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Voice of America, 97-02-25

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] TUESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [02] BOSNIA TRIAL (L) BY KYLE KING (BONN)
  • [03] EASTERN SLAVONIA BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (VUKOVAR, CROATIA)
  • [04] EURO STOCKS (S-ONLY) BY PAUL FRANCUCH (LONDON)
  • [05] ISLAM IN TURKEY BY ED WARNER (WASHINGTON)
  • [06] TURKEY POL (L ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)
  • [07] U-S / ALBANIA (S-ONLY) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)

  • [01] TUESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=02/25/97
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-10038
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=GARY EDQUIST
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-S-T ON TUESDAY FEBRUARY 25TH //

    INTRO: SEVERAL IMPORTANT STORIES, BOTH FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC, DOMINATE THE EDITORIAL COLUMNS OF MANY OF THE NATION'S MAJOR PAPERS THIS TUESDAY. AMONG THE SUBJECTS UNDER DISCUSSION ARE THE CLONING OF A SHEEP BY SCOTTISH SCIENTISTS; THE ABRUPT REVERSAL OF KENNETH STARR TO CONTINUE AS WHITEWATER SPECIAL COUNSEL; AND THE MASS SHOOTING ON THE OBSERVATION DECK OF THE EMPIRE STATE BUILDING IN NEW YORK CITY. OTHER TOPICS INCLUDE THE ARREST OF MEXICO'S ANTI-DRUG CZAR; MADELEINE ALBRIGHT'S VISIT TO CHINA AND HER EXPLANATION TO RUSSIAN OFFICIALS OF THE PLAN FOR THE EXPANSION OF NATO. NOW, HERE IS _____________ WITH A CLOSER LOOK IN TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: THE STARTLING NEWS FROM SCOTLAND THAT SCIENTISTS IN ROSLIN HAVE CLONED A SHEEP, THE FIRST MAMMAL EVER REPRODUCED BY THIS ADVANCED SCIENTIFIC TECHNIQUE, DRAWS A GOOD DEAL OF COMMENT IN THE U-S PRESS. THERE ARE SEVERAL LEAD EDITORIALS ABOUT THE ACHIEVEMENT, EXAMINING THE MORAL AND ETHICAL IMPLICATIONS OF THIS LATEST SCIENTIFIC ADVANCE, SUCH AS THIS FROM THE BOSTON GLOBE.

    VOICE: "IN ANNOUNCING THE FIRST SUCCESSFUL CLONING OF A MAMMAL - - SOMETHING MANY PEOPLE INSISTED COULD NOT BE DONE - - A TEAM OF SCOTTISH RESEARCHERS BROUGHT SOCIETY CLOSER TO THE PROSPECT OF CLONING HUMAN BEINGS, AND PERHAPS A BIT TOO CLOSE TO DR. FRANKENSTEIN'S WORKBENCH. WHILE MUCH GOOD CAN COME FROM THE DISCOVERY, INCLUDING IMPROVED LIVESTOCK HEADS, OPPORTUNITIES FOR RESEARCH ON DISEASE, AND THE PRODUCTION OF PHARMACEUTICALS, THE POTENTIAL FOR AN ETHICAL NIGHTMARE IS GREAT. ...... THIS DEVELOPMENTS COMES WITH MORE QUESTIONS THAN ANSWERS."

    TEXT: [OPT] IN ANOTHER LEAD EDITORIAL, THE NEW YORK TIMES ADDS THESE THOUGHTS TO WHAT THE PAPER CALLS "THE STARTLING NEWS."

    VOICE: "JUST A FEW YEARS AGO, RESEARCHERS SEEMED CONFIDENT THAT SUCH CLONING LAY FAR IN THE FUTURE, GIVING AMPLE TIME TO WRESTLE WITH THE CONSEQUENCES. ..... THE MOST TROUBLING ISSUES INVOLVE THE POTENTIAL FOR CLONING ADULT HUMANS. NIGHTMARES ENVISIONED IN LITERATURE AND POPULAR ENTERTAINMENT HAVE RANGED FROM CLONING DOZENS OF HITLERS TO CLONING HORDES OF DRONES TO PERFORM MENIAL WORK."

    TEXT: IN CALIFORNIA, THE LOS ANGELES TIMES SUGGESTS THE IDEA OF CLONING NEW ADOLF HITLERS, OR OTHER SUCH "NIGHTMARE" SCENARIOS IS:

    VOICE: "... BUNK [UNTRUE]. THEY ARISE FROM THE FALLACY THAT PEOPLE CAN BE RECREATED SIMPLY BY DUPLICATING THEIR GENES. IN FACT, MOST GENES PRODUCE SPECIFIC TRAITS ONLY WHEN THE ORGANISM CARRYING THOSE GENES GETS SPECIFIC CUES FROM ITS ENVIRONMENT. MOZART'S GENES MAY HAVE PREDISPOSED HIM TO MUSICAL GENIUS, FOR EXAMPLE, BUT HAD HE NOT BEEN FORCED BY POVERTY AND A DESIRE TO SUPPORT HIS FAMILY, HE MIGHT NOT HAVE BEEN AS BRILLIANT OR PROLIFIC. NEVERTHELESS, [EMBRYOLOGIST IAN] WILMUT'S WORK DOES RAISE SOME LEGITIMATE CONCERNS. HIS TEAM, FOR INSTANCE, IS NOW TRYING TO CLONE COWS THAT PRODUCE [MORE THAN] 18-THOUSAND KILOS OF MILK A YEAR, ABOUT TWICE THE AVERAGE. ..... BUT GENETICALLY IDENTICAL LIVESTOCK HERDS WOULD BE FAR MORE SUSCEPTIBLE TO UNTREATABLE, FATAL DISEASES." [END OPT]

    TEXT: TURNING TO ANOTHER MAJOR STORY, THIS ONE DOMESTIC, THE WALL STREET JOURNAL COMMENTS ON THE ABRUPT REVERSAL BY WHITEWATER SPECIAL COUNSEL KENNETH STARR NOT TO RESIGN THE POSITION AND GO TO A CALIFORNIA UNIVERSITY AS LAW SCHOOL DEAN.

    VOICE: "KENNETH STARR NO DOUBT DID SOME DAMAGE TO HIMSELF AND HIS INVESTIGATION WITH LAST WEEK'S FLIP-FLOP DECISION ..... WHEN BY WEEK'S END MR. STARR HAD CHANGED COURSE ..... AND GONE BACK TO WORK, MUCH OF THE DAMAGE APPEARED TO HAVE BEEN MITIGATED. WHATEVER ELSE, ALL AGREE THERE IS SERIOUS WORK TO DO HERE. [OPT] STILL, THE EPISODE SHOULD RAISE QUESTIONS .... ABOUT THE FUNCTION OF THE INDEPENDENT COUNSEL STATUTE AND THE UNIQUE COURT OFFICER IT CREATES." [END OPT]

    TEXT: [OPT] ON LONG ISLAND, NEWSDAY HAS A SLIGHTLY DIFFERENT VIEW, SUGGESTING THERE IS NOW A MUCH GREATER NEED FOR AN ENTIRELY DIFFERENT INDEPENDENT COUNSEL.

    VOICE: " ...[MR.] STARR'S MOMENT IS PASSING. THE LIVELY ISSUE TODAY IS NOT SO MUCH WHAT A LAME-DUCK SPECIAL PROSECUTOR WILL DO ABOUT A LOT OF QUESTIONABLE FINANCIAL DEALING THAT ORIGINATED A DECADE AGO IN ARKANSAS. IT'S WHAT A VIGOROUS INVESTIGATION OF POLITICAL FUND-RAISING IN WASHINGTON MIGHT DO TO THE POLITICAL BALANCE IN THE NEXT ELECTION. MORE SPECIFICALLY, IT'S ABOUT WHEN - - NO LONGER WHETHER - - A NEW INDEPENDENT COUNSEL SHOULD BE APPOINTED TO LOOK INTO [THE FUND RAISING ACTIVITIES OF] ...... BILL CLINTON'S 1996 PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN."

    TEXT: IN MAINE, "THE PORTLAND PRESS HERALD" ADDS THAT MR. STARR'S :

    VOICE: "... INDECISIVENESS CAME AT A TIME [MR.] STARR HIMSELF HAS DESCRIBED AS A CRITICAL JUNCTURE IN THE WHITEWATER INVESTIGATION. AT ISSUE HERE IS NO BACKWATER SCANDAL. .... THIS IS NO TIME FOR MIXED SIGNALS." [END OPT]

    TEXT: TURNING TO THE SHOOTING [SUNDAY, 2/23] OF SEVERAL PEOPLE ON THE 86TH FLOOR OBSERVATION DECK OF NEW YORK'S EMPIRE STATE BUILDING, BY A FRUSTRATED PALESTINIAN TEACHER FROM THE WEST BANK, THE NEW YORK DAILY NEWS SAYS IN PART:

    VOICE: "THOSE WHO NEEDED ANOTHER REASON FOR STRICTER, NATIONWIDE GUN RESTRICTIONS GOT ONE SUNDAY. HIS NAME WAS ALI ABU KAMAL. A SELF-INFLICTED BULLET IN THE BRAIN DEPRIVED THE WORLD OF EVER REALLY KNOWING WHAT PASSED FOR HIS PURPOSE IN OPENING FIRE ..... NOR DOES IT MATTER, REALLY, AT THIS POINT. WHAT MATTER MORE NOW ARE HIS VICTIMS -- ALIVE AND DEAD. THEIR FAMILIES. AND THE SCHIZOPHRENIC LAWS THAT ALLOWED THIS MAN TO BE ARMED."

    TEXT: [OPT] THE NEW YORK TIMES CALLS IT "A PREVENTABLE TRAGEDY," BUT ADDS:

    VOICE: "NEW YORK HAS STRICT GUN CONTROL LAWS, BUT THEY ARE LITTLE PROTECTION WHEN PEOPLE LIKE MR. ABU KAMAL AND COLIN FERGUSON, THE LONG ISLAND RAIL ROAD KILLER, CAN BUY WEAPONS ELSEWHERE WITH EASE. NINE OUT OF TEN WEAPONS USED IN NEW YORK CITY CRIMES ..... CAN TRACE TO THEIR SOURCE TURN OUT TO HAVE BEEN PURCHASED OUT OF STATE." [END OPT]

    TEXT: TURNING AGAIN TO INTERNATIONAL NEWS, THERE IS CONSIDERABLE COMMENT ON THE ARREST OF MEXICAN ARMY GENERAL AND DRUG CZAR JESUS GUTIERREZ REBOLLO AS BEING IN LEAGUE WITH A MEXICAN DRUG DEALER. THE WASHINGTON POST NOTES:

    VOICE: "[OPT[ IT COULD NOT HAVE HAPPENED AT A WORSE TIME FOR THE ZEDILLO GOVERNMENT. UNTIL NOW IT WAS A GIVEN THAT ITS COOPERATION WITH THE UNITED STATES WAS MEXICO'S BEST EVER. NOW [END OPT] PRESIDENT ZEDILLO HAS DONE EXACTLY THE RIGHT THING, PLUCKING A BAD APPLE OUT OF THE BARREL, AND IN WASHINGTON PRESSURE IS RISING FOR PRESIDENT CLINTON NOT TO 'CERTIFY' MEXICO AS A GOOD PARTNER IN THE CAMPAIGN AGAINST DRUGS. ..... MEXICO IS NOT THE ONLY LATIN COUNTRY ON THE LINE, BUT THIS YEAR IT IS THE HARD CASE. IT SHOULD BE CERTIFIED."

    TEXT: ON MADELEINE ALBRIGHT'S FIRST TRIP AS SECRETARY OF STATE, THE ORLANDO SENTINEL DISPUTES HER, AND THE GOVERNMENT'S IDEA ABOUT EXPANDING NATO, SAYING:

    VOICE: "SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT ALREADY IS RAISING DOUBTS THAT SHE IS UP TO THE TASK OF HANDLING FOREIGN AFFAIRS WITH COHERENCE AND FORESIGHT. MS. ALBRIGHT HAS ADVANCED THE CURIOUS NOTION THAT ALLOWING THE EXPANSION OF THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION TO BE STALLED WOULD RESULT IN TENSION IN EUROPE. IF THAT'S THE BEST VISION SHE CAN MUSTER FOR NATO ...... THE UNITED STATES FACES SOME ROCKY ROADS AHEAD."

    TEXT: WHILE IN THE NEW YORK TIMES, THERE IS PRAISE OF HER HANDLING HER FIRST VISIT TO CHINA AS SECRETARY OF STATE.

    VOICE: "THE COINCIDENCE OF DENG XIAOPING'S DEATH AND THE BEGINNING OF BILL CLINTON'S SECOND TERM OFFERS THE HOPE THAT RELATIONS BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND CHINA CAN BE PUT ON A MORE STABLE, PRODUCTIVE TRACK. MADELEINE ALBRIGHT MADE A GOOD START IN HER BRIEF VISIT TO BEIJING .... BY TALKING CANDIDLY TO THE CHINESE LEADERSHIP ABOUT ITS CONTINUED ABUSE OF HUMAN RIGHTS."

    TEXT: WITH THAT, WE END THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF EDITORIAL COMMENT FROM SOME OF TODAY'S U-S PRESS.
    NEB/ANG/GE
    25-Feb-97 11:00 AM EST (1600 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] BOSNIA TRIAL (L) BY KYLE KING (BONN)

    DATE=2/25/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-210551
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: A 34-YEAR-OLD BOSNIAN SERB WENT ON TRIAL IN GERMANY TUESDAY, ON CHARGES OF TAKING PART IN GENOCIDE AND MURDER DURING THE 43-MONTH CONFLICT IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. AS VOA'S KYLE KING REPORTS, THE CASE IS THE FIRST OF TWO WAR CRIMES TRIALS BEGINNING IN GERMANY THIS WEEK.

    TEXT: NOVISLAV DJAJIC FACES UP TO 15 YEARS IN PRISON, IF HE IS CONVICTED OF BEING AN ACCOMPLICE TO MURDER, GENOCIDE AND KIDNAPPING. MR. DJAJIC, WHO WAS ARRESTED BY GERMAN AUTHORITIES IN JANUARY OF LAST YEAR, SAYS HE IS A VICTIM OF MISTAKEN IDENTITY.

    PROSECUTORS SAY THEY WILL PRODUCE WITNESSES -- ALL FORMER NEIGHBORS OF MR. DJAJIC, WHO SAY THEY CAN IDENTIFY HIM AS A MEMBER OF A SERB PARAMILITARY UNIT THAT KILLED AT LEAST 14 MUSLIM MEN IN HIS HOMETOWN IN JUNE OF 1992.

    MR. DJAJIC IS THE FIRST OF TWO BOSNIAN SERBS WHO ARE GOING ON TRIAL IN GERMANY THIS WEEK. THE SECOND SUSPECT, 50-YEAR-OLD NIKOLA JORGIC, WHO IS ALSO BEING CHARGED WITH MURDER AND WAR CRIMES, IS SET TO GO ON TRIAL IN DUSSELDORF THIS FRIDAY.

    GERMAN AUTHORITIES SAY THEY DECIDED TO BRING CHARGES AGAINST THE MEN BECAUSE THEY WERE ARRESTED IN GERMANY AND HAD BEEN LIVING IN THE COUNTRY.

    JUDICIAL EXPERTS SAY THE TRIALS WILL POSE A UNIQUE CHALLENGE FOR GERMAN AUTHORITIES, WHO WILL HAVE TO FIRST PROVE GENOCIDE TOOK PLACE IN BOSNIA, BEFORE THEY CAN CONVICT SOMEONE OF PARTICIPATING IN IT. IN THE EVENT THAT STRATEGY FAILS, BOTH MEN HAVE ALSO BE CHARGED WITH TAKING PART IN MURDER -- A CRIME THAT COULD BE EASIER TO PROVE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/KBK/PCF
    25-Feb-97 9:12 AM EST (1412 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] EASTERN SLAVONIA BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (VUKOVAR, CROATIA)

    DATE=2/25/97
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-35801
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: IN A FEW MONTHS, CROATIA'S GOVERNMENT WILL REGAIN CONTROL OVER THE LAST CHUNK OF ITS TERRITORY SEIZED BY SERBS AT THE OUTSET OF THE BALKAN WARS MORE THAN FIVE YEARS AGO. A U-N PEACEKEEPING FORCE IS SCHEDULED TO WITHDRAW FROM EASTERN SLAVONIA IN MID-JULY, CLEARING THE WAY FOR THE RESTORATION OF CROATIAN SOVEREIGNTY AND THE RETURN OF ABOUT 80-THOUSAND CROATS FORCED TO FLEE THEIR HOMES DURING THE CONFLICT. ALMOST TWICE THAT NUMBER OF SERBS ARE CURRENTLY LIVING IN THE FERTILE STRIP OF LAND ASTRIDE CROATIA'S BORDER WITH YUGOSLAVIA. AND THEIR FATE REMAINS AT ISSUE, AS V-O-A'S DOUGLAS ROBERTS REPORTS FROM THE SLAVONIAN TOWN OF VUKOVAR.

    TEXT:

    /// ACT - SOUND OF SERB RALLY ///

    TAKING THEIR CUE FROM THE MASS DEMONSTRATIONS IN BELGRADE, HUNDREDS OF SERBS HAVE BEEN STAGING DAILY PROTESTS OUTSIDE U-N HEADQUARTERS IN THIS WAR-RAVAGED TOWN ON THE BANKS OF THE DANUBE.

    THEIR NOMINAL COMPLAINT -- THE REJECTION BY THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT AND THE U-N ADMINISTRATION OF THEIR DEMAND FOR A SINGLE ELECTORAL DISTRICT FOR THE SERBS OF EASTERN SLAVONIA.

    UNDERLYING THE PROTESTS ARE WIDESPREAD FEARS AMONG THE SERB INHABITANTS THAT THEY WILL FACE RETRIBUTION WHEN CROATIA REGAINS CONTROL OF THIS REGION IN LESS THAN FIVE MONTHS TIME.

    VUKOVAR WAS SHELLED RELENTLESSLY AND VIRTUALLY DESTROYED BY SERB GUNNERS AT THE OUTSET OF THE YUGOSLAV CONFLICT. MANY OF ITS CROAT RESIDENTS WERE KILLED, AND THE REMAINDER FLED. NOW, THOSE CROAT REFUGEES ARE POISED TO RETURN, AFTER YEARS OF HARDSHIP IN AN INTERNAL EXILE THAT SOME HAVE SPENT IN OLD RAILWAY CARS.

    THE CHIEF U-N ADMINISTRATOR HERE, UNITED STATES DIPLOMAT JACQUES KLEIN, SAYS HE UNDERSTANDS BOTH THE RESIDUAL ANGER AMONG THE CROATS AND THE SERBS' FEAR OF REVENGE.

    /// KLEIN ACT ///

    THE HOSTILITY IS SO RECENT. THESE ARE, REMEMBER, THESE ARE NEIGHBORS WHO FOUGHT EACH OTHER. IT IS NOT FOREIGN POWERS. IT IS THE MAN NEXT DOOR.

    /// END ACT ///

    ONE OF MR. KLEIN'S CHIEF OBJECTIVES IN THESE FINAL DAYS OF THE U-N ADMINISTRATION IS TO PERSUADE THE SERBS TO REMAIN IN CROATIA AFTER EASTERN SLAVONIA REVERTS TO ZAGREB'S CONTROL.

    SOME HAVE ALREADY LEFT, AND THE NUMBERS ARE GROWING. AS THE DATE FOR THE WITHDRAWAL OF THE U-N FORCE APPROACHES, THERE ARE FEARS OF A MASS SERB EXODUS, EITHER TO YUGOSLAVIA, OR TO THE SERB ENTITY IN BOSNIA.

    MR. KLEIN THINKS THAT WOULD BE A MISTAKE, ESPECIALLY FOR THE SERBS WHO LIVED HERE BEFORE THE WAR BEGAN.

    /// KLEIN ACT ///

    SO THESE PEOPLE HAVE A LOT TO LOSE. AND WHAT I HAVE SAID TO THEM IS, LOOK, IF YOU ARE THINKING ABOUT LEAVING, ASK YOURSELF ONE QUESTION. ARE YOU GOING TO BE BETTER OFF WHERE YOU ARE GOING THAN YOU ARE HERE. AND IF THE ANSWER IS NO, THEN WHY ARE YOU LEAVING? IT IS A VERY FAIR QUESTION. YOU WANT TO GO TO A CAMP IN YUGOSLAVIA? YOU WANT TO LIVE IN SOMEONE ELSE'S HOUSE IN BOSNIA? AND THE ANSWER OUGHT TO REALLY BE NO.

    /// END ACT ///

    ABOUT HALF OF EASTERN SLAVONIA'S CURRENT RESIDENTS ARE SERB REFUGEES FROM OTHER PARTS OF CROATIA, FORMER REBEL-HELD AREAS, RECAPTURED BY THE CROATIAN ARMY IN 1995.

    MOST OF THESE SERBS ARE LIVING IN CROAT HOUSES THAT THEY WILL SOON HAVE TO VACATE. MANY WANT TO GO BACK TO THEIR ORIGINAL HOMES. BUT SO FAR, THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT HAS ALLOWED FEW TO RETURN.

    MR. KLEIN SAYS HE BELIEVES IT IS IN ZAGREB'S OWN INTEREST TO COOPERATE IN THE REPATRIATION EFFORT.

    /// KLEIN ACT ///

    I HAVE SAID TO (CROATIA'S) PRESIDENT (FRANJO) TUDJMAN, IF YOU LEAVE THIS AS A REGION OF ALL SERBS, IT HAS ALWAYS THE POTENTIAL FOR AUTONOMOUS, SECESSIONIST KINDS OF MOVEMENTS. THEREFORE, LET THEM GO BACK.

    /// END ACT ///

    OVER THE PAST YEAR, THE U-N ADMINISTRATION HAS SOUGHT TO BUILD BRIDGES BETWEEN THE TWO ETHNIC COMMUNITIES. A JOINT POLICE FORCE IS BEING ESTABLISHED. POSTAL AND TELEPHONE LINKS HAVE BEEN RESTORED AND SOME KEY ROADS RE-OPENED.

    THE U-N SPONSORS A WEEKLY OPEN AIR MARKET WHERE SERBS AND CROATS COME TOGETHER.

    IN LATE JANUARY, AT THE URGING OF THE U-N AND MAJOR WESTERN POWERS, THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT OFFERED THE SLAVONIAN SERBS A COMPREHENSIVE LIST OF ASSURANCES - -GUARANTEEING THEIR RIGHTS, CULTURAL AND EDUCATIONAL AUTONOMY AND REPRESENTATION IN BOTH THE MUNICIPAL AND NATIONAL GOVERNMENTS.

    THE MOVE WAS HAILED AT THE U-N. BUT IT HAS FAILED TO CONVINCE MANY OF THE SERB HERE.

    A YOUNG PHOTO-JOURNALIST, SLADJANA RADIJAVAC, SAYS SHE FEARS SHE WOULD BE KILLED IF SHE ATTEMPTED TO RETURN TO HER HOME IN THE CROATIAN TOWN OF NOVSKA. BUT SHE ALSO SEES NO FUTURE FOR HERSELF IN VUKOVAR. SHE IS GOING THROUGH THE PROCESS OF OBTAINING CROATIAN IDENTITY DOCUMENTS, BUT ONLY SO SHE CAN LEAVE.

    /// RADIJAVAC ACT ///

    SORRY, I AM NOT VERY OPTIMIST(IC), BECAUSE I CANNOT LIVE HERE, SO I FIND (FOUND) A JOB IN GREECE, BUT IN GREECE I CANNOT STAY WITH (THE) DOCUMENTS WHICH I (HAVE) GOT NOW. I NEED CROATIAN DOCUMENTS TO STAY FOR ALL TIME, TO KEEP MY JOB THERE AND SOMETHING.

    /// END ACT ///

    U-N OFFICIALS ACCUSE SOME LOCAL LEADERS HERE OF ATTEMPTING TO FOSTER A CLIMATE OF UNCERTAINTY AND FEAR AMONG THE SLAVONIAN SERBS, TELLING THEM IT IS BETTER TO LEAVE THAN TO REMAIN UNDER CROATIAN RULE.

    BUT FOR THE RECORD, LEADERS OF THE LOCAL SERB EXECUTIVE COUNCIL SAY THEY HOPE TO AVERT A MASS EXODUS.

    WE ARE DOING ALL WE CAN TO PREVENT IT, SAYS THE DEPUTY HEAD OF OF THE COUNCIL, MILOS VOJNOVIC. BUT HE SAYS THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT MUST ALSO DO MORE TO CONVINCE THE SERBS IT IS SAFE FOR THEM TO REMAIN.

    /// VOJNOVIC ACT, IN SERBO-CROAT - FADE UNDER ///

    WE ARE A SMALL AND UNPROTECTED COMMUNITY, HE SAYS, AND THE ANIMOSITY BETWEEN US AND THE CROATS CANNOT BE OVERCOME BY A SIMPLE DECLARATION OF ASSURANCES FROM ZAGREB. RECONCILIATION IS A LONG-TERM PROCESS, SAYS MR. VOJNOVIC, THAT WILL REQUIRE PATIENCE, TOLERANCE AND UNDERSTANDING. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DBR/JWH
    25-Feb-97 11:34 AM EST (1634 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] EURO STOCKS (S-ONLY) BY PAUL FRANCUCH (LONDON)

    DATE=2/25/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-210564
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: MAJOR STOCK MARKETS IN WESTERN EUROPE TUESDAY POSTED SOLID GAINS AT THE END OF TRADING. FOR THE CLOSING FIGURES, HERE'S VOA'S PAUL FRANCUCH FROM OUR LONDON OFFICE.

    TEXT: MONDAY'S GAINS IN NEW YORK HELPED PROPEL STOCKS IN WESTERN EUROPE ON TUESDAY -- PARTICULARLY IN FRANKFURT AND PARIS, WHERE THE COMBINATION OF NEW STRENGTH IN THE DOLLAR AND CONFIDENCE ON WALL STREET PUT FRENCH AND GERMAN INVESTORS IN A BUYING MOOD. FRANKFURT'S "DAX 30" INDEX POSTED A 49-POINT GAIN AND THE PARIS "CAC 40" INDEX ADDED ALMOST 40 POINTS AT THE CLOSE OF TRADING TUESDAY. HERE IN LONDON, THE KEY MARKET BAROMETER -- THE "FOOTSIE 100" -- ADDED JUST UNDER 14 POINTS AT CLOSING TIME.

    THE DOLLAR GAINED FRACTIONALLY AGAINST THE MARK AND THE POUND ON THE LONDON CURRENCY MARKETS. GOLD WAS VIRTUALLY UNCHANGED FROM THE MONDAY FIX. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PCF/KL
    25-Feb-97 1:19 PM EST (1819 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] ISLAM IN TURKEY BY ED WARNER (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=2/25/97
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-35807
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: MANY IN THE WEST WORRY ABOUT A FUNDAMENTALIST TAKEOVER OF TURKEY WHOSE GOVERNMENT IS NOW HEADED BY AN AVOWEDLY ISLAMIST PRIME MINISTER, NECMETTIN ERBAKAN. BUT PARTICIPANTS AT A CONFERENCE HELD THIS WEEK IN WASHINGTON BY THE MIDDLE EAST INSTITUTE EMPHASIZED THE COUNTERVAILING FORCES IN TURKEY AND THE POTENTIAL RIFTS IN THE ISLAMIST WELFARE PARTY. VOA'S ED WARNER REPORTS.

    TEXT: CIVIL WAR IN TURKEY IS A POSSIBILITY, CONSIDERING THE GROWING POLARIZATION BETWEEN SECULARISTS AND ISLAMISTS. THAT WAS THE WARNING OF TURKISH JOURNALIST YASEMIN CONGAR AT A CONFERENCE HELD BY THE MIDDLE EAST INSTITUTE IN WASHINGTON THIS WEEK.

    BUT SHE HASTENED TO ADD THAT SUCH A CONFLICT IS UNLIKELY BECAUSE OF OTHER FORCES AT WORK IN TURKEY. WHILE THE SECULARIST ELITES FEAR AN IRANIAN STYLE TAKEOVER AND ISLAMISTS WORRY ABOUT A MILITARY COUP D'ETAT, SHE SAID THERE IS A MIDDLE WAY ESPOUSED BY MOST TURKS:

    // CONGAR ACTUALITY //

    THERE IS A WIDESPREAD FEELING THAT TURKEY NEEDS A SYNTHESIS OF SECULARISM AND ISLAM. MANY BELIEVE THE POWER AND INNER CONFLICTS OF THE WELFARE PARTY IS A REFLECTION OF THE NON-MONOLITHIC ISLAMIST POLITICAL REALITY IN TURKEY. THEY THINK, AND I AGREE, THE CURRENT DEBATE IS HEALTHY AND BELIEVE A THIRD WAVE BETWEEN THE SO-CALLED IRANIAN AND ALGERIAN MODELS IS POSSIBLE, AS LONG AS BOTH THE DEMOCRATICALLY MINDED SECULARISTS AND THE MODERATE ISLAMISTS, NOT THE RADICALS DETERMINE THE RULES OF THE GAME.

    // END ACT //

    YASEMIN CONGAR SAID SECULARISTS CAN BE JUST AS EXTREME AS ISLAMISTS. FANATICISM DOES NOT COME IN ONLY RELIGIOUS GARB.

    WHILE THERE IS TALK OF THE MILITARY OVERTHROWING THE GOVERNMENT, AS IT HAS THREE TIMES IN THE RECENT PAST, YASEMIN CONGAR DOUBTED THAT WOULD HAPPEN AGAIN. THE TIMES ARE TOO DIFFERENT. THE LAST COUP OCCURRED IN 1980 WHEN THE SOVIET UNION WAS TRYING TO DESTABILIZE TURKEY, AND THE NATION WAS SURROUNDED BY AUTOCRATIC REGIMES:

    // CONGAR ACTUALITY //

    THERE WAS A VERY SEVERE PROBLEM OF TERROR ON THE STREETS. PEOPLE WERE BEING KILLED EVERY DAY, DOZENS OF PEOPLE SOMETIMES, AND THE DEMOCRATIC SYSTEM, THE PARLIAMENT WAS UNABLE TO SOLVE THE PROBLEM. TODAY WE ARE NOT FACING SUCH A MAJOR DIFFICULTY. ALTHOUGH AMONG THE SECULARISTS, THERE ARE THOSE WHO WOULD APPLAUD A MILITARY COUP INSTEAD OF SEEING ISLAMISTS PREVAIL IN THE COUNTRY, I STILL THINK THERE ARE MANY MORE PEOPLE WHO BELIEVE THE POWERS OF THE PARLIAMENT IN TURKEY AND THE POLITICAL PARTY SYSTEM STILL SEEM TO BE ABLE TO SOLVE THE PROBLEMS.

    // END ACT //

    GEORGE MCGHEE, FORMER U-S AMBASSADOR TO TURKEY, SAID THE WELFARE PARTY'S ADMINISTRATION OF TURKISH CITIES HAS PROVED BENEFICIAL. ITS SUCCESS ON A NATIONAL LEVEL IS AT LEAST PARTLY DUE TO THE FAILURES OF THE MAINSTREAM PARTIES:

    // MCGHEE ACTUALITY //

    I DO NOT BELIEVE THERE IS ANY DANGER IN THE CREATION IN TURKEY OF AN ISLAMIST GOVERNMENT, AS IN IRAN, OR A TURKISH WITHDRAWAL FROM NATO. TURKEY HAS GAINED TOO MUCH FROM ITS HISTORIC ORIENTATION TO THE WEST. TURKEY ACKNOWLEDGES THE CONTRIBUTION THAT WE HAVE MADE TO FACILITATING WHAT TURKEY ITSELF WANTED TO BE.

    // END ACT //

    AMBASSADOR MCGHEE SAID IT IS HARD TO CRITICIZE TURKEY WHEN RELIGION IS INCREASINGLY INFLUENTIAL IN AMERICAN POLITICS.

    HENRI BARKEY, PROFESSOR OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AT LEHIGH UNIVERSITY, SAID THE WELFARE PARTY MAY BE MORE SUITED TO DEAL WITH THE KURDISH REBELLION IN THE SOUTHEAST:

    // BARKEY ACTUALITY //

    THE WELFARE PARTY HAS ALWAYS ARGUED THAT FIRST AND FOREMOST, PEOPLE LIVING IN TURKEY ARE MUSLIMS, AND MUSLIMS SHOULD LIVE IN PEACE TOGETHER. IT DOES NOT MATTER WHETHER YOU ARE A KURD OR YOU ARE A TURK. THIS HAS BEEN THE RHETORIC OF THE WELFARE PARTY. ETHNICITY WOULD NOT BE THE PRIMARY ORGANIZING PRINCIPLE OF SOCIETY, BUT RELIGION WOULD BE.

    // END ACT //

    PROFESSOR BARKEY ADDED THAT HAVING TO DEAL WITH THE KURDS MEANS REFAH CANNOT BE PREOCCUPIED WITH RELIGION ALONE AND MUST BEHAVE IN MANY RESPECTS LIKE A TRADITIONAL POLITICAL PARTY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/EW/LWM
    25-Feb-97 6:22 PM EST (2322 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] TURKEY POL (L ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)

    DATE=2/25/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-210568
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE TURKISH PARLIAMENT LATE TUESDAY DEFEATED TWO CENSURE MOTIONS AIMED AT BRINGING DOWN TURKEY'S ISLAMIST-LED GOVERNMENT. AMBERIN ZAMAN IN ANKARA REPORTS THE MOTIONS WERE OFFERED BY TURKEY'S TWO MAIN LEFTIST PARTIES WHICH ACCUSED THE GOVERNMENT OF SEEKING TO UNDERMINE SECULARISM.

    TEXT: DURING THE DEBATE, DEPUTIES FROM THE MAIN OPPOSITION LEFT WING PARTIES TOOK TURNS SHARPLY CRITICIZING THE ISLAMIST-LED COALITION FOR WHAT THEY DESCRIBED AS ITS ATTEMPTS TO OVERTURN MORE THAN 70 YEARS OF SECULAR RULE.

    THE OPPOSITION DEPUTIES DREW ATTENTION TO RECENT MOVES BY PRIME MINISTER NECMETTIN ERBAKAN AND HIS ISLAMIST WELFARE PARTY TO END CURRENT BANS ON THE ISLAMIC HEADSCARF AT STATE INSTITUTIONS AND ON TAKING OFF TIME FROM WORK FOR PRAYERS.

    THE RIGHT TO WEAR THE ISLAMIC HEADSCARF, OR HEJAB, HAS LONG BEEN A RALLYING POINT FOR ISLAMISTS IN TURKEY, WHO SAY IT IS THEIR BASIC HUMAN RIGHT TO DO SO.

    THE FOUNDER OF THE SECULAR TURKISH REPUBLIC, KEMAL ATATURK. ORDERED WOMEN TO CAST OFF THEIR VEILS MORE THAN 70 YEARS AGO AS PART OF HIS DRIVE TO BRING TURKEY CLOSER TO THE WEST. FOR TURKEY'S PRO-SECULARIST MAJORITY, THE ISLAMIC HEADSCARF IS A SYMBOL OF BACKWARDNESS.

    THE OPPOSITION DEPUTIES VOWED NOT TO ALLOW TURKEY TO FALL VICTIM TO WHAT THEY CALL THE DARK FORCES OF ISLAMIC RADICALISM. AND THEY SAID THEY WOULD DEFEND SECULARISM TO THE BITTER END.

    MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT REPRESENTING THE GOVERNMENT DENIED OPPOSITION CHARGES THAT IT IS UNDERMINING SECULARISM. THEY CALLED FOR FREE DEBATE OF ALL ISSUES, INCLUDING FREEDOM OF WORSHIP AND EXPRESSION, SAYING THIS WAS THE TRUE SPIRIT OF ANY DEMOCRACY.

    THE GOVERNMENT COMMANDS A MAJORITY IN THE 550 MEMBER TURKISH PARLIAMENT AND APPEARS IN NO IMMEDIATE DANGER OF FALLING. BUT ANALYSTS SAY THE DEBATE OVER SECULARISM WILL LIKELY CONTINUE TO DOMINATE TURKEY'S POLITICAL AGENDA AS LONG AS THE ISLAMISTS REMAIN IN POWER. (SIGNED)
    NEB/AZ/JWH/KL
    25-Feb-97 1:50 PM EST (1850 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] U-S / ALBANIA (S-ONLY) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)

    DATE=2/25/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-210572
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED STATES IS EXPRESSING CONCERN ABOUT THE CONTINUING PROTESTS IN ALBANIA DIRECTED AGAINST THE FAILED GET-RICH-QUICK FINANCIAL SCHEMES. RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT THERE IS CRITICISM DIRECTED AGAINST ALL SIDES.

    TEXT: THE UNITED STATES IS CALLING ON LEADERS OF THE DEMONSTRATIONS IN ALBANIA TO BRING AN END TO VIOLENCE BUT ALSO ON ALBANIAN AUTHORITIES TO RESPECT THE RIGHTS OF THEIR CITIZENS TO DEMONSTRATE PEACEFULLY.

    STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN GLYN DAVIES TELLS REPORTERS THE UNITED STATES BELIEVES THE ALBANIAN GOVERNMENT HAS GONE TOO FAR IN TRYING TO RESTRAIN THE DEMONSTRATORS.

    /// DAVIES ACT ///

    WE'RE DEEPLY TROUBLED BY REPORTS OF BEATINGS AND OTHER ACTS OF INTIMIDATION (BY THE GOVERNMENT) DIRECTED AGAINST PERSONS IDENTIFIED WITH THE OPPOSITION AND AGAINST REPRESENTATIVES OF THE MEDIA.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE SPOKESMAN SAYS IN THE WAKE OF THE FINANCIAL CRISIS, THE UNITED STATES HOPES ALBANIA WILL RECOMMIT ITSELF TO THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF DEMOCRACY, HUMAN RIGHTS AND THE RULE OF LAW.

    U-S OFFICIALS ARE CALLING ON ALBANIAN POLITICAL LEADERS TO PUT PAST ANIMOSITIES ASIDE AND TO WORK TOGETHER TO REVERSE THEIR COUNTRY'S ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL DOWNWARD SLIDE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/RP/RRM
    25-Feb-97 3:12 PM EST (2012 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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