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Voice of America, 97-10-16

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] ALBANIA CONFERENCE (L-ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (WASHINGTON)
  • [02] BULGARIANS - TURKEY (S ONLY) BY ART CHIMES (PRAGUE)
  • [03] CONFLICT RESOLUTION: RELIGION AND GENOCIDE IN THE BY JUDITH LATHAM (WASHINGTON)
  • [04] EURO STOCKS (S ONLY) BY JACK HUIZENGA (LONDON)
  • [05] GREECE / TURKEY (L ONLY) BY ANTHEE CARASSAVA (ATHENS)
  • [06] IRAQ/KURDS (L-ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)
  • [07] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)
  • [08] THURSDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [09] THE MOMENTOUS BRITISH-IRISH HAND SHAKE BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [10] TURKEY / ISLAM BY KYLE KING (ANKARA)

  • [01] ALBANIA CONFERENCE (L-ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=10/16/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-221356
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: ITALY FRIDAY HOSTS A ONE DAY MINISTERIAL CONFERENCE THAT WILL ASSESS THE RECONSTRUCTION PROGRESS IN ALBANIA. V-O-A'S BARRY WOOD REPORTS THE MEETING PRECEDES A GATHERING OF AID DONORS IN BRUSSELS NEXT WEEK.

    TEXT: ITALIAN FOREIGN MINISTER LAMBERTO DINI IS HOSTING THE CONFERENCE WHICH SHOWCASES ITALY'S LEAD ROLE IN BOTH PEACEKEEPING AND RECONSTRUCTION IN ALBANIA. SEVERAL THOUSAND ITALIAN TROOPS WERE THE BIGEST COMPONENT OF THE MULTI-NATIONAL EUROPEAN FORCE THAT HELPED RESTORE ORDER IN ALBANIA EARLIER THIS YEAR.

    THE HEAD OF THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND, MICHEL CAMDESSUS, IS ATTENDING THE ROME CONFERENCE. THE I-M-F HAS AGREED TO PROVIDE ALBANIA WITH A 12-MILLION DOLLAR LOAN OVER A SIX MONTH PERIOD. THE I-M-F TWO YEARS AGO HAD CUT OFF ITS LENDING TO THE PREVIOUS CONSERVATIVE GOVERNMENT. IN BRUSSELS (OCTOBER 22) AID DONORS WILL UNVEIL AN 80 TO 100 MILLION DOLLAR PROGRAM THAT SHOULD MEET ALL OF ALBANIA'S IMPORT REQUIREMENTS FOR THE NEXT SEVEN MONTHS. AFTER YEARS OF RAPID GROWTH, THE ALBANIAN ECONOMY WILL SHRINK BY SEVEN PERCENT THIS YEAR. HOWEVER, GROWTH OF UP TO 12 PERCENT IS PROJECTED FOR 1998.

    THE WORLD BANK AND THE EUROPEAN UNION WILL HOST NEXT WEEK'S AID CONFERENCE. JULIUS VARALLYAY IS THE WORLD BANK'S COUNTRY OFFICER FOR ALBANIA.

    //VARALLYAY ACT//

    THERE IS A UNANIMOUS AGREEMENT AMONG ALBANIA'S KEY AID DONORS THAT INSTITUTION BUILDING, CIVIL SERVICE REFORM, PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION REFORM MUST BE AT THE FOREFRONT OF THE REFORM PROGRAM THAT WILL DRIVE ALBANIA'S RECOVERY IN THE POST-CRISIS PERIOD.

    //END ACT//

    MR. VARALLYAY SAYS THAT BUILDING AN INDEPENDENT JUDICIARY IS THE FIRST PRIORITY OF THE AID PROGRAM.

    THE SOCIALIST-LED GOVERNMENT THAT EMERGED FROM PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS AT THE END OF JUNE HAS MADE MUCH PROGRESS IN RESTORING ORDER AND STABILIZING THE ECONOMY. PRIME MINISTER FATOS NANO HAS EMBRACED THE RESTRAINED ECONOMIC POLICIES THAT THE I-M-F AND AID DONORS ARE INSISTING ON. THE AID PROGRAM, WHICH IS TO BE EXPANDED NEXT YEAR, IS CONDITIONED ON THE CLOSURE OF THE LAST REMAINING INVESTMENT COMPANY THAT PLAYED SUCH A LARGE PART IN CAUSING THE FINANCIAL PANIC THAT GRIPPED ALBANIA EARLIER THIS YEAR.. (SIGNED)
    NEB/BDW/WFR
    16-Oct-97 5:50 PM EDT (2150 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] BULGARIANS - TURKEY (S ONLY) BY ART CHIMES (PRAGUE)

    DATE=10/16/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-221320
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: TWO BULGARIAN ENGINEERS WHO WERE KIDNAPPED TUESDAY HAVE BEEN RELEASED BY THEIR KURDISH CAPTORS IN TURKEY. CORRESPONDENT ART CHIMES IS FOLLOWING THE STORY FROM OUR BUREAU IN PRAGUE.

    TEXT: BULGARIAN OFFICIALS AND NEWS REPORTS FROM TURKEY SAY THE TWO ENGINEERS WERE FOUND THURSDAY, ABOUT 40-KILOMETERS FROM THE MINE IN NORTHERN TURKEY WHERE THEY WERE WORKING.

    A THIRD PERSON ABDUCTED IN THE ATTACK -- THE ONLY TURK IN THE GROUP -- WAS KILLED.

    THE KIDNAPPING APPEARS TO BE THE WORK OF KURDISH GUERRILLAS, WHO HAVE ABDUCTED FOREIGNERS SEVERAL TIMES IN RECENT YEARS. THE KURDS HAVE BEEN FIGHTING TURKISH AUTHORITIES, ATTACKING SECURITY FORCES AS THEY TRY TO WIN AUTONOMY FOR THE KURDISH REGION IN SOUTHEASTERN TURKEY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/ART/PCF/RAE
    16-Oct-97 8:10 AM EDT (1210 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] CONFLICT RESOLUTION: RELIGION AND GENOCIDE IN THE BY JUDITH LATHAM (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=10/16/97
    TYPE=WORLDWIDE ENGLISH FEATURE
    NUMBER=7-17495
    BALKANS TELEPHONE=619-3464
    EDITOR=SWANEY/GARY EDQUIST
    CONTENT= (TAPE CUTS IN AUDIO SERVICES)

    INTRO: MICHAEL SELLS IS PROFESSOR OF COMPARATIVE RELIGIONS AT HAVERFORD COLLEGE IN PENNSYLVANIA. HE IS THE AUTHOR OF "THE BRIDGE BETRAYED: RELIGION AND GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA."

    PROFESSOR SELLS SPOKE WITH VOA'S JUDITH LATHAM ABOUT THE

    ROLE OF RELIGION IN PROMOTING GENOCIDE IN THE BALKANS. HERE'S ______ WITH A REPORT.

    TEXT: PROFESSOR OF RELIGION MICHAEL SELLS HAS WRITTEN THAT RELIGIOUS INSTITUTIONS AND THEIR LEADERS HAVE OFTEN BEEN GUILTY OF COMPLICITY IN INCITING THEIR FOLLOWERS TO GENOCIDAL ACTS IN OUR CENTURY. HE THINKS THE WAR IN BOSNIA IS A PRIME EXAMPLE OF THAT PHENOMENON.

    TAPE: CUT ONE -- SELLS (0:17) "THE CENTERPIECE OF MY BOOK, "THE BRIDGE BETRAYED: RELIGION AND GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA," FOCUSES ON THE WAY IN PARTICULAR AT THE BEGINNING THE SERBIAN CHURCH USED THE MYTHOLOGY OF KOSOVO TO MOTIVATE AND JUSTIFY GENOCIDAL ACTIVITIES AGAINST PEOPLE WHO HAD BEEN CONSIDERED NEIGHBORS AND FRIENDS."

    TEXT: THE KEY EVENT IN SERBIAN NATIONAL CONSCIOUSNESS, PROFESSOR SELLS EXPLAINS, WAS THE 1389 BATTLE OF KOSOVO IN WHICH PRINCE LAZAR [LAH-ZAHR] WAS KILLED BY THE OTTOMAN TURKS, WHO SUBSEQUENTLY ESTABLISHED CONTROL OVER SERBIA.

    TAPE: CUT TWO -- SELLS (0:58) "THE MYTHOLOGY OF THE BATTLE OF KOSOVO WAS RECONSTRUCTED IN THE 19TH CENTURY TO PUT PRINCE LAZAR AS A CHRIST FIGURE, SURROUNDED BY 12 KNIGHT-APOSTLES, BETRAYED BY A JUDAS FIGURE, AND THE TURKS WERE PORTRAYED EXPLICITLY AS CHRIST-KILLERS. THERE WAS ALSO AN IDEOLOGY OF WHAT I CALL 'CHRISTOSLAVISM,' THAT TO CHANGE YOUR RELIGION IS TO TRANSFORM YOUR RACE. AND AT THE 600TH ANNIVERSARY OF THIS EVENT, AN ANNIVERSARY OF ABSOLUTELY EXTRAORDINARY EMOTIVE POWER, THE PASSION PLAY CELEBRATION WAS PUT ON AND MANIPULATED BY RADICAL SERBIAN CLERGY AND THE MILOSOVIC GOVERNMENT TO FOMENT A POWERFUL HATRED OF THE CHRIST-KILLER -- ANY MUSLIM IN SLAVIC SOCIETY. AND THAT INTENSE EMOTION THEN WAS USED SYSTEMATICALLY THROUGHOUT THE WAR IN BOSNIA TO MOTIVATE, JUSTIFY, AND BLESS THE SERB MILITIAS WHO WERE COMING BACK FROM ETHNIC CLEANSING CAMPAIGNS."

    TEXT: WHILE SOME CATHOLIC CLERGY IN CROATIA AND BOSNIA WORKED TO PROMOTE HARMONY, SAYS PROFESSOR SELLS, MANY OTHERS WERE RESPONSIBLE FOR STIRRING UP RELIGIOUS AND ETHNIC ANTAGONISM.

    TAPE: CUT THREE -- SELLS (0:58) "THE CATHOLIC CHURCH IS DIVIDED BETWEEN THOSE THAT HAVE WORKED COURAGEOUSLY FOR A MULTIRELIGIOUS BOSNIAN SOCIETY, SUCH AS CARDINAL PULJIC OF SARAJEVO, AND THOSE IN HERZEGOVINA ESPECIALLY, BOTH FRANCISCANS AND SECULAR PRIESTS, WHO OPENLY REVERE ANTE PAVELIC, THE FASCIST LEADER OF CROATIA DURING WORLD WAR II, WHO DIRECTED THE GENOCIDE AGAINST JEWS, SERBS, AND GYPSIES, AND WHO ARE OPENLY CELEBRATING THE CROATIAN RELIGIOUS NATIONALISTS WHO HAVE KILLED THE SERBS AND MUSLIMS IN THEIR AREAS, DESTROYED THE CHURCHES AND MOSQUES, AND ASSERT A RELIGIOUS NATIONALISM OF THEIR OWN. THERE ARE NO EXAMPLES I CAN FIND OF MUSLIM CLERICS ENGAGING IN THE KIND OF OPEN CALL TO GENOCIDAL VIOLENCE AND A RELIGIOUSLY PURE SOCIETY OF MUSLIMS ONLY THAT CAN BE EQUATED WITH THE RADICAL CROATIAN PRIESTS IN HERZEGOVINA OR THE SERBIAN BISHOPS AND PRIESTS THROUGHOUT SERBIA."

    TEXT: MICHAEL SELLS EXPLAINS THAT IN ARMENIA, NORTHERN IRELAND, RWANDA, BOSNIA, AND MANY OTHER PLACES, RELIGIOUS LEADERS HAVE OFTEN FAILED TO RECOGNIZE THE COMMON HUMANITY OF THOSE OUTSIDE THEIR OWN GROUP.

    TAPE: CUT FOUR -- SELLS (1:00) "IN THE 20TH CENTURY, RELIGIOUS LEADERS AND ORGANIZATIONS AT TIMES OF GENOCIDAL VIOLENCE, ALTHOUGH THEY ADOPT THE LANGUAGE OF THE CUSTODIANS OF VALUES AND LOVE AND PEACE, WITH SOME VERY IMPORTANT EXCEPTIONS, HAVE NOT ENGAGED IN PEACE ACTIVITIES IN GENOCIDAL SITUATIONS. THE ARMENIAN SITUATION IS ONE VERY IMPORTANT EVENT. THERE'S DEEP CHURCH INVOLVEMENT IN THE RWANDA GENOCIDE. THERE IS THE CHURCH INVOLVEMENT IN THE BOSNIAN GENOCIDE. (OPT) IT'S EASY FOR RELIGIOUS LEADERS TO TAKE ON THE ROLE OF PROTECTING 'US' AGAINST 'THEM' AND DEMONIZING THE OTHER PERSON. IT'S MUCH MORE DIFFICULT FOR A RELIGIOUS LEADER TO STAND, AS DID THE ORTHODOX CHRISTIAN LEADER IN LITHUANIA, WHEN LITHUANIA WAS SEPARATING FROM THE SOVIET UNION, WHO STOOD UP IN FRONT OF HIS OWN PEOPLE AND SAID, 'ANYONE WHO CARRIES OUT VIOLENCE IN THE NAME OF OUR RELIGION IS BETRAYING OUR RELIGION. AND THAT KIND OF EXAMPLE IS SOMETHING WE NEED TO SEE MORE OF DESPERATELY." (END OPT)

    TEXT: ACCORDING TO MICHAEL SELLS, BOTH SECULAR AND RELIGIOUS LEADERS IN RECENT YEARS HAVE ESPOUSED A THEORY OF "ANCIENT ETHNIC ANTAGONISMS" TO EXPLAIN THE POLITICS OF THE BALKANS.

    TAPE: CUT FIVE -- SELLS (0:51) "THERE'S NO DOUBT THAT IN THE BALKANS, AS IN OUR OWN COUNTRY, THERE ARE HISTORICAL HATREDS. THOSE IN THE BALKANS WHO BELIEVE THAT HISTORICAL HATREDS ARE IRRECONCILIABLE AND WHO WISH AN ETHNICALLY OR RELIGIOUSLY PURE COUNTRY OF THEIR OWN, I CALL 'RELIGIOUS NATIONALISTS.' AND THOSE ARE THE PEOPLE WHO PROPOUND THE VIEW THAT THE AGE-OLD HISTORICAL ANTAGONISMS ARE INEVITABLE AND THE ONLY SOLUTION IS RELIGIOUS APARTHEID. ONE OF THE THINGS THAT THE BOOK FOCUSES ON, "THE BRIDGE BETRAYED," IS THE SYSTEMATIC CAMPAIGN TO ANNIHILATE LIBRARIES, BRIDGES, MOSQUES, AND OTHER ELEMENTS THAT SHOW THAT, DESPITE THE TENSIONS IN THE BALKAN SOCIETIES THAT EXIST THERE AS EVERYWHERE, THERE WAS AN EXTRAORDINARY 500-YEAR-OLD SHARED CIVILIZATION FOR WHICH THE MOSTAR BRIDGE [WHICH LINKED CATHOLIC WEST MOSTAR WITH MUSLIM EAST MOSTAR, BUT WAS DESTROYED DURING THE WAR] IS THE GREAT SYMBOL."

    TEXT: PROFESSOR SELLS EXPLAINS THAT SOME OF THOSE WHO PROMOTE THE THEORY OF "AGE-OLD ANTAGONISMS" IN THE BALKANS ACTUALLY SPEAK OF REGIONAL STRIFE THAT HE SAYS GOES BACK "THOUSANDS OF YEARS." HE POINTS OUT THAT WOULD HAVE BEEN BEFORE ANY SLAVS ACTUALLY LIVED IN THE REGION.

    TAPE: CUT SIX -- SELLS (1:04) "IT IS A BLATANT POLITICAL PLOY, BUT WHAT IT HAS DONE IS TO CONFUSE THE AMERICAN PEOPLE ABOUT THE MORTAL STAKES. IT HAS BRANDED ALL THE PEOPLE IN THE BALKANS AS BARBARIANS, AS GENOCIDAL, AND IT HAS HELPED ALLOW US TO WASH OUR HANDS OF OUR OWN MORAL RESPONSIBILITY. (OPT) BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA IS NOW IN LIMBO. WHEN THE NATO TROOPS WITHDRAW, IF THE WAR CRIMINALS ARE ARRESTED AND THE REFUGEES ARE ALLOWED TO RETURN TO THEIR HOMES AS MANDATED IN THE DAYTON ACCORDS, THERE IS A CHANCE TO REBUILD THAT COUNTRY. (END OPT) IF WE LEAVE RADOVAN KARADZIC AND ORGANIZERS OF THE FOCA RAPE CAMPS IN POWER IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA, THERE'S NO WAY THAT ECONOMIC AID OR GOODWILL CAN HELP WHEN WAR CRIMINALS ARE IN CHARGE. SO I THINK THE STAKES ARE GRAVE. THEY'RE GRAVE FOR OUR MORAL HERITAGE, THEY'RE GRAVE FOR THE LEGACY OF THE HOLOCAUST, THEY'RE GRAVE FOR THE FUTURE OF PEACE IN EUROPE AND THE FUTURE OF NATO, AND THEY'RE GRAVE FOR THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CHRISTIANITY AND ISLAM IN THE GEOPOLITICAL SENSE OVER THE NEXT SEVERAL DECADES."

    TEXT: HAVERFORD COLLEGE PROFESSOR MICHAEL SELLS BELIEVES IT WILL BE EXTREMELY DIFFICULT, GIVEN THE ROLE OF RELIGIOUS LEADERS IN PROMOTING HATRED AND STRIFE AMONG THEIR FOLLOWERS OVER THE PAST DECADE IN THE BALKANS, TO RETURN TO THE PRE-WAR NORM OF PEACEFUL COEXISTENCE. (NOTE: MICHAEL SELLS, WHO IS CHAIRMAN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF RELIGION AT HAVERFORD COLLEGE, IS FROM A SERB-AMERICAN FAMILY. HE IS THE FOUNDER OF THE COMMUNITY OF BOSNIA FOUNDATION, WHICH SUPPORTS A MULTI-RELIGIOUS BOSNIA AND HELPS LOCATE SCHOLARSHIPS IN THE UNITED STATES FOR BOSNIAN STUDENTS WHO WERE EITHER IN BESIEGED CITIES OR IN REFUGEE CAMPS AND WHOSE EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES WERE THEREFORE SEVERELY LIMITED.)
    16-Oct-97 1:47 PM EDT (1747 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] EURO STOCKS (S ONLY) BY JACK HUIZENGA (LONDON)

    DATE=10/16/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-221346
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES WERE MIXED IN TRADING THURSDAY IN EUROPEAN MARKETS. V-O-A'S JACK HUIZENGA HAS THE CLOSING MARKET REPORT FROM LONDON.

    TEXT: SHARE PRICES WERE UP IN LONDON, BASICALLY UNCHANGED IN PARIS, BUT DOWN SHARPLY IN FRANKFURT.

    ANALYSTS SAID THE EUROPEAN MARKETS WERE HELPED BY ECONOMIC REPORTS IN THE UNITED STATES. BUT THE FRANKFURT MARKET CLOSED BEFORE THE U-S REPORTS WERE ISSUED. THE DAX-30 INDEX CLOSED OFF MORE THAN 75-POINTS, MORE THAN ONE-AND-ONE-HALF-PERCENT OF THE FRANKFURT MARKET'S TOTAL VALUE. IN PARIS, THE CAC-40 INDEX WAS UP A FRACTION, LESS THAN ONE-POINT.

    BUT IN LONDON, THE FOOTSIE-100 INDEX ROSE MORE THAN 24-POINTS, ALMOST ONE-HALF-PERCENT.

    ON THE LONDON CURRENCY EXCHANGE, THE U-S DOLLAR GAINED IN VALUE AGAINST THE GERMAN MARK AND THE BRITISH POUND. BUT IT LOST VALUE AGAINST THE JAPANESE YEN.
    NEB/JWH/RAE
    16-Oct-97 1:31 PM EDT (1731 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] GREECE / TURKEY (L ONLY) BY ANTHEE CARASSAVA (ATHENS)

    DATE=10/16/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-221345
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: GREECE HAS CHARGED TURKISH MILITARY PLANES HARASSED A PLANE CARRYING THE GREEK DEFENSE MINISTER. ANTHEE CARASSAVA IN ATHENS REPORTS THE INCIDENT HAS AGAIN INCREASED TENSIONS BETWEEN THE TWO NATO COUNTRIES.

    TEXT: GREEK MILITARY OFFICIALS SAY THE INCIDENT OCCURRED IN GREEK AIRSPACE AS DEFENSE MINISTER AKIS TZOHATZOPOULOS WAS FLYING HOME FROM CYPRUS. OFFICIALS SAY TWO FORMATIONS OF TURKISH JET FIGHTER PLANES CAME WITHIN 500-METERS OF THE DEFENSE MINISTER'S AIRCRAFT.

    THE TURKISH PLANES WERE INTERCEPTED BY SIX GREEK JET FIGHTERS.

    GREEK GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS SAID THE INCIDENT DID NOT PRESENT A DANGER TO THE DEFENSE MINISTER'S PLANE. BUT NEWS REPORTERS ACCOMPANYING MR. TZOHATZOPOULOS SAID THE MANEUVERS RESULTED IN WHAT THEY CALLED A DANGEROUS MID-AIR SHAKE TO THE MINISTER'S PLANE.

    MR. TZOHATZOPOULOS CONDEMNED THE INCIDENT, SAYING IT IS A BAD EXAMPLE OF WHAT HE CALLED TURKEY'S COLD-WAR TERROR TACTICS.

    THE LATEST INCIDENT WAS THE WORST IN A STRING OF AIRSPACE VIOLATIONS THAT GREECE HAS ACCUSED TURKEY OF INSTIGATING IN RESPONSE TO A JOINT GREEK-CYPRIOT MILITARY EXERCISE THAT ENDED WEDNESDAY. U-S SPECIAL ENVOY RICHARD HOLBROOKE WAS IN TURKEY EARLIER THIS WEEK TRYING TO CONVINCE THE TURKISH GOVERNMENT TO POSTPONE OR CANCEL PLANS FOR A SIMILAR EXERCISE.

    DESPITE SIGNS OF AN EASING OF TENSION EARLIER THIS YEAR, RELATIONS BETWEEN GREECE AND TURKEY HAVE WORSENED IN RECENT WEEKS.

    AT THE HEART OF THE NEW FLARE-UP IS A PLAN BY THE CYPRIOT GOVERNMENT TO DEPLOY RUSSIAN-MADE ANTI-AIRCRAFT MISSILES THAT COULD KNOCK DOWN PLANES WITHIN A RANGE OF 150-KILOMETERS. TURKEY HAS THREATENED MILITARY ACTION TO PREVENT THE DEPLOYMENT, TENTATIVELY SCHEDULED FOR LATE NEXT YEAR.

    DIPLOMATS HAVE BEEN SCRAMBLING TO FIND A WAY TO EASE TENSIONS BETWEEN THE TWO NATO COUNTRIES. U-S OFFICIALS SAY THEY HAVE GREAT HOPES FOR A SUMMIT NEXT MONTH BETWEEN THE GREEK AND TURKISH PRIME MINISTERS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/AC/JWH/RAE
    16-Oct-97 1:27 PM EDT (1727 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] IRAQ/KURDS (L-ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)

    DATE=10/16/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-221325
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: ONE OF THE MAIN KURDISH FACTIONS IN NORTHERN IRAQ HAS ACCUSED ITS RIVAL OF TURNING OFF WATER AND ELECTRICITY SUPPLIES IN A CITY THEY CONTROL. AS AMBERIN ZAMAN REPORTS FROM ANKARA THE ACCUSATIONS BEING LEVELED BY THE K-D-P -- THE KURDISTAN DEMOCRATIC PARTY -- AGAINST THE "PATRIOTIC UNION OF KURDISTAN", THE P-U-K, CAME ON THE FOURTH DAY OF RENEWED FIGHTING BETWEEN THE TWO GROUPS.

    TEXT: A K-D-P STATEMENT SAID THE P-U-K CUT OFF POWER TO THE NORTHERN IRAQ CITY OF ERBIL -- HOME TO 60-THOUSAND IRAQI KURDS. THE K-D-P SAID FIGHTING WAS ALSO CONTINUING NEAR THE TOWN OF SHAQLAWA AND IN THE BALISAN VALLEY, AS WELL AS NEAR THE TOWN OF HARIR, CLOSE TO THE IRANIAN BORDER.

    THE K-D-P HAS CALLED ON THE UNITED STATES, BRITAIN AND TURKEY -- THE CO-SPONSORS OF THE SO-CALLED ANKARA PEACE PROCESS AIMED AT RECONCILING THE TWO MAIN IRAQI-KURDISH FACTIONS -- TO PUBLICLY IDENTIFY THE P-U-K AS THE INITIATORS OF THE LATEST ROUND OF FIGHTING.

    IN AN INTERVIEW WITH V-O-A, K-D-P POLITBURO MEMBER SAMI ABDURRAHMAN WARNED UNLESS THE CO-SPONSORS IDENTIFIED THE P-U-K AS THE VIOLATORS OF THE YEAR-LONG CEASEFIRE, THE SITUATION -- IN HIS WORDS -- WOULD GET SERIOUSLY WORSE.

    /// ABDURRAHMAN ACT ///

    WHAT WE DEMAND (IS) THAT THE CO-SPONSORS IDENTIFY THE GUILTY PARTY -- WHICH IS P-U-K -- AND DENOUNCE THIS ACT OF AGGRESSION, AND THEN DEMAND FROM P-U-K THAT THEY RETURN TO THE CEASEFIRE DEMARCATION LINE. AND THEN FIGHTING CAN STOP.

    /// END ACT ///

    //OPT//

    MR. ABDURRAHMAN SAID THE FIGHTING IS PLAYING INTO THE HANDS OF REGIONAL FORCES, WHO WANT THE KURDS TO REMAIN WEAK AND DIVIDED.

    /// SECOND ABDURRAHMAN ACT ///

    THERE ARE MANY FORCES WHO ARE INTERESTED IN DESTROYING THE SITUATION IN IRAQI KURDISTAN WHO WOULD WANT A BIG FIGHT TO CONTINUE AND DRAG ON IN IRAQI KURDISTAN, JUST TO SPITE THE AMERICANS.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE K-D-P SAYS IRAN BACKS THE P-U-K AS PART OF A CAMPAIGN TO DISRUPT AMERICAN-LED PEACE EFFORTS IN NORTHERN IRAQ. // END OPT

    //

    THE P-U-K SAYS THE K-D-P IS BEING BACKED BY TURKEY. THURSDAY, IT AGAIN ACCUSED ANKARA OF BOMBING P-U-K POSITIONS AND KILLING FOUR OF ITS GUERRILLAS DURING THE ALLEGED RAIDS. THE P-U-K SAID THE ATTACK -- IN ITS WORDS -- REVEALED DIRECT COORDINATION BETWEEN K-D-P AND TURKISH FORCES. IT ADDED TURKEY'S MILITARY ACTIONS WOULD SERIOUSLY UNDERMINE THE COUNTRY'S ROLE AS AN IMPARTIAL MEDIATOR IN THE PEACE PROCESS.

    TURKEY DENIED THE P-U-K CLAIMS. A FOREIGN MINISTRY SPOKESMAN SAID TURKEY'S ONLY TARGET IN NORTHERN IRAQ WAS "THE KURDISTAN WORKERS PARTY", THE P-K-K.

    THE TURKISH-KURD REBELS, WHO HAVE BEEN FIGHTING FOR AN INDEPENDENT KURDISH HOMELAND IN TURKEY FOR THE PAST 13-YEARS, HAVE BASES IN NORTHERN IRAQ. THE TURKISH MILITARY LAUNCHED A CROSS BORDER OPERATION LAST MONTH TO DESTROY THE P-K-K BASES IN THE WESTERN-PROTECTED ENCLAVE. IT WAS THE SECOND SUCH OPERATION SO FAR THIS YEAR AND WAS CARRIED OUT JOINTLY WITH K-D-P FORCES LED BY MASSOUD BARZANI.

    THE TURKISH FOREIGN MINISTRY HAS REPEATED ITS INVITATION TO THE K-D-P LEADER BARZANI AND P-U-K LEADER JALAL TALABANI TO MEET IN ANKARA TO DISCUSS THEIR DIFFERENCES -- AN INVITATION ANALYSTS PREDICT NEITHER LEADER IS LIKELY TO ACCEPT. (SIGNED)
    NEB/AZ/PCF/RAE
    16-Oct-97 9:23 AM EDT (1323 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)

    DATE=10/16/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-221352
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES WERE DOWN SHARPLY TODAY (THURSDAY) AFTER AN EARLY RALLY COLLAPSED. V-O-A'S CORRESPONDENT BRECK ARDERY REPORTS FROM NEW YORK.

    TEXT: THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE CLOSED AT 79 HUNDRED 38, DOWN 119 POINTS OR ABOUT ONE AND ONE-HALF PERCENT. THE STANDARD AND POOR'S 500 INDEX CLOSED AT 955, DOWN 10 POINTS.

    STOCK PRICES WERE STRONG EARLY IN THE SESSION WITH THE INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE UP MORE THAN 50 POINTS. TRADERS WERE HAPPY ABOUT THE LATEST U-S CONSUMER PRICE INDEX WHICH WAS UP LESS THAN EXPECTED. BUT LATER IN THE DAY, WEAKNESS DEVELOPED, ESPECIALLY IN HIGH TECHNOLOGY STOCKS. THAT WAS FOLLOWED BY A MASSIVE SELLING WAVE WHEN THE U-S MARITIME COMMISSION ANNOUNCED JAPANESE SHIPS WILL BE BARRED FROM AMERICAN PORTS. THE ACTION WAS TAKEN BECAUSE JAPAN HAS NOT PAID FINES (FOUR MILLION DOLLARS) IMPOSED FOR WHAT THE U-S SAYS WERE DISCRIMINATORY PRACTICES AT JAPANESE PORTS. AT ONE POINT, THE INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE WAS DOWN 160 POINTS BEFORE RECOVERING SOMEWHAT JUST BEFORE THE CLOSE OF TRADING.

    /// REST OPT FOR LONG ///

    G-T-E CHAIRMAN CHARLES LEE SAYS HE ENVISIONS A GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP WITH BRITISH TELECOM AS PART OF G-T-E'S PROPOSED TAKEOVER OF THE M-C-I TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANY. M-C-I IS MUCH SOUGHT AFTER. BRITISH TELECOM HAD A DEAL FOR M-C-I WORTH ABOUT 20 BILLION DOLLARS. TWO WEEKS AGO, THE WORLDCOM CORPORATION OFFERED 30 BILLION DOLLARS WORTH OF STOCK FOR M-C-I. AND ON WEDNESDAY, G-T-E MADE AN ALL-CASH OFFER OF 28 BILLION DOLLARS.

    THE T AND N CORPORATION OF BRITAIN HAS AGREED TO A TWO POINT FOUR BILLION DOLLAR TAKEOVER BY THE FEDERAL-MOGUL CORPORATION OF THE UNITED STATES. THE COMBINED COMPANY WILL BE THE WORLD'S LARGEST MAKER OF VEHICLE ENGINE COMPONENTS.

    B-A-T INDUSTRIES OF BRITAIN HAS FORMALLY ANNOUNCED ITS MERGER WITH THE ZURICH GROUP OF SWITZERLAND, CREATING A HUGE FINANCIAL SERVICES FIRM. B-A-T'S INTERNATIONAL TOBACCO HOLDINGS WILL BE ESTABLISHED AS A SEPARATE COMPANY. A SURVEY (CONFERENCE BOARD) OF AMERICAN BUSINESS EXECUTIVES SHOWS THEIR CONFIDENCE IN THE U-S ECONOMY DECLINED FOR THE FIRST TIME THIS YEAR IN THE THIRD QUARTER. HOWEVER, THE CURRENT BUSINESS CONFIDENCE INDEX OF 56 IS STILL AT AN HISTORICALLY HIGH LEVEL.(SIGNED) NEB/NY/BA/LSF/PT
    16-Oct-97 4:56 PM EDT (2056 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] THURSDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=10/16/97
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-10396
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-T ON THURSDAY OCTOBER 16TH //

    INTRO: A WIDE ARRAY OF TOPICS GREETS THE READERS OF AMERICA'S NEWSPAPERS THIS THURSDAY AS THEY SCAN THE EDITORIALS PAGES. THERE ARE COMMENTARIES ON THE SUPREME COURT'S ASSISTED SUICIDE DECISION; PRESIDENT CLINTON'S TRIP TO LATIN AMERICA; MORE EVIDENCE OF DEMOCRACY IN SOUTH KOREA; SOME THOUGHTS ON CHE GUEVARA; AND HOPEFUL SIGNS IN THE NORTHERN IRELAND TALKS.

    NOW, HERE IS ______________ WITH TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: TODAY'S LOS ANGELES TIMES IS CONSIDERING THE RECENT SUPREME COURT DECISION ON ASSISTED SUICIDE, WHICH WAS TO LET STAND A LOWER COURT RULING THAT ALLOWS DOCTORS IN OREGON TO HELP SOME PEOPLE DIE. SAYS THE TIMES:

    VOICE: "THE LAW PERMITS PATIENTS TO ASK A DOCTOR TO PRESCRIBE A LETHAL MEDICATION. IN OTHER STATES, A PHYSICIAN WHO GIVES A PATIENT DRUGS FOR THE PURPOSE OF ENDING HIS OR HER LIFE FACES CRIMINAL CHARGES. ..... THE AGONIZING ETHICAL AND MORAL DILEMMAS THAT ARISE WITH THE ISSUE OF ASSISTED SUICIDE ARE [,] AT BASE [,] NOT ONES THAT COURTS ARE WELL-EQUIPPED TO SOLVE. ..... COURTS CAN ULTIMATELY DO LITTLE MORE THAN SET BROAD GUIDELINES FOR STATES TO FOLLOW."

    TEXT: TURNING TO PRESIDENT CLINTON'S CURRENT LATIN AMERICAN TRIP, THE PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER MARVELS AT HOW CHANGED THE CONTINENT IS FROM JUST A FEW YEARS AGO.

    VOICE: "A QUIET REVOLUTION HAS GONE ON FAR SOUTH OF THE BORDER OVER THE LAST DECADE, ESPECIALLY SINCE THE SOVIET COLLAPSE. AS THE COMMUNIST THREAT FADED, LATIN JUNTAS LOST THEIR HANDY EXCUSE FOR HUMAN-RIGHTS ABUSES AND PASSED GRADUALLY FROM THE SCENE. .... NEW LEADERS HAVE OPENED THEIR COUNTRIES UP TO THE GLOBAL MARKET. .... BUT AS HE TRAVELS AROUND VENEZUELA, BRAZIL AND ARGENTINA, MR. CLINTON HASN'T IGNORED THE UNPLEASANT UNDERCURRENT BENEATH ALL THE SHINY NEW LATIN PROSPERITY. THE WORLD BANK ESTIMATES THAT 50 MILLION HAVE BEEN ADDED TO THE RANKS OF LATIN AMERICA'S POOR SINCE 1950. THE RAPID PROGRESS THAT HAS ADDED TO THE MIDDLE CLASSES OVER THE LAST DECADE HAS ALSO WIDENED THE GAP BETWEEN RICH AND POOR, WHICH MR. CLINTON CALLED 'THE AGE-OLD CURSE OF LATIN AMERICA.' .... LATIN NATIONS STILL HAVE SQUABBLES WITH EACH OTHER OVER CORRUPTION AND DRUGS. BUT THEIR NEW OPENNESS TO THE WORLD, TO MARKETS AND TO DEMOCRACY HOLDS OUT CHANCES FOR PROGRESS THAT DIDN'T EXIST A DECADE AGO."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: TURNING TO THE MID EAST, NEWSDAY FAULTS ISRAELI PRIME MINISTER BENJAMIN NETANYAHU'S RECENT CONCESSIONS IN THE ISRAELI KNESSET [PARLIAMENT] TO ORTHODOX JEWISH PARTIES, IN RETURN FOR THEIR SUPPORT TO KEEP HIS GOVERNMENT IN POWER.

    VOICE: "[MR.] NETANYAHU'S PLEDGE TO ORTHODOX LEADERS TO INTRODUCE A LAW EXCLUDING REFORM AND CONSERVATIVE JEWS FROM RELIGIOUS COUNCILS IS CERTAIN TO ADD FUEL TO AN ALREADY VOLATILE STRUGGLE FOR CONTROL AMONG JUDAISM'S BRANCHES. THE RIPPLES FROM THIS GO BEYOND ISRAEL ....[AFFECTING] EVERY JEW IN THE WORLD. ... THEY COULD ERODE SUPPORT FOR [MR.] NETANYAHU'S GOVERNMENT FROM AMERICAN JEWS, MORE THAN 90 PERCENT OF WHOM BELONG TO THE REFORM OR CONSERVATIVE BRANCHES. .... AS THE POLITICAL LEADER [MR.] NETANYAHU SHOULD BE WORKING TO BRING HIS NATION TOGETHER, NOT TO EXACERBATE THE DESTRUCTIVE DIVISIONS WITHIN JUDAISM ...."

    TEXT: DOMESTICALLY, ATTORNEY GENERAL JANET RENO'S TESTIMONY ON THE POLITICAL FUND RAISING SCANDAL BEFORE A PARTIALLY HOSTILE CONGRESSIONAL COMMITTEE WEDNESDAY, DRAWS A COMMENT FROM HER HOMETOWN PAPER, THE MIAMI HERALD. THE PAPER QUOTES SOME OF THE HARSHEST QUESTIONS FROM REPUBLICAN COMMITTEE MEMBERS, THEN REMINDS READERS OF MS. RENO'S PERSEVERANCE.

    VOICE: "'I AM GOING TO IGNORE PRESSURE,' SHE SAID. 'I'M GOING TO [INVESTIGATE] BASED ON THE EVIDENCE AND THE LAW.' .... WATCHING HER IGNORE THE REPUBLICANS' TWO-BY-FOURS [CLUBS, I.E., "CRITICISM"] YESTERDAY, WE'RE [SURE] ... IT'LL BE ON OR NEAR DECEMBER SECOND BEFORE SHE ANNOUNCES WHETHER SHE IS OR ISN'T ASKING THE COURT TO NAME AN INDEPENDENT COUNSEL."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: TURNING TO THE ORIENT, THE LOS ANGELES TIMES IS PLEASED AT FURTHER SIGNS OF THE VIGOR OF DEMOCRACY IN SOUTH KOREA, WITH THE POPULARITY OF CHALLENGER KIM DAE JUNG.

    VOICE: "PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS IN SOUTH KOREA USED TO BE MOCKERIES OF THE DEMOCRATIC PROGRESS. .... CHANGE CAME ONLY IN 1992, WHEN THE FREEST ELECTION IN KOREA'S HISTORY ENDED 32 YEARS OF MILITARY-DOMINATED RULE AND BROUGHT KIM YOUNG SAM TO OFFICE. NOW THE POSSIBILITY OF FURTHER DRAMATIC CHANGE LOOMS. WHEN SOUTH KOREANS GO TO THE POLLS DECEMBER 18TH THEY MIGHT ELECT AS PRESIDENT KIM DAE JUNG, WHO HAS SPENT HIS ENTIRE POLITICAL CAREER IN OPPOSITION, A GOOD PART OF IT UNDER THREAT OF DEATH FROM HIS ENEMIES. ..... [MR.] KIM'S EMERGENCE AS THE CLEAR FRONT-RUNNER STANDS AS A TRIBUTE TO HIS COURAGE AND CERTAINLY HIS PERSISTENCE, AS WELL AS AN INDICATION THAT SOUTH KOREA'S NEW DEMOCRACY IS WORKING."

    TEXT: NOTING THE RECENT FESTIVITIES IN CUBA MARKING THE RE-BURIAL OF THE REMAINS OF LEGENDARY LEADER ERNESTO 'CHE' GUEVARA, THE WASHINGTON POST REMINDS ITS READERS THE STORIED COMMUNIST GUERRILLA LEADERS WAS "NO ROBIN HOOD."

    VOICE: "IN LIFE, ERNESTO 'CHE' GUEVARA WAS, AFTER HIS SUCCESS IN HELPING FIDEL CASTRO MAKE THE CUBAN REVOLUTION, A FAILURE. .... HE WAS ALSO SOMETHING ELSE: A KILLER WHO EXECUTED 'TRAITORS' IN HIS OWN RANKS AND BOASTED OF WINNING PEASANT SUPPORT BY 'PLANNED TERROR,' A BELIEVER 'IN THE REVOLUTION' WHO GAVE A GLOSS OF INTELLECTUALITY AND SOCIAL JUSTICE TO THE PURSUIT OF SINGLE-PARTY POWER ....."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: A BRIEF WORD OF PRAISE FOR NASA, THE NATIONAL SPACE AGENCY, AS IT SUCCESSFULLY LAUNCHES THE CASSINI SPACE PROBE TOWARD SATURN, FROM THE ORLANDO SENTINEL.

    VOICE: "AFTER MUCH CONTROVERSY AND PROTEST, A HISTORIC SPACE LAUNCH WENT OFF WEDNESDAY WITHOUT A HITCH [WITHOUT A PROBLEM]. THERE WAS NO EXPLOSION OR DOOMSDAY RESULT FROM THE PLUTONIUM-POWERED CASSINI SPACECRAFT, AS CRITICS HAD FEARED. INSTEAD IT SPED OFF TO A SCHEDULED 21ST CENTURY RENDEZVOUS WITH SATURN ...[THAT] ... COULD HELP TO UNLOCK MORE SECRETS OF THE UNIVERSE."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: LASTLY, PORTLAND MAINE'S PRESS HERALD SALUTES THE COURAGE OF BRITAIN'S PRIME MINISTER TONY BLAIR FOR MEETING AND SHAKING HANDS WITH SINN FEIN LEADER GERRY ADAMS, COMMENTING:

    VOICE: "BIRTAIN'S LABOR PARTY LEADER THUS SHOWED HIMSELF TO BE A RISK-TAKER FOR PEACE. ..... WITH SINN FEIN PARTICIPATING IN PEACE TALKS FOR THE FIRST TIME, AND BRITISH LEADERS MEETING WITH SINN FEIN LEADERS FOR THE FIRST TIME, THE END TO WAR COULD COME SOONER THAN LATER. ..... LET US PRAY IT IS THE FORMER."

    TEXT: ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF COMMENTS FROM EDITORIALS IN TODAY'S U-S PRESS.
    NEB/ANG/KL
    16-Oct-97 10:51 AM EDT (1451 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [09] THE MOMENTOUS BRITISH-IRISH HAND SHAKE BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=10/16/97
    TYPE=U-S OPINION ROUNDUP
    NUMBER=6-10397
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    CONTENT=

    INTRO: AMERICAN NEWSPAPERS ARE EXCITED ABOUT THE PROSPECTS FOR PEACE IN NORTHERN IRELAND, NOW THAT TALKS INCLUDING SINN FEIN ARE UNDERWAY, BOLSTERED BY A HISTORIC HANDSHAKE.

    THE HAND SHAKE TOOK PLACE MONDAY AT STORMONT CASTLE, NEAR BELFAST, WHEN BRITISH PRIME MINISTER TONY BLAIR ACTUALLY TOOK THE HAND OF SINN FEIN LEADER GERRY ADAMS AND SHOOK IT. ALTHOUGH THE GESTURE TOOK PLACE IN PRIVATE, THE NEWS SPREAD LIKE WILDFIRE [VERY QUICKLY] AND CAUSED CONSIDERABLE CONTROVERSY.

    WE GET A SAMPLING OF THE REACTION AMONG THE DAILY PAPERS IN THIS COUNTRY NOW FROM _________________ WITH TODAY'S U-S OPINION ROUNDUP.

    TEXT: THE MEETING BETWEEN MR. BLAIR AND MR. ADAMS MARKED THE FIRST TIME SINCE IRELAND WAS PARTITIONED BETWEEN NORTHERN IRELAND AND THE IRISH REPUBLIC IN 1921, THAT A BRITISH PRIME MINISTER HAD MET FACE-TO-FACE WITH A LEADER OF THE IRISH REPUBLICAN POLITICAL MOVEMENT SINN FEIN.

    THE FACT THAT THEY NOT ONLY MET, BUT SHOOK HANDS WAS TAKEN AS A GOOD SIGN FOR PROGRESS IN THE PEACE TALKS BY U-S NEWSPAPERS, BUT RAISED A HUGE CONTROVERSY IN IRELAND.

    THE PROTESTANTS, WHO WISH TO REMAIN A PART OF THE UNITED KINGDOM, WERE LIVID AND BEGAN WEARING RUBBER GLOVES, SUGGESTING MR. BLAIR HAD BEEN "CONTAMINATED" BY THE HANDSHAKE. EXTREMISTS WITHIN THE IRISH REPUBLICAN MOVEMENT WERE EQUALLY FURIOUS, SAYING MR. ADAMS HAD "SOLD OUT" TO THE BRITISH.

    BUT MOST U-S PAPERS SAID IT WAS A HOPEFUL SIGN THAT AFTER DECADES OF KILLING AND BITTER FEELING, THERE WAS A REALISTIC CHANCE TO RESOLVE THE CONFLICT AROUND A CONFERENCE TABLE RATHER THAN WITH MORE VIOLENCE.

    WE BEGIN OUR SAMPLING IN OHIO, WHERE THE [CLEVELAND] PLAIN DEALER, WHICH HAS EDITORIALIZED MORE CONSISTANTLY THAN MANY MAJOR DAILIES ON THIS ISSUE, IS PLEASED.

    VOICE: "A HANDSHAKE -- TWO PALMS, TEN FINGERS, A COUPLE OF SECONDS' CONTACT. THE GESTURE TAKES PLACE WITHOUT INCIDENT MILLIONS OF TIMES EACH DAY, BUT ON MONDAY TONY BLAIR MADE HIS HISTORIC. WHEN BRITAIN'S PRIME MINISTER EXTENDED HIS HAND TO THE LEADER OF THE IRISH REPUBLICAN ARM'S POLITICAL WING, HE DID MORE THAN SHOW SINN FEIN'S GERRY ADAMS A SIMPLE COURTESY. NO, [MR.] BLAIR'S ACT TOLD [MR.] ADAMS -- AND THE WORLD -- THAT HIS GOVERNMENT WOULD NOT ALLOW PAST CRIMES TO CONDEMN PRESENT CHANCES FOR PEACE. .... IT IS THIS DESIRE TO MOVE BEYOND BLOODSHED, TO MOVE TOWARD A NEGOTIATED SETTLEMENT THAT ENCOURAGES COMMUNICATION OVER CONFLICT, THAT FINALLY BROUGHT TONY BLAIR AND GERRY ADAMS TO EAST BELFAST. NOT SINCE 1921, SINCE BEFORE THE NATION WAS DIVIDED, HAD A BRITISH PRIME MINISTER AND A SINN FEIN LEADER COME TOGETHER. [PRIME MINISTER] BLAIR WAS CORRECT TO MARK THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE OCCASION, AND [MR.] ADAMS RIGHT TO ACCEPT THE GESTURE."

    TEXT: IN CONNECTICUT, THE HARTFORD COURANT, ALSO REVELED IN THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE MOMENT.

    VOICE: "IT HAPPENED BEHIND CLOSED DOORS. NO CAMERAS WERE ALLOWED. THE MEETING TOOK ONLY A BRIEF TIME. NONETHELESS, THE HANDSHAKE MONDAY BETWEEN ... PRIME MINISTER ... BLAIR AND SINN FEIN LEADER GERRY ADAMS WAS A DRAMATIC MOMENT IN NORTHERN IRELAND'S HISTORY. AND IT WAS ANOTHER SMALL BUT IMPORTANT STEP TOWARD RECONCILIATION. ..... MR. BLAIR HAS SHOWN HE IS WILLING TO SPEND SOME OF THE IMMENSE STORE OF POLITICAL CAPITAL AMASSED IN HIS LANDSLIDE ELECTION EARLIER THIS YEAR IN CHANGING BRITISH POLICY TOWARD NORTHERN IRELAND. HIS PREDECESSOR, JOHN MAJOR, HAD EXCLUDED SINN FEIN FROM PEACE TALKS. THAT WAS A DEAD-END POLICY THAT LEFT MANY CATHOLICS FEELING HOPELESS. ..... MR. BLAIR'S GENEROUS GESTURE SHOWS THAT BRITAIN FULLY SUPPORTS SINN FEIN'S PLACE AT THE TABLE AS LONG AS THE IRA HONORS THE CEASE-FIRE IT DECLARED IN JULY."

    TEXT: THE LOS ANGELES TIMES POINTS OUT THE GREETING SHOWS CLEARLY HOW FAR THINGS HAVE PROGRESSED FROM A RATHER LOW POINT NOT LONG AGO.

    VOICE: "THAT HANDSHAKE .... COULD NOT HAVE BEEN IMAGINED JUST A FEW MONTHS AGO. WHERE IT WILL LEAD WILL BE DETERMINED BY [MR.] BLAIR, [MR.] ADAMS AND OTHERS ENGAGED IN THE TALKS, BUT THE POLITICAL COURAGE OF THE GESTURE IS UNQUESTIONED. ..... NOW THE HARD PART BEGINS. THE AGENDA IS AMBITIOUS BUT THE MOMENTUM IS BUILDING. THE PRESENCE OF FORMER SENATOR GEORGE MITCHELL OF MAINE TO MEDIATE BETWEEN THE RIVAL FACTIONS GIVES THE PROCEEDINGS A FOUNDATION OF EVENHANDEDNESS. AFTER SO MANY YEARS OF SECTARIAN STRIFE, THE PROCESS IS HEADING IN THE RIGHT DIRECTION, THANKS TO THE BOLDNESS OF [PRIME MINISTER] BLAIR, THE SUPPORT OF THE IRISH, THE COMMITMENT OF THE ADVERSARIES AND THE TIDE OF HISTORY."

    TEXT: "THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR" SAYS THAT WHAT MR. BLAIR SAID REGARDING HIS ACTION, THAT HE WOULD GREET MR. ADAMS THE WAY HE WOULD "TREAT ANY OTHER HUMAN BEING" WAS AS IMPORTANT AS THE HANDSHAKE ITSELF.

    VOICE: PRIME MINISTER ... BLAIR SPANNED A HUGE GAP IN TRUST WHEN HE MET, AND SHOOK HANDS WITH, SINN FEIN'S GERRY ADAMS. CAN HE NOW TEMPER THE RESULTING OUTRAGE AMONG UNIONISTS ENOUGH TO BRING BOTH SIDES TO FRUITFUL NEGOTIATIONS ... IT IS EARLY TO SAY. BUT WE HAVE NO DOUBT THAT MR. BLAIR'S EMPHASIS ON TREATING ALL SIDES AS 'PARTS OF HUMANITY' IS AN INDISPENSABLE STEP IN THE RIGHT DIRECTION."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: AND LASTLY, "THE [NEW YORK] DAILY NEWS" IS EQUALLY THRILLED, AND BEGINS BY QUOTING THE PRIME MINISTER:

    VOICE: "I TREATED GERRY ADAMS AND THE MEMBERS OF SINN FEIN IN THE SAME WAY I TREAT ANY OTHER HUMAN BEING,' [MR.] BLAIR SAID AFTER THE FIRST FACE-TO-FACE MEETING BETWEEN A BRITISH PRIME MINISTER AND A SINN FEIN LEADER SINCE THE PARTITION OF IRELAND 76 YEARS AGO. LIKE ANY OTHER HUMAN BEING [ALL ITALICS FOR EMPHASIS]. THOSE ARE TRULY HISTORIC WORDS IN A WORLD WHERE DECADES OF SLAUGHTER HAVE LEFT GENERATIONS OF WIDOWS AND ORPHANS AND A LEGACY OF HATRED BRED IN THE BONE. PEACE COULDN'T COME BECAUSE THE LEADERS WOULDN'T EVEN MEET TO DISCUSS IT. THE HISTORIC HANDSHAKE OCCURRED BEHIND CLOSED DOORS ... BUT WORD OF IT SPREAD THROUGH BELFAST LIKE WILDFIRE. IN NO TIME, FIREBRANDS [EXTREMISTS] ON BOTH SIDES OF THE BLOODY CONFLICT CONDEMNED THE ACTION. ... OH, BUT THERE IS BLOOD ENOUGH ON EVERYBODY'S HANDS OVER NORTHERN IRELAND. THE POTENTIAL FOR PEACE MUST NOT BE SQUANDERED IN NAME CALLING."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: ON THAT HOPEFUL NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF COMMENT ON THIS WEEK'S MOST SIGNIFICANT DEVELOPMENT AT THE PEACE TALKS IN BELFAST, NORTHERN IRELAND.
    NEB/ANG/KL
    16-Oct-97 12:56 PM EDT (1656 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [10] TURKEY / ISLAM BY KYLE KING (ANKARA)

    DATE=10/16/97
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-37804
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE TURKISH GOVERNMENT IS PUSHING AHEAD WITH PLANS TO REDUCE ISLAMIC INFLUENCES ON THE NATION'S PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM. AS KYLE KING REPORTS FROM ANKARA, THE EFFORT HAS ONCE AGAIN DRAWN ATTENTION TO THE UNIQUE AND SOMETIMES VOLATILE BLEND OF ISLAM AND SECULARISM IN TURKEY.

    TEXT: PRO-ISLAMIST DEMONSTRATORS HAVE STAGED A SERIES OF RALLIES AND PROTESTS AROUND TURKEY SINCE JUNE, WHEN THE NEWLY FORMED GOVERNMENT OF PRIME MINISTER MESUT YILMAZ BEGAN PUSHING PLANS TO LIMIT RELIGIOUS EDUCATION.

    SINCE THEN, AUTHORITIES HAVE ARRESTED A NUMBER OF THE PROTEST ORGANIZERS, WHO OPPOSE THE NEW EDUCATION RULES.

    CRITICS SAY THE RULES WILL LEAD TO THE CLOSURE OF MANY RELIGION SCHOOLS IN TURKEY BECAUSE ALL CHILDREN WILL BE REQUIRED TO ATTEND SECULAR SCHOOLS FOR THEIR FIRST EIGHT-YEARS OF EDUCATION. UNDER THE NEW RULES, KORANIC EDUCATION COURSES FOR CHILDREN UNDER AGE-12 ARE ILLEGAL.

    AT ONE RELIGION-AFFILIATED HIGH SCHOOL IN ANKARA, STUDENTS SAID THEY THINK IT IS UN-DEMOCRATIC FOR THE GOVERNMENT TO BAN RELIGION EDUCATION. THEY SAY THEY PREFER THE RELIGION SCHOOLS OVER SECULAR STATE-RUN INSTITUTIONS.

    // FIRST STUDENT -- IN TURKISH; ESTABLISH AND FADE OUT //

    THIS GIRL SAYS -- FIRST OF ALL AT THIS SCHOOL WE ARE GETTING INSTRUCTIONS IN ISLAM, AT THE STATE SCHOOLS IT IS NOT ENOUGH. SHE AND HER FRIEND, WHO BOTH WANT TO BE TEACHERS AT ISLAMIC SCHOOLS, ARE ALSO CONCERNED ABOUT DISCRIMINATION.

    // SECOND STUDENT ACT -- IN TURKISH; ESTABLISH AND FADE //

    ASKED IF THEY WOULD BE WILLING TO WORK AT A SECULAR STATE RUN SCHOOL, ONE GIRL SAYS I DO NOT THINK SO. HER FRIEND SAYS -- SURE, BUT I AM AFRAID THEY WILL NOT LET ME.

    NOT SURPRISINGLY, STUDENTS OPPOSED TO RELIGION EDUCATION USE MANY OF THE SAME ARGUMENTS. THEY SAY SECULAR SCHOOLS AND WESTERN FREEDOMS WOULD BE LOST IF ISLAMISTS ARE GIVEN TOO MUCH INFLUENCE IN TURKEY. THEY SAY KORANIC SCHOOLS FOR CHILDREN ARE BEING USED FOR POLITICAL REASONS.

    AT TURKISH UNIVERSITIES, THE TENSION BETWEEN SECULARIST AND ISLAMIC FACTIONS HAS ALSO RE-EMERGED OVER THE ISSUE OF HEADSCARVES FOR WOMEN.

    UNDER PRESSURE FROM THE GOVERNMENT OF PRIME MINISTER YILMAZ, MANY UNIVERSITIES HAVE AGAIN BEGUN ENFORCING REGULATIONS BARRING WOMEN FROM WEARING HEADSCARFS IN SOME DEPARTMENTS.

    MANY STUDENTS AGREE WITH THE GOVERNMENT MOVES, SAYING THEY FEEL RELIGION SHOULD BE KEPT OUT OF THE SCHOOLS.

    // THIRD STUDENT -- IN TURKISH; ESTABLISH AND FADE //

    A 21-YEAR-OLD STUDENT NAMED BAHADIR (BA-HA-DIS) SAYS -- IF IT IS NOT FOR POLITICAL REASONS, IT IS OKAY IF THEY WEAR THE HEAD SCARF. BUT THERE IS A STANDARD FOR EVERYTHING AND IF WE CAN NOT COME TO SCHOOL NAKED, HE SAYS, THEY SHOULD NOT BE ALLOWED TO COME TO SCHOOL JUST SHOWING THEIR EYES.

    MANY STUDENTS, LIKE THIS 20-YEAR-OLD WOMAN, SAY THE HEAD SCARF ISSUE IS MORE ABOUT POLITICS THAN RELIGION.

    // FOURTH STUDENT ACT -- IN ENGLISH //

    THEY ARE NOT USING ISLAM AS IT SHOULD BE USED. I MEAN THIS IS A RELIGION, BUT THEY ARE TRYING TO MAKE IT INTO A POLITICAL ISSUE.

    // END ACT //

    BUT SEPARATING POLITICS FROM RELIGION IS NOT EASY IN TURKEY. WHAT IS MORE, DESPITE THE ECONOMIC STRIDES THAT HAVE BEEN MADE UNDER ITS SECULAR SYSTEM, MANY TURKS STILL FACE UN-EMPLOYMENT, ECONOMIC HARDSHIP, AND THE SOMETIMES DIFFICULT TRANSITION FROM RURAL TO URBAN LIFE.

    TURKISH JOURNALIST AND UNIVERSITY PROFESSOR GENCAY SAYLAN (GEN-JAI SHY-LON) SAYS UNDER SUCH CIRCUMSTANCES, IT IS LOGICAL FOR PEOPLE TO TURN TO RELIGION IF THEY FEEL THE SYSTEM IS NOT HELPING THEM.

    // GENCAY ACT //

    WHEN HE (AVERAGE PERSON) IS IN THAT SITUATION, IF HE HAS A KIND OF DISSOLUTION, IF HE MEETS A KIND OF OBSTACLE, SOCIAL OR ECONOMIC, THE MOST EASY WAY FOR HIM TO LOOK FOR A REMEDY, AND OF COURSE HE CAN FIND THIS REMEDY IN THE FRAME OF REFERENCE THAT HE KNOWS BEST, AND THAT IS THE RELIGIOUS FRAME OF REFERENCE.

    // END ACT //

    MANY ANALYSTS AGREE. TURKEY EXPERT (MS) SEDEF KOREY, FROM THE CENTER FOR TURKISH STUDIES IN GERMANY, SAYS THE DESIRE FOR MORE POLITICAL INFLUENCE AND A BETTER LIFE IS THE ROOT CAUSE OF MANY PRO-ISLAMIC PROTESTS.

    // KOREY ACT //

    BUT I THINK THE REAL REASON IS THAT THEY WANT -- MOST OF THEM CONSCIOUSLY, MAYBE SOME OF THEM UNCONSCIOUSLY -- THEY WANT TO HAVE A PART OF THE POWER ... THEY WANT TO REAP THE ECONOMIC ADVANTAGES OF BEING IN POWER. AND THAT IS WHERE THE REAL REASON LIES.

    // END ACT //

    MS. KOREY AND OTHER ANALYSTS SAY UNTIL TURKEY BEGINS TO SORT OUT ITS ECONOMIC PROBLEMS AND IMPROVE THE STANDARD OF LIVING FOR ORDINARY PEOPLE, ISLAM WILL REMAIN A POTENT POLITICAL FORCE.

    IN THE MEANTIME, PRO-ISLAMIC STUDENTS AND THEIR SUPPORTERS SAY THEY WILL PRESS ON WITH THEIR CAMPAIGN FOR GREATER INFLUENCE AND WHAT THEY CALL RELIGIOUS TOLERANCE IN TURKEY'S SCHOOLS AND UNIVERSITIES. (SIGNED)
    NEB/KBK/PCF/RAE
    16-Oct-97 11:17 AM EDT (1517 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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