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Voice of America, 97-10-07

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] ALBRIGHT-NATO (L) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)
  • [02] EDITORIAL: U.S. CONDEMNS VIOLENCE IN SERBIA
  • [03] EURO STOCKS (S-ONLY) BY PAUL FRANCUCH (LONDON)
  • [04] ITALY EARTHQUAKES (L-ONLY) BY PEGGY POLK (ROME)
  • [05] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)
  • [06] NATO - CENTRAL EUROPE BY ART CHIMES (PRAGUE)
  • [07] NORTHERN IRELAND BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (LONDON)
  • [08] TUESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [09] TURKEY / KURDS BY KYLE KING (DIYARBAKIR)
  • [10] YUGO WAR CRIMES (L ONLY) BY GILLIAN SHARPE (THE HAGUE)

  • [01] ALBRIGHT-NATO (L) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)

    DATE=10/7/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-220946
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE SENATE FOREIGN RELATIONS COMMITTEE HAS OPENED A SERIES OF HEARINGS ON THE EXPANSION OF THE NATO ALLIANCE TO INCLUDE POLAND, HUNGARY AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC. AS DIPLOMATIC CORRESPONDENT RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS, SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT HAS MADE THE CASE FOR ENLARGEMENT IN THE FIRST HEARING.

    TEXT: THIS IS NOT THE SENATE DEBATE ON AMENDING THE NATO TREATY. THAT WILL COME NEXT YEAR AFTER NATO COMPLETES TALKS WITH THE NEW MEMBERS. THE CHAIRMAN OF THE FOREIGN RELATIONS COMMITTEE, JESSE HELMS, IS HOLDING SIX HEARINGS TO EXPLORE THE WISDOM OF ADDING NEW MEMBERS TO THE ALLIANCE.

    SENATOR HELMS TELLS SECRETARY OF STATE ALBRIGHT HE WANTS TO MAKE AMERICAN ALLIES PAY THEIR SHARE OF THE BILL OF ENLARGEMENT.

    ///HELMS ACT///

    JUST LAST WEEK, OUR ALLIES MADE CLEAR TO US THAT THEY EXPECT YOU, THE UNITED STATES -- MEANING THE AMERICAN TAXPAYERS -- TO PAY THE LION'S SHARE (MAJORITY) OF THE COST OF EXPANSION. NOW, MADAM SECRETARY RATIFICATION OF NATO EXPANSION BY THE UNITED STATES SENATE MAY BE VERY WELL SUCCEED OR FAIL ON THE QUESTION OF WHETHER YOU CAN DISSUADE OUR ALLIES OF THAT NOTION.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE ORIGINAL ESTIMATES OF 27 TO 35 BILLION DOLLARS OVER TEN YEARS FOR THE AMERICAN SHARE OF NATO ENLARGEMENT HAVE BEEN PUT ASIDE AS THE ALLIANCE STUDIES THE ACTUAL COSTS OF BRINGING HUNGARY, POLAND AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC UP TO NATO STANDARDS.

    SECRETARY OF STATE ALBRIGHT TELLS THE SENATE COMMITTEE SHE WILL MAKE SURE THE BURDEN IS SHARED EQUALLY.

    /// ALBRIGHT ACT ///

    I KNOW THAT YOU ARE HOLDING SEPARATE HEARINGS ON THIS QUESTION BUT I WILL SAY THIS: I AM CONVINCED THAT THE COSTS OF EXPANSION IS REAL BUT AFFORDABLE. I AM CERTAIN OUR PROSPECTIVE ALLIES ARE WILLING AND ABLE TO PAY THEIR SHARE BECAUSE IN THE LONG RUN IT WILL BE CHEAPER FOR THEM TO UPGRADE THEIR FORCES WITHIN THE ALLIANCE THAN OUTSIDE IT. I WILL INSIST THAT OUR OLD ALLIES SHARE THIS BURDEN FAIRLY.

    //END ACT///

    SEVERAL MEMBERS OF THE SENATE COMMITTEE QUESTIONED THE EFFECT ON RELATIONS WITH RUSSIA WHEN NATO ENLARGES. SECRETARY OF STATE ALBRIGHT TOLD THEM SHE IS OPTIMISTIC ABOUT THE FUTURE IN RUSSIA BUT ONE SHOULD NOT DISMISS THE POSSIBILITY THAT RUSSIA COULD RETURN TO THE PATTERNS OF ITS PAST.

    SENATOR HELMS QUESTIONS WHETHER NATO HAS ALREADY GIVEN TOO MANY CONCESSIONS TO RUSSIA IN THE NEW COUNCIL THAT MET LAST WEEK IN NEW YORK. SECRETARY OF STATE ALBRIGHT ASSURED THE COMMITTEE THAT THE COUNCIL WILL ONLY BRIEF RUSSIA ON DECISIONS NATO HAS ALREADY MADE AND RUSSIA WILL NOT BE PRIVY TO ANY INTERNAL DELIBERATIONS.

    NATO ENLARGEMENT APPEARS TO HAVE SUPPORT FROM BOTH REPUBLICANS AND DEMOCRATS ON THE SENATE FOREIGN RELATIONS COMMITTEE -- BUT SECRETARY OF STATE ALBRIGHT WAS WARNED, PRESIDENT CLINTON WILL HAVE TO EXPLAIN THE CASE TO THE AMERICAN PEOPLE TO ASSURE SENATE APPROVAL. (SIGNED)
    NEB/RP/MMK
    07-Oct-97 1:25 PM EDT (1725 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] EDITORIAL: U.S. CONDEMNS VIOLENCE IN SERBIA

    DATE= OCTOBER 8, 1997
    TYPE= EDITORIAL
    NUMBER= 0-07471
    CONTENT=THIS IS THE ONLY EDITORIAL BEING RELEASED FOR BROADCAST
    OCTOBER 8, 1997.

    ANNCR: THE VOICE OF AMERICA PRESENTS DIFFERING POINTS OF VIEW ON A WIDE VARIETY OF ISSUES. NEXT, AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT.

    VOICE:

    THE SERBIAN GOVERNMENT HEADED BY PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC HAS RECENTLY CRACKED DOWN ON PEACEFUL DEMONSTRATORS IN BELGRADE AND KOSOVO AND MOVED TO REVERSE DEMOCRATIC ELECTION RESULTS FROM LAST NOVEMBER.

    ON SEPTEMBER 30TH, THE BELGRADE CITY ASSEMBLY REMOVED BELGRADE MAYOR ZORAN DJINDJIC FROM HIS POST. IT ALSO DISMISSED THE DIRECTOR OF THE RADIO AND TELEVISION STATION STUDIO B, AND PACKED STUDIO B'S MANAGING BOARD WITH SUPPORTERS OF THE SERBIAN RENEWAL MOVEMENT AND THE SOCIALIST PARTY OF SERBIA. APPROXIMATELY TEN-THOUSAND PEOPLE GATHERED PEACEFULLY IN BELGRADE TO PROTEST THESE ACTIONS. THE POLICE USED EXCESSIVE FORCE TO DISPERSE THE CROWD, RESULTING IN NUMEROUS INJURIES AND ARRESTS.

    THE U.S. IS DEEPLY CONCERNED OVER THIS ATTEMPT TO REASSERT POLITICAL CONTROL OVER THE MEDIA IN SERBIA. THE U.S. HOLDS PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC ACCOUNTABLE FOR THESE ACTIONS.

    IN KOSOVO, ABOUT TEN-THOUSAND ETHNIC ALBANIANS, MOST OF THEM STUDENTS, STAGED A PEACEFUL RALLY IN PRISTINA ON OCTOBER 1ST. THEY WERE PROTESTING THE SERBIAN GOVERNMENT'S UNWILLINGNESS TO OPEN THE UNIVERSITY OF PRISTINA TO EDUCATION IN THE ALBANIAN LANGUAGE. THE POLICE RESPONDED WITH WATER CANNONS, TEAR GAS AND NIGHT STICKS. REPORTS INDICATE THAT POLICE INJURED MANY OF THE DEMONSTRATORS AND DETAINED EJUB STATOVCI, RECTOR OF THE KOSOVO ALBANIAN UNIVERSITY, AS WELL AS A NUMBER OF STUDENT LEADERS.

    THE UNITED STATES CONDEMNS THE USE OF FORCE AGAINST PEACEFUL DEMONSTRATORS AND THE ARBITRARY DETENTION OF MR. STATOVCI AND STUDENT LEADERS. THE LEADERSHIP IN BELGRADE, INCLUDING PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC, BEARS RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE EXCESSIVE USE OF FORCE BY POLICE. THE U.S. CALLS ON THE SERBIAN GOVERNMENT TO ESTABLISH A DIALOGUE WITH THE KOSOVAR ALBANIAN LEADERSHIP AND TO RESPECT THE RIGHT OF CITIZENS TO PEACEFUL ASSEMBLY.

    ANNCR:

    THAT WAS AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO BE HEARD ON THIS ISSUE, PLEASE WRITE TO EDITORIALS, VOICE OF AMERICA, WASHINGTON, D-C, 20547, U-S-A. YOU MAY ALSO SEND US A FAX AT (202) 619-1043. YOUR COMMENTS MAY BE USED ON THE AIR.
    07-Oct-97 2:20 PM EDT (1820 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] EURO STOCKS (S-ONLY) BY PAUL FRANCUCH (LONDON)

    DATE=10/7/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-220949
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE MAJOR STOCK MARKETS OF WESTERN EUROPE TURNED IN A MIXED PERFORMANCE TUESDAY. FOR THE CLOSING NUMBERS, HERE IS PAUL FRANCUCH FROM OUR OFFICES IN LONDON.

    TEXT: THERE WAS NOT ANY MAJOR ECONOMIC NEWS TO GIVE MARKETS IN EUROPE A CLEAR SENSE OF DIRECTION.

    PROFIT-TAKING AND A WEAKER DOLLAR PROMPTED INVESTORS IN PARIS TO SELL RATHER THAN BUY. THE "CAC 40" INDEX OF STOCKS CLOSED 13-AND-ONE-HALF POINTS LOWER. IN LONDON, A SENSE INTEREST RATES SET BY THE BANK OF ENGLAND WOULD REMAIN STEADY FOR THE TIME BEING WAS ENOUGH TO GIVE THE "FINANCIAL TIMES" 100 INDEX A BOOST. THE "FOOTSIE" CLOSED UP JUST OVER FIVE-AND-A-HALF POINTS. FRANKFURT'S "DAX 30" INDEX OF STOCKS POSTED A GAIN OF JUST OVER FIVE POINTS AS WELL.

    MEANWHILE ON THE CURRENCY MARKETS, THE DOLLAR WAS MOSTLY LOWER AGAINST EUROPE'S MAJOR CURRENCIES.

    GOLD PRICES FELL A BIT -- DOWN 20-CENTS AN OUNCE IN LONDON -- TO CLOSE AT 332-DOLLARS-15 CENTS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PCF/RAE
    07-Oct-97 1:33 PM EDT (1733 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] ITALY EARTHQUAKES (L-ONLY) BY PEGGY POLK (ROME)

    DATE=10/7/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-220931
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: ANOTHER STRONG NEW EARTHQUAKE HAS HIT CENTRAL ITALY. AS PEGGY POLK REPORTS, THE TREMOR SENT PEOPLE FLEEING INTO THE STREETS AND CAUSED FURTHER DAMAGE TO THE 13TH CENTURY BASILICA OF ST. FRANCIS OF ASSISI.

    TEXT: THE NEW EARTHQUAKE SHOOK CENTRAL ITALY SHORTLY BEFORE ONE-THIRTY IN THE MORNING LOCAL TIME, JUST HOURS AFTER A SEVERE THUNDERSTORM HAD HIT THE AREA.

    THE QUAKE MEASURED CLOSE TO FIVE ON THE RICHTER SCALE AND WAS STRONG ENOUGH TO BE FELT IN ROME, ABOUT 100 KILOMETERS SOUTHWEST OF THE EPICENTER IN THE REGION OF UMBRIA. IT WAS THE 11TH DAY OF TREMORS IN UMBRIA AND THE NEIGHBORING REGION OF THE MARCHES.

    PEOPLE FLED INTO THE STREETS IN PANIC, JOINING THOUSANDS ALREADY LEFT HOMELESS FROM PREVIOUS TREMORS AND LIVING IN TENTS, TRAILERS AND CARS.

    AT LEAST FIVE PEOPLE WERE HOSPITALIZED FOR MINOR INJURIES.

    MORE DAMAGE WAS REPORTED TO THE 13TH CENTURY BASILICA WHERE ST. FRANCIS OF ASSISI IS BURIED AND TO ITS CONVENT. THE CONTINUING TREMORS AND AFTERSHOCKS HAVE PREVENTED THE START OF RESTORATION WORK.

    FOUR OF THE 11 PEOPLE KILLED IN THE FIRST AND STRONGEST EARTHQUAKES ON SEPTEMBER 26TH WERE CRUSHED UNDER VAULTING THAT COLLAPSED AS THEY WERE EXAMINING DAMAGE TO THE CHURCH.

    AUTHORITIES HAVE NOW CLOSED OFF THE ENTIRE CENTER OF ASSISI, WHICH IS USUALLY CROWDED WITH PILGRIMS AT THIS TIME OF YEAR.

    THE NEW QUAKES ALSO CAUSED MORE DAMAGE TO MEDIEVAL TOWERS IN THE TOWNS OF FOLIGNO AND NOCERA UMBRA, AS WELL AS HOUSES AND RAILWAY BRIDGES. ELECTRICITY WAS ALSO CUT IN SOME AREAS.

    EXPERTS SAID THE RECURRING SHARP AFTERSHOCKS WERE HIGHLY UNUSUALLY, BUT THE NUMBER OF TREMORS APPEAR TO BE SUBSIDING. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PP/PCF/KL
    07-Oct-97 10:11 AM EDT (1411 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)

    DATE=10/7/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-220959
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT: (VOICED BY MAX RUSTON)

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES WERE UP TODAY (TUESDAY) ON INCREASING OPTIMISM ABOUT CORPORATE EARNINGS. V-O-A'S CORRESPONDENT BRECK ARDERY REPORTS FROM NEW YORK.

    TEXT: THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE CLOSED AT 81 HUNDRED 78, UP 78 POINTS, ALMOST ONE PERCENT. THE INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE IS WITHIN 81 POINTS OF ITS RECORD HIGH, SET LAST AUGUST. THE STANDARD AND POOR'S 500 INDEX CLOSED AT 983, UP 10 POINTS.

    ANALYSTS SAY TRADERS ARE INCREASINGLY CONFIDENT THAT THE THIRD-QUARTER EARNINGS OF AMERICAN CORPORATIONS WILL BE GENERALLY GOOD. THE CONSENSUS IS THAT THOSE COMPANIES EXPECTING DISAPPOINTING EARNINGS HAVE ALREADY ISSUED WARNINGS TO THAT EFFECT.

    THE SUN MICROSYSTEMS COMPANY IS SUING THE MICROSOFT CORPORATION. SUN CLAIMS MICROSOFT HAS VIOLATED A CONTRACT IN USING SUN'S JAVA COMPUTER LANGUAGE. MICROSOFT DENIES THE CHARGE AND CALLS SUN'S SUIT "OUTRAGEOUS."

    /// REST OPT FOR LONG ///

    WAL-MART, THE HUGE AMERICAN DISCOUNT STORE CHAIN, SAYS IT WILL OPEN MORE THAN 100 NEW LOCATIONS NEXT YEAR, MORE THAN HALF OF THEM OUTSIDE THE UNITED STATES. RICKLE, A CHAIN OF 49 HARDWARE AND HOME IMPROVEMENT STORES IN THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES, WILL GO OUT OF BUSINESS AT THE END OF THE YEAR RESULTING IN A LOSS OF 27 HUNDRED JOBS. RICKLE, WHICH HAD BEEN OPERATING UNDER BANKRUPTCY LAW PROTECTION FOR ALMOST TWO YEARS, SAYS THERE IS NO PROSPECT OF A SUCCESSFUL REORGANIZATION.

    U-S COMMERCE SECRETARY WILLIAM DALEY HAS BEGUN A THREE DAY VISIT TO CHINA TO DISCUSS TRADE ISSUES. A SPOKESMAN SAYS MR. DALEY WILL URGE CHINESE LEADERS TO INCREASE IMPORTS AS A WAY TO REDUCE CHINA'S HUGE TRADE SURPLUS WITH THE UNITED STATES.(SIGNED) NEB/NY/BA/LSF/PT
    07-Oct-97 4:59 PM EDT (2059 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] NATO - CENTRAL EUROPE BY ART CHIMES (PRAGUE)

    DATE=10/7/97
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-37724
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE U-S CONGRESS HAS OPENED WHAT IS EXPECTED TO BE SIX WEEKS OF HEARINGS ON EXPANDING NATO MEMBERSHIP TO INCLUDE FORMER COMMUNIST COUNTRIES OF CENTRAL EUROPE. IT IS A CRITICAL FOREIGN POLICY MOMENT FOR THE UNITED STATES, AS WELL AS A FUNDAMENTAL AND HISTORIC TRANSITION FOR THE FIRST EXPECTED NEW MEMBERS. DETAILS FROM V-O-A CENTRAL EUROPE CORRESPONDENT ART CHIMES IN PRAGUE.

    TEXT: POLAND, HUNGARY AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC ARE THE LIKELY FIRST MEMBERS OF AN EXPANDED NATO. THEY WERE INVITED LAST JULY TO BEGIN NEGOTIATIONS AND, IF ALL GOES WELL, THEY WILL PROBABLY JOIN IN 1999, FOLLOWED LATER PERHAPS BY OTHER COUNTRIES IN THE REGION.

    FROM THE PROSPECTIVE NEW MEMBERS' STANDPOINT, SEVERAL ISSUES LOOM LARGE IN THE NEGOTIATIONS, INCLUDING MODERNIZATION OF THEIR ARMED FORCES, INTEGRATION WITH NATO'S COMMAND STRUCTURE, AND THE COSTS OF PAYING FOR IT ALL.

    DESPITE THE COSTS, CENTRAL EUROPE'S POLITICAL LEADERS GENERALLY VIEW NATO MEMBERSHIP AS DESIRABLE FOR TWO REASONS. FIRST, AFTER 40 YEARS OF SOVIET DOMINATION, THERE REMAIN LINGERING DOUBTS ABOUT THE STABILITY OF RUSSIAN DEMOCRACY, AND NATO MEMBERSHIP WOULD PROVIDE PROTECTION AGAINST A POSSIBLE FUTURE THREAT FROM THE EAST. SECOND, AND PERHAPS EVEN MORE IMPORTANT, AN INVITATION TO JOIN NATO IS A BADGE OF ACCEPTANCE -- A SIGN THAT THE WESTERN POWERS REALLY CONSIDER THEM A "MEMBER OF THE CLUB," SO TO SPEAK.

    MAINSTREAM POLITICAL PARTIES IN ALL THREE COUNTRIES SUPPORT NATO MEMBERSHIP. BUT THE PUBLIC IS A BIT MORE DIVIDED: OPINION POLLS INDICATE SUPPORT FOR NATO MEMBERSHIP IS STRONGEST IN HUNGARY AND POLAND, WHILE IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC, SUPPORT IS INCREASING THOUGH IT CURRENT STANDS AT ONLY ABOUT 50 PERCENT. HOWEVER, MANY CZECHS DON'T REALLY CARE -- PERHAPS BECAUSE UNLIKE ITS NEIGHBORS, THE CZECH REPUBLIC HAS NO COMMON BORDER WITH THE FORMER SOVIET UNION.

    THE LACK OF CZECH ENTHUSIASM WAS NOTED RECENTLY BY A SENIOR AMERICAN OFFICIAL WHO VISITED THE THREE CANDIDATE COUNTRIES. ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF DEFENSE FRANK KRAMER ALSO NOTED A DECLINE IN THE CZECH MILITARY BUDGET. OFFICIALS IN PRAGUE SAY THE REDUCTION WAS PART OF AN AUSTERITY PROGRAM, AND THEY SAY MILITARY SPENDING WILL INCREASE.

    ALL THREE COUNTRIES HAVE TO MODERNIZE THEIR MILITARY ANYWAY, SO THE COSTS OF MEETING NATO MEMBERSHIP STANDARDS MAY BE NOT MUCH MORE -- AND PERHAPS EVEN A BIT LESS -- THAN THE BILL FOR UPGRADING ON THEIR OWN.

    ALTHOUGH IT NOW SEEMS CERTAIN THAT THE FIRST WAVE OF NEW NATO MEMBERS WILL INCLUDE -- AT MOST -- THE THREE CENTRAL EUROPEAN COUNTRIES, EARLIER THIS YEAR A LARGER EXPANSION WAS UNDER CONSIDERATION. ROMANIA AND SLOVENIA WERE SERIOUS CONTENDERS FOR A WHILE, UNTIL PRESIDENT CLINTON MADE CLEAR THAT AMERICA WOULD ONLY SUPPORT THREE NEW MEMBERS THIS TIME. ROMANIA AND SLOVENIA REMAIN LEADING CANDIDATES FOR THE NEXT ROUND OF NATO EXPANSION. BUT THAT'S NOT LIKELY UNTIL AFTER THE TURN OF THE CENTURY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/ART/PCF
    07-Oct-97 11:40 AM EDT (1540 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] NORTHERN IRELAND BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (LONDON)

    DATE=10/7/97
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-37722
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: POLITICAL TALKS ON THE FUTURE OF NORTHERN IRELAND ARE UNDERWAY OUTSIDE BELFAST. ANDRE DE NESNERA SPOKE WITH ONE OF THE PARTICIPANTS ABOUT THE ISSUES BEING DISCUSSED, AND ABOUT THE PROSPECTS FOR AN AGREEMENT -- AND HE FILED THIS REPORT FROM LONDON.

    TEXT: POLITICIANS REPRESENTING EIGHT OF THE 10 MAJOR PARTIES IN NORTHERN IRELAND HAVE BEGUN NEGOTIATIONS WHICH THE BRITISH AND IRISH GOVERNMENTS HOPE WILL LEAD TO AN AGREEMENT BY NEXT MAY.

    JOHN ALDERDICE IS LEADER OF NORTHERN IRELAND'S ALLIANCE PARTY WHICH BRINGS TOGETHER CATHOLICS AND PROTESTANTS, NATIONALISTS, AND UNIONISTS. AS A PARTICIPANT IN THE TALKS, HE IS DIRECTLY INVOLVED IN SHAPING THE FUTURE OF THE BRITISH PROVINCE.

    MR. ALDERDICE SAYS NEGOTIATORS ARE INVOLVED IN DISCUSSING THREE SEPARATE, BUT INTERRELATED ISSUES -- WHAT NORTHERN IRELAND POLITICIANS CALL STRANDS. HE SAYS THE FIRST STRAND INVOLVES AGREEING ON INTERNAL GOVERNMENT STRUCTURES FOR NORTHERN IRELAND WHICH MAY MEAN ESTABLISHING A PARLIAMENT.

    /// ALDERDICE ACT ///

    SECONDLY, IT IS CLEAR THAT WE SHARE A SMALL ISLAND WITH THE REPUBLIC OF IRELAND AND WE HAVE GOT TO HAVE GOOD AND CONSTRUCTIVE WORKING RELATIONSHIPS THERE. SO WE ARE, IN THE SECOND STRAND, TALKING ABOUT STRUCTURES AND RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN NORTH AND SOUTH. AND THIRDLY, BECAUSE AGAIN, WE ARE SMALL, OFFSHORE ISLANDS OFF EUROPE AND WE HAVE A LOT IN COMMON, BOTH POLITICALLY AND CULTURALLY, WE HAVE GOT TO FIND A PEACEFUL WAY OF CO-EXISTING. SO THOSE ARE THE THREE STRANDS -- WITHIN NORTHERN IRELAND, BETWEEN NORTH AND SOUTH, AND BETWEEN THE UNITED KINGDOM AND THE REPUBLIC OF IRELAND.

    /// END ACT ///

    POLITICIANS IN NORTHERN IRELAND ARE NOW CONCENTRATING ON SUBSTANTIVE ISSUES AFTER AN AGREEMENT WAS REACHED SEVERAL-WEEKS AGO SEPARATING POLITICAL TALKS FROM THE QUESTION OF DECOMMISSIONING WEAPONS -- IN OTHER WORDS, HOW TO GET PARAMILITARY GROUPS TO HAND IN THEIR ARMS. THAT ISSUE IS NOW BEING DEALT WITH BY A SPECIAL INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION.

    MR. ALDERDICE SAYS IT IS ESSENTIAL TO GET -- THE BULLET AND THE BOMB -- OUT OF NORTHERN IRELAND'S POLITICAL LANDSCAPE FOR GOOD.

    /// 2ND ALDERDICE ACT ///

    YOU CANNOT HOPE TO HAVE A DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY IN WHICH THERE ARE PRIVATE ARMIES AND PEOPLE WITH LARGE STOCKPILES OF WEAPONS. IF THAT WERE TO HAPPEN, OF COURSE, WE WOULD EITHER FIND OURSELVES FALLING BACK INTO ANOTHER TERRORIST CAMPAIGN -- OR IF THAT DID NOT HAPPEN, WEAPONS FALLING INTO THE HANDS OF ORGANIZED CRIMINALS.

    /// OPT ///

    AND OF COURSE PEOPLE RIGHT ACROSS EUROPE AND THE UNITED STATES, THE FORMER SOVIET BLOC, AND OTHER PLACES KNOW EXACTLY WHAT ORGANIZED CRIME IS LIKE IF IT HAS ACCESS TO WEAPONS. AND WE CERTAINLY DO NOT WANT TO SEE THAT SORT OF THING HAPPENING IN NORTHERN IRELAND.

    /// END OPT ///

    /// END ACT ///

    THE BRITISH AND IRISH GOVERNMENTS HAVE SET A DEADLINE OF NEXT MAY FOR COMPLETING AN AGREEMENT ON NORTHERN IRELAND. MR. ALDERDICE SAYS THE TASK FACING POLITICIANS IS DAUNTING SINCE THE ACCORD HAS TO BRING TOGETHER TWO IRRECONCILABLE VIEWS -- THOSE OF UNIONISTS WHO WANT NORTHERN IRELAND TO REMAIN PART OF GREAT BRITAIN, AND THOSE OF NATIONALISTS WHO FAVOR A UNITED IRELAND.

    THOSE TWO VERY DIVERGENT VIEWS ARE BEST REPRESENTED BY THE HARDLINE PRO-BRITISH DEMOCRATIC UNIONIST PARTY WHICH IS BOYCOTTING THE TALKS -- AND SINN FEIN, THE POLITICAL WING OF THE IRISH REPUBLICAN ARMY WHICH IS AT THE NEGOTIATING TABLE.

    /// OPT ///

    MR. ALDERDICE SAYS IT WILL PROBABLY BE IMPOSSIBLE TO REACH AN AGREEMENT ACCEPTABLE TO ALL SINCE THE MORE EXTREME UNIONIST AND NATIONALIST PARTIES WILL FIND IT DIFFICULT TO COMPROMISE.

    /// OPT // 3RD ALDERDICE ACT ///

    I FRANKLY THINK THE BEST THING WE CAN HOPE FOR -- FOR PARTIES LIKE SINN FEIN AND THE DEMOCRATIC UNIONIST PARTY -- IS THAT THEY MIGHT ACQUIESCE IN SOMETHING. I DOUBT IF WE CAN GET THEM TO A POINT WHERE THEY WOULD AGREE WITH IT -- BUT WE MIGHT GET THEM TO THE POINT WHERE THEY ARE PREPARED TO ACQUIESCE IN AN HONORABLE COMPROMISE AND NOT RETURN TO VIOLENCE AND THE THREAT OF VIOLENCE, AND THAT AT LEAST MIGHT BE SOMETHING -- AND INDEED IT MIGHT BE ENOUGH TO CREATE STABILITY.

    /// END ACT // END OPT ///

    JOHN ALDERDICE BELIEVES THE BEST CHANCE FOR SUCCESS IS AN ACCORD GETTING THE SUPPORT OF THE MAIN PRO-BRITISH AND NATIONALIST PARTIES. BUT WHATEVER THE OUTCOME, HE SAYS THE FINAL AGREEMENT MUST BE ACCEPTABLE TO THE PEOPLE OF NORTHERN IRELAND WHO WILL BE ASKED THEIR VIEWS IN A REFERENDUM. (SIGNED)
    NEB/ADEN/JWH/RAE
    07-Oct-97 9:01 AM EDT (1301 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] TUESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=10/07/97
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-10381
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-T ON TUESDAY OCTOBER 7TH //

    INTRO: A PAIR OF IMPORTANT STORIES, THE BUNGLED ASSASSINATION OF A HAMAS TERRORIST OFFICIAL BY ISRAELI AGENTS IN JORDAN AND THE SUDDEN APPEARANCE OF VIDEOTAPES OF PRESIDENT CLINTON'S FUND-RAISING COFFEES IN THE WHITE HOUSE HAS TAKEN THE EDITORIALS COLUMNS BY STORM THIS TUESDAY.

    OTHER TOPICS INCLUDE: THE PROMISE KEEPERS RALLY; CAMPAIGN REFORM EFFORTS IN CONGRESS; THE LINE ITEM VETO'S LATEST USE; AND CHANGING THE FLAG OF THE RED CROSS.

    NOW, HERE IS ________________ WITH TODAY'S EDITORIALS DIGEST.

    TEXT: THE U-S PRESS IS FOLLOWING THE LEAD OF THE ISRAELI PRESS AND CASTIGATING PRIME MINISTER BENJAMIN NETANYAHU FOR APPARENTLY ORDERING THE ASSASSINATION ATTEMPT LAST WEEK ON A HAMAS OFFICIAL IN AMMAN, JORDAN. THE OFFICIAL SURVIVED AND TWO ALLEGED MOSSAD AGENTS WERE BEATEN BY HIS BODYGUARDS AND CAPTURED BY THE JORDANIANS, LATER TO BE TRADED TO ISRAEL FOR THE RELEASE OF THE ELDERLY FOUNDER OF HAMAS, SHEIK AHMED YASSIN.

    ONE OF THE HARSHEST COMMENTS COMES FROM THE MIAMI HERALD, UNDER A HEADLINE CALLING THE PRIME MINISTER "HIS OWN WORST ENEMY." THE EDITORIAL SPELLS OUT WHAT THE INCIDENT HAS ACCOMPLISHED IN THE VIEW OF FLORIDA'S BIGGEST PAPER.

    VOICE: "YESTERDAY, AFTER 10 DAYS OF TUMULT CAUSED BY THAT EPISODE, THE FALLOUT RAINING DOWN ON MR. NETANYAHU'S REPUTATION HAD REACHED VESUVIAN PROPORTIONS. HIS INEPT ACTION HAS: INFURIATED CANADA, WHICH RECALLED ITS AMBASSADOR IN ANGER OVER ISRAEL'S ISSUING FALSE CANADIAN PASSPORTS TO THE SPIES. WEAKENED MR. NETANYAHU'S MORAL SUASION TO DEMAND THAT PALESTINIAN AUTHORITY PRESIDENT YASSER ARAFAT CRACK DOWN HARDER ON HAMAS AND ISLAMIC JIHAD TERRORISTS. THAT'S BECAUSE, IN A SWAP FOR THE TWO MOSSAD AGENTS, MR. NETANYAHU YESTERDAY FREED 20 PALESTINIANS AND JORDANIANS JAILED FOR VIOLENCE, AND WILL FREE 40 TO 50 MORE WITHIN TWO WEEKS. .... [AND PERMIT] THE RETURN TO GAZA CITY OF THE AILING HAMAS FOUNDER, SHEIK AHMED YASSIN ........ UNDERCUT KING HUSSEIN, ISRAEL'S BEST FRIEND AMONG ARAB RULERS. ..... POTENTIALLY REDUCED MR. ARAFAT'S AUTHORITY AMONG THE PALESTINIANS. ..... ISRAEL HAS ENOUGH TO CONTEND WITH FROM ISLAMIC TERRORISTS WHO DON'T WANT MIDEAST PEACE UNDER ANY TERMS. ISRAELIS INCREASINGLY MUST WONDER WHAT TO DO ABOUT A PRIME MINISTER WHO SOMETIMES ACTS LIKE HIS OWN WORST ENEMY."

    TEXT: THE EMBATTLED PRIME MINISTER DOESN'T GET ANY HELP EITHER FROM THE LOS ANGELES TIMES.

    VOICE: "IN SUM, [MR.] NETANYAHU HAS BROUGHT ABOUT PRECISELY THE REVERSE OF WHAT HE SET OUT TO ACHIEVE. HAMAS IS STRONGER, THE ISRAEL-JORDAN RELATIONSHIP IS DEEPLY STRAINED, MOSSAD, ISRAEL'S C-I-A , IS DISCREDITED, AND THE PRIME MINISTER IS EXPOSED AS A PRIME BUNGLER ...."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: AND IN THE WASHINGTON POST, THIS GLUM ASSESSMENT:

    VOICE: "THE INCIDENT IS MORE THAN A PASSING SCANDAL. FEW OTHERS WOULD DENY THAT, IN THE PALESTINIAN SUICIDE BOMBERS, ISRAEL HAS A FIENDISH SECURITY PROBLEM THAT REQUIRES AND JUSTIFIES SPECIAL SECURITY MEASURES. BUT IT MATTERS GREATLY HOW ISRAEL ADDRESSES THAT PROBLEM. COUNTERTERRORISM HAS ITS CLAIMS ..... BUT COUNTERTERRORISM CONDUCTED WITHOUT DUE REGARD FOR THE CIRCUMSTANCES OF EACH OPERATION ENDS UP DIMINISHING ISRAELI SECURITY."

    TEXT: AND FINALLY, THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR STRIVES TO FIND SOMETHING POSITIVE OUT OF THE DEBACLE, SUGGESTING:

    VOICE: "WHAT DO ALL THESE NEW WRINKLES MEAN FOR MIDDLE EASTERN PEACEMAKING? WILL [MR.] NETANYAHU BE FORCED TO BECOME MORE ACCOMMODATING ON LIMITING SETTLEMENT ACTIVITY IN THE WEST BANK AND JERUSALEM'S NEIGHBORHOODS? WHAT'S THE IMPORT OF SHEIKH YASSIN'S MODERATING TONE? AT THE LEAST, THERE'S GREATER FLUIDITY, WHICH COULD BE AN IMPROVEMENT OVER THE SET-IN-CONCRETE IMPASSES OF THE LAST FEW MONTHS."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: RETURNING TO U-S DOMESTIC ISSUES, AND THE LATEST EPISODE IN THE DOMESTIC SCANDAL INVOLVING ALLEGED CAMPAIGN FUND-RAISING IRREGULARITIES COMMITTED DURING THE RUN-UP TO THE 1996 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION, WE HAVE NEW VIDEO TAPES OF PRESIDENT CLINTON GREETING WEALTHY DONORS AT THE WHITE HOUSE. OF THE LATE RELEASE OF THESE PREVIOUSLY UNKNOWN TAPES, THE WASHINGTON POST SAYS:

    VOICE: "WHITE HOUSE OFFICIALS ARE SHOCKED THAT ANYONE WOULD ACCUSE THEM OF FOOT-DRAGGING. THEY OF COURSE ARE AS AWARE AS ANYONE THAT THE SENATE COMMITTEE'S WRIT RUNS OUT DECEMBER 31 AND IS UNLIKELY TO BE RENEWED. THAT'S 86 DAYS AND COUNTING. BUT DELAY? THE DISCOVERY OF THE TAPES WAS THE RESULT OF A 'GOOD FAITH EFFORT' BY THE WHITE HOUSE STAFF .... SAID LANNY DAVIS, THE ATTORNEY WHOSE JOB IT IS TO LAY THE DAILY GLOSS ON SUCH MATTERS. ..... IT'S ENOUGH TO GIVE GOOD FAITH A BAD NAME. THE ATTITUDE OF THIS WHITE HOUSE TOWARD THE TRUTH WHENEVER IT IS IN TROUBLE IS THE SAME. DON'T TELL IT, OR TELL ONLY AS MUCH OF IT AS YOU ABSOLUTELY MUST, OR AS HELPS."

    TEXT: THE NEW YORK TIMES FOCUSES ITS WRATH, AS IT HAS DONE FOR MONTHS, ON ATTORNEY GENERAL JANET RENO AND HER CONSISTENT REFUSAL TO APPOINT AN INDEPENDENT COUNSEL TO INVESTIGATE THE FUND-RAISING SCANDAL.

    VOICE: "IT HAS BEEN A FULL YEAR SINCE MS. RENO WAS CONFRONTED WITH INITIAL EVIDENCE OF THE BIGGEST POLITICAL MONEY SCANDAL IN A GENERATION, AND HER RESPONSE SHOWS LITTLE CONCERN WITH HER PLACE IN HISTORY AS A CUSTODIAN OF THE JUSTICE DEPARTMENT. SO IT IS UNLIKELY THAT SHE WOULD BE CHAGRINED THAT ONLY ONE DAY AFTER SHE ASSURED CONGRESS .... THERE WAS NO NEED FOR AN INDEPENDENT COUNSEL TO INVESTIGATE FOREIGN MONEY OR INFLUENCE PEDDLING ON WHITE HOUSE PREMISES, TIME MAGAZINE DISCLOSED THE EXISTENCE OF VIDEOTAPES OF WHITE HOUSE FUND-RAISING EVENTS THAT SHE AND HER INVESTIGATORS HAD NOT FOUND. ..... THEIR BELATED DISCOVERY DEMONSTRATES THAT JUSTICE HAS CONDUCTED A SLIPSHOD INVESTIGATION ....."

    TEXT: IN RELATED COMMENTARY, ON THE EFFORT TO PRODUCE CAMPAIGN FINANCE REFORM IN THE SENATE, THE NEW YORK TIMES ADDS, IN A RELATED EDITORIAL:

    VOICE: "TRENT LOTT, THE MAJORITY LEADER, HAS PICKED TODAY TO BURY THE MCCAIN-FEINGOLD CAMPAIGN FINANCE REFORM BILL IN THE SENATE. HE HOPES THE PUBLIC WILL NOT NOTICE HIS EFFORT TO BLOCK A BAN ON UNLIMITED CONTRIBUTIONS FROM CORPORATIONS, RICH INDIVIDUALS AND LABOR UNIONS THAT SUSTAIN BOTH PARTIES. BUT ... THESE DONATIONS ARE DRIVING THE PUBLIC TOWARD CYNICISM AND DESPAIR ABOUT THEIR POLITICAL LEADERS."

    TEXT: IN CONTINUING REACTION TO THE WEEKEND'S HUGE PROMISE KEEPERS RALLY ON THE MALL IN WASHINGTON, THE [NEW YORK] DAILY NEWS SAYS;

    VOICE: ".... ANY ORGANIZATION THAT CAN BRING TOGETHER SEVERAL HUNDRED THOUSAND MEN TO PUBLICLY PROCLAIM COMMITMENT TO HOME AND FAMILY - - AND, YES, GOD - - HAD TO HAVE SOME VALUE. IT CERTAINLY HAS A GROWING INFLUENCE. WHICH IS PROBABLY WHY IT'S SO FRIGHTENING TO THE NARROW-MINDED LIBERAL SEGMENT OF SOCIETY."

    TEXT: PRESIDENT CLINTON'S USE OF THE LINE-ITEM VETO THIS WEEK TO KILL SEVERAL HUNDRED MILLION DOLLARS OF SUPPOSEDLY UNNEEDED MILITARY PROJECTS DRAWS THIS RESPONSE FROM USA TODAY:

    VOICE: "ACCORDING TO ONE COUNT, THE MILITARY CONSTRUCTION BILL CONTAINED ONE-POINT-ONE-BILLION DOLLARS IN CONGRESSIONAL ADD-ONS, FOR EVERYTHING FROM GYMS AND BACHELOR DORMITORIES TO TRAINING CENTERS AND A CHAPEL. SENATOR JOHN MCCAIN, REPUBLICAN OF ARIZONA, CITED 129 POTENTIAL VETO TARGETS. BY NAILING LESS THAN A THIRD OF THEM, [MR.] CLINTON WAS RECOGNIZING POLITICAL REALITY: HE HAS THE VETO, BUT CONGRESS CAN RETALIATE. IF HE USED HIS POWER TOO FREELY, HE MIGHT FIND HIS OWN PROJECTS ZEROED OUT [LEFT WITHOUT FUNDS] IN THE FUTURE."

    TEXT: AND LASTLY, THE BOSTON GLOBE SAYS THE LONG STANDING TRADITIONAL SYMBOL OF THE RED CROSS, THE INVERTED SWISS FLAG, MAY BE CHANGED TO A MORE 'CULTURALLY NEUTRAL SYMBOL ' - - NEITHER THE RED CROSS NOR THE RED CRESCENT THAT IS USED IN SOME COUNTRIES. THAT IS TO AVOID ITS MISIDENTIFICATION AS A CHRISTIAN SYMBOL. SAYS THE GLOBE:

    VOICE: ".... IT IS A SAD SIGN OF THE TIMES THAT RED CROSS PERSONNEL CAN NO LONGER OPERATE UNDER AN EMBLEM THAT HAS SERVED THEM SO WELL."

    TEXT: AND ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF EDITORIALS FROM TODAY'S U-S PAPERS.
    NEB/ANG/KL
    07-Oct-97 10:59 AM EDT (1459 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [09] TURKEY / KURDS BY KYLE KING (DIYARBAKIR)

    DATE=10/7/97
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-37720
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: AS TURKISH MILITARY FORCES CONTINUE THEIR CROSS BORDER RAIDS AGAINST KURDISH REBELS BASED IN IRAQ, CRITICS OF THE OPERATION SAY THE LONG-RUNNING WAR WITH THE SEPARATISTS IS CREATING NEW PROBLEMS FOR THE TURKISH GOVERNMENT. V-O-A'S KYLE KING REPORTS FROM THE SOUTHEASTERN TURKISH CITY OF DIYARBAKIR.

    TEXT:

    /// MUSIC - FADE UNDER ///

    TWO TURKISH SOLDIERS AND A POLICEMAN OF KURDISH DESCENT ARE SINGING AND DRINKING TOGETHER AT A SMALL BAR TUCKED AWAY IN DOWNTOWN DIYARBAKIR.

    THIS IS AN UNREMARKABLE EVENT IN THE CITY -- DESPITE TURKEY'S SIMMERING DISPUTE OVER KURDISH RIGHTS AND THE THOUSANDS OF LIVES LOST IN THE LONG-RUNNING BATTLE WITH REBELS OF THE KURDISTAN WORKERS PARTY, OR P-K-K

    TO A FOREIGNER, THERE ARE FEW OUTWARD SIGNS OF ETHNIC TENSION IN THE MOSTLY-KURDISH CITY, WHICH TRACES ITS HISTORY BACK TO THE DAYS BEFORE THE ROMANS CAME AND BUILT THE NOW-CRUMBLING BLACK STONE WALLS THAT ONCE SURROUNDED THE ANCIENT TOWN.

    LIFE HERE IS HARD. UNEMPLOYMENT IS HIGH. THERE IS LITTLE REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT, AND THE STRAINS OF THE KURDISH ISSUE ARE ON THE MINDS OF MANY PEOPLE. KURDS, WHO SPEAK THEIR OWN LANGUAGE, SAY THE MAIN PROBLEM IS THAT THEY ARE NOT ABLE TO EXPRESS THEIR CULTURAL IDENTITY. SCHOOLS AND GOVERNMENT BUSINESS ARE CONDUCTED IN TURKISH THROUGHOUT THE COUNTRY.

    A SPOKESMAN FOR ONE OF THE FEW KURDISH PARTIES IN TURKEY, FEHMI DEMIR, SAYS THE PROBLEM WILL NOT BE RESOLVED UNTIL KURDISH GROUPS ARE REPRESENTED IN PARLIAMENT.

    /// DEMIR ACT - KURDISH - FADE UNDER ///

    THE GOVERNMENT HAS TO BE DEMOCRATIC, MR. DEMIR SAYS. IF THE TURKISH GOVERNMENT AGREES, TURKS AND KURDS CAN LIVE IN PEACE. THEY MAY HAVE DIFFERENT SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEM, BUT THE IMPORTANT THING, HE SAYS, IS THAT THERE CAN BE A PEACEFUL POLITICAL SOLUTION.

    HUMAN RIGHTS GROUPS SAY THE TURKISH GOVERNMENT'S LONG-RUNNING WAR AGAINST SEPARATIST REBELS OF THE P-K-K IS THE MAIN CAUSE OF TURKEY'S WELL-KNOWN HUMAN RIGHTS PROBLEMS.

    A SPOKESWOMAN FOR THE TURKISH HUMAN RIGHTS ASSOCIATION, YILDIZ TEMURTURKAN, SAYS TENS OF THOUSANDS OF KURDS HAVE BEEN KILLED IN THE FIGHTING, AND MANY HAVE BEEN DISPLACED BY THE GOVERNMENT POLICY OF RELOCATING PEOPLE FROM VILLAGES SUSPECTED OF AIDING THE REBELS.

    /// TEMURTURKAN ACT ///

    MILLIONS OF KURDISH PEOPLE LIVING IN EASTERN TURKEY WERE EXILED FROM THEIR LAND WITHOUT ANY JOB, WITHOUT ANY MONEY WITHOUT ANY SHELTER. NOW THEY HAVE TO LIVE IN BIG CITIES. MOST OF THEM CAN NOT SPEAK TURKISH SO THIS IS THE MAIN PROBLEM OF TURKEY.

    /// END ACT ///

    SOME ANALYSTS, LIKE SEDIF KORAY OF THE INSTITUTE FOR TURKISH STUDIES IN GERMANY, SAY THEY ARE CONCERNED THAT IF A SOLUTION TO THE KURDISH PROBLEM IS NOT FOUND, THE GROWING HUMAN COST OF THE CONFLICT, INCLUDING LIVES LOST IN FIGHTING AND THE REPRESSION OF KURDISH IDENTITY, WILL HARDEN ATTITUDES ON BOTH SIDES.

    /// KOREY ACT ///

    WHAT MAKES ME AFRAID IS THAT IF THIS GOES ON A COUPLE OF YEARS, TEN YEARS MAYBE, WE WILL ARRIVE AT A STATE WHERE THERE IS SO MUCH HATRED IN THE HEARTS OF A LOT OF PEOPLE, THAT A PEACEFUL SOLUTION WILL BE VERY DIFFICULT.

    /// END ACT ///

    MOST ANALYSTS AGREE THAT THE SOLUTION TO THE PROBLEM IS NOT THE CREATION OF A SEPARATE STATE, AN IDEA MOST KURDS DO NOT SEEM TO SUPPORT EITHER. RATHER, MANY ANALYSTS THEY SAY THE GOVERNMENT WILL HAVE TO FIND A WAY TO EASE THE REPRESSIVE POLICIES THAT ALIENATE KURDS, WHILE AT THE SAME TIME ENGAGING THE SEPARATIST REBELS IN A BATTLE THAT HAS ALREADY COST MORE THAN 26-THOUSAND LIVES. (SIGNED)
    NEB/KBK/JWH
    07-Oct-97 5:18 AM EDT (0918 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [10] YUGO WAR CRIMES (L ONLY) BY GILLIAN SHARPE (THE HAGUE)

    DATE=10/7/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-220925
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: JUDGES AT THE U-N YUGOSLAV WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL SAY A MAN WHO PLEADED GUILTY TO CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY DID NOT KNOW WHAT HE WAS DOING, AND THEY ORDERED HE ENTER A NEW PLEA. AS GILLIAN SHARPE REPORTS FROM THE HAGUE, BOSNIAN-CROAT DRAZEN ERDEMOVIC HAD EARLIER CONFESSED TO TAKING PART IN A MASS EXECUTION OF MUSLIMS AFTER THE FALL OF THE SREBRENICA U-N SAFE AREA.

    TEXT: DRAZEN ERDEMOVIC LOOKED DISAPPOINTED AND CONFUSED AS HE LISTENED TO THE APPEAL COURT'S JUDGEMENT. HE HAD BEEN HOPING HIS 10-YEAR SENTENCE FOR CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY WOULD BE REDUCED.

    ALTHOUGH HE IS A CROAT, ERDEMOVIC WAS PART OF A BOSNIAN-SERB EXECUTION SQUAD WHICH KILLED UP TO 12-HUNDRED MUSLIM MEN AND BOYS IN ONE DAY. HE HAD PLEADED GUILTY, BUT ARGUED HE WAS ACTING UNDER DURESS. HE SAID IF HE HAD NOT TAKEN PART IN THE EXECUTIONS, HE WOULD HAVE BEEN KILLED.

    BUT APPEAL COURT JUDGES SAID THE IDEA OF DURESS COULD NEVER BE USED AS A FULL DEFENSE FOR A SOLDIER WHO KILLS INNOCENT PEOPLE. ERDEMOVIC WAS THE FIRST -- AND SO FAR THE ONLY -- PERSON TO ENTER A GUILTY PLEA AT THE TRIBUNAL.

    JUDGES SAID HIS PLEA HAD BEEN VOLUNTARY. BUT PRESIDING JUDGE ANTONIO CASSESE SAID THE JUDGES BELIEVE ERDEMOVIC HAD NOT BEEN FULLY INFORMED OF HIS CHOICES AT THE TIME.

    /// CASSESE ACT ///

    THE APPELLANT DID NOT UNDERSTAND THE NATURE AND CONSEQUENCES OF PLEADING GUILTY IN GENERAL, NOR DID HE UNDERSTAND THE NATURE OF THE CHARGES AGAINST HIM AND THE DISTINCTION BETWEEN THE ALTERNATIVE CHARGES.

    /// END ACT ///

    JUDGE CASSESE SAID THAT -- FOR EXAMPLE -- ERDEMOVIC COULD HAVE PLEADED GUILTY TO A LESSER CHARGE OF WAR CRIMES, WHICH MIGHT HAVE MEANT A SHORTER SENTENCE.

    THE APPEAL JUDGES SAID ERDEMOVIC'S DEFENSE COUNSEL, THE JUDGES IN THE ORIGINAL CASE, AND THE PROSECUTION HAD ALL FAILED TO MAKE SURE HE UNDERSTOOD HIS OPTIONS.

    ERDEMOVIC -- SPEAKING AT THE END OF THE HEARING -- SAID HE DOES NOT WANT A NEW TRIAL BECAUSE HE FEELS HE HAS ALREADY PUT HIS FAMILY THROUGH ENOUGH. (SIGNED)
    NEB/GS/JWH
    07-Oct-97 7:27 AM EDT (1127 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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