BE CONFIRMED BY FORENSIC EXPERTS EXCAVATING OVCARA AND OTHER MASS GRAVES IN CROATIA. (CROATIAN 11/17)

    ALBANIA / PYRAMID SCHEMES -- HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF ALBANIANS HAVE INVESTED THEIR LIFE SAVINGS IN PYRAMID SCHEMES. THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND AND THE WORLD BANK HAVE URGED THE ALBANIAN GOVERNMENT TO DEAL WITH THE ISSUE. APPARENTLY MANY ALBANIANS DO NOT RECOGNIZE THE RISK IN INVESTING IN SUCH SCHEMES. STAFFER ILIR IKONOMI DISCUSSED THE ISSUE WITH AN AMERICAN EXPERT. ,STRINGERS ILIRIAN AGOLLI AND MERO BAZE ALSO REPORT FROM TIRANA. (ALBANIAN 11/15, 11/16)

    MONTENEGRO / MAFIA -- ACCORDING TO SOME MONTENEGRIAN SOURCES, THE MAFIA HAS BEEN OPERATING FOR A NUMBER OF YEARS IN MONTENEGRO, SMUGGLING ILLEGAL IMMIGRANTS FROM KOSOVO TO ITALIAN SHORES. STRINGER ALI SALAJ REPORTS FROM ULQIN. (ALBANIAN 11/15)
    18-Nov-96 4:57 PM EST (2157 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] CONGRESS / BOSNIA (S-O) BY JOHN PITMAN (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=11/17/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-206333
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: PRESIDENT CLINTON'S DECISION TO EXTEND THE AMERICAN MILITARY COMMITMENT IN BOSNIA BY ANOTHER 18 MONTHS HAS RAISED SOME CONCERNS IN CONGRESS ABOUT THE ADMINISTRATION'S OVERALL POLICY IN THE BALKANS. VOA'S JOHN PITMAN REPORTS.

    TEXT: REPUBLICAN CONGRESSMAN JOHN KASICH, THE CHAIR OF THE HOUSE BUDGET COMMITTEE, SAYS HE THINKS THE DECISION TO EXTEND THE BOSNIA MISSION IS A BAD IDEA FOR FOUR REASONS. FIRST, HE BELIEVES IT IS TOO EXPENSIVE. SECOND, HE SAYS IT SENDS A MESSAGE TO EUROPEAN COUNTRIES THAT THE UNITED STATES MAY BE PREPARED TO STAY IN BOSNIA INDEFINITELY. THIRD, HE DOES NOT BELIEVE THE ADMINISTRATION HAS CLEARLY STATED HOW THE MISSION HELPS BROADER U-S FOREIGN POLICY GOALS. AND FOURTH, HE MAINTAINS THE AMERICAN PUBLIC DOES NOT SUPPORT THE MISSION.

    MR. KASICH SAYS HE WILL ASK CONGRESS NOT TO FUND THE ENTIRE 18 MONTH EXTENTION WHEN THE HOUSE RE-CONVENES IN JANUARY.

    /// KASICH ACT ///

    "WE OUGHT TO BE LOOKING FOR A WAY TO GET OUT SOONER RATHER THAN A YEAR-AND-A-HALF AND THAT THE CONGRESS OUGHT TO ASSERT ITSELF IN THAT REGARD AND WE OUGHT TO MAKE IT CLEAR TO THE EUROPEANS THAT WE'RE NOT GOING TO HANG IN THERE FOREVER."

    /// END ACT ///

    FOR ITS PART, THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION DEFENDS THE EXTENSION, SAYING THE I-FOR MISSION HAS SUCCEEDED IN ENDING THE FIGHTING IN BOSNIA AND ALLOWING ELECTIONS TO BE HELD.

    DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM PERRY HAS COMPARED THE CURRENT SITUATION IN BOSNIA TO THAT OF A PATIENT WHO HAS JUST UNDERGONE COMPLEX SURGERY AND STILL REQUIRES INTENSIVE MONITORING. (SIGNED)
    NEB/SD
    17-Nov-96 4:10 PM EST (2110 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] EURO MARKETS (S-ONLY) BY PAUL FRANCUCH (LONDON)

    DATE=11/18/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-206366
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: PROFIT-TAKING APPEARED TO BE THE MOOD OF INVESTORS ON MAJOR STOCK MARKETS IN WESTERN EUROPE MONDAY. FROM LONDON, VOA'S PAUL FRANCUCH HAS THE RESULTS.

    TEXT: WHILE INVESTOR INTEREST IN GERMANY FOCUSED MONDAY ON TRADING IN SHARES FOR "DEUTSCHE TELEKOM" -- EUROPE'S BIGGEST TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANY -- THE MARKET OVERALL IN FRANKFURT MOVED TOWARD CONSOLIDATION OF RECENT RECORD GAINS. THE "DAX 30" INDEX OF LEADING STOCKS CLOSED THE DAY OFF ALMOST 32 POINTS. IN PARIS, INVESTORS WHO MADE MONEY ON STOCKS LAST WEEK STARTED THIS WEEK IN A SELLING MOOD -- DRIVING THE "CAC-40" INDEX DOWN 11-AND-A-HALF POINTS FOR THE DAY (EDS: DOWN 11.52).

    HERE IN LONDON, THE "FINANCIAL TIMES" INDEX OF 100 KEY STOCKS MANAGED A SLIGHT GAIN OF JUST UNDER FOUR POINTS FOR THE DAY. MARKET ANALYSTS THINK MANY INVESTORS HERE IN BRITAIN ARE HOLDING BACK ON SHARE BUYING UNTIL THE COUNTRY'S 1997 BUDGET IS ANNOUNCED NEXT WEEK. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PCF/SP
    18-Nov-96 1:44 PM EST (1844 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] NATO/ BOSNIA (L-ONLY) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=11/18/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-206353
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    // CORR: 2ND GRAPH OF TEXT; READ IT; XX DECEMBER 20TH XX //

    INTRO: NATO AMBASSADORS HAVE AGREED THE ALLIANCE WILL CONTINUE ITS MISSION IN BOSNIA BEYOND THE END OF NEXT MONTH WHEN THE EXISTING IMPLEMENTATION PEACE FORCE (I-FOR) IS DUE TO END. JOHN FRASER REPORTS FROM BRUSSELS

    TEXT: NATO OFFICIALS SAY THAT WHILE THE I-FOR MISSION HAS GONE BETTER THAN SOME HAD FEARED, IT HAS NOT GONE AS WELL AS HAD BEEN HOPED. THE PEACE IS FRAGILE, AND THERE IS A RISK THAT IF THE INTERNATIONAL MILITARY PRESENCE WERE WITHDRAWN FROM BOSNIA, FIGHTING MIGHT RESUME.

    AS PEACE HAS NOT YET TAKEN ROOT, THERE IS AGREEMENT AT NATO HEADQUARTERS THAT SOME FORCE -- ALBEIT A SCALED-DOWN FORCE -- MUST REMAIN BEYOND DECEMBER 20TH, WHEN THE MANDATE FOR THE CURRENT I-FOR MISSION IS DUE TO EXPIRE.

    THE NEW FORCE WILL BE CALLED A STABILIZATION FORCE, AND WILL NUMBER AROUND 25-THOUSAND TO 30-THOUSAND. THE CURRENT I- FOR FORCE IS AROUND 47-THOUSAND TROOPS, DOWN FROM A PEAK OF AROUND 50-THOUSAND.

    THE UNITED STATES IS EXPECTED TO CONTRIBUTE AROUND EIGHT-THOUSAND-500 TROOPS FOR THE NEW BOSNIA MISSION, BUT THE U-S AND NATO ARE EXPECTED TO MAKE REGULAR REVIEWS OF THE SCALE OF PRESENCE WHICH IS NEEDED.

    THE AIM WILL BE TO MAKE A SERIES OF WITHDRAWALS, SCALING DOWN THE SIZE OF THE INTERNATIONAL MILITARY PRESENCE EACH TIME, UNTIL NO INTERNATIONAL TROOPS AT ALL ARE LEFT IN BOSNIA.

    PLANNING FOR THE NEW, EXTENDED, MILITARY MISSION IN BOSNIA IS CONTINUING, AND WILL BE REVIEWED BY NATO MINISTERS, WHO MEET IN BRUSSELS NEXT MONTH, AND ARE EXPECTED TO GIVE FINAL AGREEMENT FOR THE NEW VENTURE.

    THE UNITED NATIONS IS ALSO BEING CONSULTED, AS IT WILL NEED TO PROVIDE A FRESH MANDATE FOR NATO TO EXTEND THE BOSNIA OPERATION INTO 1997.

    NATO AMBASSADORS WILL ALSO RETURN TO THE DISCUSSION ON WEDNESDAY THIS WEEK, AFTER CONSIDERING AMERICAN PROPOSALS FOR RUNNING OF THE NEW OPERATION. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JF/JWH/LWM
    18-Nov-96 12:58 PM EST (1758 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] ROMANIA VOTES BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)

    DATE=11/17/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-206319
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    // RE-RUNNING WITH CORRECT CR NUMBER //

    INTRO: VOTING IN A PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION IS UNDERWAY TODAY (SUNDAY) IN ROMANIA, WHICH AFTER POLAND HAS THE LARGEST POPULATION OF ANY EAST EUROPEAN COUNTRY OUTSIDE THE FORMER SOVIET UNION. V-O-A'S BARRY WOOD REPORTS THAT THE CONSERVATIVE OPPOSITION IS GIVEN A GOOD CHANCE OF OUSTING ION ILIESCU, THE FORMER COMMUNIST WHO HAS BEEN ROMANIA'S PRESIDENT SINCE THE 1989 REVOLUTION.

    TEXT: TIRED FROM A HECTIC CAMPAIGN, PRESIDENT ILIESCU VOTED EARLY IN CENTRAL BUCHAREST. HE TOLD REPORTERS THAT HE OFFERS NEEDED EXPERIENCE AND CAN ASSURE COOPERATION WITH THE INCOMING CONSERVATIVE GOVERNMENT. HIS OPPONENT, DEMOCRATIC CONVENTION LEADER EMIL CONSTANTINESCU WAS CHEERED BY SUPPORTERS AS HE EMERGED FROM CHURCH WITH HIS FAMILY BEFORE VOTING. THE FORMER GEOLOGY PROFESSOR SAID IF ELECTED HE WOULD BE NOT JUST A NEW PRESIDENT BUT ONE WITH A DIFFERENT STYLE WHO WILL MAINTAIN CONTACT WITH PEOPLE.

    VOTING IS REPORTED TO BE HEAVY AMONG ROMANIA'S SEVENTEEN MILLION ELIGIBLE VOTERS. THE RESULT IS EXPECTED ON MONDAY.

    OBSERVERS SAY THAT IN THE LAST FEW DAYS THERE HAS BEEN A DISCERNIBLE SHIFT OF SENTIMENT AWAY FROM MR. ILIESCU AND TOWARDS THE CONSERVATIVE MR. CONSTANTINESCU. THE CONSERVATIVES ARE IN THE PROCESS OF PUTTING TOGETHER A COALITION GOVERNMENT. THE DEMOCRATIC CONVENTION GOT 30 PERCENT OF THE VOTE IN RECENT PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS. THEIR PRINCIPAL COALITION PARTNERS WILL BE THE SOCIAL DEMOCRATS WHO GOT 13 PERCENT OF THE VOTE. BUT DESPITE THE RULING PARTY GETTING ONLY 22 PERCENT OF THE VOTE IN THE PARLIAMENTARY BALLOT MR. ILIESCU OUTNUMBER MR. CONSTANTINESCU IN THE FIRST ROUND OF PRESIDENTIAL VOTING. SUBSEQUENTLY THE DEMOCRATIC CONVENTION LEADER RECEIVED ENDORSEMENTS FROM MORE THAN A DOZEN OTHER LOSING CANDIDATES FROM THE FIRST ROUND.

    ALONE AMONG EAST EUROPEAN COUNTRIES ROMANIA HAS NOT EXPERIENCED A SHIFT FROM LEFT TO RIGHT OF CENTER GOVERNMENT SINCE THE COLLAPSE OF COMMUNISM IN 1989. WHILE MR. CONSTANTINESCU HAS CAMPAIGNED ON THE NEED TO SPEED MARKET BASED REFORM AND END RAMPANT CORRUPTION, MR. ILIESCU HAS BEEN FORCED TO DEFEND A SPOTTY RECORD ON THE ECONOMY INCLUDING STRONG DISSATISFACTION OVER LOW LIVING STANDARDS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/BDW/LWM
    17-Nov-96 11:39 AM EST (1639 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] ROMANIA ELECTION (L) BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)

    DATE=11/18/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-206362
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: EMIL CONSTANTINESCU, A QUIET ACADEMIC WHO WAS NOT ACTIVE IN ROMANIAN POLITICS DURING COMMUNIST RULE, HAS HANDILY DEFEATED FORMER COMMUNIST ION ILIESCU IN SUNDAY'S PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION. V-O-A'S BARRY WOOD REPORTS THIS IS THE FIRST TIME SINCE ROMANIA'S 1989 REVOLUTION THAT A CENTRIST, ANTI-COMMUNIST GOVERNMENT WILL RULE.

    TEXT: MR. CONSTANTINESCU'S VICTORY TRIGGERED ENTHUSIASTIC CELEBRATIONS AMONG HIS SUPPORTERS. AS PRELIMINARY RESULTS CAME IN, UP TO 80-THOUSAND SUPPORTERS GATHERED IN DOWNTOWN BUCHAREST TO CHEER WHAT THEY REGARDED AS THE END OF COMMUNISM IN THE LARGE BALKAN REPUBLIC.

    // OPT //

    WITH MOST OF THE VOTES COUNTED, MR. CONSTANTINESCU HAS 55 PERCENT OF THE VOTE TO 45 PERCENT FOR MR. ILIESCU. THE OUTGOING PRESIDENT HAS CONCEDED DEFEAT, CONGRATULATED THE VICTOR, AND PLEDGED A SMOOTH TRANSITION TO THE NEW ADMINISTRATION. // END OPT //

    TWO WEEKS AGO, MR. ILIESCU'S PARTY OF REFORMED COMMUNISTS DID BADLY IN PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS. A CENTER-RIGHT COALITION GOVERNMENT IS BEING FORMED.

    IN HIS VICTORY REMARKS, MR. CONSTANTINESCU PLEDGED TO RESTORE WHAT HE CALLED ROMANIA'S DIGNITY AND PROSPERITY. HE TOLD SUPPORTERS THE HARD WORK OF SPEEDING MARKET-BASED REFORM WILL BEGIN IMMEDIATELY, BUT IT WILL TAKE TIME FOR THE ECONOMY TO IMPROVE.

    MR. CONSTANTINESCU HAS PROMISED TO END GOVERNMENT CORRUPTION, STABILIZE THE CURRENCY, BRING IN MORE FOREIGN INVESTMENT AND IMPROVE DEPRESSED LIVING STANDARDS. HE STRONGLY FAVORS ROMANIA'S MEMBERSHIP IN NATO AND THE EUROPEAN UNION.

    // OPT //

    HIS ELECTION HAS BEEN WELCOMED IN FRANCE AND GERMANY WHERE FINANCE MINISTER THEO WAIGEL SAID THE OUSTER OF MR. ILIESCU WILL MAKE IT EASIER FOR ROMANIA TO JOIN EUROPEAN STRUCTURES. // END OPT //

    OBSERVERS SAY A PEACEFUL ELECTORAL HAND-OVER OF POWER IS UNPRECEDENTED IN ROMANIA.

    // REST OPT //

    ROMANIA'S 1989 REVOLUTION WAS THE BLOODIEST IN THE REGION. MR. ILIESCU, A ONE TIME PROTEGE OF THE SLAIN DICTATOR NICHOLAE CEAUCESCU, EMERGED AS A STRONGMAN OF A QUICKLY FORMED NATIONAL SALVATION FRONT WHICH MAINTAINED CLOSE TIES TO THE MILITARY. HE WON PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS IN 1990 AND 1992, BUT NEVER ACHIEVED FULL LEGITIMACY IN THE EYES OF MANY WESTERN CAPITALS. POPULAR AS A FATHER FIGURE IN RURAL AREAS OF HEAVILY AGRARIAN ROMANIA, MR. ILIESCU SAID IN LOSING THE ELECTION HE BECAME A VICTIM OF ROMANIA'S DIFFICULT CHANGING TIMES. (SIGNED)
    NEB/BDW/PCF/DAR
    18-Nov-96 12:12 PM EST (1712 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] YUGO WAR CRIMES (L ONLY) BY GILLIAN SHARPE (THE HAGUE)

    DATE=11/18/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-206356
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE U-N'S YUGOSLAV WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL WILL BEGIN HEARINGS TUESDAY ON A CONFESSED WAR CRIMINAL, DRAZEN ERDEMOVIC, THE ONLY PERSON SO FAR TO HAVE PLEADED GUILTY TO WAR CRIMES CHARGES. ERDEMOVIC ADMITS TO TAKING PART IN THE MASSACRE OF BOSNIAN MUSLIMS AFTER THE U-N SAFE AREA OF SREBRENICA FELL TO THE BOSNIAN SERBS IN JULY OF LAST YEAR. BUT AS GILLIAN SHARPE REPORTS FROM THE HAGUE, HE IS NOT LIKELY TO RECEIVE THE MAXIMUM SENTENCE OF LIFE IN PRISON BECAUSE HE HAS BEEN COOPERATING WITH PROSECUTORS.

    TEXT: DRAZEN ERDEMOVIC WAS 23 YEARS OLD WHEN THE BOSNIAN SERB ARMY MARCHED INTO SREBRENICA. AND ALTHOUGH HE IS A CROAT, HE WAS PART OF A BOSNIAN SERB EXECUTION SQUAD WHICH IS ALLEGED TO HAVE KILLED 12-HUNDRED MUSLIMS IN ONE DAY AT A FARM NEAR THE TOWN.

    ERDEMOVIC SHOULD HAVE BEEN SENTENCED IN JULY. BUT PSYCHIATRISTS DIAGNOSED POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS SYNDROME AND SAID HE WAS NOT FIT TO TAKE THE STAND. EACH TIME ERDEMOVIC HAS APPEARED IN COURT, HE HAS BROKEN DOWN.

    BUT BEHIND THE SCENES, PROSECUTORS SAY HE HAS BEEN CRUCIAL IN PREPARING THE CASE AGAINST MEN LIKE FORMER BOSNIAN SERB OFFICIALS RADOVAN KARADZIC AND RATKO MLADIC. EARLIER THIS YEAR HE GAVE EVIDENCE IN PUBLIC HEARINGS AGAINST THE TWO MEN.

    //OPT//

    THE COURTROOM WAS HUSHED AS ERDEMOVIC ANSWERED PROSECUTORS' QUESTIONS.

    //OPT// // ACT PROSECUTOR / ERDEMOVIC //

    (PROSECUTOR) NOW WHAT HAPPENED AFTER A BUS ARRIVED AT THE FARM, COULD YOU DESCRIBE WHAT HAPPENED PLEASE? (SERBO-CROAT - FADE INTO TRANSLATION) WHEN THE BUS ARRIVED AT THE FARM, THE COMMANDER OF THE GROUP WOULD TELL US HOW AS AN EXECUTION SQUAD AND TWO MILITARY POLICEMEN WOULD BRING OUT TEN PEOPLE OF MUSLIM NATIONALITY FROM SREBRENICA AT A TIME AND THE COMMANDERS BROUGHT THEM TO THE EXECUTION SQUAD.

    /// ENDS ACT ///

    //OPT//

    HE SAID THE KILLING WENT ON FROM TEN O'CLOCK IN THE MORNING UNTIL LATE IN THE AFTERNOON. THOSE WHO DID NOT DIE IMMEDIATELY, ERDEMOVIC SAID, WERE FINISHED OFF WITH REVOLVERS. HORRIFIED BUS DRIVERS WERE MADE TO KILL AT LEAST ONE PERSON EACH. THE EXECUTION SQUAD, ERDEMOVIC TOLD THE COURT, TOOK ITS ORDERS DIRECTLY FROM BOSNIAN SERB MILITARY HEADQUARTERS.

    ///ACT ERDEMOVIC - SERBO-CROAT - FADE INTO TRANSLATION ///

    AT FIRST I RESISTED, AND THE COMMANDER OF THE GROUP TOLD ME IF I WAS SORRY FOR THOSE PEOPLE THAT I SHOULD LINE UP

    WITH THEM. AND I KNEW. THIS WAS NOT JUST A MERE THREAT, BUT THAT IT COULD HAPPEN BECAUSE IN OUR UNIT THE SITUATION HAD BECOME SUCH THAT THE COMMANDER OF THE GROUP HAD THE RIGHT TO EXECUTE ANY INDIVIDUAL ON THE SPOT.

    /// ENDS ACT /////END OPT//

    OFFICIALS SAY THIS KIND OF VALUABLE INSIDE INFORMATION IS BOUND TO BE IN ERDEMOVIC'S FAVOR WHEN IT COMES TO SENTENCING. THAT IS LIKELY TO HAPPEN LATER THIS YEAR. THE TRIBUNAL'S OWN RULES SAY THAT COOPERATION WITH PROSECUTORS SHOULD BE TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT.

    THE DEFENSE WILL BE CALLING TWO WITNESSES -- KNOWN SIMPLY AS X AND V. ONE IS THOUGHT TO BE A BOSNIAN MUSLIM, WHOSE LIFE ERDEMOIC SAYS HE SAVED. THE PROSECUTION IS ALSO CALLING WITNESSES. TWO ACADEMICS FROM BELGRADE ARE EXPECTED TO GIVE EVIDENCE ABOUT THE EFFECTS OF THE WAR ON THE YOUNG PEOPLE OF THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. TRIBUNAL INVESTIGATORS MAY ALSO BE CALLED TO DETAIL THE FULL EXTENT OF ERDEMOVIC'S COOPERATION.

    JUDGE CLAUDE JORDA OF FRANCE WILL HEAD THE THREE-MEMBER PANEL WHICH WILL DECIDE ERDEMOVIC'S SENTENCE. THE TRIBUNAL'S RULES GIVE THE JUDGES AN ALMOST FREE REIN.

    OBSERVERS SAY IT IS HIGHLY UNLIKELY THEY WILL SENTENCE HIM TO THE MAXIMUM LIFE IMPRISONMENT. THEY FACE A DELICATE BALANCING ACT -- ERDEMOVIC IS CLEARLY REMORSEFUL AND HE SAYS HIS CHOICE WAS SIMPLE KILL OR BE KILLED. YET OBSERVERS SAY HIS PUNISHMENT MUST BE TOUGH ENOUGH TO REFLECT THE FACT THAT HE ADMITS TO SHOOTING IN THE BACK AT LEAST 70 BOSNIAN MUSLIM CIVILIANS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/GS/JWH/LWM
    18-Nov-96 10:32 AM EST (1532 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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