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Voice of America, 96-11-22

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [02] CONFLICT RESOLUTION: ROMANI STRUGGLE FOR SURVIVAL IN BY JUDITH LATHAM (WASHINGTON)
  • [03] BULGARIA / MONEY (L ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)
  • [04] CLINTON / BOSNIA (L ONLY) BY DEBORAH TATE (PORT DOUGLAS, AUSTRALIA)
  • [05] E- EURO MARKETS (S ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)
  • [06] EU REFUGEES (L) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)
  • [07] EURO MARKETS (S-ONLY) BY PAUL FRANCUCH (LONDON)
  • [08] TURKEY / KURDS BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (HAKKARI, TURKEY)

  • [01] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=11/22/96
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09895
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-S-T ON FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 22ND //

    INTRO: A VARIETY OF TOPICS ARE DEALT WITH ON THE EDITORIAL PAGES OF THE NATION'S MAJOR NEWSPAPERS THIS FRIDAY. AMONG THEM ARE: THE POLITICAL FEUD IN BELARUS; PRESIDENT CLINTON'S TRAVELS IN ASIA, THE POPE'S PLANNED VISIT OT CUBA, FRUSTRATING DELAYS IN THE MIDDLE EAST PEACE PROCESS, AND THE POWER STRUGGLE OVER THE NEXT U-N SECRETARY GENERAL. NOW, HERE WITH A CLOSER LOOK IS ____________________ AND TODAY'S U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: THE NEW YORK TIMES IS CONCERNED ABOUT WHAT IT CALLS "THE CRISIS IN BELARUS", WHICH SEES THE FORMER SOVIET REPUBLIC'S PRESIDENT, ALEKSANDR LUKASHENKO, WHO SEEKS TO SIGNIFICANTLY ENHANCE HIS POWERS OVER THE PARLIAMENT THROUGH A NATIONAL REFERENDUM ON SUNDAY.

    VOICE: "WITH HISTORICALLY CLOSE TIES TO RUSSIA AND AN ECONOMY STUNTED BY SEVEN DECADES OF SOVIET RULE, AN INDEPENDENT BELARUS MANAGED ONLY A FEW, TENTATIVE STEPS TOWARD DEMOCRACY AND FREE MARKETS IN THE EARLY 1990'S BEFORE IT FELL BACK. SINCE HIS ELECTION IN 1994, MR. LUKASHENKO, THE MANAGER OF A STATE FARM IN THE SOVIET ERA, HAS FROZEN ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL REFORM AND USED INTERNAL SECURITY FORCES TO MUZZLE AND EVEN JAIL HIS CRITICS. RUSSIA, WHICH HAS DONE LITTLE TO TRY TO MODERATE MR. LUKASHENKO'S CONDUCT, IS NOW MAKING A BELATED EFFORT TO HEAD OFF THE REFERENDUM AND THE REAL POSSIBILITY OF VIOLENT CONFLICT IN BELARUS... THIS CRISIS PROMISES TO GET WORSE IF THE RUSSIAN INTERVENTION FAILS."

    TEXT: TURNING TO PRESIDENT CLINTON'S VISIT TO ASIA, THE SUN IN BALTIMORE SEES THIS SUNDAY'S MEETING BETWEEN PRESIDENT CLINTON AND CHINESE PRESIDENT JIANG ZEMIN IN MANILA AS A CRITICAL TEST OF MR. CLINTON'S POWERS OF PERSONAL PERSUASION.

    VOICE: "U-S RELATIONS WITH CHINA HAVE DETERIORATED AS A RESULT OF HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES BY THE BEIJING REGIME, AMERICAN SUPPORT OF TAIWAN, CHINESE PROTECTIONISM, U-S OBSTRUCTION OF CHINA'S ENTRY INTO THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION AND CHINA'S EXPORT OF NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY. BOTH COUNTRIES WOULD BE WELL-SERVED IF MR. CLINTON AND MR. JIANG CAN AGREE THAT PREDICTABLE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN TWO SUPERPOWERS SHOULD NOT OBSCURE THEIR VERY WIDE AND DEEP COMMON INTERESTS. CHINA NEEDS THE CONTINUED PRESENCE OF U-S TROOPS IN JAPAN TO PREVENT A REBIRTH OF MILITARISM THERE. THE UNITED STATES NEEDS CHINA TO HELP KEEP THE RUSSIANS IN CHECK IN THE PACIFIC-ASIA SPHERE."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: THE WALL STREET JOURNAL OFFERS SOME ADDITIONAL THOUGHTS ABOUT THE IMPORTANCE OF RELATIONS WITH CHINA.

    VOICE: "MR. CLINTON IS RIGHT TO BEGIN PAYING MORE ATTENTION TO CHINA IN HIS SECOND TERM, AND JUDGING BY THE CHINA-RELATED PRODUCT OF HIS SPEECH WRITER FOR THE AUSTRALIA TRIP, THE PRESIDENT IS OFF TO A GOOD START. BUT THE WAY TO ENSURE A REALLY SMOOTH RELATIONSHIP WITH CHINA OVER THE MEDIUM AND LONG TERM IS TO BRING IT INTO THE WTO (WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION) ONLY WHEN IT'S READY, AND WHEN ITS ENTRY WILL MEAN FEWER DISPUTES, NOT MORE."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: NEWSDAY ON NEW YORK'S LONG ISLAND IS CONCERNED ABOUT THE SLOW PACE OF NEGOTIATIONS BETWEEN ISRAELIS AND PALESTINIANS OVER THE WITHDRAWAL FROM HEBRON. THE PAPER SAYS, IN PART:

    VOICE: "THE LONGER THE PARTIES PROCRASTINATE OR PLAY GAMES, WITHOUT MAKING REAL PROGRESS IN THE PEACE TALKS, THE GREATER THE DANGER THAT SOME CATACLYSMIC EVENT WILL SET EVERYTHING REELING BACKWARD. THE PEACE PROCESS IS FRAGILE AND THERE ARE TOO MANY EXTREMISTS OUT THERE WHO WOULD LIKE NOTHING MORE THAN TO DESTROY IT... THE CHALLENGE FOR THE NEXT CLINTON ADMINISTRATION WILL BE TO PREVENT A TOTAL BREAKDOWN OF THE PEACE PROCESS, AFTER IT BECOMES CLEAR THAT THE NETANYAHU GOVERNMENT WILL NOT SERIOUSLY NEGOTIATE FINAL-STATUS TALKS."

    TEXT: AS REGARDS THE RECENTLY ANNOUNCED PLANS FOR POPE JOHN PAUL TO VISIT CUBA, WHICH FOLLOWED FIDEL CASTRO'S AUDIENCE WITH THE POPE IN ROME, THE NEW YORK POST SAYS:

    VOICE: "AS WE SEE IT ... [MR.] CASTRO CALLED ON THE HOLY FATHER, HOPING THAT TO DO SO WOULD BLUNT CATHOLIC OPPOSITION TO HAVANA'S MILITANTLY ATHEISTIC REGIME... THIS WISHFUL THINKING DEMONSTRATES FIDEL'S DESPERATION IN THE AUTUMN OF HIS TYRANNY... IN ROME TO ATTEND A U-N WORLD FOOD CONFERENCE ... HE BLAMED HUNGER ON CAPITALISM. HIS FELLOW DELEGATES, IT SEEMS, WERE TOO POLITE TO POINT OUT THAT FOOD HAS BEEN RATIONED IN CUBA SINCE 1960. [MR.] CASTRO, IN FACT, RULES THE ONLY CARIBBEAN ISLAND WHERE EVEN SUGAR AND FRUITS ARE SCARCE."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: TODAY'S CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR FOCUSES ITS MAIN EDITORIAL ON WHAT IT CALLS THE LATEST "UPS AND DOWNS IN MEXICO". IT WRITES:

    VOICE: "MEXICAN POLITICS CONTINUES ITS ROLLER COASTER RIDE TOWARD REFORM. IN JULY THE LONG-DOMINENT INSTITUTIONAL REVOLUTIONARY PARTY (PRI) SEEMED READY TO COOPERATE IN EFFORTS TO CHANGE ELECTORAL LAW AND ALLOW FAIRER COMPETITION. BUT THE PRI (PRON. 'PREE') HAS NOW BACKED AWAY... THE PARTY LAST WEEK CHIPPED AWAY AT REFORM MEASURES THAT WOULD HAVE MANDATED LOWER LIMITS ON CAMPAIGN SPENDING AND MORE EQUITABLE DISTRIBUTION OF PUBLIC FUNDING AND FREE BROADCAST TIME... THE RULING PARTY RETAINS A CONSIDERABLE RESIDUE OF SUPPORT. BUT ITS GRIP IS BEING PRIED OPEN, AND IN THE LONG RUN THAT IS GOOD NEWS FOR MEXICO AND ALL WHO HOPE FOR ITS PROGRESS."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: THE MIAMI HERALD STRONGLY OPPOSES THE UNITED STATES MOVE TO BLOCK U-N SECRETARY GENERAL BOUTROS BOUTROS-GHALI'S BID FOR A SECOND TERM. THE HERALD THINKS IT IS A BAD DECISION:

    VOICE: "...MR. BOUTROS-GHALI ... IS INTERNATIONALLY POPULAR, KNOWLEDGEABLE, AND BY ALL ACCOUNTS AN ABLE DIPLOMAT. HE WON'T BE EASILY SACRIFICED TO THE REALITIES OF INTERNAL U-S POLITICS. WITH ITS GAMBIT, [STRATEGY] THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION IS BUILDING RESENTMENT AND ANGER ABROAD, PARTICULARLY AMONG COUNTRIES WHO FEEL ... THE UNITED STATES IS MORE AN INTERNATIONAL BULLY THAN A LEADER ANYWAY. AS THE SEARCH FOR A NEW U-N LEADER CONTINUES, THE BURDEN WILL BE ON THE UNITED STATES TO REBUILD ITS RELATIONSHIPS WITH OTHER U-N MEMBER NATIONS AND TO RE-ESTABLISH TRUST."

    TEXT: LASTLY, THE LEAD EDITORIAL IN THE WASHINGTON POST RESTATES WHAT IT FEELS IS THE SERIOUSNESS OF THE VARIOUS WHITEWATER CHARGES AGAINST PRESIDENT AND MRS. CLINTON. THE PAPER GIVES A SUMMARY OF THE ALLEGATIONS AGAINST THE CLINTON'S, AS OUTLINED BY THE SPECIAL PROSECUTOR IN THE CASE.

    VOICE: "LYING, FALSE STATEMENTS AND FRAUD THAT CONTRIBUTED TO THE DEMISE OF A FEDERALLY INSURED SAVINGS AND LOAN [BANK] IN LITTLE ROCK' [ARKANSAS, BY] PARTNERS OF THEN-GOVERNOR AND MRS. CLINTON... LYING AND FRAUD TO SECURE LOANS FOR WEALTHY AND INFLUENTIAL PEOPLE' FROM A SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION-CHARTERED FINANCIAL INSTITUTION ... [AND] LAWYERS, JUDGES POLITICIANS AND BUSINESS PEOPLE -- WELL EDUCATED AND PROMINENT PEOPLE -- WHO USED LIES AND DECEIT TO BORROW MONEY FOR ONE PURPOSE AND ... USED IT FOR ANOTHER."

    TEXT: ON THAT CRITICAL NOTE ABOUT THE WHITEWATER ALLEGATIONS AGAINST PRESIDENT AND MRS. CLINTON, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF EDITORIALS FROM SOME OF THE NATION'S LEADING DAILY PAPERS.
    NEB/ANG/PCH
    22-Nov-96 11:21 AM EST (1621 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] CONFLICT RESOLUTION: ROMANI STRUGGLE FOR SURVIVAL IN BY JUDITH LATHAM (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=11/22/96
    TYPE=CURRENT AFFAIRS FEATURE
    NUMBER=3-26286
    BOSNIA TELEPHONE=619-3464
    EDITOR=SWANEY
    CONTENT= (TAPE CUTS IN AUDIO SERVICES)

    INTRO: THE ROMA -- OR "GYPSIES," AS THEY ARE PEJORATIVELY KNOWN -- ARE AMONG THE MOST NEGLECTED VICTIMS OF THE WAR IN BOSNIA. ACCORDING TO THE INTERNATIONAL ROMANI UNION, THERE WERE 1-POINT-2 MILLION ROMA IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA BEFORE THE WAR, AND THOSE WHO REMAIN IN THE SUCCESSOR STATES LIVE IN EXTREMELY DIFFICULT

    CIRCUMSTANCES. VOA REPORTER JUDITH LATHAM WAS RECENTLY

    IN THE AREA AND TALKED WITH ROMANI LEADERS AND HUMANITARIAN WORKERS ABOUT THE SITUATION. HERE'S ____ WITH A REPORT.

    TEXT: RAJKO DJURIC [RY-KOH JOOR-ITCH], PRESIDENT OF THE INTERNATIONAL ROMANI UNION, WHICH REPRESENTS ROMA IN 26 COUNTRIES, SAYS THE ROMA IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA FACE THE MOST DIFFICULT SITUATION. TAPE A: CUT ONE -- DJURIC (ESTABLISH SERBIAN FOR 5 SECONDS, AND FADE UNDER TAPE B: CUT ONE -- HOKE: ENGLISH TRANSLATION (0:46) "THERE USED TO BE 300,000 ROMA IN BOSNIA BEFORE THE WAR. (OPT) THERE WERE A TOTAL OF 109 DISTRICTS OF BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA BEFORE THE WAR, AND ROMA LIVED IN ALL BUT TWO OF THEM. (END OPT) MANY ROMA WERE KILLED AND MANY WERE IMPRISONED IN THE CAMPS. AT THE BEGINNING OF THE WAR IN YUGOSLAVIA, ROMA WERE FORCIBLY MOBILIZED AND WERE SENT TO THE FRONT LINES, OFTEN TO SWEEP THE LAND MINES. MUSLIMS, OF COURSE, MOBILIZED THE ROMA ON THE TERRITORY CONTROLLED BY THE MUSLIMS, AND THEY FORMED FOUR SPECIAL ROMANI BRIGADES. ONE OF THOSE WAS ESPECIALLY SUCCESSFUL, THE ZENICA BRIGADE. (OPT) ROMA WHO LIVED ON THE TERRITORY CONTROLLED BY THE BOSNIAN SERBS WERE MOBILIZED INTO THE BOSNIAN SERB ARMY, AND THEN ROMA WHO LIVED ON THE TERRITORY CONTROLLED BY THE CROATS WERE MOBILIZED BY THE CROATIAN FORCES. (END OPT)

    TEXT: THE PRESIDENT OF THE INTERNATIONAL ROMANI UNION SAYS IT WAS NOT UNCOMMON THAT ROMA WHO WERE FIGHTING ON DIFFERENT SIDES -- BOSNIAN MUSLIM, SERB, OR CROAT -- WERE FORCED TO KILL ONE ANOTHER. TAPE A: CUT TWO -- DJURIC (ESTABLISH SERBIAN FOR 5 SECONDS, AND FADE UNDER TAPE B: CUT TWO -- HOKE: ENGLISH TRANSLATION (0:25) "IN BANJA LUKA, WHERE 12,000 ROMA LIVED BEFORE THE WAR, TOWARDS THE END THE SERBIAN ARMY FORCED THE ROMA TO KILL ONE ANOTHER. WHEN THE WAR ENDED, ALL FOUR BRIGADES THAT HAD BEEN FORMED ON THE MUSLIM SIDE WERE DISBANDED, AND MANY ROMA WERE FORCED TO LEAVE BOSNIA. SOME OF THEM WHO HAD FOUGHT FOR FOUR YEARS ARE NOW IN GERMANY, AND THEY'RE WAR INVALIDS. THEY HAVE EXTREMITIES MISSING, OR THEY'RE BLINDED, OR WOUNDED IN OTHER WAYS."

    TEXT: BAJRO BEGANOVIC [BY-ROH BAY-GAHN-OH-VICH], PRESIDENT OF THE MANAGING BOARD OF BRACA ROMI [BRAH-CHAH ROH-MEE] IN SARAJEVO, LOST HIS SON DURING THE WAR IN BOSNIA. (BEGIN OPT) TAPE A: CUT THREE -- BEGANOVIC (ESTABLISH BOSNIAN 5 SECONDS AND FADE) TAPE B: CUT THREE -- ALIREJSOVIC: ENGLISH TRANSLATION (0:13) "MY SON WAS KILLED AS A NATIONAL HERO IN SARAJEVO. HIS NICKNAME WAS 'TYSON.' WE HAVE ALL SUFFERED FROM THE WAR. WE ARE CALLED THE 'BROTHERHOOD OF ROMA' BECAUSE THAT'S HOW WE ACT. WE WOULD GIVE OUR LAST DROP OF BLOOD FOR ANYONE ELSE [NOT ONLY ROMA]."

    TEXT: MR. BEGANOVIC SAYS BRACA ROMI WAS FOUNDED IN JULY 1993 AS A HUMANITARIAN AND POLITICAL ORGANIZATION TO HELP THE ROMA OF BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. ABOUT 4,700 ROMA LIVE IN SARAJEVO TODAY. MANY HAVE NEITHER RUNNING WATER NOR ELECTRICITY, AND THEY LACK FOOD AND MEDICINE. BEFORE THE WAR, MR. BEGANOVIC SAYS, THERE WERE SIZABLE ROMANI COMMUNITIES IN MOSTAR, ZENICA [ZEN-EET-ZAH], TUZLA, AND SREBRENICA [SHREB-RE-NEET-SAH], WHERE ONLY A FEW FAMILIES SURVIVED THE MASSACRE. TODAY HIS PEOPLE'S ECONOMIC SITUATION IN BOSNIA IS BLEAK, ALTHOUGH THE GOVERNMENT SUPPORTS ROMANI ETHNIC RIGHTS. TAPE A: CUT FOUR -- BEGANOVIC (ESTABLISH 5 SECONDS, AND FADE) TAPE B: CUT FOUR -- ALIREJSOVIC: ENGLISH TRANSLATION (0:17) "OUR GOVERNMENT IS NOT ABLE TO HELP US A LOT, SINCE THERE ARE A LOT OF REFUGEES COMING BACK FROM ABROAD. BUT, FOR THE FIRST TIME IN OUR HISTORY WE ARE RECOGNIZED AS A ROMANI NATION HERE IN BOSNIA. HOWEVER, WE HAVE SUFFERED FROM THE WAR -- IN THE SENSE THAT WE DON'T HAVE ENOUGH FOOD, WE DON'T HAVE MEDICINES, AND SO FORTH." (END OPT)

    TEXT: THE BOSNIAN AID COMMITTEE OF OXFORD IS ONE OF THE FEW INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN ORGANIZATIONS THAT HAS TRIED TO HELP THE ROMA. SENIOR FIELD OFFICER BILL CROKER [KROH-KER] HAS BEEN PROVIDING FOOD, MEDICINE AND CLOTHING TO BOSNIAN REFUGEES, INCLUDING ROMA, SINCE 1992. TAPE B: CUT FIVE -- CROKER (0:44) "THEY WERE NOT BEING TREATED VERY WELL BY THE LOCAL POPULATION. AND IT WAS IN THE MIDDLE OF WINTER, AND THEY LOOKED ABSOLUTELY DESTITUTE, SO I GAVE THEM A FEW TONS OF FOOD AND CLOTHING. AND FROM THAT DAY, I'VE HAD AN INTEREST IN THE ROMANI PEOPLE IN GENERAL. (BEGIN OPT) ALL THE ROMANI PEOPLE I'VE COME ACROSS ARE LIVING IN HOUSES THAT HAVE BEEN SEVERELY DAMAGED BY SHELLFIRE. AND THEY DO THE BEST THEY CAN WITH THESE PLACES, BUT OF COURSE THEY'RE NOT REALLY FIT FOR HUMAN HABITATION, SOME OF THEM. (END OPT) THERE ARE ALWAYS THOSE PEOPLE AT THE BOTTOM END OF THE SCALE WHO, NOT THROUGH ANY FAULT OF THEIR OWN, ARE UNABLE TO CARE FOR THEMSELVES. AND THESE ARE THE PEOPLE WHOM WE ARE CONTINUALLY TRYING TO HELP."

    TEXT: (OPT) MR. CROKER HAS JUST FINISHED MAKING A FILM ABOUT A ROMANI FAMILY LIVING IN A BOMBED-OUT SERB HOME IN THE SHADOW OF MOUNT IGMAN, NEAR SARAJEVO. HE SAYS HE HOPES THE FILM WILL HELP PEOPLE UNDERSTAND HOW ROMA IN BOSNIA LIVE TODAY. (END OPT)

    ACCORDING TO THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE'S FACT-FINDING MISSION IN MAY ON THE SITUATION OF THE ROMA IN BOSNIA, MOST ROMA BEFORE THE WAR LIVED IN AREAS THAT ARE NOW PART OF REPUBLIKA SRPSKA. THE MAJORITY WERE MUSLIM AND THUS FIND THEMSELVES IN A VERY VULNERABLE POSITION IN AN ETHNICALLY AND RELIGIOUSLY DIVIDED COUNTRY. THE MISSION DETERMINED THAT FEW PEOPLE OR ORGANIZATIONS WERE AWARE OF THE SITUATION OF THE ROMA, WHO AS A GROUP WERE OUTSIDE INTERVENTION BY INTERNATIONAL ASSISTANCE AND HUMAN RIGHTS AGENCIES. IN MOST CASES, THEY FELL THROUGH THE NET OF HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE, WHICH WAS OFTEN LEFT TO CARITAS [KAR-I-TAS] FOR CATHOLIC CROATS, TO DOBRA VOLJA [DOH-BRAH VOL-YAH] FOR ORTHODOX SERBS, AND TO MERHAMET [MER-HAH-MET] FOR BOSNIAN MUSLIMS. FURTHERMORE, IT NOTED, MANY ROMA WERE KILLED WHILE SERVING IN THE BOSNIAN ARMY OR WERE MASSACRED ALONG WITH MUSLIM POPULATIONS. ACCORDING TO THE REPORT, ROMA REMAINING IN BOSNIA FIND THEMSELVES AT THE BOTTOM OF THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC LADDER WHEN LOOKING FOR HOUSING OR JOBS. IN SARAJEVO, THE ROMA COMMUNITY HAS BEEN PARTLY REMOVED FROM THE TOWN CENTER TO A PERIPHERAL DISTRICT VACATED BY THE SERB POPULATION. FOR THESE REASONS, THE FACT-FINDING MISSION OF THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE RECOMMENDED THAT IT WOULD BE INADVISABLE FOR ROMANI REFUGEES FROM BOSNIA TO RETURN HOME.

    SCOT MCELVANY [MAK-EL-VAY-NEE] IS AN INTERNATIONAL VOLUNTEER WITH MLADI MOST [MLAH-DEE MOST], A NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATION THAT IS ENGAGED IN CONFLICT RESOLUTION AMONG BOSNIAN YOUTH OF DIFFERENT ETHNIC AND RELIGIOUS BACKGROUNDS. HE HAS WORKED WITH ROMANI CHILDREN AT A REFUGEE CAMP IN EAST MOSTAR. HE SAYS UNPROFOR SET THE CAMP UP ABOUT THREE YEARS AGO IN A FORMER SLUM AREA INHABITED MAINLY BY ETHNIC ALBANIANS AND BY ROMA WHO CAME ORIGINALLY FROM KOSOVO. TAPE A: CUT FOUR -- MC ELVANY (0:44) "THERE WAS RUNNING WATER AS WELL AS ELECTRICITY, AND A NUMBER OF FAIRLY PERMANENT LATRINES WERE SET UP. THE LIVING CONDITIONS WOULD BE VERY SIMILAR TO OUR SLUM AREAS AROUND LOS ANGELES. IT WAS EXTREMLY CROWDED. FEELINGS ABOUT THE ROMA AND ABOUT THE CAMPS THEMSELVES ARE VARIED THROUGHOUT THE TOWN. THEY TEND TO BE REGARDED WITH A KIND OF PREJUDICE THAT SAYS THAT 'THEY'RE DIRTY AND THEY'RE THIEVES.' BUT A LOT OF PEOPLE CONTRADICTED THAT OPINION AND SAID THAT 'THEIR CHILDREN GO TO OUR PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS, AND THEY'RE TREATED LIKE ANYBODY ELSE.' THEY [ROMA] ARE NOT A PART OF THE CITY, BUT THEY INHABIT A CERTAIN AREA THAT NO ONE ELSE WANTS OR NEEDS."

    TEXT: VOLUNTEER SCOT MCELVANY SAYS THE BOSNIAN ROMA ARE TYPICALLY THE POOREST OF THE POOR IN A NATION DEVASTATED BY WAR.
    22-Nov-96 4:15 PM EST (2115 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] BULGARIA / MONEY (L ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)

    DATE=11/22/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-206564
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THERE APPEARS TO BE AN UNEASY CALM IN BULGARIA'S MONEY MARKETS FRIDAY, FOLLOWING A SHARP DECLINE IN THE VALUE OF THE COUNTRY'S CURRENCY, THE LEV, DURING THE PAST FEW DAYS. V-O-A'S BARRY WOOD REPORTS BULGARIA IS BELIEVED TO BE NEAR A DECISION ON WHETHER TO ACCEPT INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND PROPOSALS FOR STABILIZING THE VALUE OF THE CURRENCY.

    TEXT: THE EXCHANGE VALUE OF THE BULGARIAN CURRENCY ROSE SLIGHTLY FRIDAY. BUT EXPERTS SAY THAT CHANGE DOES LITTLE TO UNDO THE COLOSSAL DEPRECIATION OF THE LEV DURING THE PAST WEEK.

    ON THURSDAY ALONE THE CURRENCY FELL BY 18 PERCENT AGAINST THE U-S DOLLAR AND IS DOWN 30 PERCENT ON THE WEEK. THERE WERE PANIC WITHDRAWALS FROM THE STATE SAVINGS BANK. THE LEV FELL FROM 272 TO THE DOLLAR ON MONDAY TO 350 ON FRIDAY.

    BANKERS SAY THE PROBLEM IS A LACK OF CONFIDENCE IN THE BULGARIAN GOVERNMENT'S CAPACITY TO STABILIZE THE CURRENCY.

    THE FINANCIAL CRISIS BEGAN BACK IN APRIL. A MONTH LATER THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND AGREED TO EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE, PROVIDED THE BULGARIANS STOP THE DRAIN ON THE BUDGET OF FINANCING DOZENS OF MONEY-LOSING STATE ENTERPRISES.

    THE GOVERNMENT AGREED TO CLOSE SEVERAL BUSINESSES AND SELL OTHERS AT PUBLIC AUCTION. I-M-F LOAN INSTALLMENTS IN AUGUST AND OCTOBER WERE NOT DISBURSED BECAUSE THE GOVERNMENT FAILED TO FOLLOW THROUGH ON ITS COMMITMENTS.

    OBSERVERS SAY BULGARIA'S SITUATION IS PARTICULARLY DESPERATE SINCE THE PROVISION OF I-M-F LENDING BACK IN MAY FAILED TO RESTORE CONFIDENCE IN THE BANKING SYSTEM.

    WITHDRAWALS CONTINUED UNABATED. ING-BARINGS BANK IN LONDON SAYS BULGARIANS HAVE TAKEN 100-MILLION DOLLARS OUT OF THE COUNTRY SO FAR THIS YEAR.

    THE CAPITAL FLIGHT MEANS THAT BULGARIA'S FOREIGN CURRENCY RESERVES ARE DWINDLING, MAKING IT DIFFICULT FOR THE CENTRAL BANK TO INTERVENE IN THE MARKET TO HALT THE DEPRECIATION OF THE LEV.

    BANKERS NOW SPEAK OF THE PROSPECT OF BULGARIA DEFAULTING ON ITS FOREIGN DEBT. FOREIGN CURRENCY RESERVES ARE BELIEVED TO HAVE FALLEN TO BELOW 500-MILLION DOLLARS. THAT IS DOWN FROM ONE-POINT-FOUR-BILLION DOLLARS A YEAR AGO. BULGARIA HAS DEBT PAYMENTS OF 300-MILLION DOLLARS DUE WITHIN THE NEXT FIVE MONTHS.

    EXPERTS SAY THE GOVERNMENT HAS NOT BEEN ABLE TO REACH AGREEMENT ON ACCEPTING A RADICAL STABILIZATION MEASURE SUGGESTED BY THE I-M-F. THE INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL AGENCY SAYS A CURRENCY BOARD SYSTEM, WHERE MONEY IN CIRCULATION IS LIMITED TO THE AMOUNT OF FOREIGN CURRENCY RESERVES, COULD RESTORE CONFIDENCE. THE CURRENCY BOARD SYSTEM IS NOT POPULAR WITH THE CENTRAL BANK, WHICH WOULD LOSE MOST OF ITS AUTHORITY, NOR IS POPULAR WITH THE CENTER-RIGHT OPPOSITION IN PARLIAMENT.

    WHILE THE PARALYSIS IN POLICY-MAKING PERSISTS, THE SLOW-DOWN IN ECONOMIC ACTIVITY INTENSIFIES. PRICE RISES HAVE ACCELERATED, BRINGING THE INFLATION SO FAR THIS YEAR TO MORE THAN 200 PERCENT. (SIGNED)
    NEB/BDW/JWH/KL
    22-Nov-96 9:47 AM EST (1447 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] CLINTON / BOSNIA (L ONLY) BY DEBORAH TATE (PORT DOUGLAS, AUSTRALIA)

    DATE=11/21/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-206546
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: PRESIDENT CLINTON HAS MARKED THE ONE-YEAR ANNIVERSARY OF THE PEACE AGREEMENT FOR BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA BY PRAISING THE GAINS MADE DURING THE PAST 12 MONTHS. HE ALSO LOOKED AHEAD TO PLANS TO DEPLOY A FOLLOW-ON FORCE TO REPLACE THE CURRENT PEACE-KEEPING MISSION THAT EXPIRES NEXT MONTH. V-O-A WHITE HOUSE CORRESPONDENT DEBORAH TATE REPORTS FROM PORT DOUGLAS, AUSTRALIA, WHERE THE PRESIDENT IS TRAVELING.

    TEXT: IN A WRITTEN STATEMENT, MR. CLINTON SAID THE PEACE AGREEMENT HAS MADE A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE IN THE LIVES OF THE BOSNIAN PEOPLE -- NOTING MARKET MASSACRES, SNIPER ALLEYS, AND CAMPAIGNS OF ETHNIC CLEANSING ARE OVER.

    MR. CLINTON SAYS THE UNITED STATES AND ITS INTERNATIONAL PARTNERS HAVE MAINTAINED A SECURE PEACE, SEPARATED AND DEMOBILIZED THE FORMER WARRING PARTIES, HELD NATIONAL ELECTIONS, AND STARTED THE WORK OF REBUILDING THE COUNTRY'S ECONOMY AND CIVIL STRUCTURES.

    HE PRAISED THE INTERNATIONAL PEACEKEEPING FORCE IN BOSNIA FOR IMPLEMENTING THE MILITARY ASPECTS OF THE ACCORDS WITHOUT COMBAT CASUALTIES. HE SAYS THE MISSION EXCEEDED EXPECTATIONS IN BRINGING AN END TO A WAR THAT THREATENED STABILITY IN EUROPE.

    BUT HE SAYS UNTIL POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC EFFORTS GAIN GREATER MOMENTUM, A SMALLER FOLLOW-ON FORCE IS NECESSARY TO ALLOW THE GAINS IN BOSNIA TO TAKE HOLD. LAST WEEK, MR. CLINTON FORMALLY ANNOUNCED THE UNITED STATES WOULD CONTRIBUTE TROOPS TO SUCH A FORCE FOR A MISSION EXPECTED TO LAST 18-MONTHS.

    BUT IN HIS STATEMENT, THE PRESIDENT SAID A FOLLOW-ON FORCE CAN DO ONLY SO MUCH. HE SAYS IT IS STILL UP TO THE BOSNIAN PEOPLE TO TAKE RESPONSIBILITY FOR REBUILDING THEIR COUNTRY, RECONCILING WITH THEIR NEIGHBORS, CREATING A DEMOCRATIC NATIONAL GOVERNMENT, AND LAYING THE FOUNDATION FOR A SELF-SUSTAINING PEACE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DAT/RAE
    21-Nov-96 8:54 PM EST (0154 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] E- EURO MARKETS (S ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)

    DATE=11/22/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-206572
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: SHARE PRICES WERE MOSTLY HIGHER THIS WEEK IN EASTERN EUROPE WITH PRAGUE, IN PARTICULAR, SHOWING STRONG GAINS. V-O-A'S BARRY WOOD REVIEWS THE HIGHLIGHTS.

    TEXT: SHARE PRICES ADVANCED IN PRAGUE FOR FIVE CONSECUTIVE SESSIONS THIS WEEK. THE MARKET WAS ENCOURAGED BY THE STRONG PERFORMANCE OF THE RULING CENTER-RIGHT PARTY OF PRIME MINISTER VACLAV KLAUS IN ELECTIONS FOR A NEW CZECH SENATE. THE "PX-50" INDEX GAINED 23 POINTS -- OR MORE THAN FIVE PERCENT ON THE WEEK TO CLOSE AT 510. WARSAW WAS ALSO HIGHER AS INVESTORS WERE PLEASED WITH THE PACKAGE OF ONLY MODERATE TAX INCREASES PASSED BY THE POLISH PARLIAMENT. THE "WIG INDEX" GAINED 108 POINTS TO 13- THOUSAND-670. BUDAPEST WAS SLIGHTLY LOWER ON THE WEEK, BUT THE MARKET WAS UP ON THURSDAY AND FRIDAY. THE "BUX INDEX" ENDED AT JUST ABOVE 35-HUNDRED.

    //REST OPT///

    ON THE SMALLER EXCHANGES, LJUBLJANA WAS AGAIN DOWN AMID UNCERTAINTY ABOUT WHICH PARTY WILL BE ASKED TO FORM A SLOVENE GOVERNMENT AFTER INDECISIVE PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS. ZAGREB WAS SHARPLY LOWER, AND THERE WAS LITTLE ACTIVITY IN BUCHAREST. BRATISLAVA WAS DOWN AGAIN ON LOW TRADING VOLUME. (SIGNED)
    NEB/BDW/PCF/SP
    22-Nov-96 12:50 PM EST (1750 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [06] EU REFUGEES (L) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=11/22/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-206573
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: EUROPEAN UNION DEVELOPMENT MINISTERS (FRIDAY) AGREED TO TAKE URGENT ACTION TO TACKLE THE REFUGEE CRISIS IN RWANDA AND ZAIRE. THEY AGREED TO BOOST AID TO THE REGION BY MORE THAN 200-MILLION DOLLARS. JOHN FRASER HAS DETAILS FROM BRUSSELS.

    TEXT: THE EUROPEAN DEVELOPMENT MINISTERS PLEDGED THEIR SUPPORT FOR HELPING REFUGEES TO RETURN SAFELY TO RWANDA, AND FOR ASSISTING THEM ONCE THEY HAVE RETURNED. THEY ALSO CALLED ON E-U OFFICIALS TO DRAW UP A COMPREHENSIVE LONGER-TERM ACTION PLAN FOR ASSISTING THE WHOLE REGION.

    THIS WILL BE READY EARLY IN DECEMBER, AND WILL COVER BOTH HUMANITARIAN ASPECTS AND THE SEARCH FOR A PERMANENT POLITICAL SOLUTION TO THE UNDERLYING TENSIONS IN RWANDA, ZAIRE AND BURUNDI. EUROPEAN UNION DEVELOPMENT COMMISSIONER, JOAO DE DEUS PINHEIRO, SAYS THE AIM IS TO PROVIDE THE LEADERSHIP WHICH IS BADLY NEEDED IN THE REGION.

    IT WILL BE LEFT UP TO INDIVIDUAL E-U GOVERNMENTS TO DECIDE WHETHER OR NOT TO TAKE PART IN A MILITARY FORCE TO SUPPORT AID DELIVERIES AND TO ASSIST THE RETURN OF REFUGEES TO RWANDA -- THE OPTIONS FOR WHICH WERE REVIEWED BY DEFENSE CHIEFS IN A SEPARATE MEETING IN STUTTGART, GERMANY.

    THE E-U MINISTERS AGREED THAT THE WESTERN EUROPEAN UNION -- AN INDEPENDENT DEFENSE BODY WHICH BRINGS TOGETHER A NUMBER OF EUROPEAN NATIONS -- SHOULD OFFER LOGISTICAL SUPPORT IN THE DELIVERY OF HUMANITARIAN AID.

    //OPT//

    DENMARK ABSTAINED FROM THIS DECISION, AS IT DOES NOT SUPPORT ANY EUROPEAN UNION DISCUSSION OF DEFENSE MATTERS. //END OPT//

    THE CRISIS IN ZAIRE WILL BE DISCUSSED AGAIN WHEN EUROPEAN UNION FOREIGN MINISTERS MEET IN BRUSSELS ON MONDAY, AND WILL ALSO BE DEBATED IN THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT NEXT WEEK.

    //REST OPT//

    IN ANOTHER DEVELOPMENT, THE EUROPEAN DEVELOPMENT MINISTERS ALSO DISCUSSED THE MAJOR PROBLEM OF ANTI-PERSONNEL LAND MINES. THEY AGREED TO BOOST EFFORTS TO HELP CLEAR THESE WHERE THEY HAVE ALREADY BEEN PLANTED -- PARTICULARLY IN SOUTHERN AFRICA AND TO WORK TOWARDS A WORLDWIDE BAN ON THEIR FUTURE PRODUCTION AND SALE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JF/PCF/KL
    22-Nov-96 1:17 PM EST (1817 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [07] EURO MARKETS (S-ONLY) BY PAUL FRANCUCH (LONDON)

    DATE=11/22/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-206576
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    /// RE-RUNNING W/CORRECT NUMBER ///

    INTRO: INVESTORS WENT ON A BUYING SPREE IN LONDON AND PARIS FRIDAY, WHILE IN FRANKFURT, THE WEEK ENDED WITH STOCKS CLOSING DOWN. FOR A WRAPUP OF FRIDAY'S WEST EUROPEAN MARKET ACTIVITY, HERE'S VOA'S PAUL FRANCUCH.

    TEXT: STOCKS SOARED HERE IN LONDON FRIDAY AS RECENT WORRIES ABOUT INFLATION AND HIGHER INTEREST RATES ABATED SOMEWHAT, AND UTILITY AND ENERGY STOCKS POWERED THE FOOTSIE 100 INDEX TO CLOSE THE DAY UPWARD ALMOST 65 POINTS. THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT'S BUDGET FOR 1997 IS UNVEILED NEXT TUESDAY, AND INVESTORS HERE ARE GROWING CONFIDENT IT MAY BE MORE FISCALLY PRUDENT THAN EARLIER ANTICIPATED.

    THE PARIS "CAC-40" INDEX OF STOCKS ALSO CLOSED FRIDAY ON A HIGH NOTE -- A RECORD HIGH, IN FACT. THAT INDEX GAINED ALMOST 22 POINTS FOR THE DAY.

    BUT IN GERMANY, THE FRANKFURT "DAX 30" INDEX SLIPPED JUST UNDER NINE POINTS FOR THE DAY IN FAIRLY THIN TRADING VOLUME. SOME ANALYSTS BELIEVE IT WAS MERELY A PAUSE OR CORRECTION FOLLOWING RECENT GAINS.

    THE U-S DOLLAR ALSO GAINED SLIGHT GROUND OVER THE GERMAN MARK AND BRITISH POUND ON FRIDAY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PCF/SP
    22-Nov-96 2:21 PM EST (1921 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] TURKEY / KURDS BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (HAKKARI, TURKEY)

    DATE=11/22/96
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-35033
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: TURKEY'S FIRST ISLAMIST-LED GOVERNMENT CAME TO POWER FOUR MONTHS AGO WITH PROMISES TO END THE 12-YEAR KURDISH REBELLION WHILE AT THE SAME TIME GRANTING THE KURDS GREATER CULTURAL RIGHTS. AMBERIN ZAMAN REPORTS FROM HAKKARI PROVINCE IN THE MAINLY KURDISH SOUTHEAST THAT MANY PEOPLE IN THE AREA BELIEVE THE GOVERNMENT HAS NOT YET KEPT ITS WORD.

    TEXT:

    /// KURDISH MUSIC ///

    HERE IN THE STREETS OF HAKKARI, KURDISH MUSIC, WHICH USED TO BE BANNED, IS NOW PLAYED FREELY. SLOWLY BUT SURELY, TURKEY'S ETHNIC KURDISH POPULATION IS BEING ALLOWED TO EXPRESS ITS LONG-SUPPRESSED CULTURAL IDENTITY.

    MANY KURDS HERE SAY THEY ARE PLEASED THAT THEY CAN LISTEN TO THEIR OWN MUSIC NOW. BUT IT IS HIGH TIME, MANY SAY, THAT THE GOVERNMENT ALSO ENDS BANS ON BROADCASTING AND EDUCATION IN THE KURDISH LANGUAGE.

    THAT IS PRECISELY WHAT PRIME MINISTER NECMETTIN ERBAKAN'S ISLAMIC WELFARE PARTY, OR REFAH, PROMISED TO DO BEFORE COMING TO POWER FOUR MONTHS AGO IN A COALITION WITH TANSU CILLER'S CONSERVATIVE TRUE PATH PARTY (D-Y-P).

    THE NEW GOVERNMENT HAS ALSO PLEDGED TO CRACK DOWN ON ALLEGED ABUSES COMMITTED BY SECURITY FORCES IN THEIR BATTLE AGAINST THE KURDISTAN WORKERS PARTY, THE P-K-K. BUT, BAHA KARAKUTUK, A SENIOR CORRESPONDENT FOR THE PRO-KURDISH DAILY NEWSPAPER, DEMOKRASI, SAYS THE NEW GOVERNMENT HAS FAILED TO MOVE FORWARD ON THE KURDISH ISSUE.

    /// KARAKUTUK ACT ///

    WE HAVE NOT SEEN ANY POLICY CHANGES OF THIS STATE SINCE THIS GOVERNMENT HAD COME TO THE POWER ON THE KURDISH ISSUE. BASICALLY THE MILITARY APPROACH, THE MILITARY SOLUTION TYPE OF APPROACH STILL CONTINUES IN THE SOUTHEAST PART OF TURKEY. ON THE OTHER HAND WE KNOW THERE ARE SOME PEOPLE INSIDE REFAH [WELFARE], KURDISH M-P'S, WE CAN SAY THAT ARE TRYING TO FIGURE OUT, TRYING TO PUT PRESSURE ON ERBAKAN ON THE KURDISH ISSUE THAT THERE SHOULD BE SOME KIND OF A POLITICAL SOLUTION.

    /// END KARAKUTUK ACT ///

    HASHIMI HASHIMI IS ONE THE ETHNIC KURDISH LAWMAKERS FROM REFAH WHO IS LOBBYING FOR CULTURAL REFORMS.

    /// HASHIMI ACT - FADE UNDER ///

    MR. HASHIMI ACKNOWLEDGES THAT SO FAR THE GOVERNMENT HAS NOT BEEN ABLE TO DELIVER ON ITS PROMISE OF GRANTING THE COUNTRY'S ESTIMATED 12-MILLION KURDS GREATER CULTURAL FREEDOMS. THE REFAH LAWMAKER BLAMES WHAT HE DESCRIBES AS THE CURRENT POLITICAL CLIMATE FOR THE GOVERNMENT'S INABILITY TO MOVE FORWARD ON THE KURDISH ISSUE.

    MR. HASHIMI IS REFERRING TO THE 12-YEAR REBELLION IN THE MAINLY KURDISH SOUTHEAST REGION LED BY THE SEPARATIST KURDISTAN WORKERS PARTY, THE P-K-K. MORE THAN 21-THOUSAND PEOPLE HAVE DIED IN THE INSURGENCY.

    THANKS TO ITS GUERRILLA-FRIENDLY TERRAIN, THIS MOUNTAINOUS PROVINCE NEAR THE IRAQI AND IRANIAN BORDERS HAS BECOME THE MAIN BATTLEGROUND FOR THE P-K-K IN ITS DRIVE FOR AN INDEPENDENT KURDISH STATE. HUNDREDS OF VILLAGES AND HAMLETS IN THE PROVINCE HAVE BEEN FORCIBLY EVACUATED BY SECURITY FORCES FOR ALLEGEDLY HELPING THE REBELS, LEAVING THOUSANDS OF CIVILIANS HOMELESS AND UNEMPLOYED.

    REFLECTING OFFICIAL THINKING ON THE KURDISH ISSUE, MANY OFFICERS SERVING HERE SAY GRANTING THE KURDS GREATER CULTURAL FREEDOM WOULD ENCOURAGE SEPARATIST SENTIMENT. NONE WERE WILLING TO EXPRESS THEIR VIEWS ON TAPE.

    THE MAYOR OF HAKKARI, ABDURRAHMAN YILDIRIM, SAYS NONE OF HIS PEOPLE WANTS AN INDEPENDENT KURDISH STATE. MOST ARE PROUD TO BE TURKISH CITIZENS, HE SAYS, AND OPPOSE THE P-K-K'S ARMED CAMPAIGN.

    /// YILDIRIM ACT - FADE UNDER ///

    BUT MR YILDIRIM ALSO SAYS HE BELIEVES HIS FELLOW KURDS SHOULD BE ALLOWED TO EDUCATE THEIR CHILDREN IN THE KURDISH LANGUAGE IF THEY SO CHOOSE. HE SAYS THIS WOULD NOT UNDERMINE THE UNITY OF THE TURKISH STATE.

    THE HAKKARI MAYOR SAYS AS LONG AS THE GOVERNMENT TREATS ITS CITIZENS WELL AND EQUALLY, THERE IS NO REASON TURKS AND KURDS SHOULD NOT CONTINUE TO LIVE IN HARMONY AS THEY HAVE DONE FOR WELL OVER ONE-THOUSAND YEARS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/AZ/JWH/KL
    22-Nov-96 12:25 PM EST (1725 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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