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Voice of America, 96-12-20

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [02] EURO STOCKS/THU (S) BY JACK HUIZENGA (LONDON)
  • [03] EURO STOCKS/FRI (S) BY JACK HUIZENGA (LONDON)
  • [04] NATO / BOSNIA / ENLARGEMENT BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (LONDON)
  • [05] O-S-C-E/SERBIA (L) BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (BELGRADE)
  • [06] PERRY / BOSNIA WAR CRIMES (L) BY DAVID GOLLUST (PENTAGON)
  • [07] THE ROMANIAN REVOLUTION IN RETROSPECT BY JUDITH LATHAM (WASHINGTON)
  • [08] TURKEY/IRAN (L-ONLY) BY ANBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)
  • [09] U-N WEEK-IN-REVIEW BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)

  • [01] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=12/20/96
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09940
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-S-T ON FRIDAY, DECEMBER 20TH //

    INTRO: TERRORISM IN PERU AND MORE PROBLEMS IN RUSSIA'S BREAKAWAY CHECHNYA REGION ARE AMONG THE MANY EDITORIAL TOPICS DISCUSSED IN TODAY'S U-S NEWSPAPERS. OTHER SUBJECTS GETTING A LOOK ARE: A NEW CONTENT RATINGS SCHEME FOR TELEVISION PROGRAMS; ISRAELI SETTLEMENT POLICY CHANGES; ANOTHER COUNTERSPY UNMASKED, AND TEXACO'S INSTITUTIONAL RE-BIRTH. NOW, HERE WITH A QUOTE OR TWO IS __________________AND THE U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: TODAY'S WASHINGTON TIMES IS WATCHING DEVELOPMENTS AT THE JAPANESE AMBASSADOR'S RESIDENCE IN LIMA, PERU, TAKEN OVER BY TUPAC AMARU TERRORISTS, WHERE ABOUT 400 DIPLOMATS AND OTHERS ARE BEING HELD HOSTAGE. THE PAPER SAYS IN PART:

    VOICE: "THE BIGGEST ITEM ON THE TERRORISTS' AGENDA IS THE RELEASE OF HUNDREDS OF THEIR COMRADES HELD IN PRISON. BUT ALONG WITH THAT, THEY ARE DEMANDING NOTHING LESS THAN A TOTAL CHANGE IN THE POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC MAKEUP OF PERU, ALONG WITH THE OUSTER OF MR. FUJIMORI... UNTIL RECENTLY MR. FUJIMORI WAS CLAIMING VICTORY OVER MARXIST-TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS IN PERU. UNFORTUNATELY, IT SEEMS, HE SPOKE TOO SOON."

    TEXT: THE WASHINGTON POST TODAY DECRIES ACTS OF TERRORISM BOTH IN LIMA AND RUSSIA'S CHECHNYA REGION, WHERE SIX RED CROSS WORKERS WERE SHOT TO DEATH IN THEIR SLEEP INSIDE A RED CROSS HOSPITAL. SAYS THE POST:

    VOICE: "IT'S A LONG WAY, AND NOT ONLY IN MILES, FROM THE PRIVATIONS AND DANGER OF A PRIMITIVE VILLAGE HOSPITAL IN CHECHNYA TO A GLITTERING RECEPTION AT THE JAPANESE EMBASSY IN LIMA, PERU. BUT THE TWO LOCATIONS WERE SADLY UNITED THIS WEEK AS INNOCENT PEOPLE BECAME VICTIMS OF TERROR. IT IS IN THE NATURE OF TERRORISM, OF COURSE, TO CHOOSE THE MOST BLAMELESS AND DEFENSELESS AS TARGETS... THE FURY UNLEASHED BY A WAR AS SAVAGE AS THAT WAGED BY THE RUSSIANS AGAINST CHECHNYA CANNOT BE EASILY RETHERED. THE MESSAGE OF THE TUPAC AMARU REBELS ... IN PERU MAY BE CLEARER. THESE ARE RUTHLESS MARXIST REVOLUTIONARIES SEEKING TO REVIVE THEIR FADING MOVEMENT... THE EFFECT OF THEIR CRIME, NO MATTER HOW IT TURNS OUT, WILL BE TO DISCOURAGE FOREIGN INVESTMENT, THUS DEEPENING THE POVERTY AND INEQUALITY THAT FEED MOVEMENTS SUCH AS THEIR'S."

    TEXT: AND ONE LAST WORD ON THE PERUVIAN SITUATION FROM THE PORTLAND [MAINE] PRESS HERALD:

    VOICE: "THE TERRORISTS CLAIM TO SPEAK FOR THAT HALF OF PERU'S POPULATION THAT IS QUECHUA AND AYMARA INDIAN, BUT IT IS THE INDIANS, IN FACT, WHO SUFFER MOST FROM THE TERROR. THE GUERRILLA MOVEMENT BRINGS DISHONOR ON THE INDIAN LEADER FOR WHOM IT IS NAMED. SLAUGHTERING MORE INNOCENTS WILL ONLY ADD TO THAT DISHONOR."

    TEXT: A FAVORITE DOMESTIC TOPIC TODAY IS THE NEW TELEVISION RATINGS SYSTEM UNVEILED YESTERDAY TO HELP PARENTS GUARD THEIR CHILDREN AGAINST UNDUE SEX, VIOLENCE AND ROUGH LANGUAGE ON TELEVISION. SAYS THE LOS ANGELES TIMES:

    VOICE: "MODELED AFTER THE MOTION PICTURE RATINGS SYSTEM ... DEVISED IN 1968 TO PREVENT STATES FROM TAKING ADVANTAGE OF A SUPREME COURT RULING PERMITTING THEM TO ESSENTIALLY CENSOR MOVIES BASED ON LOCAL STANDARDS... [THE] PROPOSAL WOULD RATE SHOWS ON THE BASIS OF AGE LEVELS OF CHILD VIEWERS... WHILE THE NEW SYSTEM IS BETTER THAN WHAT EXISTS NOW -- LARGELY NOTHING - - IT STILL FALLS SHORT OF MEETING THE LEGITIMATE CONCERNS OF MANY PARENTS."

    TEXT: USA TODAY IS EVEN LESS ENTHUSIASTIC ABOUT THE PROPOSED TELEVISION RATING SYSTEM.

    VOICE: "AN INDUSTRY COMMITTEE THAT 'VOLUNTEERED' TO DESIGN AN ELECTRONICS-COMPATIBLE RATING SYSTEM FOR PARENTS CONCERNED ABOUT TV VIOLENCE, LANGUAGE AND SEX EMERGED THURSDAY WITH A STONE-AGE SOLUTION: CLONE THE INADEQUATE, 28-YEAR-OLD MOVIE RATINGS... BUT A SURVEY ... FOUND 80 PERCENT OF PARENTS WANT MORE DETAILED GUIDANCE... AN INDUSTRY THAT TREATS ITS AUDIENCE'S WISHES WITH SUCH CAVALIER DISREGARD SHOULD NOT WONDER WHY ITS VIEWERSHIP CONTINUES TO DECLINE."

    TEXT: TURNING BACK TO OVERSEAS MATTERS, TODAY'S ORLANDO SENTINEL IS CONCERNED ABOUT THE ISRAELI GOVERNMENT'S PLANS TO STRENGTHEN JEWISH SETTLEMENTS IN THE OCCUPIED WEST BANK, NOTING:

    VOICE: "IT DOESN'T TAKE MUCH THOUGHT TO CONCLUDE THAT THE REVIVAL OF TAX BREAKS AND SUBSIDIES TO ENCOURAGE DEVELOPMENT OF ... [JEWISH] SETTLEMENTS ... IS FURTHER EVIDENCE OF A COUNTERPRODUCTIVE TREND. THAT'S NOT ACCEPTABLE... WHETHER A PARTY DISRUPTING PEACE EFFORTS IS HISTORICALLY A FRIEND OR A FOE, THE UNITED STATES' VOICE SHOULD BE RAISED IN PROTEST."

    TEXT: THE ARREST OF A TRUSTED, VETERAN F-B-I AGENTS AS AN ALLEGED RUSSIAN COUNTERSPY, THE THIRD SUCH ESPIONAGE CASE IN THE PAST FEW YEARS, HAS PROVOKED A WAVE OF EDITORIAL COMMENT. SAYS THE NEW YORK TIMES:

    VOICE: "IT WOULD BE UNREALISTIC AND NAIVE TO EXPECT THE UNITED STATES AND RUSSIA TO CEASE ALL SPYING ON EACH OTHER ... [BUT] AT A TIME WHEN THE UNITED STATES IS ASSISTING RUSSIA WITH THE DISMANTLING OF ITS NUCLEAR WEAPONS, BUYING HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM FROM RUSSIAN WARHEADS AND SUPPORTING INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE TO MOSCOW, IT IS BAFFLING THAT THE C-I-A AND ITS RUSSIAN COUNTERPART ARE STILL TRYING TO OUTFOX [OUTMANEUVER] ONE ANOTHER AS IF THE COLD WAR HAD NOT ENDED. THE GAME ITSELF SEEMS MORE IMPORTANT TO ITS PRACTITIONERS THAN THE REASONS FOR IT."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: THE WASHINGTON POST, IN ITS EDITORIAL, TAKES A SLIGHTLY DIFFERENT TONE UNDER THIS HEADLINE: "MORE TROUBLE AT THE F-B-I."

    VOICE: "THESE HAVE NOT BEEN GOOD YEARS FOR THE F-B-I. THE MISHANDLING OF HOSTAGE SITUATIONS HAS EARNED JUSTIFIABLE CRITICISM, THOUGH CHANGED RULES OF ENGAGEMENT HAVE IMPROVED PERFORMANCE. HIGH OFFICIALS HAVE BEEN CHARGED WITH HIDING THE TRUTH ABOUT RUBY RIDGE [A POORLY HANDLED HOSTAGE SITUATION IN RURAL IDAHO IN WHICH FEDERAL AGENTS, A FUGITIVE'S YOUNG SON AND WIFE WERE ALL SHOT AND KILLED] AND FORCED TO RESIGN OR RETIRE. THERE ARE SERIOUS QUESTIONS -- YET UNANSWERED -- ABOUT THE LEAKING OF CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION FROM THE F-B-I FILES TO WHITE HOUSE OPERATIVES ... [AND]. NOW A FAIRLY SENIOR AGENT IS CHARGED WITH SPYING FOR A LONG PERIOD."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: THE HUGE AMERICAN OIL COMPANY TEXACO IS WINNING PRAISE FROM TODAY'S PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER FOR ITS HANDLING OF SERIOUS ALLEGATIONS OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST BLACKS AND WOMEN.

    VOICE: "TEXACO, WHICH LATELY HAS BEEN PAYING FOR ITS SINS, EVENTUALLY OUGHT TO PROFIT FROM THE BOLD WAY IN WHICH IT'S REMEDYING THEM. ITS NEW BLUEPRINT FOR OVERCOMING ENTRENCHED BIAS AGAINST MINORITIES AND WOMEN CAN UNTAP HUMAN POTENTIAL INSIDE TEXACO. THE COMPANY ... NOW SOUNDS DETERMINED TO BECOME A NATIONAL MODEL FOR EQUAL OPPORTUNITY."

    TEXT: AND LASTLY, THE WASHINGTON POST, IS CRITICAL OF MEXICO'S DOMINANT POLITICAL PARTY, THE P-R-I FOR STILL FAILING TO COME TO TERMS WITH CORRUPTION.

    VOICE: "MEXICO IS NOT DOING VERY WELL ... FOR IT, POLITICAL REFORM OPENS A WAY FOR THE EXPRESSION OF THE EXISTING MASSIVE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DISCONTENT. DEMOCRACY IN MEXICO, NONETHELESS, IS A VALUE THAT CANNOT BE DENIED. IT IS COMING, AND MEXICAN POLITICIANS WHO REACH FOR THE FUTURE MUST EITHER EMBRACE IT OR WASTE THEIR GOVERNMENT'S LEGITIMACY AND DEEPEN THEIR COUNTRY'S PAIN."

    TEXT: WITH THAT, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF EDITORIALS FROM TODAY'S U-S PRESS.
    NEB/ANG/PCH
    20-Dec-96 11:20 AM EST (1620 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] EURO STOCKS/THU (S) BY JACK HUIZENGA (LONDON)

    DATE=12/19/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-207719
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: SHARE PRICES WERE MIXED THURSDAY ON WEST EUROPEAN EXCHANGES. V-O-A'S JACK HUIZENGA HAS THE CLOSING MARKET REPORT FROM LONDON.

    TEXT: STOCK PRICES WERE UP IN BOTH PARIS AND LONDON. EXPERTS SAY INVESTORS WERE ENCOURAGED BY BETTER-THAN-EXPECTED TRADE FIGURES FROM THE UNITED STATES. IN PARIS, PRICES ROSE SHARPLY, WITH THE CAC-40 INDEX CLOSING UP ALMOST 30 POINTS, ABOUT ONE-AND-THREE-TENTHS PERCENT. PRICES ALSO WERE UP IN LONDON. THE FOOTSIE-100 INDEX ROSE 33 POINTS, MORE THAN EIGHT-TENTHS OF ONE PERCENT. BUT, THE GERMAN MARKET -- WHICH CLOSED BEFORE THE U-S TRADE REPORT WAS ISSUED -- WAS OFF. THE DAX-30 INDEX CLOSED DOWN 13 POINTS, ABOUT ONE-HALF PERCENT, BUT THEN ROSE IN LATER COMPUTERIZED TRADING.

    ON THE LONDON CURRENCY MARKET, THE VALUE OF THE U-S DOLLAR WAS UP AGAINST THE JAPANESE YEN, THE GERMAN MARK, AND THE BRITISH POUND.
    NEB/JWH/KL
    19-Dec-96 1:21 PM EST (1821 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] EURO STOCKS/FRI (S) BY JACK HUIZENGA (LONDON)

    DATE=12/20/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-207762
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: SHARE PRICES ROSE SHARPLY FRIDAY ON WEST EUROPEAN EXCHANGES. V-O-A'S JACK HUIZENGA HAS THE CLOSING MARKET REPORT FROM LONDON.

    TEXT: STOCK PRICES WERE UP IN PARIS, FRANKFURT, AND LONDON. EXPERTS SAY EUROPEAN INVESTORS WERE ENCOURAGED BY THE SO-CALLED SANTA CLAUS RALLY ON WALL STREET.

    ON THE PARIS MARKET, THE CAC-40 INDEX CLOSED UP ALMOST 30 POINTS, ABOUT ONE-AND-THREE-TENTHS PERCENT, AND WAS UP ALMOST THREE-AND-FOURTH-TENTHS PERCENT FOR THE WEEK.

    PRICES ALSO ROSE SHARPLY IN FRANKFURT. THE DAX-30 INDEX CLOSED UP ALMOST 47 POINTS, ABOUT ONE-AND-SEVENTH-TENTHS PERCENT, AND ROSE EVEN MORE IN LATER COMPUTERIZED TRADING IN LONDON, THE FOOTSIE-100 INDEX ROSE TO RECORD LEVELS, BUT THEN SETTLED BACK, ENDING UP MORE THAN 26 POINTS, ABOUT SIX-TENTHS OF ONE PERCENT, MORE THAN TWO-AND-ONE-HALF PERCENT FOR THE WEEK.

    ON THE LONDON CURRENCY MARKET, THE VALUE OF THE U-S DOLLAR WAS UP A LITTLE AGAINST THE JAPANESE YEN,. BUT THE DOLLAR LOST VALUE AGAINST THE GERMAN MARK THE BRITISH POUND, AND ALL OTHER MAJOR EUROPEAN CURRENCIES.
    NEB/JWH/KL
    20-Dec-96 1:37 PM EST (1837 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] NATO / BOSNIA / ENLARGEMENT BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (LONDON)

    DATE=12/20/96
    TYPE=CLOSEUP
    NUMBER=4-09524
    TELEPHONE=619-0932 (EDITOR)
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT= // VOICER AND ACTUALITIES AVAILABLE IN A AUDIO SERVICES
    //

    INTRO: THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION -- OR NATO -- IS TRYING TO REDEFINE ITS ROLE IN A CHANGING WORLD ENVIRONMENT NO LONGER POLARIZED BY SUPER-POWER RIVALRY. IN THIS REPORT FROM LONDON, V-O-A'S ANDRE DE NESNERA LOOKS AT NATO'S UPCOMING CHALLENGES AS IT MOVES TO ENLARGE ITS MEMBERSHIP TO INCLUDE EAST AND CENTRAL EUROPEAN COUNTRIES FORMERLY PART OF THE SOVIET BLOC.

    TEXT: THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION -- OR NATO -- WAS CREATED SHORTLY AFTER THE SECOND WORLD WAR AS A WESTERN MILITARY ALLIANCE AGAINST THE SOVIET UNION. AT THAT TIME NATO'S ROLE WAS CLEARLY DEFINED -- PROVIDE ITS MEMBERS WITH DEFENSIVE CAPABILITIES IN THE EVENT OF A SOVIET ATTACK.

    BUT THE DISINTEGRATION OF THE SOVIET UNION COUPLED WITH THE DISSOLUTION OF ITS NATO EQUIVALENT -- THE WARSAW PACT -- HAS FORCED THE 16-MEMBER WESTERN ALLIANCE INTO WHAT DEFENSE EXPERTS CALL A "RETHINK" -- IN OTHER WORDS A REDEFINITION OF ITS ROLE NOW THAT ITS ARCH-ENEMY NO LONGER EXISTS.

    EUROPEAN DEFENSE EXPERTS SAY NATO HAS HAD A TOUGH TIME REINVENTING ITSELF AND SOON AFTER THE COLLAPSE OF COMMUNISM, IT SEEMED TO DRIFT. THEY SAY THE CATALYST HAS BEEN THE EXPERIENCE IN BOSNIA, SHOWING NATO CAN BE FLEXIBLE AND ADAPT TO PEACE-KEEPING OPERATIONS -- SOMETHING THE UNITED NATIONS WAS UNABLE TO DO.

    NATO'S CHIEF SPOKESMAN, JAMIE SHEA, SAYS THE ORGANIZATION'S ROLE IN BOSNIA WAS MILITARILY A SUCCESS IN TERMS OF STOPPING THE WAR. TAPE : CUT # 1 - SHEA "WE HAVE MANAGED TO DO THAT: SEPARATING THE FORCES, HANDING OVER THE TERRITORY, CREATING THE ZONE OF SEPARATION, DEMOBILIZING THE FORCES, SO THAT TODAY THE PROSPECT OF WAR IS QUITE REMOTE. BUT OF COURSE, UNFORTUNATELY FOR US AND FOR THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY, THERE IS MORE THAN CREATING PEACE THAN IN STOPPING A CONFLICT. THERE IS A WHOLE ELEMENT OF RECONSTRUCTION AND RECONCILIATION THAT HAS TO TAKE PLACE AND UNFORTUNATELY, AS YOU WELL KNOW, WE ARE FINDING OUT THAT GIVEN THE HATREDS AND BITTERNESS THAT REMAIN, THIS IS PROVING A VERY, VERY SLOW AND FRUSTRATING JOB, INDEED. AND THAT IS ONE OF THE REASONS WHY INSTEAD OF LEAVING NOW AS WE HAD ORIGINALLY PLANNED TO DO, NATO IS GOING TO STAY ON FOR A FURTHER 18 MONTHS."

    TEXT: THE NEW NATO CONTINGENT WILL HAVE 30-THOUSAND TROOPS -- HALF THE NUMBER CURRENTLY IN BOSNIA.

    IN ADDITION TO FACING THE MILITARY CHALLENGES IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA, NATO IS MOVING POLITICALLY INTO UNCHARTERED WATERS. THE ALLIANCE PLANS TO EXPAND ITS MEMBERSHIP TO INCLUDE COUNTRIES IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE -- COUNTRIES FORMERLY PART OF THE SOVIET BLOCK.

    A FIRST GROUP OF NATIONS IS EXPECTED TO BE INVITED TO JOIN NATO DURING THE ORGANIZATION'S SUMMIT NEXT JULY. DEFENSE EXPERTS BELIEVE THE GROUP WILL INCLUDE POLAND, HUNGARY AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC -- AND MAYBE EITHER SLOVAKIA OR SLOVENIA.

    NATO'S EXPANSION EASTWARDS IS STRONGLY OPPOSED BY THE RUSSIAN GOVERNMENT. PRIME MINISTER VIKTOR CHERNOMYRDIN -- SPEAKING THROUGH AN INTERPRETER -- MADE THAT CLEAR DURING A RECENT SUMMIT OF EUROPEAN LEADERS IN LISBON, PORTUGAL.

    TAPE: CUT # 2 - CHERNOMYRDIN "WE HAVE CLEARLY STATED, AND WE STATE ONCE AGAIN, THAT WE ARE FIRMLY OPPOSED TO PLANS TO MOVE UP TO OUR TERRITORY THE NORTH ATLANTIC ALLIANCE AND ITS MILITARY INFRASTRUCTURE. IT IS SURELY OBVIOUS THAT THE EMERGENCE IN EUROPE OF NEW LINES OF DIVISION WOULD LEAD TO A WORSENING OF THE ENTIRE GEO-POLITICAL SITUATION OF THE WORLD."

    TEXT: MANY WESTERN DEFENSE EXPERTS BELIEVE RUSSIA'S OPPOSITION TO NATO ENLARGEMENT IS IN PART DUE TO LINGERING COLD WAR PERCEPTIONS. PAUL BEAVER, SENIOR DEFENSE ANALYST WITH THE BRITISH PUBLICATION "JANE'S DEFENSE WEEKLY", EXPLAINS.

    TAPE: CUT # 3 - BEAVER "I AM AFRAID THAT MOST OF THE RUSSIAN MILITARY AND KREMLIN FIGURES HAVE NOT YET GOT OVER THE FACT THAT RUSSIA IS NOT THE SOVIET UNION. THEY STILL BELIEVE THAT THEY ARE A MIGHTY WORLD POWER. YOU JUST HAVE TO LOOK AT THE COMPLETE DEBACLE OF THEIR OPERATION IN CHECHNYA TO UNDERSTAND THAT THE RUSSIAN MILITARY IS NOT WHAT IT USED TO BE. IT IS STILL IMPORTANT, WE SHOULD NOT BY ANY MEANS DISCARD THEM -AND WE MUST ALSO GIVE THE RUSSIANS THE CREDIT AND I THINK WE MUST UNDERSTAND THEIR POSITION. BUT THE RUSSIANS FIRMLY BELIEVE THAT NATO IS AN OFFENSIVE ORGANIZATION. IT IS NOT. I THINK IT HAS DEMONSTRATED THAT OVER THE LAST 47 YEARS -- IT IS DEFINITELY WITHOUT DOUBT A DEFENSIVE ORGANIZATION."

    TEXT: MR. BEAVER SAYS RUSSIAN OFFICIALS ALSO SEE NATO ENLARGEMENT AS BRINGING ABOUT A NEW IRON CURTAIN IN EUROPE.

    FRANCOIS HEISBOURG -- NATO EXPERT WITH THE LONDON-BASED INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR STRATEGIC STUDIES -- SAYS RUSSIA'S OPPOSITION TO NATO ENLARGEMENT MAY BE PARTLY DUE TO PSYCHOLOGICAL REASONS.

    TAPE: CUT # 4 - HEISBOURG "PRACTICALLY THE WHOLE RUSSIAN BODY POLITIC CONSIDERS THIS AS A HUMILIATING SETBACK FOR RUSSIA. SO WHAT I FEAR IS NOT THE SHORT-TERM CONSEQUENCES WHICH WILL BE VERY WEAK, BUT THE LONG-TERM CONSEQUENCES THAT THIS WILL NOURISH A 'VERSAILLES TREATY TYPE SYNDROME' IN RUSSIA WHICH WILL COME BACK AND HAUNT US IN FIVE, TEN OR 15 YEARS TIME. THAT IS MY CONCERN -- AND IT IS VERY DIFFICULT TO FIND ANY RUSSIAN OF POLITICAL SUBSTANCE WHO WILL SAY OTHERWISE."

    TEXT: MANY DEFENSE ANALYSTS SAY NATO'S ENLARGEMENT IS INEVITABLE AND WILL COME ABOUT SOONER OR LATER WHETHER RUSSIA WANTS IT OR NOT. CHIEF NATO SPOKESMAN JAMIE SHEA SAYS NATO HAS NO CHOICE BUT TO EXPAND BECAUSE FORMER SOVIET BLOC COUNTRIES ARE DEMANDING TO JOIN.

    TAPE: CUT # 5 - SHEA "TODAY, THE RATIONALE FOR ENLARGING NATO IS NOT BECAUSE WE WANT TO EXPAND, BUT BECAUSE THE COUNTRIES OF THE EAST WANT TO GO WEST -- THEY WANT TO JOIN US IN THE WEST. IT IS BEING DONE MORE FOR POLITICAL AND SOCIAL REASONS IN TERMS OF UNDERPINNING DEMOCRACY AND ECONOMIC REFORM AND A SENSE OF BELONGING RATHER THAN FOR STRATEGIC REASONS. THANK GOD: THAT IS THE SIGN OF THE NEW EUROPE WE ARE IN. SO AS A RESULT, UNLIKE IN THE PAST, ENLARGEMENT OF NATO DOES NOT HAVE TO BE ACCOMPANIED BY THE SAME MILITARY CONSEQUENCES OF DEPLOYING FORCES, BUILDING BARRACKS AND BASES, HAVING HUGE EXERCISES OR DEPLOYING NUCLEAR WEAPONS."

    TEXT: IN AN EFFORT TO REASSURE THE RUSSIANS, NATO HAS OFFERED TO BEGIN DISCUSSIONS WITH MOSCOW ON A DOCUMENT SPELLING OUT A NEW SPECIAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NATO AND RUSSIA. NATO MINISTERS HAVE ALSO PLEDGED NOT TO STATION ANY NUCLEAR WEAPONS ON THE TERRITORIES OF NEW MEMBER STATES.

    DEFENSE ANALYST PAUL BEAVER SAYS THAT PLEDGE IS PURELY SYMBOLIC BECAUSE NATO RELIES ESSENTIALLY ON SUBMARINE-BASED NUCLEAR MISSILES FOR ITS DEFENSE.

    TAPE: CUT # 6 - BEAVER "TACTICAL, GROUND-BASED NUCLEAR WEAPONS LIKE CRUISE MISSILES ARE OUT OF VOGUE ANYWAY - NOBODY HAS GOT THEM ANYMORE. NOW THERE ARE VERY FEW ARTILLERY SHELLS. THE RUSSIANS MAY HAVE HUNDREDS OF THEM, THOUSANDS OF THEM STORED AWAY -- NATO DOES NOT. NATO HAS GONE PAST THAT. ANYWAY, IT DOES NOT NEED TO: IT HAS GOT TRIDENT SUBMARINES - THE BRITISH AND THE AMERICAN DETERRENT AND THE FRENCH AS WELL HAVE GOT POWERFUL SUBMARINES. THEY DO NOT ACTUALLY NEED THIS STUFF ON THE LAND ANYMORE. SO THERE IS ABSOLUTELY NO POINT IN HAVING IT THERE."

    TEXT: NEW MEMBERS WILL BE INVITED TO JOIN NATO NEXT JULY AND WILL OFFICIALLY BECOME PART OF THE WESTERN ALLIANCE IN APRIL 1999 MARKING NATO'S 50TH ANNIVERSARY. WHILE AGREEING THAT NATO EXPANSION IS INEVITABLE, SOME DEFENSE ANALYSTS BELIEVE THE PACE IS TOO FAST.

    FRANCOIS HEISBOURG -- FROM LONDON'S INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR STRATEGIC STUDIES -- SAYS THE WEST MAY HAVE RAISED ENORMOUS EXPECTATIONS AMONG THOSE COUNTRIES WANTING TO JOIN.

    TAPE: CUT # 7 - HEISBOURG "IT WOULD BE A TREMENDOUS DISAPPOINTMENT TO POLAND, HUNGARY, THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND A FEW OTHERS IF THE WEST WERE ALL OF A SUDDEN TO SIGNAL A SLOWING DOWN IN THE PACE -- AND INDEED THAT WOULD BE A MAJOR DOWN SIDE IN TERMS OF RELATIONS WITH THE NEW DEMOCRACIES. THAT BEING SAID, IF PRESIDENT CLINTON, NOW THAT HE HAS THE ELECTIONS BEHIND HIM, DECIDED THAT AFTER ALL MAYBE 1999 IS NOT A DATE CAST IN STONE, I AM QUITE CONVINCED THAT IN PARIS, IN LONDON AND EVEN IN BONN, THERE WILL BE A COLLECTIVE SIGH OF RELIEF AND THERE WILL BE NO COMPLAINING BY THOSE GOVERNMENTS ABOUT THE SLOWING DOWN OF THE PACE."

    TEXT: EXPERTS AGREE NATO FACES A DIFFICULT TASK AS MOMENTUM BUILDS TO MAKE ENLARGEMENT IRREVERSIBLE. THEY SAY NATO MUST CONVINCE NEW MEMBER STATES IT IS SERIOUS ABOUT DEFENDING THEM IF THE NEED ARISES WHILE AT THE SAME TIME REASSURE RUSSIA THAT ENLARGEMENT POSES NO THREAT TO MOSCOW'S INTERESTS. AS ONE EXPERT PUT IT: "NATO IS FACED WITH A DELICATE BALANCING ACT." (SIGNED)
    NEB/ADEN/PCH
    20-Dec-96 1:08 PM EST (1808 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] O-S-C-E/SERBIA (L) BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (BELGRADE)

    DATE=12/20/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-207750
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: AMID CONTINUING ANTI-GOVERNMENT DEMONSTRATIONS IN SERBIA, A DELEGATION FROM THE EUROPEAN SECURITY ORGANIZATION (EDS: O-S-C-E) ARRIVES (ARRIVED) IN BELGRADE FRIDAY, TO INVESTIGATE CHARGES OF FRAUD IN NOVEMBER'S MUNICIPAL ELECTIONS. THE O-S-C-E MISSION, LED BY FORMER SPANISH PRIME MINISTER FELIPE GONZALEZ, WILL MEET WITH SERBIA'S PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC AND OPPOSITION LEADERS, SEEKING WAYS TO DEFUSE THE MONTH-OLD CRISIS. VOA'S DOUGLAS ROBERTS IN BELGRADE REPORTS SERBIAN OFFICIALS INDICATE THEY MIGHT AGREE TO A NEW ROUND OF VOTING, BUT THE RESPONSE FROM OPPOSITION LEADERS IS NOT YET CLEAR.

    TEXT: IT WAS PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC WHO INVITED THE O-S-C-E MISSION HERE, SAYING HE WANTS THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY TO LEARN THE TRUTH ABOUT LAST MONTH'S MUNICIPAL ELECTIONS. ON THAT ONE POINT, AT LEAST, MR. MILOSEVIC AND THE OPPOSITION LEADERS AGREE. THE "ZAJEDNO" COALITION OF OPPOSITION PARTIES SAYS IT WILL GIVE THE O-S-C-E DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE OF ITS ELECTION VICTORIES IN MORE THAN A DOZEN OF SERBIA'S MAIN TOWNS AND CITIES -- INCLUDING BELGRADE.

    THE GOVERNMENT ANNULLED THE RESULTS, CITING IRREGULARITIES, TOUCHING OFF THE MASS DEMONSTRATIONS BY OPPOSITION SUPPORTERS AND UNIVERSITY STUDENTS, NOW IN THEIR FIFTH WEEK.

    OPPOSITION SPOKESMAN MILAN BOZIC SAYS THERE WILL BE NO END TO THE PROTESTS, NOR ANY DIALOGUE WITH THE GOVERNMENT UNTIL IT ACCEPTS THE INITIAL ELECTION RESULTS.

    ///BOZIC ACT//

    SO OUR POSITION IS: GIVE US BACK OUR CITIES, AND THEN WE CAN DISCUSS AND ENTER INTO NEGOTIATIONS ABOUT THE ELECTORAL PROCESS, ABOUT THE MEDIA AND SO ON AND SO FORTH.

    ///END ACT///

    SERBIAN OFFICIALS CONTINUE TO DENY THE CHARGES OF ELECTORAL FRAUD, AND THEY SAY THEY WILL GIVE THE O-S-C-E MISSION EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT THEIR CASE.

    O-S-C-E OFFICIALS SAY THEY WILL EXAMINE ALL RELEVANT DOCUMENTS, BUT THEY HAVE INDICATED THE MISSION WILL NOT TRY TO MAKE A DEFINITIVE JUDGMENT ABOUT NOVEMBER'S VOTING.

    SOME EUROPEAN OFFICIALS HAVE SUGGESTED IT IS MORE LIKELY THAT THE MISSION WILL RECOMMEND A NEW ROUND OF ELECTIONS, MONITORED BY THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY. AT A NEWS CONFERENCE HERE THURSDAY, FOREIGN MINISTER MILAN MILUTINOVIC SAID BELGRADE WILL CONSIDER ANY SUGGESTION, INCLUDING NEW ELECTIONS. BUT HE SAID THE GOVERNMENT WILL NOT BE BOUND BY THE O-S-C-E RECOMMENDATIONS.

    OPPOSITION LEADERS HAVE NOT YET EXPLICITLY DEFINED THEIR POSITION ON A POTENTIAL NEW ROUND OF VOTING. BUT THEY HAVE SAID THAT THE O-S-C-E'S RECOMMENDATIONS SHOULD BE CONSIDERED MANDATORY FOR THE SERBIAN GOVERNMENT.

    AMID THE ONGOING CONFRONTATION, SERBIA'S STATE-CONTROLLED MEDIA IS CONTINUING A VITRIOLIC CAMPAIGN AGAINST THE OPPOSITION. IN A COMMENTARY PUBLISHED HERE FRIDAY, THE SERBIAN PRESIDENT'S INFLUENTIAL WIFE, MIRJANA MARKOVIC, CHARGED THAT THE OPPOSITION IS FOMENTING CIVIL WAR, AND TRYING TO PROVOKE FOREIGN INTERVENTION.

    THE COMMENTS HEIGHTENED SUSPICIONS AMONG SOME LOCAL ANALYSTS THAT THE GOVERNMENT IS PREPARING TO CRACK DOWN ON THE PROTESTERS. OVER THE PAST FEW DAYS, THE RULING SOCIALIST PARTY HAS BEGUN TO ORGANIZE COUNTER DEMONSTRATIONS IN SUPPORT OF THE GOVERNMENT. AND SOME OPPOSITION OFFICIALS SAY THEY FEAR THE AUTHORITIES MAY ATTEMPT TO ORCHESTRATE CLASHES BETWEEN THE RIVAL GROUPS OF PROTESTERS, TO JUSTIFY INTERVENTION BY THE SECURITY FORCES.

    SENIOR GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS SAY THE POLICE WILL NOT INTERVENE, AS LONG AS THE DEMONSTRATIONS REMAIN PEACEFUL. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DBR/PCF/KL
    20-Dec-96 8:45 AM EST (1345 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] PERRY / BOSNIA WAR CRIMES (L) BY DAVID GOLLUST (PENTAGON)

    DATE=12/19/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-207725
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: U-S DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM PERRY SAYS THE ARREST OF INDICTED WAR CRIMES SUSPECTS IS CRITICAL TO HOPES FOR LONG-TERM PEACE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. THE UNITED STATES AND ITS NATO PARTNERS ARE DISCUSSING FORMATION OF A SPECIAL POLICE FORCE TO HUNT DOWN AND ARREST THEM. V-O-A'S DAVID GOLLUST HAS DETAILS FROM THE PENTAGON.

    TEXT: THE ISSUE OF THE PROPOSED POLICE FORCE FIGURED HEAVILY IN THE DISCUSSIONS AT THIS WEEK'S NATO DEFENSE MINISTERS MEETING IN BRUSSELS. AND MR. PERRY SAYS THE DEFENSE CHIEFS BELIEVE IT IS "CRITICALLY IMPORTANT" TO LONG-TERM PEACE IN BOSNIA TO BRING THE INDICTED WAR CRIMINALS TO JUSTICE.

    ONLY A HANDFUL OF THE MORE THAN 70 PEOPLE INDICTED FOR WAR CRIMES DURING THE BOSNIAN WAR HAVE ACTUALLY BEEN HANDED OVER OR SURRENDERED TO THE U-N WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL IN THE HAGUE.

    IN A TALK WITH REPOPTERS HERE, MR. PERRY SAID NATO MINISTERS ALL AGREE THIS IS UNACCEPTABLE AND THAT THEY WOULD -- AS HE PUT IT -- "MORE THAN JUST URGE" THEIR RESPECTIVE GOVERNMENTS TO CREATE THE SPECIAL POLICE FORCE.

    THE DEFENSE SECRETARY SAID THE ISSUE IS UNDER STUDY BY AN INTER-AGENCY TEAM IN WASHINGTON, BUT DECLINED TO GIVE DETAILS ON HOW THE POLICE FORCE MIGHT BE SET UP OR WHAT THE AMERICAN ROLE MIGHT BE.

    AT THE WHITE HOUSE, SPOKESMAN MIKE MCCURRY SAID THE ADMINISTRATION BELIEVES THERE SHOULD BE AN "ENHANCED EFFORT" TO FULFILL OBLIGATIONS TO THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL. BUT HE SAID THE APPREHENSION OF SUSPECTS SHOULD NOT BE A JOB FOR THE NEW NATO-LED STABILIZATION FORCE IN BOSNIA, KNOWN AS S-FOR:

    /// MCCURRY ACTUALITY ///

    THAT IS NOT A MISSION OBJECTIVE OF THE STABILIZATION FORCE THAT NOW, AS OF TODAY, TAKES OVER SOME OF THE WORK THAT'S GOING ON IN BOSNIA. BUT THERE WILL BE ADDITIONAL DISCUSSIONS OF HOW TO MAKE MORE EFFECTIVE THE EFFORT TO BRING TO PROSECUTION THOSE RESPONSIBLE FOR WAR CRIMES.

    /// END ACT ///

    U-S OFFICIALS HAVE SAID THE POLICE FORCE COULD BE A PART OF THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL AT THE HAGUE OR UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION OR THE ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE.

    MR. PERRY SAID ANY POLICE OPERATION WOULD, BY NECESSITY, WORK CLOSELY WITH S-FOR, WHICH WOULD HAVE TO DEAL WITH CIVIL UNREST THAT MIGHT BE UNLEASHED BY EFFORTS TO HUNT DOWN THE WAR CRIMES SUSPECTS.

    THE MOST PROMINENT OF THOSE INDICTED ARE FORMER BOSNIAN SERB LEADER RADOVAN KARADZIC AND HIS FORMER MILITARY CHIEF, RATKO MLADIC -- BOTH OF WHOM RETAIN BROAD PUBLIC SUPPORT AND MOVE ABOUT FREELY IN THE SERB-CONTROLLED AREAS OF THE COUNTRY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DAG/RRM
    19-Dec-96 3:32 PM EST (2032 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] THE ROMANIAN REVOLUTION IN RETROSPECT BY JUDITH LATHAM (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=12/19/96
    TYPE=CLOSEUP
    NUMBER=4-09518
    TELEPHONE=619-3464
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT= (INSERTS IN AUDIO SERVICES)

    ANNCR: SEVEN YEARS AGO AT CHRISTMAS, THE WORLD WATCHED ON TELEVISION AS THE INFAMOUS ROMANIAN DICTATOR NICOLAE CEAUCESCU AND HIS HATED WIFE ELENA WERE TOPPLED FROM POWER IN THE BLOODIEST REVOLUTION IN EASTERN EUROPE. LAST MONTH [11/17/96], ACCORDING TO MANY POLITICAL ANALYSTS, THE ROMANIAN REVOLUTION WAS COMPLETED WITH THE ELECTION OF PRO- DEMOCRACY CANDIDATE EMIL CONSTANTINESCU [EH-MEEL KON-STAN-TI-NES-KOO] AND THE ROUSING DEFEAT OF THE INCUMBENT FORMER COMMUNIST PRESIDENT ION ILIESCU

    [YON IL-LEE-ES-KOO]. VOA'S JUDITH LATHAM TALKED WITH

    EAST EUROPEAN SPECIALIST DANIEL NELSON, WHO JUST RETURNED FROM ROMANIA, AND WITH EAST EUROPEAN ANALYST DAVID BINDER [BYN-DER] ABOUT THE 1989 REVOLUTION IN RETROSPECT. ________ HAS A REPORT, AS ROMANIA CELEBRATES THE BEGINNING OF A NON-COMMUNIST ERA.

    TEXT: DANIEL NELSON, PROFESSOR OF INTERNATIONAL STUDIES AT OLD DOMINION UNIVERSITY IN VIRGINIA, SAYS THE POPULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF THE RECENT ELECTION OF ROMANIA'S FIRST NON-COMMUNIST PRESIDENT AS A COMPLETION OF THE REVOLUTION OF 1989 IS AN OVERSIMPLIFICATION. TAPE A: CUT ONE -- NELSON (1:14) "THE EVENTS IN 1989 WERE VERY, VERY SIGNIFICANT IN ROMANIA AND SHOULDN'T BE CONSIDERED ONLY HALF OF THE CHANGE, GIVEN FROM WHENCE ROMANIA WAS COMING. ONE OF THE PROBLEMS WITH THESE COMPARISONS IS THE FAILURE TO RECOGNIZE THAT ROMANIA, AND I MIGHT ADD BULGARIA AND ALBANIA, HAD HAD NONE OF THE PRIOR CHANGES THAT WERE EVIDENT IN MUCH OF THE REST OF EASTERN EUROPE. THERE WAS OF COURSE SOLIDARITY IN POLAND. AND THERE WERE WORKERS' UPRISINGS IN THE EASTERN PART OF GERMANY IN '53. AND, OF COURSE, THE PRAGUE SPRING AND CHARTER 77 [IN CZECHOSLOVAKIA] AND 'GOULASH COMMUNISM' AND JANOS KADAR FOR MANY YEARS IN HUNGARY. SO TO COMPARE THEM WITH ROMANIA'S CHANGE IN 1989 WOULD BE VERY MISTAKEN. IT WOULD BE VERY UNFAIR TO SAY THAT 'ROMANIA ONLY CHANGED A LITTLE BIT -- HALFWAY -- IN 1989.' FOR ROMANIA IT WAS AN EXTRAORDINARY CHANGE. [OPT] EVEN IN POLAND, HUNGARY, AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC, THE PROCESSES OF TRANSFORMATION CAN'T BE SAID TO HAVE BEEN COMPLETED SUDDENLY IN 1989. THEY'RE STILL STRUGGLING WITH DEVELOPING POLITICAL PARTIES, COMPLETING PRIVATIZATION. ROMANIA MAY BE A LITTLE FURTHER BEHIND IN THIS, BUT THAT'S NOT BECAUSE THEY DIDN'T CHANGE A LOT IN 1989. IT'S RATHER THAT THEY HAD A MUCH STEEPER CLIMB AND A LOT FURTHER TO GO." [END OPT]

    TEXT: "NEW YORK TIMES" REPORTER DAVID BINDER HAS BEEN TRAVELING TO ROMANIA SINCE 1963. HE SAYS HE SEES THE EVENTS OF THE PAST SEVEN YEARS AS MORE EVOLUTIONARY THAN REVOLUTIONARY. TAPE A: CUT TWO -- BINDER (1:04) "I WAS THERE JUST AFTER THE ROMANIANS MARCHED IN TIMISOARA AND THEN MARCHED IN BUCHAREST AND SOME OTHER CITIES AND WERE FIRED UPON BY MILITARY AND SECURITATE FORCES. AND I'M A LITTLE UNCOMFORTABLE WITH PHRASES LIKE 'REVOLUTION,' BUT IT CERTAINLY WAS AN UPRISING OF ALMOST NATIONWIDE PROPORTIONS. BUT THE IDEA THAT ONLY NOW IS THE REVOLUTION COMPLETED, I JUST FIND THAT SOMEWHAT AN OVERDRAMATIZED DESCRIPTION. THE GOVERNMENT RUN BY ION ILIESCU FROM THE MOMENT CEAUCESCU LEFT THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE BUILDING IN DECEMBER 1989 WAS FROM THE BEGINNING A TRANSITION GOVERNMENT. THE ONLY QUESTION WAS HOW LONG THE TRANSITION WOULD LAST. [OPT] AND YOU HAVE TO KEEP IN MIND THAT AT THE TIME THAT CEAUCESCU FELL, OR WAS DRIVEN FROM POWER BY THE PEOPLE IN THE STREETS, THAT THE OTHER POLITICAL FORCES OF ROMANIA HAD BEEN ALMOST EXTINGUISHED, THAT THEY WERE PRACTICALLY NON-EXISTENT. SO THE COMMUNISTS TURNED SOCIALISTS TURNED, QUOTE, 'DEMOCRATS,' UNQUOTE, WERE SORT OF THE NATURAL SUCCESSORS OF CEAUCESCU." [END OPT]

    TEXT: DAVID BINDER SAYS THAT WHAT HAPPENED IN ALL THE COUNTRIES OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE WAS THAT THE COMMUNIST SYSTEM SIMPLY COLLAPSED, SOMETIMES WITH THE HELP OF A PUSH FROM THE STREETS. HE SEES THE FALL OF CEAUCESCU AS ONE IMPORTANT EVENT, IN A CHAIN OF MAJOR EVENTS, IN 1989. TAPE B: CUT THREE -- BINDER (1:03) "IT WAS A GREAT MOMENT IN ROMANIAN HISTORY, AND IT WAS A VERY CONFUSING MOMENT. AND THERE HAVE BEEN CHARGES EVER SINCE THEN THAT THE PEOPLE WHO SUCCEEDED CEAUCESCU AND HIS PEOPLE AND THE SECURITATE OF THAT TIME STOLE THE SO-CALLED 'REVOLUTION' FROM THE PEOPLE WHO HAD BROUGHT ABOUT HIS DOWNFALL BY MARCHING AGAINST HIM IN THE STREETS. I DON'T SEE IT IN THAT SIMPLISTIC A FASHION. I THINK THAT HISTORY TENDS TO MOVE, NOT IN SUDDEN FLOODS OF RIVERS, BUT RATHER IN A SLOW, STEADY FLOW, AND WHAT WE SAW HAPPENING IN DECEMBER 1989 AND THEREAFTER WAS A MOMENTARY QUICKENING OF THE FLOW OF THE RIVER OF ROMANIAN HISTORY. [OPT] IT WAS NOT AS CATACLYSMIC AN EVENT AS IT IS PORTRAYED SOMETIMES. AND WHAT HAD HAPPENED IN POLAND AND HUNGARY AND THEN CZECHOSLOVAKIA AND NEIGHBORING BULGARIA HAD A SIGNIFICANT IMPACT ON THE ROMANIAN POPULACE. THEY WERE ABLE TO SEE WHAT WAS GOING ON IN THOSE OTHER EAST EUROPEAN COMMUNIST COUNTRIES, AND THAT WAS AN INSPIRATION FOR THEM." [END OPT]

    TEXT: PROFESSOR DANIEL NELSON SAYS EMIL CONSTANTINESCU, THE NEW PRESIDENT OF ROMANIA AND FORMER RECTOR OF BUCHAREST UNIVERSITY, IS BOTH AN INTELLECTUAL AND A PRAGMATIC POLITICIAN. TAPE A: CUT FOUR -- NELSON (0:57) "LLIESCU LOST A SUBSTANTIAL PORTION OF THE WORKER VOTE, AND HE LOST IT ON THE BASIS OF POLICIES, OR AT LEAST THE PERCEPTION OF POLICIES, THAT HE HAD NOT HELPED THE WORKERS, SO THAT THEY VOTED ON THAT BASIS FOR A CHANGE. AND THIS WAS IN THAT SENSE NOT A PURELY INTELLECTUAL OR INTELLIGENSIA MOVEMENT -- BY NO MEANS. WHAT CONSTANTINESCU DID, BETWEEN 1990 AND NOW, WAS TO REPACKAGE HIMSELF, APPEAL TO A BROADER BASE OF VOTERS, AND SUCCESSFULLY SUGGEST THAT HE WOULD CARE FOR THEM AS ILIESCU HAD NOT. SO THIS IS NOT ANYMORE AN INTELLECTUAL EVENT AND HAS A LOT OF MASS APPEAL. CONSTANTINESCU AND [ION] CIORBEA AND THE GOVERNMENT PROBABLY HAVE SIX MONTHS DURING WHICH TIME THERE WILL BE SOME POPULAR PATIENCE, BUT BY THIS TIME NEXT YEAR, I CAN GUARANTEE YOU THAT THE POPULATION AND PUNDITS IN ROMANIA WILL BE SAYING, 'WELL, WHAT HAVE YOU DONE?' AND I HOPE FOR ROMANIA THERE HAVE BEEN RESULTS. BUT, PRINCIPALLY IN THE ECONOMIC DIRECTION, IT'S GOING TO BE DIFFICULT."

    TEXT: THE GOOD NEWS ABOUT WHAT IS TAKING PLACE IN ROMANIA HAS BEEN LARGELY ECLIPSED IN THE MEDIA BY WHAT'S HAPPENING ON THE STREETS OF BELGRADE AND BY COMPARISONS BETWEEN SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC AND THE DEPOSED ROMANIAN DICTATOR CEAUCESCU. PROFESSOR NELSON SAYS HE THINKS EAST EUROPEAN ANALYSTS SHOULD BE PAYING A LOT MORE ATTENTION TO WHAT'S GOING ON IN ROMANIA. TAPE A: CUT FIVE -- NELSON (0:44) "THE REAL NEWS HERE IS THAT A COUNTRY THAT IS THE SECOND LARGEST IN THE BALTIC TO BOSPORUS CORRIDOR HAS VOTED OVERWHELMINGLY, HAS TURNED OUT, AND DECIDED FOR A CHANGE AND TRUSTED IN THE BALLOT BOX TO DO IT. WHAT AN EXTRAORDINARY DEVELOPMENT! HOW MAGNIFICENT, PARTICULARLY WHEN YOU COMPARE IT WITH THE BACKDROP, WHICH WAS A DESPICABLE DICTATORSHIP THAT LASTED A QUARTER OF A CENTURY, THAT OF CEAUCESCU, AND WAS A REGIME IN WHICH -- ALTHOUGH HE DIDN'T KILL A LOT OF PEOPLE -- MADE MOST OF THE PEOPLE WANT TO DIE. IT WAS A TERRIBLE REGIME, AND OUT OF THAT HAS EMERGED NEVERTHELESS A PEOPLE THAT HOPE, THAT TRUST IN THE BALLOT BOX, AND SEE THE NEED FOR CHANGE AND MOVE IN A DIRECTION FAIRLY DECISIVELY."

    TEXT: THIS CHRISTMAS SEASON, DANIEL NELSON SAYS, IS A WONDERFULLY AUSPICIOUS TIME FOR THE ROMANIAN PEOPLE. TAPE A: CUT SIX -- NELSON (0:52) "THIS IS AN INCREDIBLY HOPEFUL MOMENT FOR ROMANIA. IT IS HOPEFUL BECAUSE THE VOTING TURNOUT WAS HIGH, THE VOTING DECISION WAS CLEAR CUT, THE OLD GOVERNMENT HAS LEFT IN GOOD ORDER, THE NEW GOVERNMENT IS ENTERING WITH SUBSTANTIAL TRUST AND ANTICIPATION ON THE PART OF THE POPULATION. FURTHER, IT'S HOPEFUL BECAUSE FOR THE FIRST TIME THERE'S DISCUSSION, SERIOUS DISCUSSION, OF ROMANIA'S ENTRY INTO NATO. [OPT] IT'S CERTAINLY NOT GUARANTEED, BUT THERE HAS BEEN PROGRESS IN THAT DIRECTION, AND OF COURSE HOPE BECAUSE OF THE AGREEMENT, THE ACCORD WITH HUNGARY [CONCERNING THE PROTESTION OF ETHNIC MINORITIES]. AT THE SAME TIME, THERE ARE MANY CHALLENGES, AND THE CHALLENGES ARE PARTICULARLY EGREGIOUS IN THE ECONOMIC REALM, WHERE MANY SERIOUS EFFORTS ARE GOING TO HAVE TO BE MADE TO LOWER INFLATION, CONSTRAIN UNEMPLOYMENT, WHILE YET ACCELERATING PRIVATIZATION. AND THIS IS GOING TO BE A DIFFICULT YEAR OR TWO FOR THE NEW GOVERNMENT -- IN THAT RESPECT." [END OPT]

    TEXT: PROFESSOR DANIEL NELSON SAYS HE WISHES THAT THE GOOD NEWS ABOUT ROMANIA'S DEMOCRATIC VICTORY WAS BETTER UNDERSTOOD AND MORE FULLY APPRECIATED IN THE UNITED STATES AND WESTERN EUROPE. TAPE B: CUT ONE -- MUSIC -- ROMANIAN CHRISTMAS CAROL (ESTABLISH, AND USE AT LIBERTY)
    NEB/JL/PCH
    20-Dec-96 7:47 AM EST (1247 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] TURKEY/IRAN (L-ONLY) BY ANBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)

    DATE=12/20/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-207756
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED STATES HAS ISSUED NEW WARNINGS TO TURKEY AGAINST HAVING CLOSER TIES WITH IRAN. AS AMBERIN ZAMAN REPORTS FROM ANKARA, THE WARNINGS COINCIDE WITH IRANIAN PRESIDENT HASHEMI RAFSANJANI'S FOUR DAY OFFICIAL VISIT TO TURKEY.

    TEXT: ON THE SECOND DAY OF HIS TOUR, PRESIDENT RAFSANJANI ACCOMPANIED BY HIS WIFE, SON, TWO DAUGHTERS, AND OVER 200 IRANIAN OFFICIALS AND BUSINESSMEN, INSPECTED TURKEY'S SOUTHEAST ANATOLIA PROJECT GAP, A MULTI-BILLION IRRIGATION SCHEME COVERING THE MAINLY KURDISH SOUTHEAST PROVINCES.

    MR. RAFSANJANI SAID IRANIAN NATURAL GAS WOULD PLAY A BIG ROLE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE REGION. HE WAS REFERRING TO THE 23-BILLION DOLLAR NATURAL GAS DEAL SIGNED BETWEEN TURKEY AND IRAN LAST AUGUST.

    THE NATURAL GAS DEAL, ALONG WITH TURKEY'S PLANS TO DOUBLE ITS TRADE WITH IRAN, HAS ANGERED WASHINGTON. U-S OFFICIALS CONFIRM THAT THE IRANIAN PRESIDENT'S VISIT HAS RAISED CONCERN OVER THE COURSE WHICH TURKEY -- A NATO MEMBER -- IS TAKING UNDER ITS RECENTLY-ELECTED ISLAMIST PRIME MINISTER, NECMETTIN ERBAKAN. ON THURSDAY, U-S STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN NICHOLAS BURNS ONCE AGAIN VOICED WASHINGTON'S OPPOSITION TO TURKEY'S TIES WITH IRAN, SAYING IRAN HAD TO BE ISOLATED.

    PRIOR TO MR. RAFSANJANI'S VISIT, AN ANNOUNCEMENT BY PRIME MINISTER ERBAKAN THAT HE WANTS TO DEVELOP MILITARY COOPERATION WITH IRAN PROVOKED A STRONG BACKLASH FROM MEMBERS OF TURKEY'S CONSERVATIVE "TRUE PATH" PARTY, OR D-Y-P, WITH WHOM HIS ISLAMIST "WELFARE PARTY" HAS BEEN SHARING POWER OVER THE PAST FOUR MONTHS.

    DEFENSE MINISTER TURHAN TAYAN -- A MEMBER OF THE D-Y-P WING OF THE ISLAMIST-LED COALITION -- SAID HE WOULD REFUSE TO SIGN ANY MILITARY ACCORD WITH IRAN. BUT ABDULLAH GUL, A SENIOR CABINET MEMBER FROM THE WELFARE PARTY, SAID ON THURSDAY THAT TURKEY COULD JOINTLY MANUFACTURE HELICOPTERS WITH IRAN.

    SOME ANALYSTS WARN THAT MR. ERBAKAN'S PLANS TO REDUCE CUSTOMS TARIFFS WITH IRAN COULD ALSO JEOPARDIZE A FREE TRADE AGREEMENT TURKEY SIGNED WITH THE EUROPEAN UNION LAST YEAR. (SIGNED)
    NEB/AZ/PCF/KL
    20-Dec-96 9:44 AM EST (1444 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [09] U-N WEEK-IN-REVIEW BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)

    DATE=12/20/96
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-35300
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED NATIONS HAS A NEW SECRETARY-GENERAL BEGINNING JANUARY FIRST -- KOFI ANNAN OF GHANA; MEANWHILE, THE U-N SECURITY COUNCIL CONDEMNS VIOLENCE AND HOSTAGE-TAKING IN TAJISKISTAN AND PERU, AND CALLS FOR AN END TO NEW FIGHTING IN SOMALIA. VOA CORRESPONDENT ELAINE JOHANSON REVIEWS THE MAIN DEVELOPMENTS OF THE PAST WEEK:

    TEXT: UNDERSECRETARY-GENERAL KOFI ANNAN -- THE HEAD OF THE U-N PEACEKEEPING DEPARTMENT -- IS ABOUT TO MOVE UP TO THE ORGANIZATION'S TOP DIPLOMATIC POST. THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY THIS PAST WEEK ENDORSED HIS NOMINATION AS THE SEVENTH U-N SECRETARY-GENERAL. HE IS THE FIRST U-N LEADER FROM SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA.

    THE UNITED STATES FAVORED MR. ANNAN FOR THE U-N POST, AFTER IT VETOED A SECOND TERM FOR OUT-GOING SECRETARY-GENERAL BOUTROS BOUTROS-GHALI. MR. ANNAN SAYS HE IS COUNTING ON THE CLINTON WHITE HOUSE TO PERSUADE THE U-S CONGRESS TO PAY ITS HUGE DEBT TO THE U-N OF OVER ONE BILLION DOLLARS:

    // ANNAN ACT //

    IT IS NOT REALLY IN THE INTEREST OF THE U-S NOT TO PAY ITS CONTRIBUTION TO THE U-N. IT OFFENDS FRIENDS AND FOES ALIKE. THE U-S NEEDS THE U-N AND THE U-N NEEDS THE U-S, AND WE CANNOT OPERATE EFFECTIVELY AND EFFICIENTLY WITHOUT A SOUND FINANCIAL BASIS.

    // END ACT //

    THE U-S CONGRESS STARTED WITHHOLDING U-N DUES ABOUT A DECADE AGO, DEMANDING DEEP REFORMS. A POWERFUL SENATE LEADER FROM CAPITOL HILL (JESSE HELMS) CONGRATULATED MR. ANNAN ON HIS ELECTION AND INVITED HIM TO WASHINGTON TO DISCUSS HIS PLANS FOR RE-STRUCTURING THE ORGANIZATION.

    ISMAIL RAZALI OF MALAYSIA -- THE PRESIDENT OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY -- TOOK A DIM VIEW OF A SECRETARY-GENERAL HAVING TO BEG FOR MONEY THAT GOVERNMENTS ARE UNDER TREATY OBLIGATION TO PAY:

    // RAZALI ACT //

    THE UNITED NATIONS SHOULD NOT BE DONOR DRIVEN. AND ALTHOUGH FINANCE AND FINITE RESOURCES MAY BE FACTS OF LIFE, THE SECRETARY-GENERAL SHOULD NOT HAVE TO POSE AS A MENDICANT, PETITIONING GOVERNMENTS AND LEGISLATURES ALIKE.

    // END ACT //

    THE NEW SECRETARY-GENERAL HAS SAID HE WOULD CONSIDER A TRIP TO THE U-S CONGRESS.

    -0-

    THE SECURITY COUNCIL SPENT THE LATTER PART OF THE WEEK EXPRESSING CONCERN OVER AND CONDEMNING VIOLENCE IN VARIOUS PARTS OF THE WORLD. ON THE TAKING OF HOSTAGES IN TAJIKISTAN -- INCLUDING SEVEN U-N MILITARY OBSERVERS -- COUNCIL PRESIDENT FRANCESCO FULCI MADE A PUBLIC APPEAL:

    // FULCI ACT //

    THE MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL HAVE INSTRUCTED ME TO EXPRESS THEIR FIRM AND RESOLUTE CONDEMNATION OF THESE REPEATED, COWARDLY ACTS AND APPEAL FOR AN IMMEDIATE AND UNCONDITIONAL RELEASE OF ALL THE HOSTAGES.

    // END ACT //

    TAJIK GUERRILLAS THREATENED TO EXECUTE THE HOSTAGES UNLESS REBELS RELEASED THE BROTHER OF AN OPPOSITION CHIEF WHO HAD JOINED FORCES WITH THE GOVERNMENT. THE HOSTAGE DILEMMA DEVELOPED AS TALKS WERE UNDER WAY IN MOSCOW TO TRY TO END THE FOUR-YEAR OLD CIVIL WAR.

    ON THE SEIZURE OF HUNDREDS OF HOSTAGES AT THE RESIDENCE OF JAPAN'S AMBASSADOR TO PERU -- THE COUNCIL PRESIDENT DESCRIBED THE ASSUALT BY PERUVIAN GUERRILLAS AS A TERRORIST ACTION:

    // FULCI ACT //

    THIS INTOLERABLE ACT CONSTITUTES ALSO AN ASSUALT AGAINST THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY AS A WHOLE. THE COUNCIL HAS ALWAYS CONDEMNED TERRORIST ACTS WHATEVER THE CIRCUMSTANCES IN THE MOST UNEQUIVOCAL TERMS.

    // END ACT //

    AND FINALLY, ON THE RESUMPTION OF FIGHTING IN SOMALIA -- THE SECURITY COUNCIL ISSUED A FORMAL STATEMENT CALLING ON THE FACTIONS TO REINSTATE A CEASE-FIRE. DIPLOMATS WONDERED WHETHER THE COMBATANTS WOULD EVEN RECEIVE THE MESSAGE, AND IF THEY DO -- WHETHER THE U-N HAS ANY REAL INFLUENCE IN THE COUNTRY.

    U-N TROOPS WERE FORCED TO LEAVE SOMALIA IN 1994 WHEN THEIR PEACEKEEPING MISSION WENT AWRY AND THEY WERE DRAWN INTO THE CONFLICT. (SIGNED)
    UN/EJ/CF
    20-Dec-96 3:52 PM EST (2052 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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