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Voice of America, 96-12-17

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] TUESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [02] EDITORIAL: CHRISTOPHER ON NATO
  • [03] 96: NATO BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (LONDON)
  • [04] BELGRADE RADIO (L ONLY) BY LARRY FREUND (NEW YORK)
  • [05] NATO DEFENSE MINISTERS (L ONLY) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)
  • [06] SARAJEVO ROSE BY KYLE KING (SARAJEVO)
  • [07] SERBIA / MEETING (L) BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (BELGRADE)
  • [08] U-S/RUSSIA/BOSNIA (S-ONLY) BY DAVID GOLLUST (PENTAGON)
  • [09] U-S/SERBIA/O-S-C-E (L-ONLY) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WASHINGTON)

  • [01] TUESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=12/17/96
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09933
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=_
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-S-T ON TUESDAY, DECEMBER 17TH //

    INTRO: THE UNITED NATION'S NEW SECRETARY GENERAL-DESIGNATE, THE LATEST DEVELOPMENTS IN ISRAEL, AND PLANS FOR A HUGE AIRCRAFT INDUSTRY MERGER, ARE AMONG FAVORITE EDITORIAL TOPICS IN THE U-S PRESS THIS TUESDAY, ONE WEEK BEFORE CHRISTMAS. OTHER MATTERS UNDER EDITORIAL SCRUTINY INCLUDE: THE GULF WAR SYNDROME CONTROVERSY; THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION'S DEBUT, AND WHAT SOME ARE CALLING A CHRISTMAS MIRACLE IN NEW ORLEANS. NOW, FOR A CLOSER LOOK, HERE IS _______________WITH TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: TODAY'S NEW YORK POST SAYS THE CHOICE OF GHANIAN KOFI ANNAN AS THE NEW SECRETARY GENERAL AT THE UNITED NATIONS IS "A WISE CHOICE":

    VOICE: "KOFI ANNAN IS A WELCOME SUCCESSOR TO BOUTROS BOUTROS-GHALI AS SECRETARY GENERAL OF THE UNITED NATIONS. WHILE THERE WERE A NUMBER OF ISSUES ON WHICH WE DISAGREED WITH [MR.] BOUTROS-GHALI, THE WASHINGTON-LED CAMPAIGN AGAINST HIM STRUCK US AS ILL-ADVISED AND INCOHERENT... BUT THE TIME FOR PROTESTING IS OVER. NOW, THE U-S AND THE U-N NEED TO WORK TOWARD REDEFINING THE ORGANIZATION'S PURPOSE. THE ADVENT OF KOFI ANNAN -- WIDELY ADMIRED FOR HIS PERSONAL QUALITIES AND RELATED BY MARRIAGE TO RAOUL WALLENBERG, ONE OF THE CENTURY'S GENUINE HUMANITARIAN HEROES -- CREATES AN AUSPICIOUS MOMENT FOR STARTING THIS PROCESS."

    TEXT: IN FLORIDA, THE MIAMI HERALD PONDERS MR. ANNAN'S LEADERSHIP ROLE THIS WAY.

    VOICE: "WHETHER MR. ANNAN WILL NOW BECOME AN INFLUENTIAL LEADER IN WORLD AFFAIRS, AND NOT MERELY THE CHIEF OF AN INTERNATIONAL FIRE-FIGHTING TEAM THAT RESPONDS TO THE LATEST CRISIS, IS AN OPEN QUESTION... NOW IT REMAINS FOR MR. ANNAN TO SHOULDER THE AWESOME TASKS OF REFORMING THE UNITED NATIONS, SOLVING ITS FISCAL CRISIS, AND WINNING OVER U-N CRITICS IN THE U-S CONGRESS. BUT THE UNITED STATES MUST NOT LET HIM TAKE ON THOSE RESPONSIBILITIES ALL ALONE."

    TEXT: TURNING TO THE MIDDLE EAST, ISRAEL'S ANNOUNCED PLANS TO BUILD MORE SETTLEMENTS IN THE OCCUPIED WEST BANK IS DRAWING THE IRE OF SEVERAL PAPERS. IN ITS LEAD EDITORIAL, THE WASHINGTON POST QUESTIONS WHETHER THIS IS THE "END OF THE QUEST FOR PEACE?," CALLS THE PLANS "A TERRIBLE ERROR" AND WONDERS ALOUD WHAT PRESIDENT CLINTON WILL DO ABOUT IT.

    VOICE: "YESTERDAY, MR. CLINTON REITERATED THE FAMILIAR MILD WORDS OF AMERICAN PUBLIC DISAPPROVAL OF THE SETTLEMENTS... BUT LIKUD IS MAKING IT IMPOSSIBLE FOR MR. CLINTON TO CONTINUE IN THE OLD MOLD. HE SAYS YASSER ARAFAT, THE PALESTINIAN LEADER, MUST TALK WITH MR. NETANYAHU. THE LARGER AND URGENT REQUIREMENT IS FOR MR. CLINTON TO TALK WITH MR. NETANYAHU. THE PRIORITY NOW IS ... A FULL AMERICAN-ISRAELI ADDRESS OF THE GAP ON BASIC POLICY THAT IS GROWING BETWEEN THEM."

    TEXT: IN ITS LEAD EDITORIAL, THE NEW YORK TIMES CALLS ISRAEL'S SETTLEMENT PLAN "RASH" AND GOES ON TO SAY:

    VOICE: "MR. NETANYAHU IS DEVELOPING A BAD HABIT OF SPRINGING [SURPRISING WITH] POLICY CHANGES ON THE PALESTINIANS ON SENSITIVE ISSUES. THE UNEASY PEACE THAT PREVAILS IN THE MIDDLE EAST CAN QUICKLY BE UNDONE BY UNEXPECTED MOVES BY EITHER SIDE... THE RUSH TO EXPAND SETTLEMENTS COMPLICATES ISRAEL'S ALREADY FORMIDABLE SECURITY CHALLENGES, BURDENS ITS ALREADY STRETCHED BUDGET AND DAMAGES RELATIONS WITH THE UNITED STATES... THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION ... SHOULD REAFFIRM ITS OPPOSITION TO A RASH APPROACH TO SETTLEMENTS..."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: IN A FINAL WORD ON THE SETTLEMENTS QUESTION, THE BOSTON GLOBE CALLS IT "NETANYAHU'S MISSTEP," AND ADDS:

    VOICE: "ISRAELI PRIME MINISTER ... NETANYAHU'S DECISION TO GIVE 'NATIONAL PRIORITY' TO SUBSIDIZING SETTLERS IN THE WEST BANK PROMISES TO BECOME A GRIEVOUS EXAMPLE OF A LEADER DOING THE WRONG THING AT THE WRONG TIME... [MR.] NETANYAHU IS STUMBLING TOWARD A CALAMITY."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: THE DAY'S OTHER BIG EDITORIAL TOPIC IS THE PROPOSED MERGER OF TWO GIANT AEROSPACE COMPANIES, BOEING AND MCDONNELL-DOUGLAS, WHICH WOULD CREATE THE NATION'S LARGEST MANUFACTURER OF CIVILIAN AIRLINERS AND WARPLANES. THE BOSTON GLOBE SAYS OF THE PLAN:

    VOICE: "BOEING AND MCDONNELL DOUGLAS ARE AN EXCELLENT FIT, COMPLEMENTING EACH OTHER'S STRENGTHS AND POTENTIALLY COVERING EACH OTHER'S WEAKNESSES. BOEING, FOR ALL ITS NEAR-DOMINANCE IN COMMERCIAL AVIATION, NEEDS MCDONNELL-DOUGLAS' MILITARY PRODUCTION TO BALANCE THE BUSINESS CYCLE UPS-AND-DOWNS OF COMMERCIAL AVIATION. IT ALSO CAN MAKE FULL USE OF MCDONNELL-DOUGLAS' COMMERCIAL AVIATION ENGINEERING SKILLS TO HELP MEET ITS MULTI-YEAR BACKLOG OF ORDERS FOR PASSENGER JETS... THE MERGER BOLSTERS AMERICAN INDUSTRY'S ABILITY NOT ONLY TO HOLD INTERNATIONAL MARKET SHARE BUT TO MEET THE DEMANDS FOR NEWER, MORE EFFICIENT AIRCRAFT."

    TEXT: THE NEW YORK TIMES ALSO SUPPORTS THE PLANNED MERGER, SAYING IN PART:

    VOICE: "THE PROPOSED 13-BILLION TAKEOVER OF MCDONNELL DOUGLAS BY BOEING WOULD CREATE AN AEROSPACE BEHEMOTH [COLOSSAL GIANT] THAT, FOR ALL ITS SIZE, WOULD DO LITTLE TO STIFLE COMPETITION IN THE COMMERCIAL AND MILITARY AIRCRAFT INDUSTRIES. INSTEAD, THE NEWLY MERGED GIANT WOULD SIMPLY BECOME A MORE EFFECTIVE GLOBAL COMPETITOR."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: FOR ITS PART, THE WASHINGTON POST WONDERS ABOUT POSSIBLE ANTI-COMPETATIVE FORCES AT WORK IN THE BOEING - MCDONNELL-DOUGLAS DEAL, BUT SAYS THE MARKETPLACE HAS MADE SUCH MERGERS INEVITABLE.

    VOICE: "THE PROPOSED ... MERGER ... IF APPROVED BY STOCKHOLDERS AND REGULATORS, WOULD CREATE THE WORLD'S BIGGEST AEROSPACE AND ARMS COMPANY, BUT IT IS ONLY THE LATEST IN A SERIES OF MERGERS AND SWALLOWINGS THAT IS TRANSFORMING AN ENTIRE INDUSTRY. FROM ALMOST A DOZEN MAJOR MILITARY CONTRACTORS A DECADE AGO, THE NATION SOON MAY BE DOWN TO THREE; FROM THREE CIVILIAN JET MAKERS, THE NATION IS NOW DOWN TO ONE. THIS CONTRACTION IS, FOR THE MOST PART, INEVITABLE AND BEYOND THE CONTROL OF GOVERNMENT; THE QUESTION IS HOW BEST IT SHOULD BE MANAGED."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: TODAY'S ATLANTA CONSTITUTION QUESTIONS THE PENTAGON'S LACK OF CANDOR ABOUT RECORDS THAT WOULD SHOW HOW MANY U-S TROOPS MAY HAVE COME IN CONTACT WITH CHEMICAL OR BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS IN THE GULF WAR. UNEXPLAINED SICKNESS AFFECTING THOUSANDS OF GULF WAR VETERANS HAS MYSTIFIED THE MEDICAL COMMUNITY.

    VOICE: "DISTURBING NEW QUESTIONS ABOUT THE DEFENSE DEPARTMENT'S COMPETENCE AND CREDIBILITY AROSE LAST WEEK IN CONGRESSIONAL HEARINGS INTO ITS HANDLING OF THE MANY CLAIMS OF CHRONIC ILLNESS BY PERSIAN GULF WAR VETERANS. VETERANS GROUPS WERE UNDERSTANDABLY LIVID OVER REVELATION[S] THAT COMPUTER LOGS FROM ... COMMAND HEADQUARTERS IN SAUDI ARABIA WERE MISSING. IT'S SUSPICIOUS THAT EIGHT DAYS OF DATA, BRACKETING THE TIME U-S TROOPS DESTROYED A HUGE IRAQI MUNITIONS DUMP, ARE LOST."

    TEXT: TODAY'S WALL STREET JOURNAL HAILS THE FIRST MINISTERIAL MEETING OF THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION (W-T-O), SUCCESSOR TO THE GATT (GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TARIFFS AND TRADE) AS AN EARLY SUCCESS.

    VOICE: "JAPAN, NOT KNOWN AS A FREE-MARKET CHAMPION, EMERGED AS AN ALLY OF THE U-S AND CANADA IN HELPING PUSH THROUGH A KEY AGREEMENT ON INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY. OTHER ASIAN NATIONS WERE GENERALLY ON THE SIDE OF FREE TRADE, WHETHER IN SUPPORT OR OPPOSITION TO THE PROPOSALS MADE BY THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION, WHILE EUROPEAN UNION GOVERNMENTS CONTINUED TO DISPLAY THE LACK OF STRATEGIC THINKING THAT HAS CHARACTERIZED THEM SINCE MARGARET THATCHER LEFT THE SCENE... ALL IN ALL ... THE W-T-O MEETING WAS A SUCCESS, AND NOT ONLY BECAUSE FREE TRADE ENDED UP MOSTLY ON THE WINNING SIDE OF THE LEDGER."

    TEXT: AND FINALLY, A WORD OF THANKS FOR THE APPARENT GOOD LUCK THAT NO ONE WAS KILLED IN NEW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA, WHEN A FREIGHTER LOST POWER IN THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER AND CRASHED INTO A CROWDED RIVERFRONT MALL OF SHOPS AND RESTAURANTS. THE SUN IN BALTIMORE CALLS IT SIMPLY: "A CHRISTMAS MIRACLE."

    TEXT: AND THAT CONCLUDES THIS SAMPLING OF EDITORIALS FROM SOME OF TUESDAY'S LEADING U-S NEWSPAPERS.
    NEB/ANG/PCH
    17-Dec-96 10:51 AM EST (1551 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] EDITORIAL: CHRISTOPHER ON NATO

    DATE= DECEMBER 18, 1996
    TYPE= EDITORIAL
    NUMBER= 0-07079
    CONTENT=THIS IS THE ONLY EDITORIAL BEING RELEASED FOR BROADCAST
    DECEMBER 18, 1996.

    ANNCR: THE VOICE OF AMERICA PRESENTS DIFFERING POINTS OF VIEW ON A WIDE VARIETY OF ISSUES. NEXT, AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT.

    VOICE:

    TODAY THERE IS A BROAD CONSENSUS ABOUT NATO'S FUTURE DIRECTION. THE ALLIANCE WILL CONTINUE TO BE THE GUARANTOR OF TRANS-ATLANTIC SECURITY. NATO'S EUROPEAN MEMBERS WILL PLAY A MORE VISIBLE ROLE IN THE ALLIANCE, AS NEW MEMBERS PREPARE TO JOIN. AND THE ALLIANCE WILL CONTINUE TO BUILD A RELATIONSHIP WITH RUSSIA.

    AS SECRETARY OF STATE WARREN CHRISTOPHER SAID, NATO ENLARGEMENT MUST BEGIN WITH THE STRONGEST CANDIDATES. THE NATIONS INVITED TO JOIN FIRST WILL BE THOSE THAT DEMONSTRATE MOST CLEARLY THAT THEY CAN MEET THE RESPONSIBILITIES NATO ALLIES SHARE. AS PRESIDENT BILL CLINTON SAID, THE PROCESS OF ADMITTING THE FIRST NEW MEMBERS SHOULD BE COMPLETED BY JUNE 1999, NATO'S FIFTIETH ANNIVERSARY.

    THE ALLIANCE MUST MAKE IT CLEAR THAT THE ENLARGEMENT PROCESS IS OPEN-ENDED -- THAT NATO'S FIRST NEW MEMBERS WILL NOT BE THE LAST. THE PROSPECT OF ENLARGEMENT HAS GIVEN EVERY POTENTIAL MEMBER AN INCENTIVE TO UPHOLD DEMOCRACY AT HOME AND CONTRIBUTE TO REGIONAL STABILITY.

    EUROPE'S NEW DEMOCRACIES SHOULD HAVE A CHANCE TO HELP GUIDE EUROPE'S FUTURE. THAT IS WHY THE ATLANTIC PARTNERSHIP COUNCIL SHOULD BE ESTABLISHED AS SOON AS POSSIBLE. IT WILL CREATE A FORMAL CONSULTATIVE MECHANISM WITH NATO FOR MEMBERS OF THE PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE, WHICH WAS ESTABLISHED TO PROMOTE COOPERATION BETWEEN FORMER COLD WAR ADVERSARIES IN EUROPE.

    THE U.S. BELIEVES THAT RUSSIA, TOO, SHOULD PLAY A ROLE IN THE NEW ATLANTIC COMMUNITY. THIS IS POSSIBLE BECAUSE OF THE PROGRESS RUSSIA HAS MADE IN RECENT YEARS. THERE HAVE BEEN DEMOCRATIC ELECTIONS AND A FREE MARKET IS BEING ESTABLISHED. IT IS ESSENTIAL THAT RUSSIA BE INCLUDED BECAUSE A EUROPE FREE OF TYRANNY CAN ONLY BE BUILT IF EUROPE'S LARGEST NATION IS A PARTNER IN THE NEW SECURITY STRUCTURE.

    IN THE WORDS OF PRESIDENT BILL CLINTON:

    ACTUALITY #1 -- CLINTON [ACTUALITY IN AUDIO SERVICES] "WE MUST BEGIN TO WELCOME EUROPE'S NEW DEMOCRACIES INTO NATO, STRENGTHEN NATO'S PARTNERSHIP WITH RUSSIA, AND BUILD A SECURE AND UNDIVIDED EUROPE."

    AS PRESIDENT CLINTON SAID, CREATING A NEW ATLANTIC COMMUNITY WILL HELP ERASE THE OLD DIVISIONS IN EUROPE.

    ANNCR:

    THAT WAS AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO BE HEARD ON THIS ISSUE, PLEASE WRITE TO EDITORIALS, VOICE OF AMERICA, WASHINGTON, D-C, 20547, U-S-A. YOU MAY ALSO SEND US A FAX AT (202) 619-1043. YOUR COMMENTS MAY BE USED ON THE AIR.
    17-Dec-96 2:28 PM EST (1928 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] 96: NATO BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (LONDON)

    DATE= 12/17/96
    TYPE= YEAREND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-35237
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: 1996 WAS A HECTIC YEAR FOR NATO AS IT TACKLED PEACE-KEEPING OPERATIONS IN BOSNIA AND WENT AHEAD WITH ITS PLANS FOR ENLARGEMENT, DESPITE STRONG OPPOSITION FROM RUSSIA. IN THIS YEAREND REPORT FROM LONDON, V-O-A'S ANDRE DE NESNERA LOOKS AT THE CHALLENGES FACING NATO IN THE YEAR AHEAD.

    TEXT: EVER SINCE THE END OF THE COLD WAR AND THE DISSOLUTION OF THE WARSAW PACT, THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION -- OR NATO -- HAS BEEN ATTEMPTING TO REDEFINE ITS ROLE IN A WORLD NO LONGER DOMINATED BY SUPER-POWER RIVALRY.

    MANY DEFENSE EXPERTS SAY SHORTLY AFTER THE COLLAPSE OF COMMUNISM, NATO WAS DRIFTING -- NOT SURE OF ITS PLACE IN A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT WHERE ITS ARCH-ENEMY, THE SOVIET UNION, NO LONGER EXISTED. THESE EXPERTS SAY THE EXPERIENCE IN BOSNIA HAS ACTED AS A CATALYST, SHOWING THAT NATO IS FLEXIBLE AND CAPABLE OF ADAPTING TO PEACE-KEEPING OPERATIONS -- SOMETHING WHICH THE UNITED NATIONS WAS UNABLE TO DO.

    JAMIE SHEA -- NATO'S CHIEF SPOKESMAN -- SAYS THE ORGANIZATION'S ROLE IN BOSNIA WAS MILITARILY A SUCCESS IN TERMS OF STOPPING THE WAR.

    // SHEA ACT //

    WE HAVE MANAGED TO DO THAT: SEPARATING THE FORCES, HANDING OVER THE TERRITORY, DEMOBILIZING THE FORCES, SO THAT TODAY THE PROSPECT OF WAR IS QUITE REMOTE. BUT, OF COURSE, UNFORTUNATELY FOR US AND FOR THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY, THERE IS MORE IN CREATING PEACE THAN IN STOPPING A CONFLICT. THERE IS A WHOLE ELEMENT OF RECONSTRUCTION AND RECONCILIATION THAT HAS TO TAKE PLACE -- AND UNFORTUNATELY, AS YOU WELL KNOW, WE ARE FINDING OUT THAT GIVEN THE HATREDS AND BITTERNESS THAT REMAIN, THIS IS PROVING A VERY, VERY SLOW AND FRUSTRATING JOB INDEED. THAT IS ONE OF THE REASONS WHY INSTEAD OF LEAVING NOW AS WE HAD ORIGINALLY PLANNED TO DO, NATO IS GOING TO STAY ON FOR A FURTHER 18 MONTHS.

    // END ACT //

    THE NEW NATO CONTINGENT -- KNOWN AS THE STABILIZATION FORCE -- WILL HAVE ABOUT 30-THOUSAND TROOPS: HALF THE NUMBER CURRENTLY SERVING IN BOSNIA.

    IN ADDITION TO PLAYING A KEY ROLE IN TRYING TO BRING ABOUT A LASTING PEACE IN BOSNIA, NATO IS ADVANCING INTO UNCHARTERED TERRITORY. IT PLANS TO ENLARGE ITS MEMBERSHIP TO INCLUDE COUNTRIES IN EASTERN AND CENTRAL EUROPE -- COUNTRIES FORMERLY PART OF THE SOVIET BLOCK.

    A NATO SUMMIT NEXT JULY WILL INVITE THOSE COUNTRIES WHICH WILL MAKE UP THE FIRST GROUP IN AN ENLARGED, POST COLD WAR NATO. EXPERTS BELIEVE THE GROUP WILL INCLUDE POLAND, HUNGARY AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC -- AND MAYBE EITHER SLOVAKIA OR SLOVENIA.

    NATO'S EASTWARD EXPANSION IS STRONGLY OPPOSED BY RUSSIA. PAUL BEAVER -- SENIOR ANALYST WITH THE BRITISH PUBLICATION "JANE'S DEFENSE WEEKLY" -- SAYS RUSSIAN POLITICAL AND MILITARY LEADERS HAVE YET TO REALIZE RUSSIA IS NO LONGER THE SOVIET UNION.

    // BEAVER ACT //

    THE RUSSIANS SEE THE PROBLEM OF NATO ENLARGEMENT AS BEING A DIVISION IN EUROPE, A NEW IRON CURTAIN GOING DOWN A BIT CLOSER TO THEM THAN THEY WOULD LIKE. IF YOU TALK TO RUSSIAN DIPLOMATS, THEY WILL SAY TO YOU: WHY IS IT THAT NATO WANTS TO MOVE EASTWARDS? AND MOST WESTERN PERCEPTIONS ARE THAT ACTUALLY WHAT IT IS, IS THAT A LOT OF EASTERN COUNTRIES WANT TO MOVE WESTWARDS. THERE IS A MOMENTUM BUILT UP NOW BEHIND COUNTRIES IN CENTRAL EUROPE AND EVEN SOME IN EASTERN EUROPE THAT ACTUALLY WANT TO MOVE WESTWARDS -- AND THEY SEE NATO AS THE FIRST STEP, WITH THE EUROPEAN UNION -- THE MONETARY AND POLITICAL UNION -- AS BEING THE NEXT.

    // END ACT //

    IN AN EFFORT TO REASSURE THE RUSSIANS, NATO MINISTERS PLEDGED NOT TO STATION ANY NUCLEAR WEAPONS ON THE TERRITORIES OF NEW MEMBER STATES. THEY ALSO WILL BEGIN DISCUSSIONS WITH MOSCOW ON A DOCUMENT SPELLING OUT A NEW SPECIAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NATO AND RUSSIA.

    HOWEVER FRANCOIS HEISBOURG -- NATO EXPERT WITH THE LONDON-BASED INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR STRATEGIC STUDIES -- SAYS IT WILL BE VERY DIFFICULT TO PERSUADE THE RUSSIANS TO CHANGE THEIR MINDS.

    // HEISBOURG ACT //

    WHAT THEY DO NOT LIKE, IS THE NOTION THAT THERE IS A SPHERE OF INFLUENCE BEING EXTENDED FROM THE WEST TOWARDS THE EAST AT THE EXPENSE OF RUSSIA. THE RUSSIANS DO NOT BELIEVE THAT NATO IS A WAR MACHINE BUT THEY DO BELIEVE IN GEO-POLITICS -- AND THE GEO-POLITICAL REALITY THEY SEE IS THAT THE WEST IS USING AN ORGANIZATION WHICH HAD BEEN CREATED TO CONFRONT THE MILITARY DESIGNS OF THE SOVIET UNION, THAT THEY ARE USING THIS ORGANIZATION TO EXPAND THEIR SPHERE OF INFLUENCE. THIS IS MUCH MORE ABOUT POLITICS AND STRATEGY THAN IT IS ABOUT MILITARY CONFRONTATION.

    // END ACT //

    EXPERTS AGREE NATO IS FACING A DIFFICULT TASK AS IT APPROACHES NEXT YEAR'S JULY SUMMIT WHICH WILL MAKE ENLARGEMENT IRREVERSIBLE. THEY SAY NATO MUST ON THE ONE HAND CONVINCE NEW MEMBER STATES THAT IT IS SERIOUS ABOUT DEFENDING THEM IF THE NEED ARISES WHILE ON THE OTHER HAND REASSURE RUSSIA THAT ENLARGEMENT POSES NO THREAT TO MOSCOW'S INTERESTS. ONE EXPERT DESCRIBED THE TASK FACING NATO AS "A DELICATE BALANCING ACT." (SIGNED)
    NEB/ADEN/CF
    17-Dec-96 10:14 AM EST (1514 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] BELGRADE RADIO (L ONLY) BY LARRY FREUND (NEW YORK)

    DATE=12/17/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-207624
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE CHIEF EDITOR OF AN INDEPENDENT RADIO STATION IN BELGRADE SAYS SERBIAN PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC HAS NEVER BEEN IN A MORE DIFFICULT SITUATION THAN NOW. MORE FROM V-O-A'S CORRESPONDENT LARRY FREUND IN NEW YORK.

    TEXT: VERAN MATIC, EDITOR-IN-CHIEF OF THE BELGRADE RADIO STATION B-92, SAYS PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC -- IN THE FACE OF CONTINUING DEMONSTRATIONS IN THE SERBIAN CAPITAL -- CAN NO LONGER TURN TO CONSPIRACY THEORIES OF OUTSIDE INFLUENCE TO EXPLAIN THE OPPOSITION. MR. MATIC, SPEAKING TO REPORTERS AT THE UNITED NATIONS, SAID THE DAILY DEMONSTRATIONS IN SERBIA ARE REVIVING THE COUNTRY'S POLITICAL OPPOSITION. PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC HAS MADE A HUGE MISTAKE, THE EDITOR ADDED, AND HAS STRENGTHEND THE OPPOSITION FORCES.

    /// MATIC ACTUALITY IN SERBIAN ///

    MR. MATIC, CURRENTLY ON A VISIT TO THE UNITED STATES, SAID SERBIAN PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC ALSO MADE A BIG MISTAKE WHEN HE BANNED THE INDEPENDENT RADIO STATION B-92 EARLIER THIS MONTH. MR. MATIC RECALLED THAT PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC HAD TO LET THE STATION BACK ON THE AIR IN 51 HOURS. WE EXISTED AND OPERATED FOR SEVEN YEARS WITHOUT A LICENSE, HE ADDED, NOW WE EVEN HAVE A LICENSE. MR. MATIC SAID STATION B-92 NOW HAS AN AUDIENCE OF 720 THOUSAND LISTENERS.

    MR. MATIC SAID IF PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC WERE TO RECOGNIZE THE RESULTS OF LOCAL ELECTIONS THAT WERE ANNULED BY THE GOVERNMENT, A GOOD BASIS WOULD BE CREATED FOR THE DEFEAT OF PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC WHEN NATIONAL ELECTIONS ARE CALLED IN SERBIA. THAT WOULD BE THE WAY, MR. MATIC SAID, FOR THE PRESIDENT TO BE TAKEN FROM POWER PEACEFULLY. LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, HE OBSERVED, DO NOT HAVE MUCH POWER. (SIGNED)
    NEB/NY/LSF
    17-Dec-96 5:25 PM EST (2225 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] NATO DEFENSE MINISTERS (L ONLY) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=12/17/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-207602
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO DEFENSE MINISTERS, MEETING IN BRUSSELS, HAVE GIVEN THE ORDERS FOR INTERNATIONAL PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS IN BOSNIA TO CONTINUE FOR A FURTHER 18 MONTHS. JOHN FRASER REPORTS FROM BRUSSELS

    TEXT: THE INTERNATIONAL PEACEKEEPING INITIATIVE IN BOSNIA HAS BEEN THE BIGGEST MILITARY OPERATION IN EUROPE SINCE THE END OF WORLD WAR TWO. NATO'S 16 DEFENSE MINISTERS HAVE AGREED THAT THE PEACE IMPLEMENTATION FORCE HAS DONE A GOOD JOB. BUT THEY SAY THERE IS A NEED FOR THE OPERATION TO CONTINUE BEYOND THE END OF THIS MONTH, WHEN IT WAS ORIGINALLY SCHEDULED TO BE TERMINATED.

    THE FORCE WILL BE SCALED DOWN TO BETWEEN 25-THOUSAND AND 38-THOUSAND SOLDIERS, AND IT WILL BE RE-NAMED THE STABILIZATION FORCE. THE NATO MINISTERS SAY ITS AIM WILL CONTINUE TO BE TO CREATE THE RIGHT CONDITIONS FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND RECONCILIATION IN BOSNIA AND TO ENSURE THAT THERE IS NO DANGER THE BLOODY BALKANS WAR WILL FLARE UP AGAIN.

    THE SIZE OF THE STABILIZATION FORCE WILL BE REGULARLY REVIEWED, WITH THE AIM OF SUCCESSIVE WITHDRAWALS OF TROOPS DURING THE NEXT 18 MONTHS.

    ALSO AT THEIR MEETING, THE NATO DEFENSE MINISTERS FAILED TO RESOLVE A DISPUTE ABOUT THE NATIONALITY OF NATO'S SOUTHERN EUROPEAN COMMANDER.

    THE FRENCH SAY THE POST OF COMMANDER OF ALLIED FORCES SOUTH, WHICH IS BASED AT NAPLES IN ITALY, SHOULD BE FILLED BY A EUROPEAN. THEY HAVE SOME SUPPORT FROM OTHER EUROPEAN NATIONS, MOST NOTABLY THE GERMANS. HOWEVER, THE UNITED STATES INSISTS THAT THE JOB REMAIN IN AMERICAN HANDS.

    NEITHER SIDE SEEMS PREPARED TO BACK DOWN, AND THERE IS LITTLE PROSPECT OF AN AGREEMENT AT THIS TWO-DAY NATO MINISTERS' MEETING. NONETHELESS, THE UNITED STATES SEEMS OPTIMISTIC THAT A DEAL CAN BE STRUCK BEFORE THE NATO SUMMIT IN JULY.

    OFFICIALS SAY THE ISSUE IS IMPORTANT, BECAUSE IF THE FRENCH DO NOT WIN AN AGREEMENT THAT THEY CAN LIVE WITH, THEY MAY HALT THEIR REINTEGRATION INTO NATO, WHICH BEGAN LAST YEAR AFTER A RIFT THAT HAD LASTED THREE DECADES.

    IN ANOTHER DEVELOPMENT, THE NATO MINISTERS AGREED TO START NEGOTIATIONS ON A NEW CHARTER TO STRENGTHEN RELATIONS BETWEEN NATO AND RUSSIA. ALLIANCE SECRETARY GENERAL JAVIER SOLANA WILL FLY TO MOSCOW NEXT MONTH TO START THE TALKS.
    NEB/JF/JWH
    17-Dec-96 12:18 PM EST (1718 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] SARAJEVO ROSE BY KYLE KING (SARAJEVO)

    DATE=12/17/96
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-35240
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: BOSNIA'S CAPITAL, SARAJEVO, HAS FOUND A UNIQUE WAY TO PRESERVE THE MEMORIES OF THOSE WHO DIED IN A BRUTAL MILITARY SIEGE OF THE CITY THAT LASTED NEARLY FOUR YEARS. V-O-A'S KYLE KING REPORTS FROM SARAJEVO.

    TEXT: IT HAS BEEN ALMOST ONE-AND-ONE-HALF YEARS SINCE THE WORLD WAS SHOCKED INTO ACTION BY THE SEARING TELEVISED IMAGES OF 35 CIVILIANS KILLED IN A SERB MORTAR ATTACK NEAR SARAJEVO'S CENTRAL MARKET. TODAY, AN UNUSUAL MONUMENT MARKS THE SPOT WHERE THE EXPLODING MORTAR ROUND CARVED A SHALLOW CRATER INTO THE STREET. CITY WORKERS HAVE POURED BLOOD RED EPOXY INTO THE STAR BURST LIKE PATTERN THAT LOCAL RESIDENTS CALL A SARAJEVO ROSE.

    AIDA ALIBALIC, WHO LIVED IN SARAJEVO THROUGH THE WAR, SAYS THE MONUMENT EVOKES PAINFUL MEMORIES.

    /// ALIBALIC ACT ///

    THAT RED COLOR IS VERY SIMILAR TO THE COLOR OF BLOOD. IT'S ALWAYS A BAD MEMORY BECAUSE IF YOU SPENT THE WHOLE WAR IN SARAJEVO, IT BRINGS BACK IMAGES OF WHAT HAPPENED THERE AND THE SCREAMING. BUT AT THE SAME TIME, WE KNOW THAT THE RED COLOR IS NOT BLOOD ANYMORE AND ALL OF US HOPE THAT THAT ROSE IS NOT GOING TO BE A BLOOD ROSE, JUST A MONUMENT THAT WILL HELP PROTECT AGAINST SOMETHING HAPPENING AGAIN.

    /// END ACT ///

    AROUND SARAJEVO, WHICH DURING THE HEIGHT OF THE SIEGE WAS BEING HIT BY MORE THAN TWO-THOUSAND SHELLS A DAY, NEARLY EVERY STREET WAS SCARED BY THE EXPLOSIONS.

    CITY OFFICIALS SAY THEY WILL TURN ABOUT 100 OF THE SHELL MARKS INTO MONUMENTS, WHILE THE THOUSANDS OF OTHERS WILL GRADUALLY BE FILLED IN AS SARAJEVO SLOWLY REBUILDS.

    ANOTHER RESIDENT, IGOR STOJANOVIC, SAYS IT IS HARD TO DEAL WITH THE MEMORIES LEFT BY THE MONUMENTS.

    /// STOJANOVIC ACT ///

    I DON'T LIKE IT BECAUSE IT REMINDS ME OF BAD TIMES. BUT MAYBE IT'S GOOD BECAUSE NOBODY WILL FORGET WHAT HAPPENED.

    /// END ACT ///

    MEHMED HALILOVIC, THE EDITOR IN CHIEF OF SARAJEVO'S LEADING NEWSPAPER, SAYS HE THINKS SUCH MONUMENTS ARE IMPORTANT.

    /// HALILOVIC ACT ///

    BECAUSE IT SHOULD REMIND US AND ALL OTHERS WHO COME TO THIS TOWN, OF THE RECENT PAST, AND IT'S NOT A BAD IDEA. WE HAVE TO HAVE SUCH A WARNING ALL THE TIME.

    /// END ACT ///

    FOR INTERNATIONAL VISITORS TO THE CITY, THE CHILLING MONUMENT NEXT TO THE CENTRAL MARKET, ALSO CAN SERVE AS A VIVID REMINDER OF THE EVENT THAT FINALLY SPARKED THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY INTO ACTION.

    SHORTLY AFTER THE 1995 MORTAR ATTACK, NATO WAR PLANES UNLEASHED A FIERCE ASSAULT AGAINST BOSNIAN SERB POSITIONS, AND EVENTUALLY FORCED AN END TO THE FOUR-YEAR WAR. (SIGNED)
    NEB/KBK/JWH
    17-Dec-96 11:59 AM EST (1659 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] SERBIA / MEETING (L) BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (BELGRADE)

    DATE=12/17/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-207609
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: SERBIA'S PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC MET TUESDAY WITH UNIVERSITY STUDENTS FROM THE SOUTHERN TOWN OF NIS. V-O-A'S DOUGLAS ROBERTS IN BELGRADE REPORTS THIS WAS MR. MILOSEVIC'S FIRST TALK WITH REPRESENTATIVES OF THE MASS PROTEST MOVEMENT THAT HAS ROCKED SERBIA'S MAIN TOWNS SINCE THE GOVERNMENT ANNULLED OPPOSITION VICTORIES IN LAST MONTH'S MUNICIPAL ELECTIONS.

    TEXT: TUESDAY'S MEETING WAS BRIEF -- LESS THAN 15 MINUTES -- AND ITS IMPACT REMAINS TO BE SEEN. BUT IT WAS THE SERBIAN PRESIDENT'S FIRST ENCOUNTER WITH OPPOSITION SUPPORTERS SINCE THE CRISIS ERUPTED HERE AFTER THE NOVEMBER 17TH MUNICIPAL ELECTIONS.

    THE THREE STUDENTS FROM NIS HAD WALKED THE 250 KILOMETERS TO BELGRADE AS PART OF THE MASS PROTEST OVER THE GOVERNMENT'S HANDLING OF THE VOTE.

    THEY PRESENTED DOCUMENTS TO THE PRESIDENT THAT THEY SAY PROVE THAT OPPOSITION CANDIDATES WON THE MOST SEATS ON THE MUNICIPAL COUNCIL IN NIS.

    THE LOCAL ELECTORAL COMMISSION OVERTURNED THE INITIAL RESULTS, AND PROCLAIMED THAT THE RULING SOCIALIST PARTY HAD WON THE ELECTION. BUT A LOCAL COURT HAS SINCE RULED THERE WERE IRREGULARITIES IN THE VOTE COUNTING, AND IT HAS ORDERED THE ELECTORAL COMMISSION TO RECONSIDER ITS ACTION.

    IN ITS ACCOUNT OF TUESDAY'S MEETING, BELGRADE RADIO SAID PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC PROMISED THE STUDENTS THAT HE WILL UPHOLD THE LAW, AND THAT VIOLATORS WILL BE PUNISHED. BUT AT THE SAME TIME, HE WAS CRITICAL OF THE PROTEST MOVEMENT HERE, AND WARNED OPPOSITION LEADERS NOT TO RELY ON THE INTERVENTION OF FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS.

    THE STATE-CONTROLLED SERBIAN MEDIA CONTINUES TO POUR SCORN ON THE DEMONSTRATORS, DESCRIBING OPPOSITION LEADERS AS FASCISTS AND TERRORISTS BENT ON SEIZING POWER HERE.

    THE OPPOSITION PARTIES, WITH SUPPORT FROM STUDENTS AND INDEPENDENT TRADE UNIONISTS, HAVE VOWED TO CONTINUE THE PROTESTS UNTIL THE GOVERNMENT RECOGNIZES OPPOSITION VICTORIES IN MORE THAN A DOZEN SERBIAN TOWNS.

    OPPOSITION LEADERS ARE ALSO CONTINUING EFFORTS TO PERSUADE THE COUNTRY'S MAIN LABOR MOVEMENT TO JOIN THE PROTESTS.

    LATE MONDAY, YUGOSLAVIA'S LARGEST OFFICIAL TRADE UNION ASSOCIATION GAVE A FIRST, TENTATIVE SIGN OF SUPPORT TO THE DEMONSTRATORS. BUT THE GOVERNMENT-FINANCED ASSOCIATION STOPPED SHORT OF URGING ITS MEMBERS TO JOIN THE PROTESTS.

    THE MOVE CAME AS THE GOVERNMENT CALLED OFF A SCHEDULED DEBATE IN THE SERBIAN PARLIAMENT OVER A CONTROVERSIAL NEW LABOR LAW THAT ANALYSTS SAY WOULD COST HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF WORKERS THEIR JOBS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DBR/JWH
    17-Dec-96 1:35 PM EST (1835 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] U-S/RUSSIA/BOSNIA (S-ONLY) BY DAVID GOLLUST (PENTAGON)

    DATE=12/17/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-207626
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: U-S DEFENSE OFFICIALS ARE REJECTING A NEWSPAPER REPORT THAT RUSSIAN PEACEKEEPERS IN BOSNIA HAVE BEEN SPYING ON THE AMERICAN CONTINGENT THERE. A RUSSIAN BRIGADE HAS BEEN OPERATING ALONGSIDE U-S FORCES IN NORTHEASTERN BOSNIA FOR THE PAST YEAR. V-O-A'S DAVID GOLLUST HAS DETAILS FROM THE PENTAGON.

    TEXT: THE ADMINISTRATION HAS DEPICTED U-S/RUSSIAN OPERATIONS IN BOSNIA AS A MODEL FOR POST-COLD WAR COOPERATION. AND THE PENTAGON WENT TO GREAT LENGTHS TUESDAY TO DISMISS A NEWSPAPER ACCOUNT THAT RUSSIANS HAVE BEEN DOING SOME ELECTRONIC EVESDROPPING ON THE U-S HEADQUARTERS AT TUZLA.

    THE WASHINGTON TIMES HAD QUOTED PENTAGON OFFICIALS AS SAYING THE SPYING WAS BEING CONDUCTED FROM A RUSSIAN VAN PARKED NEAR THE COMMAND CENTER AT THE TUZLA AIRBASE. HOWEVER, PENTAGON SPOKESMAN NAVY CAPTAIN MIKE DOUBLEDAY SAID THE VAN IS, IN FACT, USED BY RUSSIAN LIAISON OFFICERS IN TUZLA TO COMMUNICATE WITH TROOPS IN THE FIELD.

    HE SAID RUSSIAN OFFICERS HAVE FREE ACCESS TO THE BUILDING AND THERE IS NO NEED FOR ANYONE TO SPY:

    ///DOUBLEDAY ACT///

    THEY HAVE ACCESS TO FILES, TO DIVISION BRIEFINGS, TO UPDATES, TO EXCHANGES OF INFORMATION AND INTELLIGENCE. IN FACT THE RUSSIAN LIAISON OFFICER HAS AN OFFICE FOUR DOORS FROM THE COMMANDER.

    ///END ACT///

    RUSSIA HAS HAD A BRIGADE OF 18-HUNDRED TROOPS IN THE NATO-LED PEACEKEEPING FORCE NOW LEAVING BOSNIA, AND WILL CONTRIBUTE NEARLY AS MANY TO THE FOLLOW-ON FORCE NOW BEING ORGANIZED. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DAG/PT
    17-Dec-96 5:52 PM EST (2252 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [09] U-S/SERBIA/O-S-C-E (L-ONLY) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=12/17/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-207613
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION SAYS IT HOPES THE PENDING O-S-C-E INVESTIGATION OF THE NOVEMBER 17TH SERBIAN ELECTIONS WILL LEAD TO THE SEATING OF OPPOSITION POLITICIANS BELIEVED TO HAVE WON MOST OF THE MUNCIPAL ELECTIONS. U-S OFFICIALS, HOWEVER, SAY THEY REMAIN SKEPTICAL OF SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC'S COMMITMENT TO A FAIR BALLOT PROCESS. VOA'S DAVID GOLLUST HAS DETAILS.

    TEXT: THE STATE DEPARTMENT HAS WARMLY WELCOMED THE DISPATCH TO BELGRADE OF THE O-S-C-E DELEGATION HEADED BY FORMER SPANISH PRIME MINISTER FELIPE GONZALES.

    BUT IT SAYS THAT DESPITE PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC'S DECISION TO ADMIT THE O-S-C-E PANEL, IT IS SKEPTICAL ABOUT WHETHER HE REALLY INTENDS TO ALLOW A FAIR INVESTIGATION OF THE OPPOSITION CLAIMS OF ELECTION FRAUD.

    THE ANNULMENT OF MAYORAL ELECTIONS IN MAJOR SERBIAN TOWNS -- MOST OF WHICH WERE APPARENTLY WON BY OPPOSITION POLITICIANS -- SPAWNED SERBIA'S MONTH-LONG POLITICAL CRISIS.

    STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN NICHOLAS BURNS SAYS HE HOPES THE O-S-C-E TEAM WILL BE ALLOWED TO MAKE A FULL ACCOUNTING OF THE BALLOT PROCESS, AND THAT THE RESULTS WILL BE ACCEPTED BY SERBIAN AUTHORITIES:

    ///BURNS ACTUALITY///

    WE HOPE THAT IT CAN WORK WITH THE BELGRADE GOVERNMENT TO MAKE SURE THAT ALL THE VOTES THAT WERE PUT IN BALLOT BOXES ON NOVEMBER 17TH BE COUNTED FAIRLY. IN 15 OF THE 18 MAYORALTY RACES THERE IS AN OPPORTUNITY NOW FOR THE SERBIAN AUTHORITIES TO AGREE TO GO BACK AND RECOUNT. AND IF THE RESULTS OF THE ELECTIONS ARE AS WE EXPECT -- THAT THE OPPOSITION WON THOSE ELECTIONS, WELL THOSE RESULTS SHOULD STAND AND THE OPPOSITION TAKE OFFICE.

    ///END ACT///

    MR. BURNS SAID THAT ALTHOUGH THE ANNULMENT OF THE VOTING WAS MADE IN THE NAME OF BY GOVERNMENT ELECTION OFFICIALS, THERE IS LITTLE DOUBT THE ACTUAL DECISION CAME FROM MR. MILOSEVIC HIMSELF. THUS, HE SAID HE IS ALSO SKEPTICAL ABOUT THE SERBIAN LEADER'S PROMISE TO A GROUP OF STUDENT PROTESTORS TUESDAY TO PUNISH ELECTORAL OFFICIALS WHO MAY HAVE COMMITTED FRAUD.

    THE MEETING WAS MR. MILOSEVIC'S FIRST WITH DEMONSTRATORS SINCE THE MASSIVE ANTI-GOVERNMENT PROTESTS IN THE STREETS OF BELGRADE BEGAN A MONTH AGO. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DAG/KL
    17-Dec-96 3:00 PM EST (2000 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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