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Voice of America, 96-12-04 (1 of 2)

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] WEDNESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [02] CONFLICT RESOLUTION: U.S.-MACEDONIAN INSTITUTIONS BY JUDITH LATHAM (WASHINGTON)
  • [03] BELGRADE PROTESTS BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)
  • [04] BELGRADE MEDIA (L-ONLY) BY JULIA GLYN-PICKETT (BELGRADE)

  • [01] WEDNESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=12/04/96
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09913
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=_
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-S-T ON WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 4TH //

    INTRO: AMERICAN NEWSPAPER EDITORIAL WRITERS ARE COMMENTING ON A WIDE ARRAY OF TOPICS THIS FIRST WEDNESDAY IN DECEMBER. TOPICS INCLUDE: THE DISCOVERY OF WHAT COULD BE ICE ON THE MOON; THE TROUBLED GREAT LAKES REGION OF AFRICA; THE POSSIBLE THREAT POSED BY SUDAN; THE EROSION OF DEMOCRACY IN ALGERIA; DOWNSIZING THE U-S MILITARY PRESENCE IN JAPAN, AND THE U-S ECONOMY. NOW, HERE WITH A CLOSER LOOK IS _________________ AND TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: THE HISTORIC DISCOVERY OF WHAT SCIENTISTS BELIEVE TO BE ICE DEEP INSIDE A CRATER ON THE SOUTH POLE OF THE MOON HAS CAUSED A GOOD DEAL OF REACTION IN THE U-S PRESS. THE BOSTON GLOBE HAILS THE FINDING THIS WAY:

    VOICE: "SCIENCE FICTION COULD HARDLY DO BETTER. THE INTERSECTION OF ANCIENT EVENTS AND MODERN SPACE TECHNOLOGIES THAT HAS LED TO THE DISCOVERY OF WHAT APPEARS TO BE A RESERVOIR OF ICE DEEP INSIDE ONE OF THE MOON'S CRATERS REPRESENTS A STUNNING TECHNOLOGICAL ACHIEVEMENT AND AN UNRAVELING OF THE HISTORY OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM. MOST TANTALIZING, IT OFFERS THE PROSPECT OF FURTHER ACHIEVEMENTS IN SPACE... THE ACHIEVEMENT ... HAS ALREADY EXPANDED THE SPACE HORIZON CONSIDERABLY."

    TEXT: EQUALLY EXCITED IS USA TODAY, WHICH GREETED THE NEWS THIS WAY:

    VOICE: "EVEN BETTER THAN THE DISCOVERY OF FOSSILIZED MICRO-BIOTA FROM MARS IS THE NEWS ... THAT WATER MAY EXIST ON THE MOON. RADAR IMAGES FROM A MILITARY PROBE HAVE FOUND WHAT APPEARS TO BE A DEPOSIT OF WATER ICE MIXED WITH DIRT NEAR THE MOON'S SOUTH POLE, WHERE IT IS SHELTERED FROM THE SUN'S EVAPORATIVE HEAT. SCIENTISTS SPECULATE THE ICE WAS DEPOSITED BY A CRASHING COMET. HOWEVER IT GOT THERE, THE ICE PUTS NEW TIRES [GIVES NEW LIFE TO] ON THE DREAM OF A LUNAR OUTPOST, WHICH HAS LANGUISHED IN PART BECAUSE OF THE STAGGERING COST OF SCHLEPPING [CARRYING] WATER UP 100 MILLION FLIGHTS OF STAIRS... THIS, OF COURSE, IS WHAT THE MOON IS FOR: DREAMING."

    TEXT: MOVING FROM CELESTIAL BREAKTHROUGHS TO CONCERNS ON EARTH, TODAY'S CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR OFFERS SOME THOUGHTS ON THE CIVIL CONFLICT AND REFUGEE PROBLEMS IN ZAIRE AND NEIGHBORING RWANDA:

    VOICE: "ONE THING ALMOST EVERYONE CAN AGREE ON ABOUT THE ZAIRE CRISIS IS THAT IT IS SO COMPLEX AND BECOMING MORE SO EVERY DAY. WHILE THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY MAY HAVE SIGHED WITH RELIEF AS IT WATCHED MORE THAN HALF A MILLION REFUGEES STREAM INTO RWANDA, AN ESTIMATED 200-THOUSAND OTHERS, MANY BELIEVED TO BE UNDER THE CONTROL OF RWANDAN HUTU MILITIAS, ARE STILL ROAMING EASTERN ZAIRE... THE GREATEST CHALLENGE FACING THE WEST HAS BEEN MAKING A QUICK BUT INFORMED DECISION ABOUT WHAT TO DO NEXT ... AND THE CRISIS HAS SPREAD, WITH ZAIRE AND UGANDA THREATENING REPRISALS AGAINST EACH OTHER."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: A LIMITED U-N HUMANITARIAN MISSION INTENDED TO HELP THE REFUGEES IN ZAIRE AND RWANDA HAS BEEN DELAYED IN NEARBY UGANDA AWAITING INSTRUCTIONS, AND SAFETY GUARANTEES, BEFORE PROCEEDING. THE WASHINGTON TIMES SAYS WHILE THE AID IS MUCH NEEDED BY THE REFUGEES, IT IS WISE FOR MISSION LEADERS TO EXERCISE CAUTION.

    VOICE: "DELAYING THE MISSION IS CERTAINLY FRUSTRATING, BOTH FOR THOSE WHO NEED HELP AND FOR THE TROOPS WHO ARE EAGER TO GET ON WITH JOBS -- ESPECIALLY THOSE DEPLOYED IN UGANDA, WHO ARE ON THE GROUND AND WAITING. BUT CLEARLY, AS THE REALITY ON THE GROUND SHIFTS, THE SOLUTION BECOMES MORE COMPLICATED. BETTER TO BE CLEAR THAN TO RUSH IN AND EXACERBATE THE DANGERS FOR THE PEACEKEEPERS AND AID BEARERS."

    [END OPT

    TEXT: THE WASHINGTON POST DIRECTS ITS ATTENTION FARTHER NORTH, TO WHAT IT CALLS "THE MENACE OF SUDAN," AND POINTS CRITICISM A THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY FOR NOT DEALING EFFECTIVELY WITH THE PROBLEM.

    VOICE: "IT IS SUDAN'S DISTINCTION TO BE SECOND PROBABLY ONLY TO IRAN IN PROPAGATING INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM AND IN SUBVERTING ITS WEAKER NEIGHBORS... IT IS THE UNITED NATIONS' SHAME TO HAVE DEMONSTRATED ITSELF INCOMPETENT TO DEAL WITH THIS AUTHENTIC ROGUE STATE... RUSSIA, CHINA AND FRANCE, FROM THEIR SEATS ON THE SECURITY COUNCIL, HAVE DEVISED ONE OR ANOTHER BIG-POWER CAUSE OF CONVENIENCE TO PROTECT SUDAN FROM ANYTHING MORE THAN SLAPS ON THE WRIST. AS A RESULT, THE REGIME'S EXTERNAL TERRORISM AND SUBVERSION CONTINUE."

    TEXT: AND STILL ON THE AFRICAN CONTINENT, THE NEW YORK TIMES IS CONCERNED ABOUT THE ON-GOING POLITICAL TROUBLES IN ALGERIA, WHICH ARE ALSO HAVING AN EFFECT OUTSIDE THE COUNTRY.

    VOICE: "WITH ITS CONSTITUTIONAL REFERENDUM LAST WEEK, THE ALGERIAN GOVERNMENT WENT FAR TOWARD FINISHING THE WRECKING JOB ON DEMOCRACY IT BEGAN NEARLY FIVE YEARS AGO. THE NEW CONSTITUTION OUTLAWS ISLAMIC PARTIES, STRIPS POWER FROM THE PARLIAMENT AND ALLOWS THE PRESIDENT TO RULE BY DECREE... YESTERDAY'S COMMUTER RAIL BOMBING IN PARIS SEEMED SIMILAR TO TERRORIST ATTACKS IN PARIS LAST YEAR THAT THE [ALGERIAN] ARMED ISLAMIC GROUP SAID IT HAD CONDUCTED. THE ALGERIAN GOVERNMENT HAS MATCHED TERROR WITH TERROR. STATE SECURITY FORCES KILL AND ABDUCT CIVILIANS. TORTURE IS WIDESPREAD... THE STRATEGY IS DESPERATE AND SHORTSIGHTED."

    TEXT: ON THE JAPANESE ISLAND OF OKINAWA, U-S AND JAPANESE OFFICIALS HAVE TAKEN MEASURES TO SMOOTH THE PUBLIC'S FEELINGS ABOUT THE LARGE NUMBERS OF AMERICAN FORCES BASED THERE. THE DIFFICULTIES BECAME CRITICAL LAST YEAR WHEN SOME U-S MILITARY PERSONNEL RAPED AN OKINAWAN SCHOOLGIRL. TODAY'S SUN IN BALTIMORE COMMENTS ON A RECENT AGREEMENT TO REDUCE THE U-S MILITARY PRESENCE THERE.

    VOICE: "DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM PERRY'S AGREEMENT WITH JAPANESE COUNTERPARTS, AFTER A YEAR OF NEGOTIATION, SHOULD PROVIDE A STEADY FOUNDATION FOR U-S-JAPANESE SECURITY COOPERATION INTO THE FUTURE. IT WILL NOT END OKINAWANS' IRRITATION WITH THE U-S MILITARY PRESENCE... BUT IT IS WELL DESIGNED TO REDUCE THAT IRRITATION."

    TEXT: IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST, THE OREGONIAN IN PORTLAND SEES THE RELEASE OF A YOUNG AMERICAN WHO WANDERED INTO NORTH KOREA AS A GOOD SIGN.

    VOICE: "EVAN HUNZIKER SAYS HE CROSSED THE CHINA-NORTH KOREA BORDER TO SPREAD PEACE... [MR.] HUNZIKER, HIS FAMILY AND FRIENDS ARE GIVING SPECIAL THANKS FOR HIS RELEASE BY NORTH KOREA LAST WEEK. THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY ALSO IS GIVING THANKS, IF ONLY FOR THE HOPE THAT [MR.] HUNZIKER'S RELEASE DOES IN FACT SIGNAL AN EASING OF TENSIONS IN THE RELATIONSHIP WITH THAT GUARDED, THREATENING ASIAN NATION."

    TEXT: FINALLY, A CONGRESSIONALLY-SANCTIONED STUDY HAS CONCLUDED THAT SOME OF THE MOST BASIC U-S ECONOMIC DATA, ESPECIALLY THE CONSUMER PRIZE INDEX, IS IMPROPERLY CALCULATED AND THUS INACCURATE. THE WALL STREET JOURNAL SAYS THAT IS VERY IMPORTANT -- IF TRUE.

    VOICE: "IF ... MANY OF THE 'FACTS' OF THE PAST DECADE'S ECONOMIC DEBATES ARE ACTUALLY CLOSER TO MYTH, THEN THE COUNTRY CAN PERHAPS MOVE BEYOND ITS RECENT OBSESSION WITH INCOME DISTRIBUTION TABLES AND CONSIDER POLICIES THAT WOULD YIELD ECONOMIC GROWTH MORE DRAMATIC THAN IS VISIBLE EVEN IN DR. [MICHAEL] BOSKIN'S REVISED PICTURE... THE REPORT'S FINDINGS MEAN THAT THE COUNTRY MUST SPEND A TRILLION DOLLARS LESS THAN WE HAD COUNTED ON IN THE COMING DECADE TO MAINTAIN PROGRAMS SUCH AS SOCIAL SECURITY. CLOSING THE BUDGET GAP ALSO BECOMES POSSIBLE."

    TEXT: ON THAT HOPEFUL NOTE WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF EDITORIALS FROM SOME OF TODAY'S U-S NEWSPAPERS.
    NEB/ANG/PCH
    04-Dec-96 11:31 AM EST (1631 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] CONFLICT RESOLUTION: U.S.-MACEDONIAN INSTITUTIONS BY JUDITH LATHAM (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=12/4/96
    TYPE=CURRENT AFFAIRS FEATURE
    NUMBER=3-26344
    COOPERATE TELEPHONE=619-3464
    EDITOR=SWANEY
    CONTENT= (TAPE CUTS IN AUDIO SERVICES)

    INTRO: FOR THE PAST TWO YEARS, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY IN NEW YORK CITY AND THE UNIVERSITY OF SKOPJE IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA HAVE BEEN COOPERATING ON A JOINT

    PROJECT IN THE FIELD OF CONFLICT RESOLUTION. VOA

    REPORTER JUDITH LATHAM WAS RECENTLY IN THE AREA AND TALKED WITH THE AMERICAN AND MACEDONIA EDUCATORS WHO ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE PROJECT. ____ HAS A REPORT.

    TEXT: AS TRAINING DIRECTOR OF THE INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR COOPERATION AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION AT COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY'S TEACHER COLLEGE, ELLEN RAIDER TEACHES NEGOTIATION SKILLS TO DIPLOMATS, UNITED NATIONS STAFF, CORPORATE EXECUTIVES, AND EDUCATORS AROUND THE WORLD. ONE OF HER FORMER STUDENTS, VIOLETA PETROSKA-BESCA [VEE-OH-LET-TAH PAH-TROSH-KAH BESH-KAH] -- WHO NOW TEACHES AT THE UNIVERSITY OF SKOPJE -- IS WORKING ON A JOINT U.S.-MACEDONIAN PROJECT IN CONFLICT RESOLUTION, MEDIATION, AND NEGOTIATION. PROFESSOR RAIDER SAYS, ALTHOUGH MACEDONIA -- UNLIKE THE OTHER YUGOSLAV SUCCESSOR STATES -- HAS AVOIDED BLOODSHED, THERE ARE STILL SERIOUS ETHNIC TENSIONS. THE ALBANIANS REPRESENT MACEDONIA'S LARGEST ETHNIC MINORITY, FOLLOWED BY THE TURKS, THE ROMA -- OR "GYPSIES," THE VLACHS, AND THE SERBS.

    TAPE: CUT ONE -- RAIDER (0:36) "THE GROUP IS CONCERNED WITH TRYING TO EASE THE ETHNIC TENSION IN MACEDONIA BETWEEN MACEDONIANS AND ALBANIANS AND OTHER MINORITY GROUPS. SO, THEY -- LIKE US -- HAVE THOUGHT ONE WAY OF DOING THIS WAS TO GET THESE SKILLS TO TEACHERS, TO PEDAGOGICAL INSTITUTES, AND TO STUDENTS. I TRAINED THESE EDUCATORS IN NEGOTIATING SKILLS AS I HAD DONE IN NEW YORK CITY. AND WHAT THEY ARE DOING IS ADAPTING THE MODEL THAT I PRESENTED TO THEM AND MAKING IT WORK IN THEIR CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT. AND MY COUNTERPARTS HAVE CREATED THEIR OWN BOOKS, AND I'M VERY PROUD OF THE WORK THEY'RE DOING."

    TEXT: (BEGIN OPT) ELLEN RAIDER SAYS, IN TRYING TO EASE ETHNIC CONFLICT ELSEWHERE IN THE WORLD, IT'S ESSENTIAL FOR U.S. TRAINERS TO BE AWARE OF CROSS-CULTURAL DIFFERENCES.

    TAPE: CUT TWO -- RAIDER (0:27) "THE UNITED STATES APPEARS TO BE AN INDIVIDUALISTIC SOCIETY, WHERE WE CARE ABOUT OUR NUCLEAR FAMILY AND OURSELVES, AND WE TAKE CARE OF OURSELVES. IN A COLLECTIVIST SOCIETY, LIKE MACEDONIA, THERE'S MORE FEELING ABOUT THE GROUP, ABOUT YOUR SOCIAL IDENTITY RATHER THAN YOUR PRIVATE IDENTITY. SO A MODEL THAT'S DEVELOPED IN AN INDIVIDUALISTIC CULTURE NEEDS TO BE MODIFIED IF IT'S BROUGHT INTO A COLLECTIVIST SOCIETY." (END OPT)

    TEXT: THE JOINT U.S.-MACEDONIAN TRAINING PROJECT BEGAN IN DECEMBER 1994. PROFESSOR RAIDER SAYS ONE OF ITS MAIN OBJECTIVES IS TO HELP DIFFUSE THE TENSION BETWEEN ETHNIC ALBANIANS AND ETHNIC MACEDONIANS IN THE NEW REPUBLIC.

    TAPE: CUT THREE -- RAIDER (0:45) "THE ALBANIANS, WHO UNDER TITO HAD THEIR OWN SCHOOLS, THE ONES WHO ARE LIVING IN MACEDONIA NOW ARE FINDING THEMSELVES WITHOUT A PLACE TO STUDY. AND THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN MACEDONIA IS SUCH THAT ALL STUDENTS LEARN IN THEIR OWN MOTHER TONGUE UP UNTIL THIRD GRADE, AND THEN THE ALBANIANS LEARN MACEDONIAN. SO, THE ALBANIANS HAVE A NEED FOR EDUCATED TEACHERS WHO CAN WORK IN THE ALBANIAN LANGUAGE. THE UNIVERSITY OF SKOPJE, WHICH IS THE MAIN PEDAGOGICAL INSTITUTE FOR THE TRAINING OF TEACHERS, ONLY LETS IN, AS I UNDERSTAND IT, 10 PERCENT ALBANIANS. ALBANIANS MAKE UP 24 PERCENT OF THE POPULATION."

    TEXT: THE JOINT TRAINING PROJECT WORKS PRINCIPALLY WITH TEACHERS, GUIDANCE COUNSELLORS, SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS, AND PSYCHOLOGISTS. BUT THERE ARE ALSO WORKSHOPS FOR JOURNALISTS, LAWYERS, AND POLITICIANS. FUNDING FOR THE ETHNIC CONFLICT RESOLUTION PROJECT AT THE UNIVERSITY OF SKOPJE COMES FROM THE SOROS FOUNDATIONS AND FROM SEARCH FOR COMMON GROUND, A U.S.-BASED NONGOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATION. VIOLETA PETROSKA-BESKA, A PROFESSOR OF PSYCHOLOGY AT THE UNIVERSITY OF SKOPJE, DIRECTS THE PROJECT. IN ADDITION TO WORKING WITH EDUCATORS, SHE HAS EXPANDED THE TRAINING INTO ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS, BOTH MACEDONIAN- AND ALBANIAN-SPEAKING. SHE SAYS THE YOUNGEST STUDENTS WHO ARE NOW BEING REACHED BY THE ETHNIC CONFLICT RESOLUTION PROJECT ARE 10 YEARS OLD.

    TAPE: CUT FOUR -- PETROSKA-BESCA (0:37) "FOR THE WHOLE SCHOOL YEAR WE DEVELOPED A PROGRAM WHICH WE HOPED WOULD BE A PART OF THEIR CURRICULUM, WHICH IS SOMETHING THAT WE CALL 'CONFLICT RESOLUTION GAMES.' AND ALSO WE WORKED ON TRAINING BIGGER KIDS, SEVENTH AND EIGHTH GRADERS IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS, AND WITH THIRD AND FOURTH GRADERS [YEAR STUDENTS] IN HIGH SCHOOLS. AND ACTUALLY OUR APPROACH TO EDUCATING PEOPLE IN THE CONFLICT RESOLUTION AREA IS TO TELL THEM THAT CONFLICTS ARE PART OF OUR EVERYDAY LIFE, AND IT'S NOT THAT THE CONFLICTS ARE BAD, THAT THE APPROACH TO THE CONFLICTS MIGHT BE BAD, AND WE WANT THEM TO KNOW HOW TO DEAL WITH THE CONFLICT IN A CONSTUCTIVE WAY."

    TEXT: ELLEN RAIDER OF COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY SAYS THAT, WHEN CONFLICT RESOLUTION TRAINERS WORK WITH YOUNGER PEOPLE, IT'S BEST TO START WITH ISSUES OF PERSONAL GROWTH AND SELF-ESTEEM.

    TAPE: CUT FIVE -- RAIDER (0:33) "WE DID MANY INTERPERSONAL SCHOOL-RELATED CONFLICTS AND ONLY TOWARDS THE END OF THE TRAINING, WHEN I FELT SURE THAT PEOPLE HAD THE SKILL UNDER THEIR BELT, I ATTEMPTED TO WORK ON ETHNIC CONFLICT. I DON'T THINK YOU GO RIGHT INTO A TENSE SITUATION AND ALL OF A SUDDEN INTRODUCE EMOTIONALLY-LADEN MATERIAL WITHOUT PEOPLE HAVING SKILLS TO DEAL WITH IT. SO, IT'S A DELICATE BALANCE. I THINK THERE HAVE BEEN ATTEMPTS TO TALK ABOUT PREJUDICE AND STEREOTYPING, BUT IT'S ONE THING TO WORK THE ISSUES, IT'S ANOTHER THING TO TALK INTELLECTUALLY ABOUT THE ISSUES."

    TEXT: ELLEN RAIDER OF COLUMBIA UNIVERISTY AND VIOLETA PETROSKA-BESCA OF THE UNIVERSITY OF SKOPJE SAY THEY HOPE THAT, BY WORKING WITH MANY LEVELS AND AGE GROUPS WITHIN MACEDONIAN SOCIETY, THE ROOT CAUSES OF SOME OF THE CURRENT ETHNIC TENSION, CAN BE ADDRESSED. AND, THEY ADD, THIS WORK MAY BE AN IMPORTANT FIRST STEP IN HELPING BUILD A HARMONIOUS MULTIETHNIC SOCIETY.
    04-Dec-96 3:48 PM EST (2048 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] BELGRADE PROTESTS BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)

    DATE=12/4/96
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-35114
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE MASSIVE STREET DEMONSTRATIONS THAT HAVE GONE ON FOR THE PAST TWO WEEKS IN THE YUGOSLAV CAPITAL, BELGRADE ARE THE MOST SERIOUS CHALLENGE TO SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC SINCE HE ASSUMED POWER IN 1987. V-O-A'S BARRY WOOD HAS THIS BACKGROUND REPORT ON WHY THE DEMONSTRATIONS ARE OCCURRING.

    TEXT: POLITICAL ANALYSTS IN BELGRADE INCREASINGLY AGREE THE CURRENT CRISIS IN SERBIA RESULTS FROM A SIGNIFICANT MISCALCULATION BY PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC AND HIS RULING SOCIALIST PARTY. IN A LAND WHERE ELECTION FRAUD IS NOT UNCOMMON, THE SERBIAN LEADERSHIP INITIALLY DECLARED THE SECOND ROUND OF MANY LOCAL ELECTIONS HELD IN MID-NOVEMBER WERE WON BY THE OPPOSITION. BUT SUBSEQUENT ANNULMENT OF THAT DECISION SHOCKED AND OFFENDED CITIZENS, SERVING TO UNIFY THE OPPOSITION IN A WAY MOST OBSERVERS THOUGHT IMPOSSIBLE.

    ONLY WEEKS BEFORE THE ELECTIONS, THE NORMALLY FRACTIOUS OPPOSITION COBBLED TOGETHER A FOUR-PARTY ALLIANCE CALLED "ZAJEDNO", WHICH MEANS TOGETHER. WHILE THE OPPOSITION ALLIANCE DID NOT CLAIM VICTORY IN FEDERAL PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS HELD NOVEMBER THIRD, IT DID SURPRISINGLY WELL ON THE LOCAL LEVEL, PARTICULARLY IN CITIES.

    THE POLITICAL OPPOSITION APPROACHED THE MID-NOVEMBER RUN-OFF WITH CAUTIOUS OPTIMISM. THEIR SURPRISE VICTORY IN BELGRADE AND 14 OTHER YUGOSLAV CITIES HELPED LIFT SOME OF THE PERVASIVE CYNICISM AMONG SERBIAN VOTERS, WHO WERE CONTEMPTUOUS OF A POLITICAL PROCESS MANY BELIEVED WAS INCREASINGLY BASED ON CORRUPTION, PATRONAGE, AND ETHNIC SOLIDARITY.

    BUT SOMETHING SNAPPED WHEN MR. MILOSEVIC -- USING THE JUDICIAL SYSTEM HE CONTROLS -- DECLARED THERE WERE IRREGULARITIES IN THE ELECTIONS WHICH HIS GOVERNMENT ORGANIZED. OUTRAGED BY THE GOVERNMENT'S UNWILLINGNESS TO LET THE OPPOSITION CONTROL MUNICIPAL POSTS IT WON THROUGH ELECTION, PEOPLE BEGAN POURING ON TO STREETS TO REGISTER THEIR PROTEST AND DEMAND THE ORIGINAL RESULTS BE RE-INSTATED.

    MANY SERBS COMPLAIN THE AUTHORITARIAN MR. MILOSEVIC PRESIDES OVER A DICTATORSHIP FAR WORSE THAN THAT OF MARSHALL TITO, WHO RULED YUGOSLAVIA FROM THE END OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR UNTIL HIS DEATH IN 1980. UNDER MR. MILOSEVIC, SERBIAN LIVING STANDARDS -- ONCE AMONG THE HIGHEST IN ALL OF EASTERN EUROPE -- HAVE STEADILY ERODED.

    //OPT//

    THE FREEDOMS THAT TOOK HOLD IN THE OLD EAST BLOC AFTER THE END OF COMMUNISM IN 1989 HAVE STILL NOT ARRIVED IN SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO, WHICH COMPRISE ALL THAT IS LEFT OF YUGOSLAVIA. AS UNDER COMMUNISM, ALMOST ALL OF YUGOSLAV MEDIA IS STATE-CONTROLLED, AS IS THE ECONOMY. IN 1993, SERBS ENDURED THEIR MOST SEVERE BOUT OF HYPER-INFLATION THIS CENTURY. //END OPT//

    THEY HAVE ALSO SUFFERED FROM YEARS OF CRIPPLING ECONOMIC SANCTIONS, IMPOSED BECAUSE OF SERBIA'S PARTICIPATION IN THE WAR IN BOSNIA-HERCEGOVINA.

    IN PART BECAUSE OF SANCTIONS, WHICH WERE LIFTED ONLY LAST YEAR AFTER THE DAYTON ACCORD, SERBIAN SOCIETY HAS BECOME INCREASINGLY CRIMINALIZED. WELL-KNOWN LEADERS OF THE RULING PARTY GREW WEALTHY FROM SANCTIONS-BUSTING AND PROFITEERING. WITH AN ECONOMY IN SEEMINGLY CHRONIC DECLINE, MANY YOUNG YUGOSLAVS SEE LITTLE HOPE IN THE FUTURE -- THOUSANDS WHO COULD HAVE ALREADY EMIGRATED. IN SHORT, MANY ANALYSTS ATTRIBUTE THE BELGRADE PROTESTS TO WIDESPREAD DISSATISFACTION. PEOPLE, DISILLUSIONED BY DICTATORSHIP AND COMMUNISM, SEEK FREEDOMS AND OPPORTUNITIES WHICH HAVE BECOME THE NORM IN MOST OF EUROPE. THE OPPOSITION MOVEMENT'S LEADER, ZORAN DJINDJIC, SAYS ITS MAIN OBJECTIVE IS ADDRESSING THE DESIRE TO REFORM THE ECONOMY AND STEER YUGOSLAVIA IN THE DIRECTION OF WESTERN EUROPE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/BDW/PCF/RAE
    04-Dec-96 12:00 PM EST (1700 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] BELGRADE MEDIA (L-ONLY) BY JULIA GLYN-PICKETT (BELGRADE)

    DATE=12/4/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-207035
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: TWO-AND-ONE-HALF WEEKS INTO PUBLIC PROTESTS OF WHAT DEMONSTRATORS CALL THE ILLEGAL AND AUTHORITARIAN LEADERSHIP OF SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC, THE GOVERNMENT HAS STAGED A CRACKDOWN ON FREE MEDIA. DETAILS FROM JULIA GYLN-PICKETT IN BELGRADE.

    TEXT: THOUSANDS OF LISTENERS WHO TUNED IN TO RADIO "B-92," "INDEX", OR "BOOM 93" TO HEAR ABOUT THE FATE OF THEIR COUNTRY WEDNESDAY, TO LISTEN TO SPEECHES FROM TUESDAY'S STUDENT PROTEST MEETINGS IN BELGRADE, OR DEMONSTRATIONS IN NIS, WERE GREETED BY THE SOUND OF A GOVERNMENT-IMPOSED SILENCE.

    /// ACT OF RADIO STATIONS BEING JAMMED -- ESTABLISH, FADE ///

    AT THREE IN THE AFTERNOON (LOCAL TIME) TUESDAY, BELGRADE RADIO "B-92'S" TRANSMITTER WAS TURNED OFF AFTER MORE THAN TWO-WEEKS OF UNEXPLAINED JAMMING OF THAT FREQUENCY.

    // OPT //

    THE RADIO IS SEEN BY MANY OF ITS LISTENERS AS AN OASIS OF SANITY AND FREE INFORMATION IN A SEA OF MISINFORMATION AND PROPAGANDA. // END OPT //

    MINUTES AFTER HURLING INSULTS AND EGGS AT THE BUILDINGS OF STATE MEDIA ON WHAT THEY CALL THEIR DAILY "MARCH FOR DEMOCRACY AND TRUTH", THE DEMONSTRATORS STOPPED OUTSIDE THE HOUSE WHERE B-92 HAS ITS STUDIOS TO CHANT THEIR SUPPORT FOR THAT RADIO.

    /// ACT OF SUPPORTERS' CHANTS -- ESTABLISH AND FADE. ///

    ALSO TUESDAY, BELGRADE STUDENT "RADIO INDEX" WAS CLOSED AND RADIO "BOOM 93" IN POZAREVAC, THE BIRTHPLACE OF SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC, WAS ORDERED TO STOP BROADCASTING.

    // OPT //

    THE LETTERS RECEIVED FROM THE FEDERAL MINISTRY OF TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATIONS BY BOTH B-92 AND BOOM 93 STRIKE A FAMILIAR CHORD. SINCE MR. MILOSEVIC SIGNED THE DAYTON PEACE AGREEMENTS ONE-YEAR AGO, HIS GOVERNMENT HAS SHUT DOWN ONE TELEVISION STATION, TWO RADIOS AND SEVERAL LOCAL PAPERS. // END OPT //

    EDITOR-IN-CHIEF OF RADIO B-92, VERAN MATIC, COMMENTED TRUTH HAD BEEN A VICTIM OF WAR IN YUGOSLAVIA AND NOW ALSO SEEMED A VICTIM OF PEACE.

    // OPT //

    AS WITH TUESDAY'S CRACK-DOWN, THE ALLEGEDLY ILLEGAL STATIONS OF THOSE MEDIA WERE CITED AS THE REASON FOR GOVERNMENT ACTION. ALL HAD A REPUTATION FOR PROFESSIONAL AND INDEPENDENT JOURNALISM -- A REPUTATION OBSERVERS SAY IS NOT SHARED BY THE SURVIVING BROADCAST MEDIA. // END OPT //

    NO REPORTS OF THE CLOSURES WERE MADE BY EITHER STATE BROADCAST MEDIA OR THE PRESS TUESDAY OR WEDNESDAY.

    MR. MATIC SAID RADIO B-92 HAD NOT SURVIVED THE BREAKUP OF YUGOSLAVIA AND FIVE-YEARS OF WAR TO BE DEFEATED NOW. IN A STATEMENT FOR V-O-A, HE OUTLINED HOW THEY WOULD FIGHT TO BREAK THE BAN.

    /// MATIC -- IN SERBIAN; ESTABLISH AND FADE ///

    MR. MATIC EMPHASIZED IN ADDITION TO THE RADIO, THE B-92 ORGANIZATION ALSO HAS TELEVISION PRODUCTION FACILITIES, A PUBLISHING HOUSE, AND A CULTURAL CENTER. HE SAID THEY WOULD ALSO USE NEW ALTERNATIVE CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION, SUCH AS BROADCASTING NEWS OVER PUBLIC ADDRESS SYSTEMS, THEIR "REAL AUDIO" (ACTUAL-TIME) BULLETINS (NEWSCASTS) ON THE INTERNET, WHICH ALREADY HAVE 30-THOUSAND READERS EVERY DAY, AND THE POSSIBILITY OF PRINTING A DAILY PAPER.

    // OPT //

    HE SAID THEY WOULD CONTINUE TO FULFILL THEIR ROLE AS INFORMATION PROVIDERS BECAUSE SOMEBODY NEEDED TO COMMUNICATE WITH THE 100-THOUSAND PEOPLE ON THE STREETS EVERY DAY. // END OPT //

    REACTIONS FROM THE SERBIAN AUTHORITIES TO MOUNTING PUBLIC PROTESTS OF WHAT DEMONSTRATORS CALL -- THE MILOSEVIC DICTATORSHIP HAVE BEEN INEFFECTIVE AND HAM-FISTED.

    TUESDAY'S ATTEMPT TO SILENCE GOVERNMENT CRITICS THROUGH MEDIA CRACKDOWNS WERE MET WITH AN EQUALLY DEFIANT RESPONSE WEDNESDAY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JGP/PCF/RAE
    04-Dec-96 11:42 AM EST (1642 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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