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Voice of America, 96-12-02

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] MONDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [02] EDITORIAL: SERBIA NOT COMMITTED TO DEMOCRACY
  • [03] BELGRADE PROTESTS (L ONLY) BY JULIA GLYN-PICKETT (BELGRADE)
  • [04] BOSNIA / WAR CRIMES (L-ONLY) BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (LONDON)
  • [05] EURO STOCKS (S ONLY) BY JACK HUIZENGA (LONDON)
  • [06] HAVEL SURGERY (L ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)
  • [07] HOW SERBS GET THE WORD BY PAMELA TAYLOR (WASHINGTON)
  • [08] U-S-BOSNIA SERBS (S ONLY) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)
  • [09] U-S / EU / CUBA (S ONLY) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)

  • [01] MONDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=12/02/96
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09908
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-S-T ON MONDAY, DECEMBER 2ND //

    INTRO: ENCOURAGING SIGNS IN THE U-S SOUTH THAT CAME OUT OF THE MOST RECENT NATIONAL ELECTIONS IS A FAVORITE TOPIC OF SEVERAL NEWSPAPER EDITORIAL WRITERS THIS MONDAY. OTHER SUBJECTS UNDER DISCUSSION INCLUDE: THE IRAQI HUMANITARIAN OIL SALE; MEXICO'S SHIFT AWAY FROM POLITICAL REFORM; THE ANTI-GOVERNMENT PROTESTS IN SERBIA, AND THE OUSTER OF PAKISTANI PRIME MINISTER BENAZIR BHUTTO. NOW, HERE WITH A CLOSER LOOK IS ___________________ AND TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: IN THE U-S ELECTIONS LAST MONTH, SEVERAL BLACK INCUMBENT MEMBERS OF CONGRESS WON RE-ELECTION IN DISTRICTS WHOSE BOUNDARIES HAD BEEN CHANGED, LEAVING THEM WITH A MAJORITY OF WHITE VOTERS. TODAY'S LOS ANGELES TIMES FINDS THAT A SIGNIFICANT AND HEARTENING DEVELOPMENT.

    VOICE: "THE REELECTION OF FIVE BLACK MEMBERS OF CONGRESS IN RECENTLY REDRAWN MAJORITY-WHITE DISTRICTS IN THE SOUTH PROVES THE POWER OF INCUMBENCY, AND ALSO INDICATES RACIAL PROGRESS... THE BLACK INCUMBENTS WHO WON IN THE NEWLY-DRAWN DISTRICTS CREDIT THEIR WINS TO HARD WORK ON BEHALF OF ALL CONSTITUENTS AND NOT A SUDDEN WILLINGNESS OF ALL WHITE SOUTHERNERS TO IGNORE RACE AT THE BALLOT BOX. THE BENEFITS OF INCUMBENCY AND NAME RECOGNITION CANNOT BE IGNORED -- NOR CAN THE PROGRESS BE DISPUTED."

    TEXT: THE WALL STREET JOURNAL ALSO WRITES ON THE TOPIC, NOTING THAT, DESPITE THE ELECTION RESULTS, SOME CIVIL RIGHTS LEADERS WANT A RETURN TO THE ABNORMALLY DRAWN CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICTS THAT FAVORED BLACK CANDIDATES.

    VOICE: "... JESSE JACKSON ... AND OTHER SUPPORTERS OF RACIAL GERRYMANDERING HAVEN'T BEEN SWAYED BY THE FACTS. INDEED, SOME HAVE DIRECTED INFLAMMATORY RHETORIC AT OPPONENTS OF RACIAL DISTRICTING OF A SORT NOT SEEN IN A LONG TIME IN AMERICAN POLITICS... THE SUPREME COURT ... IS LIKELY TO CONTINUE TO HOLD OVERT RACIAL GERRYMANDERING UNCONSTITUTIONAL, BUT IT CAN NOW DO SO IN THE KNOWLEDGE THAT ITS ABOLITION WILL NOT DECIMATE MINORITY VOTING STRENGTH, DESPITE THE REFUSAL OF SOME LIBERALS TO ACCEPT THAT GOOD NEWS."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: THE SUN IN BALTIMORE CALLS THE VICTORIES OF BOTH BLACK AND LATINO CANDIDATES IN MAJORITY WHITE DISTRICTS "STUNNING SURPRISES," ADDING:

    VOICE: "THE SURPRISE DEMOCRATIC VICTORIES ... TEXAS ... GEORGIA ... AND FLORIDA WERE AS MUCH DUE TO THE POWER OF INCUMBENCY AS TO WHITE TOLERANCE... BUT IT ALSO DEMONSTRATED THAT SUPREME COURT DECISIONS BANNING REDISTRICTING STRICTLY ON RACIAL FACTORS DID NOT PORTEND 'A RETURN TO ALL-WHITE GOVERNMENT' AS DEVAL PATRICK, THE ASSISTANT ATTORNEY GENERAL FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, HAD WARNED."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: IN A SOMEWHAT RELATED DEVELOPMENT, USA TODAY COMMENTS ON THE DECISION BY THE GOVERNOR OF SOUTH CAROLINA TO REMOVE THE CONFEDERATE BATTLE FLAG FROM ATOP THE STATEHOUSE IN COLOMBIA.

    VOICE: "SOUTH CAROLINA'S OFFICIAL STATE FLAG, FEATURING A CRESCENT MOON AND A PALMETTO TREE, WAS ADOPTED IN 1861 AS THE FLAG OF THE FIRST SECESSIONIST STATE. WHY FLY A BATTLE FLAG OF WAR AND HATE WHEN YOU ALREADY HAVE ONE OF GREATER PRINCIPLE? IS IT PRIDE? OBSTINACY? MAYBE JUST A LACK OF MUCH NEEDED UNDERSTANDING."

    TEXT: IRAQI DICTATOR SADDAM HUSSEIN IS FINALLY BEING ALLOWED SO SELL A LIMITED AMOUNT OF OIL, ABOUT TWO-BILLION DOLLARS WORTH, TO BUY HUMANITARIAN SUPPLIES, INCLUDING FOOD AND MEDICINE FOR HIS UNDERFED AND SICKLY POPULATION. TODAY'S CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR SAYS THE ACTION WILL ONLY PARTIALLY MEET IRAQ'S HUMANITARIAN NEEDS.

    VOICE: "ONLY A PART OF THE (OIL) RECEIPTS WILL GO TO SOUTHERN AND CENTRAL IRAQ, WHERE SADDAM HOLDS SWAY. A SET PORTION WILL GO TO THE KURDS IN THE NORTH, AND ANOTHER CHUNK IS EARMARKED FOR A COMPENSATION FUND FOR VICTIMS OF THE IRAQI INVASION OF KUWAIT... BUT IT'S NOT LIKELY THAT ENOUGH CASH WILL FLOW IN TO SUBSTANTIALLY REDUCE IRAQ'S ECONOMIC STRESS. THE HUMANITARIAN ISSUE, WHICH HAS DOGGED [PLAGUED] THE U-S AND U-N, IS THUS EASED, NOT RESOLVED."

    TEXT: THE POST IN NEW YORK IS VERY SKEPTICAL ABOUT THE OIL SALE ARRANGEMENT.

    VOICE: "SADDAM HAS DEVOTED UNTOLD BILLIONS (OF DOLLARS) TO AN ONGOING EFFORT TO DEVELOP NUCLEAR AND CHEMICAL WEAPONRY. U-N ARMS INSPECTORS HAVE FOUND STRONG EVIDENCE THAT IRAQ CONTINUES TO HIDE ILLICIT WEAPONS; BAGHDAD MAY EVEN BE STOCKPILING GERM-WARFARE AGENTS. GIVEN THIS TRACK RECORD ... WE DOUBT THAT THE IRAQI DICTATOR WILL STAND BY SILENTLY WHILE TWO BILLION DOLLARS POURS INTO HIS COUNTRY. THIS PUTS THE ONUS ON THE U-N TO GUARANTEE THAT THE MONEY GOES TOWARD ITS INTENDED PURPOSE."

    TEXT: THE APPARENT MOVE AWAY FROM POLITICAL REFORM IN MEXICO, AFTER A STRONG START, CAUSES THE NEW YORK TIMES TO LAMENT:

    VOICE: "DEMOCRACY REQUIRES A LEVEL PLAYING FIELD OPEN TO ALL LEGITIMATE CONTENDERS. IN MEXICO, AN INCUMBENT MAJORITY ELECTED UNDER UNEQUAL RULES HAS BLOCKED THE CHANGES NEEDED TO MAKE FUTURE CONTESTS FAIR. [PRESIDENT ERNESTO] ZEDILLO, A SINCERE THOUGH WEAK REFORMER, UNDERSTANDS THAT ECONOMIC CHANGES CANNOT GO FORWARD WITHOUT HONEST POLITICAL COMPETITION. IF HE WANTS TO MAKE HIS COUNTRY A MODERN CAPITALIST DEMOCRACY, HE WILL HAVE TO FIGHT THE REACTIONARIES CONTROLLING THE P-R-I [THE INSTITUTIONAL REVOLUTIONARY PARTY]."

    TEXT: AFTER TWO WEEKS OF NON-STOP DEMONSTRATIONS AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT OF SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC, THE WASHINGTON TIMES SAYS:

    VOICE: "WERE MR. MILOSEVIC TO BE REMOVED FROM THE EQUATION, AND HIS CLIENTS, THE OBDURATE BOSNIAN SERBS, THUS DEPRIVED OF THEIR MAIN SOURCE OF SUPPORT, THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE DAYTON PEACE ACCORD WOULD LIKELY BE EASIER TO ACCOMPLISH -- INCLUDING THE PUNISHMENT OF WAR CRIMINALS, THE RETURN OF REFUGEES ... AND THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A WORKING BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT OF MUSLIMS, CROATS AND SERBS... [OPT] DESPITE MR. MILOSEVIC'S GRANDIOSE PLANS FOR A GREATER SERBIA ... HE HAS BROUGHT NOTHING BUT MISERY TO HIS OWN COUNTRY..."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: TURNING TO SOUTH ASIA, THE SUN IN BALTIMORE IS FOCUSING ON THE RISE AND NOW, APPARENT FALL, OF PAKISTAN'S OUSTED PRIME MINISTER BENAZIR BHUTTO.

    VOICE: "THE FIRST WOMAN PRIME MINISTER OF AN ISLAMIC COUNTRY, BENAZIR BHUTTO DISAPPOINTED ALL WHO THOUGHT SHE MIGHT BRING STABILITY, DEMOCRACY, HUMAN RIGHTS AND PEACE TO PAKISTAN. SHE DID NOT.... PAKISTANIS WANT HONESTY, DEMOCRACY, AN ECONOMY OF HOPE AND AN END TO VIOLENCE."

    TEXT: WITH THAT COMMENT, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF EDITORIALS FROM MONDAY'S U-S PRESS.
    NEB/ANG/PCH
    02-Dec-96 10:54 AM EST (1554 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] EDITORIAL: SERBIA NOT COMMITTED TO DEMOCRACY

    DATE= DECEMBER 3, 1996
    TYPE= EDITORIAL
    NUMBER= 0-07060
    CONTENT=THIS IS THE ONLY EDITORIAL BEING RELEASED FOR BROADCAST
    DECEMBER 3, 1996.

    ANNCR: THE VOICE OF AMERICA PRESENTS DIFFERING POINTS OF VIEW ON A WIDE VARIETY OF ISSUES. NEXT, AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT.

    VOICE:

    THE SERBIAN PEOPLE RECENTLY VOTED IN MUNICIPAL ELECTIONS. IN BELGRADE, THE CAPITAL, AND A NUMBER OF OTHER MAJOR CITIES, OPPOSITION CANDIDATES WON CONTROL OF MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENTS. BUT THE WILL OF THE VOTERS HAS BEEN OVERTURNED. COURTS CONTROLLED BY THE GOVERNMENT OF PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC HAVE ANNULLED ELECTION RESULTS IN SEVERAL CITIES, INCLUDING BELGRADE.

    ALONG WITH OTHER DEMOCRATIC COUNTRIES, THE UNITED STATES CONSIDERS THE ACTIONS TO ANNUL THE SERBIAN ELECTIONS TOTALLY UNACCEPTABLE. THESE ACTIONS INVALIDATE SERBIA'S CLAIM TO BE EVOLVING TOWARD DEMOCRACY.

    SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC TOOK OVER SERBIA'S RULING COMMUNIST PARTY IN 1987. UNDER HIS CONTROL, THE PARTY, RENAMED THE SOCIALISTS, PROMOTED SERBIAN ULTRANATIONALISM AND SUPPORTED WARS AGAINST NEIGHBORING SLOVENIA, CROATIA AND BOSNIA. PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC HAS CONTINUED TO DOMINATE SERBIA'S POLITICAL PROCESS, AIDED BY HIS GOVERNMENT'S MANIPULATION OF THE STATE-RUN MEDIA. THE GOVERNMENT HAS ALSO COMMITTED MANY HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES, INCLUDING SEVERE REPRESSION OF THE ALBANIAN MINORITY IN KOSOVO.

    SERBIA CANNOT EXPECT TO BE ACCEPTED BY THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY UNTIL IT DEMONSTRATES A COMMITMENT TO DEVELOP INTO A MODERN, OPEN AND DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY. U.S. OFFICIALS HAVE MET WITH OPPOSITION LEADERS AND INDEPENDENT MEDIA TO EXPRESS SUPPORT FOR A DIVERSITY OF VOICES IN THE POLITICAL PROCESS.

    IN PART BECAUSE OF SERBIA'S FAILURE TO OBSERVE DEMOCRATIC PRINCIPLES, THE U.S. HAS NOT EXTENDED DIPLOMATIC RECOGNITION TO BELGRADE. THE ANNULMENT OF THE MUNICIPAL ELECTIONS SHOWS THAT THE SERBIAN GOVERNMENT IS STILL NOT COMMITTED TO MEETING DEMOCRATIC STANDARDS.

    ANNCR:

    THAT WAS AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO BE HEARD ON THIS ISSUE, PLEASE WRITE TO EDITORIALS, VOICE OF AMERICA, WASHINGTON, D-C, 20547, U-S-A. YOU MAY ALSO SEND US A FAX AT (202) 619-1043. YOUR COMMENTS MAY BE USED ON THE AIR.
    02-Dec-96 3:21 PM EST (2021 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] BELGRADE PROTESTS (L ONLY) BY JULIA GLYN-PICKETT (BELGRADE)

    DATE=12/2/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-206935
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THOUSANDS OF DEMONSTRATORS MARCHED MONDAY IN ANTI-GOVERNMENT PROTESTS IN BELGRADE -- DESPITE WORSENING WEATHER AND BITTER DENUNCIATIONS BY GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS. JULIA GLYN-PICKETT REPORTS FROM BELGRADE.

    TEXT: THE PROTESTORS MARCHED IN DEFIANCE OF STATEMENTS BY SERBIA'S INTERIOR MINISTRY AND THE PRESIDENT OF THE SERBIAN PARLIAMENT -- A MEMBER OF THE RULING SOCIALIST PARTY OF SERBIA, DRAGAN TOMIC.

    MORE THAN 60-THOUSAND DEMONSTRATORS GATHERED IN HEAVY SNOW IN CENTRAL BELGRADE, MARKING THE 13TH NIGHT OF THEIR PEACEFUL PROTEST BY SINGING THE 1918 SERBIAN ANTHEM.

    /// DEMONSTRATORS SINGING ///

    SUNDAY, THE INTERIOR MINISTRY SAID IT WOULD NO LONGER TOLERATE WHAT IT CALLS ACTS OF CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE. IT SAID ALL POLITICAL PARTIES AND ORGANIZATIONS THAT STAGED PUBLIC PROTESTS AS WELL AS THOSE WHO PARTICIPATED IN THEM COULD EXPECT THE POLICE TO TAKE ACTION IN THE FUTURE.

    A POSSIBLE INDICATION OF WHAT ACTION THE PEOPLE OF BELGRADE COULD EXPECT WAS GIVEN WHEN FIVE MEMBERS OF THE OPPOSITION COALITION WERE SENTENCED BY A BELGRADE JUDGE TO 30 DAYS IN PRISON FOR THROWING EGGS AT THE BUILDING OF STATE-CONTROLLED RADIO-TELEVISION SERBIA DURING PROTESTS LAST WEEK.

    MR. TOMIC WAS MORE DIRECT IN HIS CONDEMNATION OF THE PROTESTS IN A 15-MINUTE INTERVIEW ON RADIO-TELEVISON SERBIA'S PRIME-TIME NEWS.

    /// TOMIC ACT - FADE UNDER ///

    MR. TOMIC DENIED THAT THE PROTESTS WERE PEACEFUL, CALLING THEM INSTEAD DESTRUCTIVE AND VIOLENT. HE LIKENED THE DEMONSTRATORS TO FASCISTS, AND HE SAID THAT LIKE FASCISTS IN THE PAST SUCH AS HITLER, THE DEMONSTRATORS WERE USING VIOLENCE RATHER THAN DEMOCRATIC ELECTIONS TO COME TO POWER.

    HE ACCUSED THE DEMONSTRATORS OF PROVOKING RIOTS IN THE CITIES OF NIS AND BELGRADE, AND -- AS HE PUT IT -- MANIPULATING INNOCENT CHILDREN TO ACHIEVE THEIR GOALS. HOWEVER, ON MONDAY, THERE WAS STILL NO EVIDENCE THESE THREATS WOULD BE TRANSLATED INTO POLICE INTERVENTION. AND ONLY A HANDFUL OF TRAFFIC POLICE COULD BE SEEN THROUGHOUT THE PROTESTS.

    OBSERVERS SAY IT APPEARS THAT STUDENTS AND OTHER PROTESTORS ARE NO LONGER EASILY SCARED OR MANIPULATED BY GOVERNMENT ATTACKS AGAINST ITS CRITICS THROUGH THE STATE-CONTROLLED MEDIA. ON THE CONTRARY, THEY SAY, MORE PROTESTORS MARCHED IN BELGRADE ON MONDAY THAN ON SUNDAY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JGP/JWH/MMK
    02-Dec-96 2:30 PM EST (1930 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] BOSNIA / WAR CRIMES (L-ONLY) BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (LONDON)

    DATE=12/2/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-206931
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    /////

    EDS: THIS REPORT IS FOR RELEASE AT 0700 U-T-C (2 AM E-S-T), TUESDAY. /////

    INTRO: THE LONDON-BASED INTERNATIONAL CRISIS GROUP -- OR I-C-G IS CALLING ON THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY TO EXERT MORE PRESSURE TO ENSURE INDICTED WAR CRIMINALS IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA ARE BROUGHT TO TRIAL. IN THIS REPORT FROM LONDON, V-O-A CORRESPONDENT ANDRE DE NESNERA LOOKS AT THE I-C-G'S LATEST REPORT ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE DAYTON PEACE ACCORDS.

    TEXT: THE PRESIDENT OF THE INTERNATIONAL CRISIS GROUP -- NICHOLAS HINTON -- WARNS THE BOSNIAN PEACE PROCESS WILL BREAK DOWN UNLESS INDICTED WAR CRIMINALS ARE BROUGHT TO TRIAL.

    /// HINTON ACT ///

    WE BELIEVE SO LONG AS INDICTED WAR CRIMINALS, PEOPLE INDICTED OF CRIMES THAT ARE AS HEINOUS AS ANY COMMITTED SINCE THE SECOND WORLD WAR, STILL HOLD THE LEVERS OF POWER, STILL INFLUENCE EVENTS IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA AND UNLESS THESE PEOPLE ARE REMOVED, UNLESS JUSTICE IS BROUGHT TO FRUITION, THEN WE BELIEVE THAT THE DAYTON PEACE ACCORDS WILL FAIL AND BOSNIA WILL SPIRAL DOWN INTO ANOTHER WAR.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE INTERNATIONAL CRISIS GROUP IS A MULTI-NATIONAL, NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATION FOUNDED LAST YEAR TO MONITOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE DAYTON PEACE AGREEMENT. IT IS HEADED BY FORMER U-S SENATOR GEORGE MITCHELL.

    MR. HINTON SAYS UNDER THE TERMS OF THE DAYTON ACCORDS, THE PARTIES TO THE AGREEMENT -- BOSNIA, CROATIA, AND SERBIA -- ARE SUPPOSED TO ARREST ALL INDICTED WAR CRIMINALS ON THEIR TERRITORIES -- AND SURRENDER THEM TO THE INTERNATIONAL TRIBUNAL IN THE THE HAGUE. BUT ACCORDING TO MR. HINTON, ONLY SEVEN OF THE 75 PEOPLE INDICTED HAVE BEEN DETAINED. HE SAYS IT IS NOW TIME TO GIVE THE NATO-LED FORCE IN BOSNIA THE MANDATE TO ARREST ALL INDICTED WAR CRIMINALS.

    /// 2ND HINTON ACT ///

    WHAT IS AT STAKE HERE IS THE FUTURE OF BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. WHAT IS AT STAKE HERE IS THE POTENTIAL FOR FAILURE OF ALL THE EFFORTS THAT THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY HAS PUT INTO THIS. IF WE DO NOT ACHIEVE THIS, THEN I THINK DAYTON WILL BE LOOKED BACK ON AS THE MOST EXPENSIVE CEASEFIRE IN HISTORY.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. HINTON RECOMMENDS WESTERN NATIONS PROVIDE ADDITIONAL RESOURCES TO THE INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL IN THE HAGUE, SO IT CAN DO ITS JOB PROPERLY. HE ALSO SAYS THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY MUST WITHHOLD ALL AID TO ANY MUNICIPALITY OR COUNTRY HARBORING INDICTED WAR CRIMINALS UNTIL THEY ARE HANDED OVER FOR TRIAL. (SIGNED)
    NEB/ADEN/JWH/RAE
    02-Dec-96 1:30 PM EST (1830 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] EURO STOCKS (S ONLY) BY JACK HUIZENGA (LONDON)

    DATE=12/2/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-206934
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: SHARE PRICES WERE UP IN TRADING MONDAY IN FRANKFURT AND PARIS, BUT WERE DOWN IN LONDON. V-O-A'S JACK HUIZENGA HAS THE CLOSING MARKET REPORT FROM OUR BUREAU IN LONDON.

    TEXT: STOCK PRICES PUSHED UPWARDS IN FRANKFURT, HITTING A RECORD-HIGH CLOSE. THE DAX-30 INDEX ENDED THE DAY UP ALMOST ONE-HALF PERCENT.

    THE GERMAN MARKET HAS RISEN THREE PERCENT IN THE PAST WEEK, BOOSTED BY THE STRENGTH OF THE U-S DOLLAR AGAINST THE GERMAN MARK, WHICH BENEFITS GERMAN EXPORTS. IN PARIS, PRICES ALSO ROSE. THE CAC-40 INDEX ENDED THE DAY UP JUST OVER ONE-TENTH OF ONE PERCENT. HOWEVER, STOCKS WERE DOWN IN LONDON. ANALYSTS SAY TRADERS IN BRITAIN ARE CONCERNED ABOUT THE STRENGTH OF THE BRITISH POUND AND THE POSSIBILITY OF MORE INTEREST RATE INCREASES. THE FOOTSIE-100 INDEX CLOSED DOWN MORE THAN 19 POINTS, ALMOST ONE-HALF PERCENT.

    ON THE LONDON CURRENCY MARKET, THE U-S DOLLAR AGAIN LOST VALUE AGAINST THE BRITISH POUND AND THE JAPANESE YEN. BUT IT GAINED A BIT IN VALUE AGAINST THE GERMAN MARK. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JWH/MMK
    02-Dec-96 1:50 PM EST (1850 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] HAVEL SURGERY (L ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)

    DATE=12/2/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-206926
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: DOCTORS HAVE REMOVED A CANCEROUS TUMOR FROM THE LUNG OF CZECH PRESIDENT VACLAV HAVEL. V-O-A'S BARRY WOOD IN PRAGUE REPORTS DOCTORS FOUND THE CANCER DURING A THREE-AND-ONE-HALF HOUR OPERATION ON THE CZECH LEADER.

    TEXT: DOCTORS SAY THEY ARE OPTIMISTIC ABOUT MR. HAVEL'S CHANCES FOR A FULL RECOVERY.

    DURING WHAT WAS INTENDED TO BE EXPLORATORY SURGERY TO INVESTIGATE A SPOT ON THE PRESIDENT'S RIGHT LUNG, THE DECISION WAS MADE TO REMOVE NOT ONLY THE SMALL MALIGNANT TUMOR BUT ALSO ABOUT ONE-HALF OF THE LUNG ITSELF. THE DOCTORS SAY THE CANCER WAS DETECTED AT AN EARLY STAGE. AND THEY SAY THE SURGERY TOOK PLACE WITHOUT COMPLICATION.

    PRESIDENT HAVEL, WHO IS 60 YEARS OLD, IS EXPECTED TO REMAIN HOSPITALIZED FOR ABOUT TEN DAYS. IF HE RECOVERS RAPIDLY, HE COULD BE BACK TO WORK WITHIN SIX WEEKS.

    DOCTORS SAY THAT THE TUMOR CANNOT DEFINITIVELY BE LINKED TO THE PRESIDENT'S HEAVY CIGARETTE SMOKING. UNTIL RECENTLY, MR. HAVEL SMOKED ABOUT TWO PACKS A DAY, BUT IN RECENT WEEKS THAT HAS BEEN REDUCED TO THREE TO FIVE CIGARETTES A DAY.

    DOCTORS JOKINGLY REMARKED THAT MR. HAVEL HAD ONE OF HIS LAST CIGARETTES ON SUNDAY WHEN HE WAS VISITED BY A FELLOW SMOKER, CZECH HEALTH MINISTER JAN STRASKY.

    MR. HAVEL WAS ADMITTED TO THE HOSPITAL ONE WEEK AGO SUFFERING FROM PNEUMONIA. THIS PAST WEEKEND, IN HIS REGULAR RADIO ADDRESS TO THE NATION, MR. HAVEL SAID HE FELT BETTER THAN HE HAD FOR SEVERAL WEEKS. HE SAID HE LOOKED FORWARD TO THE SURGERY AND THAT EVEN IF THE SMALL SPOT WERE FOUND TO BE MALIGNANT, IT WAS AT A VERY EARLY STAGE.

    THE CZECH PRESIDENT, WHO SERVES IN A LARGELY CEREMONIAL POSITION, IS HIGHLY REGARDED BY THE CZECH PUBLIC. A DISSIDENT PLAYRIGHT UNDER COMMUNISM, MR. HAVEL WAS REPEATEDLY JAILED FOR HIS ACTIVITIES DURING THE 1980S, ALTOGETHER SERVING FIVE YEARS IN DETENTION. HE WAS THE PRINCIPAL LEADER OF THE 1989 ANTI-COMMUNIST REVOLUTION.

    MR. HAVEL'S HEALTH WEAKENED DURING HIS TIME IN PRISON. IN 1983, HE WAS HOSPITALIZED FOR PNEUMONIA AND WAS TREATED FOR A BRONCHIAL INFECTION IN 1989. HIS WIFE OLGA DIED OF CANCER LESS THAN ONE YEAR AGO. (SIGNED)
    NEB/BDW/JWH/MMK
    02-Dec-96 11:46 AM EST (1646 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] HOW SERBS GET THE WORD BY PAMELA TAYLOR (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=12/2/96
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-35098
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE GOVERNMENT OF SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC HAS TRIED TO CONTROL THE NEWS AVAILABLE TO ORDINARY SERBS OF THE PAST TWO WEEKS OF PEACEFUL, MASSIVE PROTEST DEMONSTRATIONS. THE FEW IMAGES SHOWN ON STATE TELEVISION ARE MEANT TO SHOW WHAT THE GOVERNMENT SAYS ARE ISOLATED INCIDENTS OF HOOLIGANISM. THE INDEPENDENT RADIO B-92 BROADCASTS ARE BEING JAMMED, FIVE OTHER STATIONS HAD THEIR LICENCES REVOKED AND INDEPENDENT-MINDED JOURNALISTS ARE BEING THREATENED AND EVEN ARRESTED. V-O-A'S PAMELA TAYLOR LOOKS AT HOW ORDINARY PEOPLE MANAGE TO HEAR ABOUT THE DEMONSTRATIONS AND TURN OUT TO JOIN THEM, IN EVER INCREASING NUMBERS.

    TEXT: WHEN THE B-92 BROADCASTS WERE JAMMED LAST WEEK (11/29), OPPOSITION LEADERS WORRIED THAT PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT IN THE PROTEST DEMONSTRATIONS WOULD DIMINISH. BUT ALEXANDRA SCEPANOVIC [SHEP-AN-OVITCH], A BROADCASTER AT RADIO B-92, SAYS THE PEOPLE OF BELGRADE ARE FINDING SOME HIGHLY INVENTIVE WAYS AROUND THE GOVERNMENT'S ACTION.

    // SEPANOVIC ACT //

    SOME LISTENERS PHONED US AND SAID THEY WERE ABLE TO TUNE TO B-92 (DESPITE THE JAMMING). FOR EXAMPLE ONE SAID, 'MY WIFE HAD TO HOLD THE ANTENNA IN HER MOUTH FOR THREE HOURS SO WE COULD HEAR YOU'.

    // END ACT //

    MS. SCEPANOVIC SAID THE STATION HAD TRIED TO TRICK THE JAMMERS BY PLAYING MUSIC AT THE USUAL TIME FOR NEWSCASTS, THEN WAITING FOR THE JAMMING TO GO AWAY BEFORE SUDDENLY BREAKING INTO THE MUSIC WITH A NEWS BULLETIN. BUT THE GOVERNMENT RESPONDED WITH NON-STOP JAMMING.

    OTHER LISTENERS HAVE TRIED HANGING THEIR ANTENNAS ON METAL RADIATORS, OR STANDING IN BATHTUBS FULL OF WATER TO ENHANCE RECEPTION. // OPT // LILJANA SMAJLOVIC IS AN INDEPENDENT JOURNALIST WITH THE WEEKLY MAGAZINE 'VREME'. SHE EXPLAINS HOW SHE GETS AROUND THE JAMMING:

    // OPT // SMJALOVIC ACT //

    I'M ONE OF THOSE PEOPLE WHO HAVE NOT BEEN ABLE TO HEAR B-92 WELL, AND IT'S DRIVEN ME TO MY WIT'S END (CRAZY) BECAUSE IT'S TRULY SOMETHING YOU BECOME AN ADDICT TO. I AM NOW ABLE TO HEAR THE NEWS ON B-92 IF I TILT MY RADIO IN A SPECIAL WAY AND HOLD THE WIRE HIGH ABOVE MY HEAD. BUT I'M USED TO LISTENING TO THE RADIO FOR HOURS AND HOURS ON END SINCE THE PROTESTS STARTED, AND IT'S DIFFICULT TO SPEND HOURS TILTING THE RADIO ABOVE YOUR HEAD AND HOLDING UP THE WIRE AND TILTING THE ANTENNA A SPECIAL WAY.

    // END ACT // END OPT //

    MILOS VASIC, ONE OF BELGRADE'S MOST RESPECTED JOURNALISTS. MR. VASIC IS WELL KNOWN FOR A REMARK HE MADE FOUR YEARS AGO, WHEN SERBIAN NATIONALISTS BEGAN THEIR PROPAGANDA CAMPAIGN AND THE OUTSIDE WORLD WONDERED HOW LATENT ETHNIC HATREDS AND PREJUDICES COULD BE SO QUICKLY IGNITED:

    // VASIC ACT //

    WHAT I SAID WAS, "IMAGINE THE THREE BIGGEST NETWORKS IN THE UNITED STATES BEING CONTROLLED BY (WHITE SUPREMACIST) DAVID DUKE OF LOUISIANA." THAT'S WHAT WE HAD BACK IN 1992 - 1993. AND RIGHT NOW, THE SITUATION IS ALMOST THE SAME. WHEN YOU HAVE SOMETHING LIKE 150 THOUSAND PEOPLE IN THE STREETS OF BELGRADE, BELGRADE TELEVISION AND RADIO REPORTED (ONLY) A COUPLE OF THOUSAND TROUBLEMAKERS, THINGS LIKE THAT.

    // END ACT //

    BUT BALKAN ANALYST OBRAD KESIC OF THE WASHINGTON-BASED IREX INSTITUTE SAYS ENTERPRISING SERBS HAVE PUNCHED A LOT OF HOLES IN (FOUND MANY WAYS TO BYPASS) THE GOVERNMENT'S NEAR TOTAL CONTROL OF THE MEDIA:

    // KESIC ACT //

    NOW WORD HAS GOTTEN OUT EVEN TO THE MOST REMOTE VILLAGES IN SERBIA, SO THAT NO ONE IN SERBIA IS IN THE DARK AS TO WHAT'S HAPPENING. PEOPLE ARE TRAVELLING TO BELGRADE ON A DAILY BASIS. FARMERS ARE COMING TO THE MARKETS, AND AS THEY SEE WHAT'S HAPPENING THEY TAKE BACK WORD TO THEIR VILLAGES. YOU HAVE PEOPLE COMMUNICATING VIA TELEPHONE, CALLING THEIR RELATIVES, TELLING THEM WHAT'S HAPPENING. YOU HAVE (PEOPLE) RECEIVING E-MAIL, RECEIVING FAXES, INFORMING THEM OF WHAT'S HAPPENING IN THE CITIES.

    // END ACT //

    ON TOP OF THAT, MR. KESIC SAYS, A LOT OF PEOPLE HAVE SATELLITE DISHES -- EVEN IN THE VILLAGES -- AND ARE ABLE TO CATCH INTERNATIONAL BROADCASTS. HE POINTS OUT THAT ALTHOUGH THERE MIGHT BE A LANGUAGE BARRIER -- THE PICTURES ARE WORTH A THOUSAND WORDS. AND HE REMINDS, NEARBY CROATIAN T-V IS PROVIDING FULL COVERAGE OF THE DEMONSTRATIONS -- IN THE VERNACULAR. (SIGNED).
    NEB/PAM/MMK
    02-Dec-96 3:53 PM EST (2053 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] U-S-BOSNIA SERBS (S ONLY) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)

    DATE=12/2/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-206938
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED STATES HAS WARNED THE BOSNIAN SERBS THEY MUST ACCEPT ARBITRATION OVER CONTROL OF THE STRATEGIC TOWN OF BRCKO IN NORTHEAST BOSNIA. THE SERBS PULLED OUT OF THE PANEL ON SUNDAY. V-O-A'S CORRESPONDENT RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT.

    TEXT: THE STATE DEPARTMENT IS WARNING THE SERBS THEY CANNOT ESCAPE ARBITRATION OVER CONTROL OF THE NORTHEAST TOWN OF BRCKO BY REFUSING TO TAKE PART. THE SERBS CHARGE THE AMERICAN MEDIATOR IS BIASED IN FAVOR OF THE MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION.

    CONTROL OF BRCKO WAS ONE OF THE LAST ISSUES TO BE DECIDED IN THE BOSNIA PEACE NEGOTIATIONS AT DAYTON LAST YEAR. THE PEACE ACCORDS REQUIRED AN ARBITRATION PANEL TO DECIDE ULTIMATE CONTROL OF THE SAVA RIVER TOWN THAT HAD A MUSLIM-CROAT MAJORITY BEFORE THE WAR. SERBS CAPTURED THE TOWN IN 1992 AND MANY SERB REFUGEES FROM CROATIA HAVE BEEN RE-SETTLED IN BRCKO.

    STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN NICHOLAS BURNS TELLS REPORTERS THE DAYTON PEACE ACCORDS MEAN THE SERBS MUST ACCEPT ARBITRATION.

    ///BURNS ACT///

    WITH OR WITHOUT THEIR DIRECT PARTICIPATION IN THE ARBITRATION PROCEEDINGS, THE ARBITRATION TRIBUNAL FOR BRCKO WILL REACH A DECISION. THE BOSNIAN SERBS ARE OBLIGATED UNDER THE DAYTON AGREEMENT TO ACCEPT AND IMPLEMENT THE INDEPENDENT DECISION THAT THE ARBRITRATION PANEL, HEADED BY AN AMERICAN, WILL MAKE.

    ///END ACT///

    A CONFERENCE IN LONDON THIS WEEK INVOLVING THE FIVE NATION BOSNIA CONTACT GROUP IS EXPECTED TO MAKE THAT POINT TO THE BOSNIAN SERB LEADERSHIP. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DG/CB/PT
    02-Dec-96 4:17 PM EST (2117 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [09] U-S / EU / CUBA (S ONLY) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)

    DATE=12/2/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-206939
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED STATES HAS PRAISED THE EUROPEAN UNION FOR ADOPTING A SPANISH RESOLUTION PROMISING TO MAKE ECONOMIC COOPERATION WITH CUBA DEPENDENT ON PROGRESS TOWARD DEMOCRACY AND HUMAN RIGHTS. RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT.

    TEXT: THE RESOLUTION ADOPTED BY EUROPEAN UNION FINANCE MINISTERS IS THE FIRST SIGN THAT THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION MAY BE MAKING SOME PROGRESS IN GETTING EUROPE TO TAKE NOTE OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN ITS BUSINESS DEALINGS WITH CUBA.

    EUROPE AND THE UNITED STATES ARE LOCKED IN A BITTER DISPUTE OVER AMERICAN LEGISLATION THAT REQUIRES RETALIATION AGAINST FOREIGN COMPANIES THAT INVEST IN CONFISCATED AMERICAN PROPERTIES IN CUBA.

    PRESIDENT CLINTON IS SCHEDULED TO DECIDE NEXT MONTH WHETHER TO CONTINUE TO WAIVE PORTIONS OF THE SO-CALLED HELMS-BURTON LEGISLATION THAT WOULD IMPOSE THE HEAVIEST PENALTIES. STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN NICHOLAS BURNS SAYS THE EUROPEAN UNION'S RESOLUTION MAY MAKE A WAIVER MORE POSSIBLE.

    ///BURNS ACT///

    THIS CERTAINLY WILL BE A FACTOR. IT WILL BE ONE OF THE FACTORS THAT WE TAKE INTO CONSIDERATION AS RECOMMENDATIONS ARE PREPARED FOR THE PRESIDENT. OBVIOUSLY THE PRESIDENT'S DECISION WILL BE HIS OWN, IT WILL DEPEND ON A VARIETY OF FACTORS, NOT JUST THIS ONE.

    ///END ACT///

    THE SPOKESMAN WELCOMES THE EUROPEAN UNION'S CHANGE FROM WORDS TO ACTION IN PROMOTING A DEMOCRATIC TRANSITION IN CUBA. (SIGNED)
    NEB/RP/KL
    02-Dec-96 5:10 PM EST (2210 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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