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Voice of America, 97-02-17

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] MONDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [02] ALBRIGHT / GERMANY / NATO (S) BY KYLE KING (BONN)
  • [03] BULGARIA REFORM BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)
  • [04] EURO STOCKS (S ONLY) BY JACK HUIZENGA (LONDON)
  • [05] EXPANSION OF NATO BY ED WARNER (WASHINGTON)
  • [06] HUNGARY / ROMANIA MILITARY (L ONLY) BY STEFAN BOS (BUDAPEST)
  • [07] NATO ENLARGEMENT BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (LONDON)

  • [01] MONDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=02/17/97
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-10025
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=GARY EDQUIST
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-S-T ON MONDAY FEBRUARY 17TH //

    INTRO: THIS IS PRESIDENT'S DAY, THE U-S NATIONAL HOLIDAY ON WHICH THE MEMORIES OF TWO U-S CHIEF EXECUTIVES, GEORGE WASHINGTON AND ABRAHAM LINCOLN, ARE HONORED. SOME PAPERS DO NOT PUBLISH, BUT THERE ARE PLENTY OF INTERESTING EDITORIALS. THEY ARE DEALING WITHTHE NEW LEADER OF PAKISTAN; AVERTING THE AMERICAN AIRLINES STRIKE; SAFER AIR TRAVEL; THE EMERGING OIL-RICH NATIONS OF THE CASPIAN SEA; THE SALMAN RUSHDIE FATWA; AND A TRADE SKIRMISH WITH CUBA. NOW, HERE WITH A CLOSER LOOK IS ___________________ AND TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: SURVEYING THE RECENT ELECTIONS IN PAKISTAN, IN WHICH THE DEPOSED PRIME MINISTER BENAZIR BHUTTO LOST HER REELECTION BID, TODAY'S LOS ANGELES TIMES CALLS THE AFFAIR "A DUBIOUS TRANSFER OF POWER."

    VOICE: "PAKISTANI VOTERS HAVE RETURNED A FAMILIAR FACE TO THE PRIME MINISTER'S CHAIR. NAWAZ SHARIF, BOOTED OUT OF OFFICE IN 1993 FOR CORRUPTION, HAS RETURNED TO POWER. HE HAS A CHANCE TO SURPRISE SOME PEOPLE THIS TIME, IF ONLY BECAUSE EXPECTATIONS FOR HIS PERFORMANCE ARE SO LOW. [MR.] SHARIF SERVED THREE YEARS OF A FIVE-YEAR TERM BEFORE BEING OUSTED. SUBSEQUENT ELECTIONS RETURNED BENAZIR BHUTTO TO THE PRIME MINISTER'S OFFICE. UNFORTUNATELY, HER STINT PRODUCED EVEN MORE ALLEGATIONS OF CORRUPTION THAN [MR.] SHARIF'S AND MORE THAN THOSE OF HER FIRST TERM. IN A DEPRESSINGLY FAMILIAR SCENARIO, PAKISTAN'S PRESIDENT REMOVED HER ... AND ORDERED THE FEBRUARY THIRD ELECTIONS. ..... [MR.] SHARIF NEEDS TO RUN A GOVERNMENT WITH CLEAN HANDS. HIS RELATIVES AND THOSE OF OTHER CABINET MINISTERS SHOULD BE KEPT FAR FROM THE LEVERS OF POWER AND THE PURSE STRINGS."

    TEXT: THE NEW YORK TIMES IS PLEASED THAT PRESIDENT CLINTON STEPPED IN TO AVERT A STRIKE AGAINST THE NATION'S LARGEST AIRLINE AMERICAN AIRLINES MOMENTS AFTER A FRIDAY NIGHT DEADLINE .

    VOICE: "PRESIDENT CLINTON HAS NOW SPARED HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF TRAVELERS THE DISRUPTION OF INTERRUPTED VACATIONS AND BUSINESS TRIPS BY POSTPONING A STRIKE BY THE PILOTS OF AMERICAN AIRLINES. THE PRESIDENT'S DECISION TO INVOKE THE RAILWAY LABOR ACT .... FOR THE FIRST TIME IN 31 YEARS TO HALT THE DISPUTE SAVED AMERICAN AIRLINES SUBSTANTIAL OPERATING LOSSES. IT ALSO COST THE PILOTS, AT LEAST TEMPORARILY, CONSIDERABLE NEGOTIATING LEVERAGE. BUT IT GAVE BOTH SIDES UP TO 60 DAYS IN WHICH TO COOL OFF AND FIND A REASONABLE COMPROMISE. COOLING OFF IS EXACTLY WHAT IS NEEDED."

    TEXT: [BEGIN OPT] IN A RELATED TOPIC, THE MIAMI HERALD IS PLEASED WITH RECOMMENDATIONS MADE LAST WEEK BY VICE PRESIDENT AL GORE'S PRESIDENTIAL TASK FORCE ON AIR SAFETY.

    VOICE: "THE PANEL'S GOAL: TO REDUCE AVIATION FATALITIES BY 80 PERCENT WITHIN TEN YEARS. SUCH A GOAL REFLECTS A CONCLUSION THAT MOST AIRLINE DISASTERS COULD HAVE BEEN - - INDEED, SHOULD HAVE BEEN PREVENTED BECAUSE MOST INVOLVED HUMAN ERROR OR MECHANICAL FAILURE. MANY OF THE STEPS NEEDED TO MINIMIZE SUCH RISKS ENTAIL LITTLE OR NO INCONVENIENCE TO THE FLYING PUBLIC [WHO] SEEM WILLING TO PAY A PRICE - - IN TAX DOLLARS AND EVEN IN A REASONABLE AMOUNT OF INCONVENIENCE - - TO IMPROVE SAFETY AND SECURITY. THE GORE PANEL REPORT SUGGESTS THAT THE GOVERNMENT, FINALLY, IS CATCHING UP." [END OPT]

    TEXT: [BEGIN OPT] THE SUN IN BALTIMORE IS COMMENTING ON SEVERAL NATIONS RINGING THE CASPIAN SEA, AND NOTES THAT DESPITE DIMINISHING SUPPLIES OF CASPIAN STURGEON, SOURCE OF BULUGA CAVIAR, THE LONG-RANGE PROSPECTS OF KAZAKSTAN, TURKMENISTAN AND AZERBAIJAN ARE BRIGHT......

    VOICE: "RESIDENTS WILL TELL YOU THAT THE LOCAL ECONOMIES HAVE GONE TO RUIN SINCE THE FORMER SOVIET STATES GAINED INDEPENDENCE. YET THE LONG-RANGE PROSPECTS ... ARE BRIGHT. ENORMOUS AMOUNTS OF OIL AND GAS HAVE BEEN DISCOVERED UNDERNEATH THE CASPIAN SEA BED. FOREIGN OIL GIANTS, LED BY CHEVRON AND MOBIL, HAVE SIGNED DEALS WORTH BILLIONS OF DOLLARS TO EXPLOIT THE DEPOSITS. THERE ARE PLANS TO CONSTRUCT TWO PIPELINES TO GET THE OIL TO WORLD MARKETS. BECAUSE OF THIS POTENTIAL OIL WEALTH, THE NOW-INDEPENDENT CASPIAN BASIN REPUBLICS ARE BEING FLIPPANTLY REFERRED TO AS 'LITTLE KUWAITS.' AS IN THE MIDDLE EAST, THE CASPIAN OIL RICHES ARE PRODUCING NEW TENSIONS IN THE REGION. RUSSIA, WHICH ALSO BORDERS ON THE CASPIAN BUT SO FAR HAS NOT DISCOVERED IMPORTANT DEPOSITS, WANTS ITS SHARE OF THE PROFITS. ..... MOSCOW IS LIKELY TO INCREASE ITS WATCHFULNESS IN THE REGION."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: TODAY'S WASHINGTON POST IS MARKING ANOTHER SAD ANNIVERSARY FOR SUPPORTERS OF FREE SPEECH.

    VOICE: "FOR THOSE WHO TRACK CENSORSHIP, PARTICULARLY CENSORSHIP BY VIOLENCE, THE LAST EIGHT YEARS HAVE TURNED VALENTINE'S DAY (2/14) INTO AN ANNIVERSARY OF A GRIMMER SORT: THAT OF THE 1989 IRANIAN DECREE, OR FATWA, CALLING FOR THE DEATH OF NOVELIST SALMAN RUSHDIE. [BEGIN OPT] MR. RUSHDIE ..... GRADUALLY HAS EMERGED FROM ISOLATION AS THE THREAT AGAINST HIM HAS SEEMED TO LESSEN. THIS YEAR, THE REMINDER [OF THE ANNIVERSARY] COMES FROM IRAN ITSELF - - ALONG WITH, UNFORTUNATELY, CLEAR HINTS OF A POLITICS THAT HAS WIDER IMPLICATIONS AND MENACES FOR WRITERS OTHER THAN MR. RUSHDIE. ... IT'S FAR FROM CLEAR WHAT'S HAPPENING IN IRAN OR HOW MANY DIFFERENT INTERESTS ARE BEING PLAYED OUT. BUT [END OPT] THE DANGER TO THESE WRITERS ISN'T PAST, NOR IS THE NEED TO KEEP WATCH AGAINST THE VICIOUSNESS OF THIS BRAND OF CENSORSHIP BY TERROR."

    TEXT: TURNING TO THE CARIBBEAN, THE NEW YORK TIMES WRITES ABOUT THIS COUNTRY'S LATEST EFFORTS TO CUT OFF TRADE WITH CUBA, FINDING IT ILL-ADVISED.

    VOICE: "THE AMERICAN ECONOMIC STRANGULATION OF CUBA IS A COLD WAR ANACHRONISM THAT IS NOW THREATENING TO UPEND A CAREFULLY CONSTRUCTED INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM FOR RESOLVING TRADE DISPUTES. [BEGIN OPT] FIDEL CASTRO WILL BE THE ONLY WINNER IF EUROPE AND THE UNITED STATES UNDERMINE THE NEW WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION IN A NEEDLESS FIGHT OVER CUBA. THAT FIGHT REVOLVES AROUND THE HELMS-BURTON ACT, A 1996 LAW THAT COMPELS THE UNITED STATES TO IMPOSE SANCTIONS AGAINST FOREIGN COMPANIES THAT DO BUSINESS IN CUBA. [END OPT] THE LAW IS A MISGUIDED ATTEMPT BY CONGRESS TO IMPOSE ITS FOREIGN POLICY ON OTHERS, AND EUROPEAN LEADERS ARE RIGHT TO RESENT IT. BUT THEY ARE WRONG TO TURN TO THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION TO RESOLVE WHAT IS ESSENTIALLY A POLITICAL DISPUTE."

    TEXT: AND FINALLY, SOME WORDS OF REVERENCE FROM THE PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER FOR THE PRESIDENTS WHOSE MEMORY THE NATION HONORS TODAY, GEORGE WASHINGTON AND ABRAHAM LINCOLN. THE NEWSPAPER CALLS THEM "MONUMENTAL MEN."

    VOICE: "NOWADAYS, WE DESPAIR OF GREATNESS, LAMENT HOW THE COIN OF HEROISM IS DEBASED. LEADERSHIP OFTEN SEEMS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE TO THOSE IN POWER. OUR PUBLIC LIFE IS RIDDLED WITH FACTION, BILE AND CYNICISM ABOUT NATIONAL PURPOSE. IN THE TIME OF WASHINGTON AND LINCOLN, ORDINARY MEN BATTLED SIMILAR DEMONS. BUT, SOMEHOW, THESE TWO LESS-THAN-PERFECT BUT MORE-THAN-ORDINARY MEN SURMOUNTED DIVISION TO ACHIEVE HUGE NATIONAL PURPOSES. THEY FOUND A WAY, AMID CHAOS, TO LEAD. THEY WERE HEROES. THEY WERE TRULY GREAT."

    TEXT: WITH THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF EDITORIALS FROM THE U-S PRESS ON THIS PRESIDENT'S DAY HOLIDAY MONDAY.
    NEB/ANG/GE
    17-Feb-97 10:28 AM EST (1528 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] ALBRIGHT / GERMANY / NATO (S) BY KYLE KING (BONN)

    DATE=2/17/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-210199
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT PLAYED DOWN ANY DISAGREEMENTS BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND GERMANY DURING HER BRIEF VISIT TO BONN TODAY (MONDAY). MRS. ALBRIGHT USED THE SECOND STOP ON HER NINE NATION WORLD TOUR TO FOCUS MAINLY ON NATO EXPANSION PLANS. BUT AS V-O-A'S KYLE KING REPORTS, THE SUBJECT OF THE CONTROVERSIAL U-S BASED CHURCH OF SCIENTOLOGY ALSO CAME UP IN THE TALKS.

    TEXT: SPEAKING TO REPORTERS AFTER MEETING GERMAN OFFICIALS, MRS. ALBRIGHT SAID THE UNITED STATES DOES HAVE SOME DIFFERENCES OF OPINION WITH GERMANY OVER ITS TREATMENT OF SCIENTOLOGISTS

    BUT SHE AND GERMAN FOREIGN MINISTER KLAUS KINKEL REJECTED ANY NOTION THAT SCIENTOLOGISTS ARE BEING TREATED THE WAY JEWS WERE UNDER THE NAZIS.

    /// ALBRIGHT ACT ///

    I MUST SAY ANY DISCUSSION THAT DRAWS COMPARISONS BETWEEN WHAT HAPPENED UNDER THE NAZIS AND WHAT IS HAPPENING NOW ARE HISTORICALLY INACCURATE AND TOTALLY DISTASTEFUL.

    /// END ACT ///

    FOREIGN MINISTER KINKEL SAID GERMANY BELIEVES SCIENTOLOGY IS A PROFIT MAKING BUSINESS AND NOT A RELIGION, AND HE DENIED SCIENTOLOGISTS ARE BEING PERSECUTED.

    MRS. ALBRIGHT STRESSED GERMAN AND U-S AGREEMENT ON THE QUESTION OF NATO EXPANSION AND WAYS TO DEAL WITH RUSSIAN CONCERNS. AND SHE SAID DIFFERENCES OVER THE ISSUE OF SCIENTOLOGY WILL BE WORKED OUT AMICABLY, AND WILL NOT AFFECT OVERALL RELATIONS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/KBK/JWH
    17-Feb-97 8:48 AM EST (1348 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] BULGARIA REFORM BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)

    DATE=2/17/97
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-35722
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: IN JUST NINE WEEKS (EDS: APRIL 19), BULGARIA ELECTS MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT WHO WILL CHOOSE A GOVERNMENT TO PRESIDE OVER LONG-DELAYED ECONOMIC AND INSTITUTIONAL REFORMS. V-O-A'S BARRY WOOD REPORTS THAT IN THE MEANTIME, THE NEWLY APPOINTED CARETAKER GOVERNMENT IS ATTEMPTING TO HALT BULGARIA'S PRECIPITOUS AND COSTLY ECONOMIC DECLINE.

    TEXT: IN HIS FIRST INTERVIEW SINCE BECOMING INTERIM PRIME MINISTER, SOFIA'S MAYOR STEFAN SOFIANSKI SAID THE NEXT SEVERAL WEEKS ARE CRUCIAL. IF THE CRISIS IS CONTAINED, HE SAID, HE BELIEVES IT WILL BE POSSIBLE TO QUICKLY STABILIZE THE ECONOMY.

    //OPT//

    A MONTH OF STREET PROTESTS FORCED THE RULING SOCIALISTS TO RESIGN IN DISGRACE TWO YEARS BEFORE THEIR PARLIAMENTARY MANDATE EXPIRED. //END OPT//

    THE CARETAKER GOVERNMENT'S IMMEDIATE TASKS INCLUDE ASSURING THE PUBLIC THAT BASIC FOODSTUFFS BECOME AVAILABLE AND THAT A SEMBLANCE OF NORMALITY RETURNS TO DAILY LIFE. THE INTERIM GOVERNMENT WHICH TOOK OFFICE LAST WEEK INHERITED A SEVERE ECONOMIC CRISIS CHARACTERIZED BY NEAR HYPER-INFLATION, FUEL AND FOOD SHORTAGES, A DEPRECIATING CURRENCY, HUGE FOREIGN DEBTS AND STAGNANT INDUSTRY.

    REFORM PROPOSALS WAITING FOR IMPLEMENTATION INCLUDE A TIGHT MONETARY REGIME DESIGNED TO CONTROL INFLATION, A DRASTIC INDUSTRIAL RESTRUCTURING INCLUDING MASSIVE LAYOFFS AT STATE STEEL PRODUCERS, PRIVATIZATION OF STATE ENTERPRISES, AND A BALANCED BUDGET.

    THE CENTER-RIGHT "BULGARIAN UNION OF DEMOCRATIC FORCES" PARTY, OR "U-D-F," IS CONSIDERED BY MANY POLITICAL OBSERVERS AS THE ONE MOST LIKELY TO FORM THE NEXT GOVERNMENT. DURING THE PARTY'S CONVENTION OVER THE WEEKEND, MEMBERS CALLED FOR A CONSTITUTIONAL CHANGE TO GIVE MORE POWER TO THE LARGELY CEREMONIAL POST OF PRESIDENT. U-D-F LEADER IVAN KOSTOV TOLD THE CONVENTION THE PRESIDENT SHOULD BE, AMONG OTHER THINGS, A GUARANTOR OF LAW AND SOCIAL ORDER. //OPT// MR. KOSTOV, WHO SERVED AS FINANCE MINISTER IN THE U-D-F-LED GOVERNMENT IN 1992, SAID INSTITUTIONALIZED CORRUPTION HAS UNDERMINED STATE INSTITUTIONS. HE ACCUSED THE SOCIALISTS OF STRIPPING INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES OF THEIR ASSETS.

    //END OPT//

    COINCIDENTALLY, BULGARIA'S PRESIDENT IS A U-D-F MEMBER. PRESIDENT PETER STOYANOV TOLD HIS PARTY CONVENTION THAT NEVER BEFORE HAS BULGARIA FACED SUCH SEVERE CHALLENGES. THE 44-YEAR-OLD LAWYER-TURNED-POLITICIAN SAID WESTERN FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS ARE PREPARED TO HELP, ONCE THE NEEDED REFORMS ARE IN PLACE.

    //REST OPT//

    "INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND" EXPERTS ARE NOW EXAMINING BULGARIA'S FINANCES FOR CLUES ON HOW TO TURN AROUND THE TROUBLED ECONOMY. THE "EUROPEAN BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT" SAYS THAT WELL OVER HALF OF BULGARIA'S ECONOMY REMAINS STATE-CONTROLLED, COMPARED TO ONLY 25 PERCENT FOR THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND 33 PERCENT FOR HUNGARY AND SLOVAKIA. (SIGNED)
    NEB/BDW/PCF
    17-Feb-97 12:33 PM EST (1733 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [04] EURO STOCKS (S ONLY) BY JACK HUIZENGA (LONDON)

    DATE=2/17/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-210211
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: SHARE PRICES WERE MIXED IN TRADING MONDAY ON EUROPEAN MARKETS. V-O-A'S JACK HUIZENGA HAS THE CLOSING MARKET REPORT FROM LONDON.

    TEXT: STOCKS WERE HIGHER IN PARIS, DOWN IN LONDON -- AND MIXED IN FRANKFURT. ANALYSTS SAID THE HOLIDAY IN THE UNITED STATES MEANT THERE WAS NO WALL STREET INFLUENCE ON THE EUROPEAN TRADING. IN PARIS, THE CAC-40 INDEX ROSE JUST MORE THAN SEVEN POINTS -- ABOUT TWO-TENTHS OF ONE PERCENT. IN LONDON, THE FOOTSIE-100 INDEX WAS FRACTIONALLY LOWER -- JUST MORE THAN THREE POINTS.

    IN FRANKFURT, THE DAX-30 INDEX ENDED THE TRADING DAY DOWN MORE THAN 15 POINTS -- ALMOST ONE-HALF OF ONE-PERCENT -- AFTER 11 CONSECUTIVE DAYS OF GAINS. BUT IN LATER COMPUTERIZED TRADING, THE GERMAN MARKET ERASED THOSE LOSSES AND ENDED THE DAY UP MORE THAN 11 POINTS.

    ON THE LONDON CURRENCY EXCHANGE, THE VALUE OF THE U-S DOLLAR WAS UP AGAINST THE GERMAN MARK, THE JAPANESE YEN, AND THE BRITISH POUND.
    NEB/JWH/RAE
    17-Feb-97 1:51 PM EST (1851 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] EXPANSION OF NATO BY ED WARNER (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=2/17/97
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-35728
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: IN HER TALKS WITH EUROPEAN AND RUSSIAN LEADERS THIS WEEK, U-S SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT WILL BE DEALING, ABOVE ALL, WITH THE PLANNED EXPANSION OF NATO, FERVENTLY DESIRED BY CENTRAL EUROPEAN NATIONS AND FIRMLY OPPOSED BY RUSSIA. V-O-A'S ED WARNER REPORTS ON VARYING VIEWS IN THE UNITED STATES.

    TEXT: THE NEW NATO CAN VANQUISH OLD HATREDS, PROMOTE INTEGRATION, CREATE A SECURE ENVIRONMENT FOR PROSPERITY AND DETER VIOLENCE IN THE REGION WHERE TWO WORLD WARS AND THE COLD WAR BEGAN.

    THAT IS THE NATO ENVISIONED BY U-S SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT, WRITING IN "THE ECONOMIST" MAGAZINE. SHE NOTES THAT THE POSSIBILITY OF JOINING NATO HAS CAUSED HUNGARY TO SETTLE ITS BORDER DISPUTES WITH SLOVAKIA AND ROMANIA. SHE PLEDGES AN EXPANDED NATO IS NOT AIMED AT RUSSIA. ALTHOUGH THE U-S NUCLEAR UMBRELLA WILL BE EXTENDED TO NEW MEMBERS, NO NUCLEAR WEAPONS WILL BE PUT ON THEIR TERRITORY.

    THE RUSSIANS ARE UNCONVINCED. LEKSEI PUSHKOV, FOREIGN AFFAIRS DIRECTOR AT RUSSIAN PUBLIC TV, MAKES A FAMILIAR ARGUMENT IN "THE NEW YORK TIMES: "MORE THAN ANYTHING ELSE, THE NATO EXPANSION IS REVIVING RUSSIA'S OLD SUSPICIONS OF THE UNITED STATES. AFTER RUSSIA REMOVED ALL ITS TROOPS FROM EASTERN EUROPE AND THE BALTICS, IT DOES NOT UNDERSTAND WHY NATO TROOPS SHOULD COME TO TAKE THEIR PLACE IN THOSE COUNTRIES."

    SOME AMERICANS AGREE. DIPLOMAT-HISTORIAN GEORGE KENNAN SAYS EXPANDING NATO WOULD BE THE MOST FATEFUL ERROR OF AMERICAN POLICY IN THE POST COLD WAR ERA. BY CHALLENGING RUSSIAN PRESTIGE AND SECURITY INTERESTS, IT WOULD RESTORE THE ATMOSPHERE OF THE COLD WAR.

    BENJAMIN SCHWARZ IS EXECUTIVE EDITOR OF THE WORLD POLICY JOURNAL AND A SENIOR FELLOW AT THE WORLD POLICY INSTITUTE IN NEW YORK:

    // SCHWARZ ACTUALITY //

    THERE IS NO WAY I THINK THAT RUSSIANS CAN HELP BUT SEE THIS AS A HOSTILE AND SOMEWHAT INTRUSIVE ACT. THIS IS AN ISSUE THAT UNITES THE ENTIRE POLITICAL CLASS IN RUSSIA. IT IS NOT SOMETHING THAT JUST ULTRA NATIONALISTS, JUST PEOPLE WHO ARE HOSTILE TO THE UNITED STATES REGARD AS THREATENING. IT IS SOMETHING THAT ALL RUSSIANS REGARD AS THREATENING. IN FACT, THOSE WHO ADVOCATE THE CLOSEST TIES BETWEEN RUSSIA AND THE UNITED STATES FEEL THE MOST BETRAYED AND MOST EXASPERATED BY THIS.

    // END ACT //

    THIS KIND OF PROTEST IS TO BE EXPECTED, SAYS SIMON SERFATY, DIRECTOR OF EUROPEAN STUDIES AT THE CENTER FOR STRATEGIC AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES IN WASHINGTON. "WE CANNOT ALLOW RUSSIA TO DO AFTER THE COLD WAR WHAT THE SOVIET UNION COULD NOT DO DURING THE COLD WAR", HE SAYS. AND HE THINKS THE WEST HAS GONE TO GREAT LENGTHS TO REASSURE THE RUSSIANS:

    // SERFATY ACTUALITY //

    THERE IS NO QUESTION THAT ALL SIXTEEN MEMBER STATES, LED BY THE UNITED STATES, HAVE GONE OUT OF THEIR WAY TO IMPRESS ON THE GOVERNMENT OF RUSSIA THAT THE ENLARGEMENT IS IN NO WAY OFFENSIVE TO THEM AND THAT EVEY STEP THAT CAN BE TAKEN WILL BE TAKEN IN ORDER TO ACCOMMODATE EVERY APPREHENSION THEY MIGHT HAVE. BUT THE CONSEQUENCES OF NOT GOING AHEAD WITH A DECISION THAT HAS BEEN MADE AND ANNOUNCED WOULD BE FAR MORE TRAUMATIC THAN WHATEVER FRANKLY RUSSIA CAN OPPOSE TO THAT DECISION.

    // END ACT //

    FAILING TO EXPAND NATO WOULD BE HARSHLY DISAPPOINTING TO THE THREE NATIONS THAT SEEM SLATED FOR MEMBERSHIP: POLAND, HUNGARY AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC. OTHER COUNTRIES ALSO WANT TO JOIN AT THE EARLIEST OPPORTUNITY. EVEN IN AZERBAIJAN IN THE CAUCASUS, A POLITICAL PARTY HAS FORMED TO SEEK NATO MEMBERSHIP.

    EDUARD SHEVARDNADZE, PRESIDENT OF GEORGIA, WANTS HIS COUNTRY TO HAVE A CONNECTION WITH NATO. HE THINKS A COMPROMISE IS POSSIBLE THAT WOULD SATISFY RUSSIA. THE QUESTION IS HOW FAR TO GO? FORMER U-S SECRETARY OF STATE HENRY KISSINGER WARNS AGAINST DILUTING NATO JUST TO APPEASE MOSCOW, WHICH WANTS TO MAINTAIN BUFFER STATES BETWEEN RUSSIA AND THE WEST.

    //OPT//

    SIMON SERFATY OF CSIS OPPOSES ANY EFFORT TO MODIFY ARTICLE FIVE OF THE NATO TREATY, WHICH PLEDGES THAT ALL NATO MEMBERS WILL COME TO THE DEFENSE OF ANY MEMBER THAT IS ATTACKED:

    // SERFATY ACTUALITY //

    THERE IS NO TRANSFORMATION OF NATO THAT IS NEEDED AT THIS PARTICULAR POINT IN TIME; FOR EXAMPLE, DILUTING THE ARTICLE FIVE GUARANTEE, WHICH REALLY IS THE ESSENCE OF THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY THAT WAS SIGNED FORTY-EIGHT YEARS AGO IN WASHINGTON, WOULD SIMPLY MAKE OF THE ALLIANCE A RELATIONSHIP THAT WOULD NO LONGER BE CREDIBLE EITHER ON THE PART OF THE EUROPEAN ALLIES OR ON THE PART OF ANY ADVERSARY.

    // END ACT END OPT //

    BUT BENJAMIN SCHWARZ AND OTHERS FEAR EXTENDING THE U-S SECURITY GUARANTEE WILL INVOLVE THE UNITED STATES IN DISTANT CONFLICTS WITH LITTLE PUBLIC SUPPORT AT HOME.

    //OPT//

    U-S SENATOR RICHARD LUGAR SAYS, "THERE CAN BE NO LASTING SECURITY AT THE CENTER WITHOUT SECURITY AT THE PERIPHERY." MR. SCHWARZ RESPONDS THAT WOULD MEAN ENDLESS THREATS TO AMERICAN SECURITY. //END OPT//

    JONATHAN CLARKE OF WASHINGTON'S CATO INSTITUTE SAYS THE WEST SHOULD DRAW RUSSIA INTO ITS SECURITY SYSTEM THE WAY IT DID TO GERMANY AND JAPAN AFTER WORLD WAR TWO. FOR CRITICS OF AN EXPANDED NATO, NOTHING IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN RECONCILIATION WITH RUSSIA AFTER ITS DEFEAT IN THE COLD WAR.

    FOR SUPPORTERS, A LARGER NATO ASSURES A UNIFIED WEST FOR WHATEVER PROBLEMS LIE AHEAD. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PT
    17-Feb-97 6:23 PM EST (2323 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] HUNGARY / ROMANIA MILITARY (L ONLY) BY STEFAN BOS (BUDAPEST)

    DATE=2/17/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-210210
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: HUNGARY AND ROMANIA HAVE AGREED TO FORM A JOINT MILITARY UNIT AND HAVE SIGNED AN ACCORD ON SHARING SOME MILITARY SECRETS. STEFAN BOS REPORTS FROM BUDAPEST.

    TEXT: TIES BETWEEN HUNGARY AND ROMANIA IN THE PAST WERE OVERSHADOWED BY DISPUTES ABOUT THE TREATMENT OF TWO-MILLION ETHNIC HUNGARIANS LIVING IN ROMANIA.

    BUT UNDER PRESSURE FROM NATO, THE TWO COUNTRIES LAST YEAR APPROVED A FRIENDSHIP TREATY IN WHICH CURRENT BORDERS AND RIGHTS OF MINORITIES ARE RECOGNIZED.

    HUNGARY'S DEFENSE MINISTER GYORGY KELETI, AND ROMANIAN DEFENSE MINISTER VICTOR BABIUS, SAID THE NEW AGREEMENTS SIGNED MONDAY ARE ANOTHER SIGN OF THE WARMING OF RELATIONS BETWEEN THEIR TWO COUNTRIES.

    THE SPOKESMAN FOR HUNGARY'S FOREIGN MINISTRY, GABOR SZENT IVANYI, SAYS THE OFFICIALS ALSO BELIEVE THE AGREEMENT WILL HELP BOTH HUNGARY AND ROMANIA TAKE ANOTHER STEP TOWARDS JOINING THE NATO ALLIANCE.

    /// SZENT IVANYI ACT ///

    WHAT NATO REQUIRES, OF COURSE, IS GOOD NEIGHBORING RELATIONS. HUNGARY HAS BEEN TRYING TO DO THAT WITH ROMANIA AND OTHER NEIGHBORING COUNTRIES. IF THIS MILITARY COOPERATION WITH ROMANIA HELPS OUR CHANCES FOR NATO MEMBERSHIP AND ROMANIA'S CHANCES FOR NATO MEMBERSHIP, WE WOULD BE VERY HAPPY.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. SZENT IVANYI SAYS THE MILITARY AGREEMENT ALSO OPENS THE DOOR FOR COOPERATION IN OTHER FIELDS.

    THE TWO COUNTRIES AGREED TO SET UP A JOINT HUNGARIAN-ROMANIAN PEACEKEEPING BATTALION FOR USE WITH NATO, THE UNITED NATIONS, AND THE ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE.

    OFFICIALS SAY THE TWO DEFENSE MINISTERS HAVE NAMED A TASK FORCE TO WORK OUT DETAILS, AND THE TWO OFFICIALS WILL MEET AT LEAST FOUR TIMES A YEAR TO DISCUSS MILITARY COOPERATION.

    ANALYSTS SAY THEY BELIEVE THE AGREEMENT COULD MEAN ROMANIA WILL JOIN THE CURRENT FAVORITES FOR NATO MEMBERSHIP -- HUNGARY, POLAND, AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC.

    /// OPT ///

    MR. SZENT IVANYI ALSO SAID HUNGARIAN OFFICIALS HOPE U-S SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALLBRIGHT -- WHO IS NOW TOURING EUROPE -- WILL FIND A BALANCE BETWEEN THE INTERESTS OF RUSSIA, WHICH OPPOSES NATO ENLARGEMENT, AND THE INTERESTS OF OTHER FORMER EAST BLOC STATES.

    /// OPT // SZENT IVANYI ACT ///

    I THINK THIS COULD BE ANOTHER TOPIC OF HER TALKS IN DIFFERENT NATIONAL CAPITALS -- HOW TO CONTINUE THE DIALOGUE BETWEEN RUSSIA AT THE ONE AND AND NATO AT THE OTHER. WE SINCERELY HOPE THAT THE DIALOGUE WILL CONTINUE BETWEEN RUSSIA AND THE NATO COUNTRIES AND THAT THE RUSSIAN LEADERSHIP WILL REALIZE THAT THE NATO ENLARGEMENT IS BASICALLY THE ENLARGEMENT OF THE ZONE OF STABILITY. IT DOES NOT FORM A SECURITY THREAT FOR ANY RUSSIAN SECURITY INTERESTS.

    /// END ACT // END OPT ///

    MR. SZENT IVANYI SAYS OFFICIALS HOPE THE NEW PARTNERSHIP BETWEEN HUNGARY AND ROMANIA WILL CONVINCE NATO TO LOOK EASTWARD WHEN THE ENLARGEMENT ISSUE IS DISCUSSED AT A NATO SUMMIT IN MADRID LATER THIS YEAR. (SIGNED)
    NEB/SB/JWH/MMK
    17-Feb-97 1:28 PM EST (1828 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] NATO ENLARGEMENT BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (LONDON)

    DATE=2/17/97
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-35719
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION -- NATO -- IS GOING AHEAD WITH PLANS TO EXPAND EASTWARDS AND ENLARGE ITS MEMBERSHIP. THE MOVE IS STRONGLY OPPOSED BY RUSSIA. AS V-O-A CORRESPONDENT ANDRE DE NESNERA REPORTS FROM LONDON, NATO EXPANSION IS ONE OF THE ISSUES BEING DISCUSSED BY U-S SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT DURING HER EUROPEAN TOUR.

    TEXT: U-S OFFICIALS HAVE MADE CLEAR THAT NATO ENLARGEMENT IS THE PRIMARY FOCUS OF U-S SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT'S EUROPEAN TOUR. MRS. ALBRIGHT IS KNOWN TO ADVOCATE SWIFT NATO ENLARGEMENT AND BELIEVES ANY DELAYS WOULD -- IN HER WORDS -- CREATE TENSION AND INSECURITY IN CENTRAL EUROPE.

    THE NATO ALLIANCE PLANS TO EXPAND ITS MEMBERSHIP TO INCLUDE COUNTRIES IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE -- COUNTRIES FORMERLY PART OF THE SOVIET BLOC. A FIRST GROUP OF NATIONS IS EXPECTED TO BE INVITED TO JOIN NATO DURING THE ORGANIZATION'S JULY SUMMIT IN MADRID, SPAIN. DEFENSE EXPERTS BELIEVE THE GROUP WILL INCLUDE POLAND, HUNGARY, AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC -- AND MAYBE EITHER SLOVAKIA OR SLOVENIA. THOSE COUNTRIES INVITED TO JOIN WILL OFFICIALLY BECOME PART OF THE WESTERN ALLIANCE IN APRIL 1999 MARKING NATO'S 50TH ANNIVERSARY.

    HOWEVER RUSSIA STRONGLY OPPOSES NATO'S EASTWARD EXPANSION. RUSSIAN GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS ARGUE THE MOVE POSES A SERIOUS THREAT TO THE COUNTRY'S SECURITY AND WILL CREATE DIVISIONS IN EUROPE REMINISCENT OF THE COLD WAR.

    SEVERAL RUSSIAN LAWMAKERS ARGUE NATO'S EXPANSION PROVES THE WESTERN ALLIANCE IS AN OFFENSIVE ORGANIZATION. HOWEVER A SENIOR ANALYST WITH THE BRITISH PUBLICATION "JANE'S DEFENSE WEEKLY" -- PAUL BEAVER -- SAYS THROUGHOUT ITS HISTORY, NATO HAS ALWAYS BEEN A DEFENSIVE MILITARY ALLIANCE.

    /// BEAVER ACT ///

    YOU JUST HAVE TO LOOK AT THE WEAPONS STRUCTURE, THE ARMED FORCES STRUCTURE TO SEE THAT THAT IS TRUE AND THE SORT OF TACTICAL GAMES THAT NATO PLAYS HAVE ALWAYS BEEN IN DEFENSE. THE RUSSIANS HAVE ALWAYS PLAYED JUST THE OPPOSITE -- THEIR TACTICAL GAMES HAVE ALWAYS BEEN IN OFFENSE, AND I THINK THE RUSSIANS ARE REALLY KIDDING THEMSELVES IF THEY THINK THERE IS A SECRET PLAN BY SAY WASHINGTON, LONDON, BONN, AND PARIS TO INVADE RUSSIA. QUITE FRANKLY I DO NOT THINK WE WOULD WANT TO INVADE RUSSIA. WHAT WOULD YOU DO WITH THE PLACE IF YOU GOT IT?

    /// END ACT ///

    IN AN EFFORT TO REASSURE RUSSIANS, NATO HAS PLEDGED NOT TO STATION ANY NUCLEAR WEAPONS ON TERRITORIES OF NEW MEMBER STATES. NATO OFFICIALS ARE ALSO TRYING TO WORK OUT A SPECIAL RELATIONSHIP WITH RUSSIA IN THE FORM OF A CHARTER WHICH WOULD SPELL OUT MOSCOW'S ROLE IN AN EXPANDED ALLIANCE.

    MR. BEAVER SAYS THIS IS ALL PART OF NATO'S EFFORTS TO ADDRESS MOSCOW'S CONCERNS.

    /// 2ND BEAVER ACT ///

    THERE IS NO DOUBT AT ALL THAT THE WAY THINGS ARE GOING AT THE MOMENT, IT IS A MOVE OF RECONCILIATION -- OR RATHER PERHAPS EVEN TRYING TO CONVINCE AND ALLAY FEARS IN RUSSIA THAT ALL THIS IS PART OF A GENERAL ENLARGEMENT OF NATO -- NOT SO MUCH THAT NATO IS MOVING EASTWARDS, BUT RATHER THAT SOME CENTRAL EUROPEAN COUNTRIES ARE MOVING WESTWARDS.

    /// END ACT ///

    NATO OFFICIALS HAVE MADE CLEAR THAT REASSURING RUSSIA WILL BE AN ONGOING PROCESS AS THE WESTERN ALLIANCE MOVES TOWARDS EXPANSION. WHILE PRESSING THE POINT THAT NATO POSES NO THREAT TO MOSCOW, NATO OFFICIALS SAY EXPANSION IS AN IRREVERSIBLE PROCESS AND WILL OCCUR, WHETHER MOSCOW WANTS IT OR NOT. (SIGNED)
    NEB/ADEN/JWH
    17-Feb-97 10:58 AM EST (1558 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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