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Voice of America, 97-10-08

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] COSTS OF NATO EXPANSION BY REBECCA MCMENAMIN (PENTAGON)
  • [02] EDITORIAL: U.S. CONDEMNS VIOLENCE IN SERBIA
  • [03] CZECH / E-U BY ART CHIMES (PRAGUE)
  • [04] EURO STOCKS (S-ONLY) BY PAUL FRANCUCH (LONDON)
  • [05] TURKEY / GREECE (L ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)
  • [06] WEDNESDAY'S HEADLINES BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [07] YUGO WAR CRIMES (L) BY GILLIAN SHARPE (THE HAGUE)
  • [08] YUGO WAR CRIMES (S) BY GILLIAN SHARPE (THE HAGUE)

  • [01] COSTS OF NATO EXPANSION BY REBECCA MCMENAMIN (PENTAGON)

    DATE=10/8/97
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-37737
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO EXPANSION MOVED TO CENTER STAGE IN THE U-S CONGRESS THIS WEEK AS SENATORS BEGAN DEBATE ON THE PROPOSED ADMISSION OF THREE NEW MEMBERS TO THE ALLIANCE -- HUNGARY, POLAND AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC. ONE OF THE BIG ISSUES IN THE DEBATE IS HOW MUCH EXPANSION WILL COST. THE FINAL ESTIMATES ARE NOT YET IN, BUT V-O-A'S REBECCA MCMENAMIN HAS THIS REPORT ON HOW U-S OFFICIALS BELIEVE THE MONEY SHOULD BE SPENT.

    TEXT: AS NATO DIPLOMATS TRY TO DRAFT A FINAL COST-ANALYSIS FOR EXPANSION, TWO KEY ISSUES ARE AT STAKE. FIRST -- WHAT NEW AND CURRENT NATO MEMBERS NEED TO DO TO ENSURE SUCCESSFUL MILITARY INTEGRATION? AND SECOND, WHO IS GOING TO PAY FOR THESE CHANGES?

    THE TRIO OF NEW INDUCTEES, POLAND, HUNGARY AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC, FACE A DIFFICULT TASK OF TRANSFORMING THEIR ARMIES TO MEET WESTERN STANDARDS -- WHILE ALSO TRYING TO REBUILD ECONOMIES DEVASTATED BY DECADES OF COMMUNISM.

    U-S ASSISTANT DEFENSE SECRETARY FRANKLIN KRAMER RECENTLY RETURNED FROM A VISIT TO EUROPE THAT INCLUDED EXTENSIVE TALKS ON NATO EXPANSION. HE IS URGING THE NEW ALLIANCE MEMBERS TO FOCUS ON UPGRADING THEIR TRAINING AND COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS, RATHER THAN MAKING MORE EXPENSIVE PURCHASES OF HIGH-TECH WEAPONS.

    /// KRAMER ACT ///

    THE KINDS OF CHANGES THEY NEED TO MAKE FOCUS FIRST AND FOREMOST ON HAVING A PERSONNEL SYSTEM THAT IS COMPATIBLE WITH THE NATO COUNTRIES' SYSTEMS, FOR EXAMPLE, THAT THEY HAVE A GOOD NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICER CORPS, WHICH IS AT THE HEART OF ALL WESTERN MILITARIES. SECOND, THEY NEED TO DO THE KIND OF TRAINING THAT NATO MILITARIES DO AND UNDERSTAND THE NATO DOCTRINE SO THEY CAN WORK WELL WITH THE NATO COUNTRIES. THIRD, THEY NEED TO BE ABLE TO COMMUNICATE WELL WITH NATO COUNTRIES, THEY NEED TO HAVE THE KIND OF RECEPTION FACILITIES THAT WOULD ALLOW REINFORCEMENT IF NECESSARY, THEY NEED TO HAVE COMPATIBLE LOGISTICS-TYPE SYSTEMS.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE CURRENT TIMEFRAME FOR EXPANSION CALLS FOR THE THREE CENTRAL EUROPEAN STATES TO BECOME FULL-FLEDGED NATO MEMBERS IN 1999. BUT SECRETARY KRAMER SUGGESTS THEY WILL BE ABLE TO STRETCH OUT MILITARY REFORMS OVER A LONGER TIME PERIOD, GIVEN THAT NATO NO LONGER FACES A COLD WAR-STYLE THREAT.

    /// KRAMER ACT ///

    I DON'T THINK IT'S REALLY A QUESTION OF A DEADLINE. IN THE CURRENT ENVIRONMENT, WE HAVE A NUMBER OF YEARS FOR THEM TO GET READY. THE IMPORTANT THING IS THAT THEY HAVE A PLAN TO TRANSFORM THEIR MILITARIES AND THAT IT HAPPEN OVER A REASONABLE PERIOD OF TIME.

    /// END ACT ///

    SPREADING OUT THE TIMETABLE FOR REFORMS COULD BE CRITICAL, GIVEN THE COSTS INVOLVED. A PENTAGON STUDY ESTIMATES THAT NATO EXPANSION WILL COST UP TO 35-BILLION DOLLARS OVER THE NEXT DOZEN YEARS. UNDER THE U-S SCENARIO, NEARLY HALF OF THAT WOULD BE PAID BY THE NEW MEMBER STATES. THE UNITED STATES' SHARE WOULD BE TWO-BILLION DOLLARS, LEAVING THE REST, OR SOME 16-BILLION DOLLARS, TO OTHER CURRENT NATO MEMBERS.

    THE HIGH COST FOR WEST EUROPEAN GOVERNMENTS HAS MANY OFFICIALS THERE BALKING AT THE U-S CONCEPT. BUT SECRETARY KRAMER MAINTAINS MUCH OF THIS MONEY WOULD BE SPENT ON ALREADY-PLANNED AND MUCH-NEEDED MODERNIZATION PROGRAMS.

    STEPHEN CAMBONE, AN ANALYST WITH THE CENTER FOR STRATEGIC AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES IN WASHINGTON, AGREES.

    /// CAMBONE ACT ///

    A GOOD DEAL OF THE COSTS THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION SEES BEING SHOULDERED BY THE NATO ALLIES WOULD BE COSTS THAT THEY WOULD INCUR IN MODERNIZATION IN ANY EVENT. THE DIFFICULTY WITH THAT IS IN FRANCE, AND IN GERMANY, AND TO A LESSER EXTENT IN BRITAIN, FOR EXAMPLE, THE AMOUNT OF MONEY AVAILABLE FOR DEFENSE BUDGETS IS DECLINING. THEY ARE STILL GOING THROUGH THEIR OWN ECONOMIC RESTRUCTURING WHILE AT SAME TIME THEY'RE TRYING TO BRING ON A NEW MONETARY SYSTEM THROUGHOUT THE EUROPEAN UNION AND, THIRDLY, ADD NEW MEMBERS TO THE EUROPEAN UNION. THOSE THREE ACTIVITIES ON THE DOMESTIC SIDE OF THE LEDGER HAVE ABSORBED A FAIR SHARE OF AVAILABLE RESOURCES WITHIN NATO STATES.

    /// END ACT ///

    IN ADDITION, SOME WEST EUROPEAN OFFICIALS COMPLAIN THAT THE U-S PUSH FOR MODERNIZATION IS JUST A PLOY TO FORCE NATO MEMBERS TO GO ON A BUYING BINGE OF TOP-OF-THE-LINE AMERICAN WEAPONS.

    ASSISTANT DEFENSE SECRETARY KRAMER REJECTS THIS CHARGE. AND MR. CAMBONE NOTES THAT EVEN IF THERE IS A NEW MARKET FOR AMERICAN DEFENSE FIRMS, ITS SIZE WOULD BE MUCH SMALLER THAN MANY EXPECTED BECAUSE OF BUDGET CONSTRAINTS.

    GIVEN THESE CONTROVERSIES, MR. CAMBONE PREDICTS NATO'S FINAL ESTIMATE OF THE COST OF EXPANSION WILL BE LOWER THAN THE U-S FIGURE.

    /// CAMBONE ACT ///

    I THINK WHAT IT WILL PROBABLY END UP RESULTING IN IS THE OVERALL ESTIMATE OF COSTS WILL BE DRIVEN DOWN. WHICH IS TO SAY THAT THE LEVEL OF SUPPORT THAT NATO AS A GROUP IS GOING TO BE WILLING TO PROVIDE TO NEW MEMBER STATES WILL NOT BE AS HIGH AS SOME OF THE NEW MEMBER STATES HAD HOPED.

    /// END ACT ///

    NATO'S COST PROJECTIONS ARE TO BE READY IN DECEMBER. THAT WOULD CLEAR THE WAY FOR LAWMAKERS IN THE 16 CURRENT NATO STATES TO VOTE EARLY NEXT YEAR ON WHETHER TO RATIFY ENLARGEMENT OF THE ALLIANCE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/RJM/RRM
    08-Oct-97 4:41 PM EDT (2041 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] EDITORIAL: U.S. CONDEMNS VIOLENCE IN SERBIA

    DATE= OCTOBER 8, 1997
    TYPE= EDITORIAL
    NUMBER= 0-07471
    CONTENT=THIS IS THE ONLY EDITORIAL BEING RELEASED FOR BROADCAST
    OCTOBER 8, 1997. PLEASE NOTE CHANGE IN FIRST GRAPH, FIRST SENTENCE.

    ANNCR: THE VOICE OF AMERICA PRESENTS DIFFERING POINTS OF VIEW ON A WIDE VARIETY OF ISSUES. NEXT, AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT.

    VOICE:

    THE YUGOSLAV GOVERNMENT HEADED BY PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC HAS RECENTLY CRACKED DOWN ON PEACEFUL DEMONSTRATORS IN BELGRADE AND KOSOVO AND MOVED TO REVERSE DEMOCRATIC ELECTION RESULTS FROM LAST NOVEMBER.

    ON SEPTEMBER 30TH, THE BELGRADE CITY ASSEMBLY REMOVED BELGRADE MAYOR ZORAN DJINDJIC FROM HIS POST. IT ALSO DISMISSED THE DIRECTOR OF THE RADIO AND TELEVISION STATION STUDIO B, AND PACKED STUDIO B'S MANAGING BOARD WITH SUPPORTERS OF THE SERBIAN RENEWAL MOVEMENT AND THE SOCIALIST PARTY OF SERBIA. APPROXIMATELY TEN-THOUSAND PEOPLE GATHERED PEACEFULLY IN BELGRADE TO PROTEST THESE ACTIONS. THE POLICE USED EXCESSIVE FORCE TO DISPERSE THE CROWD, RESULTING IN NUMEROUS INJURIES AND ARRESTS.

    THE U.S. IS DEEPLY CONCERNED OVER THIS ATTEMPT TO REASSERT POLITICAL CONTROL OVER THE MEDIA IN SERBIA. THE U.S. HOLDS PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC ACCOUNTABLE FOR THESE ACTIONS.

    IN KOSOVO, ABOUT TEN-THOUSAND ETHNIC ALBANIANS, MOST OF THEM STUDENTS, STAGED A PEACEFUL RALLY IN PRISTINA ON OCTOBER 1ST. THEY WERE PROTESTING THE SERBIAN GOVERNMENT'S UNWILLINGNESS TO OPEN THE UNIVERSITY OF PRISTINA TO EDUCATION IN THE ALBANIAN LANGUAGE. THE POLICE RESPONDED WITH WATER CANNONS, TEAR GAS AND NIGHT STICKS. REPORTS INDICATE THAT POLICE INJURED MANY OF THE DEMONSTRATORS AND DETAINED EJUB STATOVCI, RECTOR OF THE KOSOVO ALBANIAN UNIVERSITY, AS WELL AS A NUMBER OF STUDENT LEADERS.

    THE UNITED STATES CONDEMNS THE USE OF FORCE AGAINST PEACEFUL DEMONSTRATORS AND THE ARBITRARY DETENTION OF MR. STATOVCI AND STUDENT LEADERS. THE LEADERSHIP IN BELGRADE, INCLUDING PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC, BEARS RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE EXCESSIVE USE OF FORCE BY POLICE. THE U.S. CALLS ON THE SERBIAN GOVERNMENT TO ESTABLISH A DIALOGUE WITH THE KOSOVAR ALBANIAN LEADERSHIP AND TO RESPECT THE RIGHT OF CITIZENS TO PEACEFUL ASSEMBLY.

    ANNCR:

    THAT WAS AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO BE HEARD ON THIS ISSUE, PLEASE WRITE TO EDITORIALS, VOICE OF AMERICA, WASHINGTON, D-C, 20547, U-S-A. YOU MAY ALSO SEND US A FAX AT (202) 619-1043. YOUR COMMENTS MAY BE USED ON THE AIR.
    08-Oct-97 10:07 AM EDT (1407 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] CZECH / E-U BY ART CHIMES (PRAGUE)

    DATE=10/8/97
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-37734
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: LIKE OTHER FORMERLY COMMUNIST COUNTRIES IN EUROPE, THE CZECH REPUBLIC WANTS TO JOIN THE EUROPEAN UNION. MANY CZECHS ASSUME IT IS A DONE DEAL, BUT THE HEAD OF A THINK TANK (RESEARCH INSTITUTE) ATTACHED TO THE FOREIGN MINISTRY CAUTIONS HIS COUNTRY MAY BE TAKING THINGS FOR GRANTED. V-O-A CENTRAL EUROPE CORRESPONDENT ART CHIMES REPORTS FROM PRAGUE.

    TEXT: EXPANSION OF THE EUROPEAN UNION IS LIKELY SOON AFTER THE TURN OF THE CENTURY. THE MOST OBVIOUS CONTENDERS INCLUDE POLAND, HUNGARY, AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC IN CENTRAL EUROPE, PLUS ESTONIA, CYPRUS, AND SLOVENIA.

    HERE IN PRAGUE, MOST CZECHS TAKE FOR GRANTED THEY WILL BE INCLUDED IN THE FIRST ROUND OF INVITATIONS. BUT A LEADING POLITICAL SCIENTIST SAYS THE CZECH REPUBLIC SHOULD NOT TREAT E-U MEMBERSHIP AS AN ENTITLEMENT. THE DIRECTOR OF THE INSTITUTE OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS, OTTO PICK, SAYS CZECHS ARE VICTIMS OF THEIR OWN PROPAGANDA.

    // PICK ACTUALITY //

    FOR FOUR YEARS, THE CZECHS WERE TOLD BY THEIR GOVERNMENT AND EUROPE WAS TOLD BY THEM, AND THE WORLD WAS TOLD BY THIS GOVERNMENT, THAT THE CZECH REPUBLIC WAS THE MOST SUCCESSFUL OF THE POST-COMMUNIST COUNTRIES IN TERMS OF IMPLEMENTING DEMOCRACY AND IN TERMS OF CARRYING OUT ITS ECONOMIC TRANSFORMATION PROCESS.

    /// END ACTUALITY ///

    PROFESSOR PICK'S INSTITUTE IS ATTACHED TO THE FOREIGN MINISTRY, BUT RECEIVES MUCH OF ITS FUNDING FROM OUTSIDE SOURCES TO HELP MAINTAIN ITS INDEPENDENCE.

    MR. PICK SAYS DEMOCRACY IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC IS FIRMLY ESTABLISHED, AND THERE IS NO CONCERN IN THAT DEPARTMENT. BUT HE SAYS THE TRANSITION TO A MARKET ECONOMY STILL REMAINS FAR FROM COMPLETE. PRIVATIZATION IS STILL A WORK IN PROGRESS, AND THE KEY BANKING SECTOR REMAINS LARGELY IN STATE HANDS.

    IN GENERAL, HE SAYS, THE CZECH MARKET ECONOMY REMAINS POORLY DEVELOPED COMPARED WITH EXISTING E-U MEMBERS.

    /// PICK ACTUALITY ///

    BUT THEN IT IS ALSO IN BAD SHAPE IN SOME RESPECTS IN RELATION TO OTHER POST-COMMUNIST COUNTRIES. FOR EXAMPLE, THERE IS A CAPITAL MARKET WHICH WORKS IN POLAND. THERE IS A CAPITAL MARKET WHICH WORKS IN HUNGARY. THERE ISN'T ONE HERE. I THINK THE REASON FOR THAT IS THAT THE LEGISLATION CONTROLLING THESE SECTORS OF ACTIVITY HAS BEEN VERY UNSATISFACTORY AND IS FULL OF GAPS.

    /// END ACTUALITY ///

    PROFESSOR PICK SAYS THE CZECH GOVERNMENT SHOULD MOVE FASTER AND MORE AGGRESSIVELY ON PASSING LAWS NECESSARY TO SPEED THE REMAINING ECONOMIC CHANGES NEEDED AND TO BRING CZECH LAWS INTO HARMONY WITH LEGISLATION IN OTHER E-U MEMBER COUNTRIES -- AS REQUIRED FOR MEMBERSHIP.

    IF E-U MEMBERSHIP IS DELAYED, PROFESSOR PICK SAYS GOVERNMENT LEADERS MUST TAKE SOME OF THE RESPONSIBILITY, SAYING THEY HAVE A TENDENCY TO POSTPONE DECISIONS. BUT HE SAYS THE CZECH PUBLIC MUST ALSO BEAR SOME OF THE BLAME.

    /// PICK ACTUALITY ///

    I THINK IT'S EVERYBODY'S FAULT REALLY. IT'S EASY TO BLAME THE GOVERNMENT, AND THE GOVERNMENT HAS ACCEPTED SOME OF THE BLAME. IT'S EASY TO BLAME THE GOVERNMENT, SAYING YOU TOLD US WE WERE OKAY. BUT EVERYBODY WAS VERY HAPPY TO BELIEVE IT. NOBODY QUESTIONED IT. IN THAT SENSE, IT'S EVERYBODY'S FAULT. BUT THE GOVERNMENT IS SUPPOSED TO LEAD, AND THE GOVERNMENT, I THINK, LED IN THE WRONG DIRECTION IN THIS RESPECT.

    /// END ACTUALITY ///

    THE CZECH REPUBLIC'S INVITATION TO MEMBERSHIP IN THE EUROPEAN UNION, HE SAYS, OPTIMISTICALLY COULD COME BY 2008. THAT IS SEVERAL YEARS LATER THAN E-U OFFICIALS HAVE SAID NEW MEMBERS MIGHT BE ADMITTED. (SIGNED)
    NEB/ART/JWH/KL
    08-Oct-97 12:30 PM EDT (1630 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] EURO STOCKS (S-ONLY) BY PAUL FRANCUCH (LONDON)

    DATE=10/8/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-221012
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: MAJOR STOCK MARKETS OF WESTERN EUROPE TOOK A CUE FROM WALL STREET AND CLOSED MOSTLY LOWER WEDNESDAY. PAUL FRANCUCH HAS THE CLOSING NUMBERS FROM LONDON.

    TEXT: IN GERMANY -- WHERE THE KEY "DAX 30" INDEX IN FRANKFURT ENDS TRADING BEFORE WALL STREET ACTIVITY GETS FULLY UNDERWAY -- INVESTORS SAW THEIR STOCK PORTFOLIOS GAIN VALUE. THE DAX CLOSED UP ALMOST 40 POINTS. BUT IN PARIS, WHERE TRADING ON THE "CAC 40" STOCK INDEX RUNS LATER, THE CLOSING FIGURE WAS DOWN 40 POINTS. HERE IN LONDON -- EUROPE'S BIGGEST STOCK MARKET -- THE "FINANCIAL TIMES" 100 INDEX LOST 43-AND-A-HALF POINTS AT THE CLOSE.

    ON CURRENCY MARKETS, THE U-S DOLLAR FELL A HALF PFENNIG AGAINST THE GERMAN MARK AND ALMOST A CENT-AND-A-HALF AGAINST THE BRITISH POUND.

    GOLD PRICES ADVANCED IN LONDON. THE CLOSING PRICE FIX WAS SET AT 334-DOLLARS-FIVE CENTS AN OUNCE -- UP TWO-DOLLARS-40 CENTS FROM TUESDAY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PCF/RRM
    08-Oct-97 2:38 PM EDT (1838 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] TURKEY / GREECE (L ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)

    DATE=10/8/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-220986
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: TURKEY HAS OFFICIALLY COMPLAINED TO NATO ABOUT WHAT IT CALLS GREECE'S SUPPORT FOR KURDISH SEPARATIST REBELS OF THE KURDISTAN WORKERS PARTY, THE P-K-K. AMBERIN ZAMAN REPORTS FROM ANKARA.

    TEXT: TURKISH FOREIGN MINISTER ISMAIL CEM TOLD A NEWS CONFERENCE TURKEY HAD FORWARDED A COMPLAINT AGAINST FELLOW NATO MEMBER GREECE TO THE WESTERN MILITARY ALLIANCE.

    TURKEY SENT THE COMPLAINT FOLLOWING A REPORT IN A BRITISH SUNDAY NEWSPAPER, THE OBSERVER, THAT QUOTED A FORMER P-K-K MILITANT AS SAYING GREECE WAS PROVIDING BASES AND ARMS TO THE REBEL GROUP IN SUPPORT OF ITS 13-YEAR ARMED CAMPAIGN AGAINST THE TURKISH MILITARY.

    TURKEY HAS LONG ACCUSED GREECE OF BACKING THE P-K-K. TURKISH OFFICIALS HAVE ACCUSED THE GREEK AUTHORITIES OF TRAINING REBELS TO MAKE BOMBS TARGETING TURKEY'S MULTI-BILLION DOLLAR TOURIST INDUSTRY.

    EARLIER THIS YEAR, A SENIOR TURKISH MILITARY OFFICIAL SAID RETIRED GREEK MILITARY OFFICERS WERE TRAINING P-K-K REBELS AT THEIR CAMPS IN NORTHERN IRAQ. HE SAID THE BODY OF A GREEK OFFICER HAD BEEN FOUND IN NORTHERN IRAQ FOLLOWING AN ANTI-REBEL OPERATION BY TURKISH FORCES IN THE AREA. GREECE DENIES THE CHARGES.

    WESTERN OBSERVERS SAY THEY FEAR THE LATEST ACCUSATIONS WILL FURTHER ESCALATE TENSIONS BETWEEN TURKEY AND GREECE. THE TWO COUNTRIES REMAIN AT ODDS ON A NUMBER OF ISSUES, INCLUDING THE DIVIDED MEDITERRANEAN ISLAND OF CYPRUS AND TERRITORIAL RIGHTS IN THE AGEAN SEA.

    THE TWO NATO ALLIES NEARLY WENT TO WAR LAST YEAR OVER A TINY ISLAND IN THE AGEAN CALLED IMIA KARDAK. BUT, FOREIGN MINISTER CEM INSISTED WEDNESDAY THAT TURKEY IS DETERMINED -- IN HIS WORDS TO SOLVE ITS PROBLEMS WITH GREECE THROUGH PEACEFUL MEANS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/AZ/JWH/RAE
    08-Oct-97 9:49 AM EDT (1349 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] WEDNESDAY'S HEADLINES BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=10/08/97
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-10383
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-S-T ON WEDNESDAY OCTOBER 8TH //

    INTRO: THE REVELATION OF WHITE HOUSE VIDEO TAPES OF COFFEE MEETINGS HELD SO PRESIDENT CLINTON COULD GREET POTENTIAL LARGE DONORS TO LAST YEAR'S PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN IS A COMMON TOPIC IN THE EDITORIAL COLUMNS THIS WEDNESDAY. OTHER SUBJECTS TAKING THEIR PLACE IN THE LIMELIGHT INCLUDE: THE BUNGLED ASSASSINATION ATTEMPT THAT HAS ISRAEL IN TURMOIL; // OPT // CAMPAIGN FINANCE REFORM // END OPT //; THE CIVIL WAR IN ALGERIA; AND A TRIBUTE TO A HEROINE OF WORLD WAR TWO.

    NOW WITH SOME DETAILS, HERE IS __________________ AND TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: THE NATION'S PRESS IS OUTRAGED ABOUT THE BELATED DISCOVERY OF VIDEO TAPES SHOWING PRESIDENT CLINTON AT THE WHITE HOUSE CHATTING WITH WEALTHY CONTRIBUTORS TO THE DEMOCRATIC PARTY'S PRESIDENTIAL RACE. MANY PAPERS SEE THIS AS A FURTHER EROSION OF CONFIDENCE IN THE PRESIDENT'S CREDIBILITY. YOU GET SOME IDEA OF HOW THE HERALD-SUN IN DURHAM, NORTH CAROLINA, FEELS FROM THIS LEAD EDITORIAL HEADLINE "ANOTHER ROUND OF EXCUSES."

    VOICE: "SOMEWHERE DEEP IN THE WARRENS [BACK ROOMS] OF THE WHITE HOUSE MUST SIT A HAGGARD FRIEND OF BILL WHOSE BURDEN IN LIFE IS TO COME UP WITH EXCUSES. THE CLINTON WHITE HOUSE IS FOREVER APOLOGIZING FOR BEING LATE -- WEEKS, EVEN MONTHS -- IN TURNING OVER DOCUMENTS AND OTHER MATERIALS TO THE LEGION OF INVESTIGATORS WORKING ON THE WHITEWATER AND FUND-RAISING SCANDALS.... JUST ONE DAY AFTER ATTORNEY GENERAL JANET RENO SAID SHE WOULD NOT SEEK AN INDEPENDENT COUNSEL TO LOOK FOR POSSIBLE VIOLATIONS OF FEDERAL LAW AT THE COFFEE KLATCHES (GATHERINGS), THE WHITE HOUSE BLINDSIDED ["AMBUSHED"] HER WITH ITS ANNOUNCEMENT ABOUT THE VIDEOTAPES. [MS.] RENO MUST TRULY WONDER WHY SHE EVER LEFT MIAMI."

    TEXT: AND IN MIAMI, THE HERALD'S HEADLINE, READS SIMPLY: "WHAT ELSE IS 'MISPLACED'?" AS FLORIDA'S BIGGEST PAPER GOES ON TO ASK:

    VOICE: "IS THE CLINTON WHITE HOUSE A DEN OF CONSPIRATORS, LAW BREAKERS, AND STONEWALLERS BENT ON COVERING UP ILLEGAL CAMPAIGN-FINANCING SCHEMES IN 1996? OR ... MERELY A DEN OF AMNESIACS AND GUILELESS BUMBLERS INNOCENT OF EVERYTHING EXCEPT BEING TOO INEPT TO STAY OUT OF HARM'S WAY? THE ANSWER INCREASINGLY SEEMS TO BE: A BIT OF BOTH, BUT LEANING MORE TOWARD THE SUSPECT THAN THE SIMPLY STUPID."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: MAINE'S THE PORTLAND PRESS HERALD ADDS:

    VOICE: "ATTORNEY GENERAL JANET RENO ASSURED CONGRESS LAST WEEK THAT ... PRESIDENT CLINTON ... BROKE NO LAWS WHEN, IN THE MONTHS LEADING UP TO THE 1996 ELECTIONS, HE ENTERTAINED POLITICAL DONORS AT THE WHITE HOUSE. HOURS AFTER [MS.] RENO'S LETTER WAS ISSUED, THE NATION LEARNED THAT SHE COULD NOT HAVE REVIEWED ALL AVAILABLE EVIDENCE. IT TURNS OUT THAT THE WHITE HOUSE HAD VIDEO TAPES THAT WERE TAKEN DURING THE MEETINGS WITH DONORS.... [MS.] RENO SAID ... SHE DID NOT KNOW OF THE TAPES' EXISTENCE WHEN SHE ISSUED HER LETTER.... ONE CAN ACCEPT [MS.] RENO'S EXPLANATION AT FACE VALUE AND STILL ARGUE THAT SHE IS ILL-EQUIPPED TO BE CARRYING OUT THIS INVESTIGATION.... ONLY AN INDEPENDENT SPECIAL PROSECUTOR CAN BRING THE CREDIBILITY NEEDED TO DETERMINE WHETHER THE PRESIDENT AND VICE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES VIOLATED THE LAW."

    TEXT: AND IN USA TODAY, MORE INCREDULITY:

    VOICE: "AFTER SWEARING FOR MONTHS THAT THERE WERE NO RECORDINGS OF THE PRESIDENT'S WHITE HOUSE MEETINGS WITH CONTRIBUTORS, VIDEO FOOTAGE FROM 44 SCHMOOZEFESTS [POLITICAL GATHERINGS] IS MIRACULOUSLY FOUND.... FROM THE 1992 CAMPAIGN TO THE PRESENT, THE CLINTON CROWD HAS A CONSISTENT PATTERN OF VAGUENESS, FORGETFULNESS AND AFTER-THE-LAST-MINUTE DISCOVERIES OF KEY RECORDS. REPUBLICAN CRITICS SCREAM DELIBERATE OBSTRUCTION. WHITE HOUSE APOLOGISTS MURMUR ABOUT 'HONEST MISTAKES' AND 'ACCIDENTS.' WHEN IT COMES TO MISPLACED EVIDENCE, THIS HAS GOT TO BE ONE OF THE MOST ACCIDENT-PRONE ADMINISTRATIONS IN HISTORY."

    TEXT: IN RELATED ACTION TO PROMOTE CAMPAIGN FINANCE REFORM, THE SENATE TUESDAY PUT ASIDE THE MCCAIN-FEINGOLD BILL AIMED AT OVERHAULING THE CAMPAIGN FINANCE SYSTEM, AFTER IT REACHED A STALEMATE ON THE SENATE FLOOR. BUT THE NEW YORK TIMES SAYS ALL IS NOT LOST.

    VOICE: "THE HERETOFORE COCKY MAJORITY LEADER, TRENT LOTT, FAILED IN HIS EFFORT TO SCUTTLE [KILL] THE MCCAIN-FEINGOLD CAMPAIGN REFORM BILL BY ATTACHING AN ANTI-LABOR AMENDMENT ... WITH AT LEAST FIVE REPUBLICANS PREPARED TO JOIN 45 DEMOCRATS IN VOTING NO [TO HIS AMENDMENT]. MR. LOTT WITHDREW HIS AMENDMENT ENTIRELY RATHER THAN RISK DEFEAT.... THIS MEANS THAT IF SENATORS JOHN MCCAIN AND RUSSELL FEINGOLD CAN KEEP THEIR LEGISLATION ON THE FLOOR, THEY CAN SQUEEZE MR. LOTT INTO BEHAVING [INTO DROPPING HIS OPPOSITION TO THE BILL]."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: TURNING TO THE UNSUCCESSFUL ASSASSINATION OF A HAMAS OFFICIAL IN JORDAN BY ISRAELI AGENTS, NEWSDAY ON LONG ISLAND SUMS UP ITS REACTION IN THIS HEADLINE: "PATTERN OF BLUNDERS MARS NETANYAHU'S LEADERSHIP" ADDING:

    VOICE: "THE BOTCHED ASSASSINATION ... HAS NOT ONLY DONE SIGNIFICANT DAMAGE TO ISRAEL'S LONG-TERM NATIONAL SECURITY INTERESTS, IT HAS ALSO CALLED INTO QUESTION THE JUDGMENT OF PRIME MINISTER BENJAMIN NETANYAHU.... [MR.] NETANYAHU'S LEADERSHIP SHOWS A DISTURBING PATTERN OF BLUNDERING INTO DISASTERS WHETHER IT BE THE OPENING OF THE TUNNEL IN THE OLD CITY OF JERUSALEM, THE INITIATION OF A HOUSING PROJECT ... IN THE ARAB SECTION OF JERUSALEM, OR THIS ASSASSINATION ATTEMPT.... FOR A NATION THAT LIVES ON THE EDGE ALL THE TIME, THAT IS INTOLERABLE."

    TEXT: THE WASHINGTON TIMES IS EQUALLY HORRIFIED BY THE BLUNDER, POINTING OUT THAT ITS RAMIFICATIONS ARE VERY WIDE.

    VOICE: "... THE BOTCHED ASSASSINATION, AN EMBARRASSMENT IN ITS OWN RIGHT, HAS THE STILL WORSE CONSEQUENCE OF BUTTRESSING AN ORGANIZATION WHOSE PURPOSE HAS BEEN THE MURDER OF INNOCENT CIVILIANS. [OPT] HAMAS HAS BEEN HANDED A POLITICAL AS WELL AS PUBLIC RELATIONS VICTORY BY ISRAEL. [END OPT] ..... THE FULL REPERCUSSIONS OF THIS SITUATION HAVE YET TO BE FELT. .... ISRAEL IS PAYING THE PRICE FOR A VERY BIG MISTAKE."

    TEXT: AS REGARDS THE BRUTAL CIVIL WAR IN ALGERIA, BEING FOUGHT BETWEEN THE MILITARY GOVERNMENT AND MUSLIM MILITANTS, THE WASHINGTON POST SEES A GLIMMER OF HOPE, DESPITE THE CONTINUING SLAUGHTER OF CIVILIANS:

    VOICE: "[OPT] LAST WEEKEND WAS, UNFORTUNATELY, TYPICAL FOR ALGERIA, THESE DAYS THE BLOODIEST COUNTRY IN THE WORLD. IN A WARM-UP THURSDAY NIGHT, SOMEONE KILLED 20 MEMBERS OF A WEDDING PARTY. THIRTY-FOUR CHILDREN WERE AMONG THE 75 PEOPLE KILLED EARLY FRIDAY. A SCHOOL-BUS AMBUSH KILLED 16 MORE CHILDREN ON SUNDAY. BY SUCH INCREMENTS ALGERIA'S FIVE-YEAR WAR OF THE ARMY VERSUS ISLAMIC GUNMEN HAS TAKEN TENS OF THOUSANDS OF LIVES. .... BEYOND THE QUESTION OF BLAME FOR WAR CRIMES ARE THE FAINTLY EMERGING POLITICAL POSSIBILITIES. [END OPT] SOME OF THE ARMED ISLAMIC GROUPS, INCLUDING THE LARGEST, SEEM TO BE MOVING TOWARD A DIALOGUE WITH THE ALGERIAN AUTHORITIES. THAT PUTS A BURDEN ON THE AUTHORITIES TO OVERCOME THEIR OWN EVIDENT HESITATIONS ... AND TO REACH OUT TO ISLAMIC ELEMENTS.... IT IS AN UNCERTAIN PROSPECT, BUT THERE IS NO OTHER WAY TO FORSEE AN END TO ALGERIA'S TRAVAILS."

    TEXT: IN ANOTHER OF THE WORLD'S CLASSIC TROUBLE SPOTS, THE BALKANS, ETHNIC HATRED THERE PROVIDES "FOOD" FOR THIS THOUGHT FROM THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR.

    VOICE: "THE WARLIKE EMOTIONS THAT STILL GRIP BOSNIA AND OTHER PARTS OF FORMER YUGOSLAVIA WILL SUBSIDE AS THREE FUNDAMENTAL CONDITIONS ARE MET: THOSE RESPONSIBLE FOR ATROCITIES HAVE TO BE BROUGHT TO JUSTICE. PEOPLES TURNED AGAINST EACH OTHER BY 'ETHNIC CLEANSING' HAVE TO BE RECONCILED. (AND) THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY NEEDS TO MAKE A LONG-TERM COMMITMENT TO REMAIN IN BOSNIA UNTIL THAT COUNTRY'S REBUILDING IS MUCH FURTHER ALONG THAN IT'S LIKELY TO BE BY NEXT JUNE."

    // OPT //

    TEXT: NOW, MORE FAINT GOOD NEWS, THIS TIME ABOUT THE NORTHERN IRELAND PEACE TALKS, WHICH DRAW THIS OPTIMISTIC ANALYSIS FROM THE NEW YORK TIMES.

    VOICE: "THE SUCCESS SO FAR OF PEACE TALKS IN NORTHERN IRELAND IS THE ACHIEVEMENT OF MANY DIFFERENT GROUPS, BUT TWO UNLIKELY ORGANIZATIONS FIGURE PROMINENTLY IN THE EFFORT. THEY ARE SMALL PROTESTANT PARTIES ..... BOTH GREW OUT OF VIOLENT PARAMILITARY ORGANIZATIONS AND ARE LED LARGELY BY MEN WHO HAVE SERVED TIME IN PRISON. THEIR MEMBERS AND LEADERS ARE NOT PART OF NORTHERN IRELAND'S WHITE-COLLAR CLASS THAT HAS DOMINATED PROTESTANT POLITICS. ALL THESE FACTORS COULD HAVE HELPED TIE THE TWO PARTIES TO VIOLENCE, BUT INSTEAD HAVE INCREASED THEIR COMMITMENT TO PEACE.... THE TWO PARTIES NOW HOLD SEATS IN THE PEACE TALKS, WHICH ARE GOING BETTER THAN MANY DARED HOPE. ALL SIDES ARE NOW PRESENT."

    // END OPT //

    TEXT: AND LAST, THIS TRIBUTE TO AMERICAN SOCIALITE MARY JAYNE GOLD WHO DIED RECENTLY, AFTER AN EXEMPLARY CAREER JUST PRIOR TO WORLD WAR TWO, IN HELPING MANY INTELLECTUAL JEWS ESCAPE HITLER'S GRISLY SOLUTION TO THE "JEWISH PROBLEM." THE PORTLAND [MAINE] PRESS HERALD WRITES:

    VOICE: "BY THE TIME THE EFFORT HAD ENDED, TWO AGONIZINGLY SHORT YEARS LATER, THE COMMITTEE [SHE FOUNDED WITH JOURNALIST VARIABN FRY] HAD RESCUED ONE-THOUSAND ... ARTISTS, WRITERS AND OTHERS, AND BEEN RESPONSIBLE FOR THE RESCUE OF ONE-THOUSAND MORE. THE LIST ... READS LIKE A WHO'S WHO ... THE PAINTERS MARC CHAGALL AND MAX ERNST, ... SCULPTOR JACQUES LIPCHITZ, THE AUTHORS HANNAH ARENDT, HANS HABE AND FRANZ WERFEL AND ... NOBEL PRIZE-WINNING BIOCHEMIST OTTO MEYERHOF AMONG THEM. MARY JAYNE GOLD['S] ... PASSING AT THE AGE OF 88 [SUNDAY 10/5] IS MOURNED AS MUCH AS HER SELFLESS, GLORIOUS LIFE IS CELEBRATED."

    TEXT: WITH THAT HISTORIC NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF COMMENT FROM THE EDITORIAL PAGES OF TODAY'S U-S PRESS.
    NEB/ANG/MMK
    08-Oct-97 11:35 AM EDT (1535 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] YUGO WAR CRIMES (L) BY GILLIAN SHARPE (THE HAGUE)

    DATE=10/8/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-220985
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: TEN BOSNIAN CROATS CHARGED WITH WAR CRIMES HAVE PLEADED INNOCENT AT THE U-N'S YUGOSLAV TRIBUNAL IN THE HAGUE. THE GROUP INCLUDING ONE OF THE MOST WANTED BOSNIAN CROAT INDICTEES, DARIO KORDIC -- SURRENDERED TO THE TRIBUNAL ON MONDAY. AS GILLIAN SHARPE REPORTS FROM THE HAGUE, THE TEN ARE CHARGED IN CONNECTION WITH THE WIDESPREAD ETHNIC PERSECUTION OF MUSLIMS IN CENTRAL BOSNIA.

    TEXT: THIS IS THE LARGEST NUMBER OF WAR CRIMES SUSPECTS TO APPEAR AT THE TRIBUNAL IN A SINGLE DAY.

    FIRST TO BE ESCORTED INTO THE COURTROOM WAS BOSNIAN CROAT DARIO KORDIC -- RELAXED AND SMARTLY-DRESSED IN A DARK SUIT. FOLLOWING HIM WERE THE FORMER MAYOR OF VITEZ, THE TOWN'S FORMER POLICE CHIEF, AND A LOCAL MILITARY COMMANDER. THE OTHER SUSPECTS, SIX SOLDIERS, APPEARED IN A SECOND HEARING.

    THERE WAS NO VISIBLE EMOTION AS THEY LISTENED TO THE CHARGES BEING READ. BOSNIAN CROAT FORCES UNDER THE DIRECTION OF MR. KORDIC ARE ALLEGED TO HAVE SYSTEMATICALLY KILLED OR WOUNDED HUNDREDS OF MUSLIM CIVILIANS. IN THE WORST SINGLE INCIDENT, IN THE VILLAGE OF AHMICI, MORE THAN 100 PEOPLE ARE SAID TO HAVE BEEN KILLED.

    SPEAKING CLEARLY AND CONFIDENTLY, MR. KORDIC WAS THE FIRST TO PLEAD NOT GUILTY TO ALL THE CHARGES. THROUGH A TRANSLATOR HE HAD THIS TO ADD.

    I// KORDIC TRANSLATOR ///

    YOUR HONORS, LADIES AND GENTLEMEN, I HAVE FULLY UNDERSTOOD THE INDICTMENT, BUT YOU SAID I HEARD IT IN MY LANGUAGE, THAT IS NOT QUITE CORRECT BECAUSE IT WAS NOT IN CROATIAN. I HEAR IT IN SERBIAN. THAT IS THE COMMENT I WOULD LIKE TO MAKE.

    /// ENDS ACT ///

    MR. KORDIC'S LAWYER JADRANKA SLOKOVIC-GLUMAC SAYS HER CLIENT IS RELIEVED BUT APPREHENSIVE TO BE IN THE HAGUE. SHE SAYS HE WAS PROMISED A TRIAL WITHIN FIVE MONTHS, ALTHOUGH SHE SAYS SHE DOES NOT ACTUALLY EXPECT THAT TO HAPPEN. PROSECUTORS SAY NO GUARANTEES WERE GIVEN TO ANY OF THE MEN. EVEN SO, MRS. SLOKOVIC-GLUMAC SAYS THE MEN HAVE FAITH IN THE COURT.

    /// SLOKOVIC-GLUMAC ACT ///

    THEY ARE GUARANTEED A FAIR TRIAL. THEY ARE GUARANTEED NOT WITH STATE DEPARTMENT ANNOUNCEMENT OR SOMETHING, BUT THE STATUE OF THE COURT IS GUARANTEEING THAT. WE ALL BELIEVE IN THAT.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE JUDGE SET NO DATES FOR TRIAL.

    MONDAY'S SURRENDER DOUBLES THE TRIBUNAL'S CASELOAD. THERE ARE ONLY FOUR CELLS LEFT IN THE TRIBUNAL'S DETENTION CENTRE, BUT THE BIGGEST PROBLEM IS LIKELY TO BE THE FACT THAT, AT THE MOMENT, THE TRIBUNAL HAS ONLY ONE COURTROOM. (SIGNED)
    NEB/GS/JWH
    08-Oct-97 9:48 AM EDT (1348 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] YUGO WAR CRIMES (S) BY GILLIAN SHARPE (THE HAGUE)

    DATE=10/8/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-220970
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: ONE OF THE MOST WANTED BOSNIAN CROAT WAR CRIMES SUSPECTS HAS PLEADED INNOCENT IN A COURT APPEARANCE AT THE U-N'S TRIBUNAL IN THE HAGUE. THE SUSPECT, DARIO KORDIC, WAS ONE OF TEN BOSNIAN CROATS WHO SURRENDERED ON MONDAY. THREE OTHERS ALSO ENTERED NOT GUILTY PLEAS, AND THE OTHERS ARE EXPECTED TO DO THE SAME. AS GILLIAN SHARPE REPORTS FROM THE HAGUE, ALL TEN ARE ACCUSED OF RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE SYSTEMATIC PERSECUTION OF HUNDREDS OF MUSLIMS IN CENTRAL BOSNIA.

    TEXT: FIRST TO BE ESCORTED INTO THE U-N COURTROOM WAS DARIO KORDIC -- SMARTLY DRESSED IN A DARK SUIT, WITH HEAD HELD HIGH. FOLLOWING HIM THE FORMER MAYOR OF VITEZ, THE TOWN'S FORMER POLICE CHIEF, AND A LOCAL MILITARY COMMANDER.

    ALL LISTENED -- SEEMINGLY IMPASSIVE -- AS THE CHARGES AGAINST THEM WERE READ. BOSNIAN CROAT TROOPS ARE ALLEGED TO HAVE RAMPAGED THROUGH THE VILLAGES OF CENTRAL BOSNIA'S LASVA VALLEY -- KILLING OR WOUNDING HUNDREDS OF MUSLIM CIVILLANS.

    /// UNVOICED OPT ///

    IN THE VILLAGE OF ALUNICI, NOT ONE MUSLIM WAS LEFT AFTER THE BOSNIAN CROAT ATTACK. /// END OPT
    ///

    MR. KORDIC LEFT CROATIA EARLIER IN THE WEEK, PROCLAIMING HIS INNOCENCE AND THAT OF THE NINE OTHERS. IN COURT, HE PLEADED NOT GUILTY TO ALL THE CHARGES AGAINST HIM

    CROATIAN OFFICIALS SAY THE MEN WERE PROMISED SPEEDY TRIALS. BUT TRIBUNAL PROSECUTORS SAY NO GIJARANTEES WERE GIVEN. MONDAY'S SURRENDER HAS DOUBLED THE TRIBUNAL'S CASELOAD. BUT THERE IS ONLY ONE COURTROOM TO PROCESS THOSE ALREADY WAITING AND THE NEW ARRIVALS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/GS/JWH
    08-Oct-97 6:18 AM EDT (1018 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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