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Voice of America, 97-12-31

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] EDITORIAL: CLINTON ON ADVANCING HUMAN RIGHTS
  • [02] EDITORIAL: HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE NEW YEAR
  • [03] EURO STOCKS (S-ONLY) BY PAUL FRANCUCH (LONDON)
  • [04] IRAQ / ETHNIC CLEANSING BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ERBIL, NORTHERN IRAQ)
  • [05] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)
  • [06] SOROS / FINANCIAL BREAKDOWN (L-ONLY) BY MAX RUSTON (NEW YORK)
  • [07] TURKEY/ISRAEL (L/S) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)
  • [08] WEDNESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [01] EDITORIAL: CLINTON ON ADVANCING HUMAN RIGHTS

    DATE= JANUARY 4, 1998
    TYPE= EDITORIAL
    NUMBER= 0-07591
    CONTENT=THIS IS THE ONLY EDITORIAL BEING RELEASED FOR BROADCAST
    JANUARY 4, 1998.

    ANNCR: THE VOICE OF AMERICA PRESENTS DIFFERING POINTS OF VIEW ON A WIDE VARIETY OF ISSUES. NEXT, AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT.

    VOICE:

    FIFTY YEARS AGO, THE UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY ADOPTED THE UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS. OVER THE PAST HALF CENTURY, THE DECLARATION'S THIRTY ARTICLES HAVE ENTERED THE CONSCIOUSNESS OF PEOPLE AROUND THE WORLD. THEY HAVE BECOME A STANDARD FOR MANY SOCIETIES AND ARE OFTEN INVOKED IN CONSTITUTIONS AND COURTS.

    IN THE YEARS SINCE THE DECLARATION WAS ADOPTED, COMMUNISM HAS BEEN DISCREDITED. YET AS PRESIDENT BILL CLINTON POINTED OUT "THREATS TO FREEDOM AND HUMAN RIGHTS STILL PERSIST. HUMAN RIGHTS ARE STILL AT RISK FROM BURMA TO NIGERIA, FROM BELARUS TO CHINA. ALTHOUGH MORE THAN HALF THE WORLD'S PEOPLE NOW LIVE UNDER GOVERNMENTS OF THEIR OWN CHOOSING, DEMOCRACY'S ROOTS ARE STILL FRAGILE IN SOME COUNTRIES; OTHERS ARE BESIEGED BY FORCES RANGING FROM DRUG CARTELS TO ORGANIZED CRIME. AND EVEN IN DEMOCRACIES, HUMAN RIGHTS, WHICH SO OFTEN MEAN MINORITY RIGHTS, ARE NOT GUARANTEED."

    AS PRESIDENT CLINTON STRESSED, "SUPPORTING THE SPREAD OF DEMOCRACY, WITH RESPECT FOR HUMAN RIGHTS, ADVANCES THE VALUES THAT MAKE LIFE WORTH LIVING. IT ALSO HELPS NATIONS IN THE INFORMATION AGE TO ACHIEVE THEIR TRUE WEALTH. . . . FULLY DEVELOPING. . .HUMAN RESOURCES REQUIRES PEOPLE WHO ARE FREE TO SPEAK, FREE TO ASSOCIATE, FREE TO WORSHIP, AND [WHO] FEEL FREE TO DO THOSE THINGS. IT REQUIRES, THEREFORE, ACCOUNTABLE, OPEN, CONSISTENT GOVERNMENTS THAT EARN PEOPLE'S TRUST."

    FOR ALL THESE REASONS, THE UNITED STATES WILL KEEP FAITH WITH THOSE WORKING FOR PEACEFUL DEMOCRATIC CHANGE WITHIN THEIR OWN SOCIETIES -- OFTEN AT TREMENDOUS PERSONAL RISK. AS PRESIDENT CLINTON SAID, "ADVANCING HUMAN RIGHTS MUST ALWAYS BE A CENTRAL PILLAR OF AMERICA'S FOREIGN POLICY."

    ANNCR:

    THAT WAS AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO BE HEARD ON THIS ISSUE, PLEASE WRITE TO EDITORIALS, VOICE OF AMERICA, WASHINGTON, D-C, 20547, U-S-A. YOU MAY ALSO SEND US A FAX AT (202) 619-1043. YOUR COMMENTS MAY BE USED ON THE AIR.
    31-Dec-97 9:59 AM EST (1459 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] EDITORIAL: HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE NEW YEAR

    DATE= JANUARY 1, 1998
    TYPE= EDITORIAL
    NUMBER= 0-07588
    CONTENT=THIS IS THE ONLY EDITORIAL BEING RELEASED FOR BROADCAST
    JANUARY 1, 1998.

    ANNCR: THE VOICE OF AMERICA PRESENTS DIFFERING POINTS OF VIEW ON A WIDE VARIETY OF ISSUES. NEXT, AN EDITORIAL REFLECTING AMERICAN IDEALS AND INSTITUTIONS.

    VOICE:

    VOICE:

    THIS NEW YEAR'S DAY MARKS THE BEGINNING OF THE CELEBRATION OF THE FIFTIETH ANNIVERSARY OF THE UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS. THE DECLARATION WAS ADOPTED BY THE UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY IN DECEMBER 1948. IT WAS MADE IN THE AFTERMATH OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR -- ONE OF THE MOST TERRIBLE CONFLICTS THE WORLD HAS EVER KNOWN.

    AMONG THE HORRORS OF THAT WAR -- AND THERE WERE MANY -- WAS THE HOLOCAUST, THE SYSTEMATIC EFFORT BY NAZI GERMANY TO DESTROY THE JEWS OF EUROPE. IN THIS GENOCIDAL CAMPAIGN, SOME SIX-MILLION JEWISH MEN, WOMEN, AND CHILDREN WERE KILLED SIMPLY BECAUSE OF WHO THEY WERE.

    THE DENIAL OF THE HUMANITY OF THE JEWS AND OTHERS BY NAZI GERMANY MADE IT ALL THE MORE IMPERATIVE FOR THE U-N TO RESTATE THE FUNDAMENTALS. IN ITS FIRST ARTICLE, THE UNIVERSAL DECLARATION SAYS THAT, "ALL HUMAN BEINGS ARE BORN FREE AND EQUAL IN DIGNITY AND RIGHTS. THEY ARE ENDOWED WITH REASON AND CONSCIENCE AND SHOULD ACT TOWARDS ONE ANOTHER IN A SPIRIT OF BROTHERHOOD."

    IT IS CAUSE FOR CELEBRATION THAT OVER THE PAST FIFTY YEARS, THESE PRINCIPLES HAVE SPREAD TO MUCH OF THE WORLD. THE HUMAN RIGHTS ORGANIZATION FREEDOM HOUSE REPORTED IN 1997 THAT THE LARGEST NUMBER OF COUNTRIES EVER -- EIGHTY-ONE -- RESPECT CIVIL LIBERTIES AND POLITICAL RIGHTS. IN RECENT YEARS, LATIN AMERICA HAS BEEN TRANSFORMED INTO A SPHERE OF DEMOCRACY. THE COLLAPSE OF COMMUNISM IN THE SOVIET UNION FREED MUCH OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE TO PURSUE A DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIFE. ELSEWHERE, THE UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS NOW SETS A STANDARD BY WHICH GOVERNMENTS ARE JUDGED BY THEIR OWN PEOPLES AND OTHERS.

    THE U.S. WILL OBSERVE THE DECLARATION'S FIFTIETH ANNIVERSARY BY REAFFIRMING THE UNIVERSALITY OF ITS PRECEPTS. AS PRESIDENT BILL CLINTON SAID, "ADVANCING HUMAN RIGHTS IS -- AND MUST ALWAYS BE -- A CENTRAL PILLAR OF AMERICA'S FOREIGN POLICY."

    ANNCR:

    THAT WAS AN EDITORIAL REFLECTING AMERICAN IDEALS AND INSTITUTIONS. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO BE HEARD ON THIS ISSUE, PLEASE WRITE TO EDITORIALS, VOICE OF AMERICA, WASHINGTON, D-C, 20547, U-S-A. YOU MAY ALSO SEND US A FAX AT (202) 619-1043. YOUR COMMENTS MAY BE USED ON THE AIR.
    31-Dec-97 9:57 AM EST (1457 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] EURO STOCKS (S-ONLY) BY PAUL FRANCUCH (LONDON)

    DATE=12/31/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-224670
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THERE WAS LIMITED TRADING ON EUROPEAN STOCK MARKETS NEW YEAR'S EVE, BUT THAT TRADING LEFT THE BOURSES ON THE POSITIVE SIDE OF THE LEDGER. PAUL FRANCUCH IN LONDON HAS THE CLOSING FIGURES.

    TEXT: FRANKFURT'S EXCHANGE WAS CLOSED WEDNESDAY, BUT IN LONDON AND PARIS, WHERE TRADING WENT ON, THE YEAR ENDED ON A HIGH NOTE. TRADING VOLUME, HOWEVER WAS THIN. THE KEY "FINANCIAL TIMES" 100 INDEX OF BRITISH STOCKS ADDED JUST OVER THREE POINTS AT THE CLOSE. IN PARIS, THE "CAC 40" STOCK INDEX WAS UP 24 POINTS -- NEARLY A FULL PERCENTAGE POINT -- GOING INTO THE NEW YEAR. MARKETS IN EUROPE WILL BE CLOSED THURSDAY.

    THE U-S DOLLAR SHOWED LITTLE MOVEMENT IN ITS EXCHANGE VALUE WITH THE BRITISH POUND AND GERMAN MARK WEDNESDAY.

    GOLD PRICES, HOWEVER, ENDED 1997 AT 289-DOLLARS-20 CENTS IN LONDON, AND EVEN LOWER LATER THE DAY IN ZURICH, WHERE THE PRECIOUS METAL WAS PRICED AT 287-DOLLARS AN OUNCE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PCF/RRM
    31-Dec-97 12:03 PM EST (1703 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] IRAQ / ETHNIC CLEANSING BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ERBIL, NORTHERN IRAQ)

    DATE=12/31/97
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-38568
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: IRAQI KURDS ARE CHARGING THAT IRAQI PRESIDENT SADDAM HUSSEIN HAS EMBARKED ON A FRESH CAMPAIGN OF ETHNIC CLEANSING IN THE MAINLY KURDISH AREAS STILL UNDER HIS GOVERNMENT'S CONTROL. AMBERIN ZAMAN REPORTS FROM THE CITY OF ERBIL IN KURDISH-CONTROLLED NORTHERN IRAQ THAT MORE THAN 100 KURDISH FAMILIES HAVE BEEN FORCIBLY EVICTED FROM THEIR HOMES IN IRAQ'S OIL-RICH PROVINCE OF KIRKUK DURING THE PAST FEW WEEKS.

    TEXT: IN A DAMP, DARK BASEMENT OF A DERELICT BUILDING IN THE CENTER OF ERBIL, CROWDS OF REFUGEES -- MEN, WOMEN, AND CHILDREN HUDDLE TOGETHER TO WARD OFF THE BITING COLD. THEY HAVE JUST ARRIVED FROM THE OIL-RICH PROVINCE OF KIRKUK WITHOUT ANY OF THEIR BELONGINGS AND WITH NO IDEA OF WHAT THE FUTURE HOLDS. THEY SAY ARMED IRAQI POLICE ORDERED THEM TO LEAVE THEIR HOMES. THOSE WHO REFUSED TO COMPLY WERE SENT TO JAIL.

    NOW THEY LIVE AMID THE SQUALOR AND STENCH OF THIS ABANDONED BUILDING. CANDLES PROVIDE LIGHT. THIN CARDBOARD STRIPS SERVE AS MAKESHIFT BEDS . MOST HAVE NO MONEY AND LITTLE PROSPECT OF FINDING A JOB. A FARMER, KERIM KADER, IS ONE OF MANY KURDS WHO SPENT TIME IN AN IRAQI PRISON BEFORE COMING HERE.

    /// KADER ACT - IN KURDISH - FADE UNDER ///

    MR. KADER SAYS HE WAS KEPT IN JAIL FOR MORE THAN ONE MONTH. DURING THAT TIME HE WAS GIVEN NO FOOD. HE WAS TOLD THAT HE WOULD BE RELEASED IF HIS FAMILY SHOWED UP WITH A PICK-UP TRUCK READY TO LEAVE KIRKUK FOR KURDISH CONTROLLED NORTHERN IRAQ. HE SAID THE IRAQI AUTHORITIES TOLD HIM TO GO TO HIS OWN LAND THAT WAS NOW BEING RUN BY HIS OWN PEOPLE.

    IRAQI KURDISH OFFICIALS SAY THE EXPULSIONS OF KURDS FROM IRAQI-CONTROLLED TERRITORY STARTED AFTER THE KURDS ESTABLISHED THEIR OWN DE FACTO ADMINISTRATION IN THE NORTH AFTER THEIR FAILED REBELLION AGAINST SADDAM HUSSEIN FOLLOWING THE GULF WAR. THAT IS WHEN THE ALLIES LED BY THE UNITED STATES DECLARED A NO FLY ZONE OVER NORTHERN IRAQ AND PATROL THE SKIES WITH PLANES BASED IN SOUTHERN TURKEY.

    WESTERN OFFICIALS SAY NEARLY ONE-QUARTER-MILLION KURDS HAVE BEEN EXPELLED FROM AREAS CONTROLLED BY THE IRAQI GOVERNMENT SINCE 1991.

    FAZIL MIRANI IS THE INTERIOR MINISTER OF THE KURDISH ADMINISTRATION LED BY THE KURDISTAN DEMOCRATIC PARTY, OR K-D-P, WHICH CONTROLS MORE THAN ONE-HALF OF THE KURDISH ENCLAVE INCLUDING THE KEY TOWN OF ERBIL. HE SAYS HIS ADMINISTRATION IS FACING HUGE DIFFICULTIES IN PROVIDING FOOD AND SHELTER FOR THE NEW INFLUX OF KURDISH REFUGEES FROM BAGHDAD-CONTROLLED AREAS.

    /// MIRANI ACT ///

    WE AS THE K-D-P, WE WERE, WE ARE, WE WILL STAY AGAINST ANY KIND OF ETHNIC OR ARABIZATION OF OUR TERRITORY OR KICKING OUR PEOPLE OUT OF THE PLACES THEY ARE LIVING, NO MATTER IN KIRKUK, MOSUL, WHERE EVER IT IS, AND OF COURSE IT IS VIOLATION OF IRAQIAN CITIZENSHIP RIGHT AND HUMAN RIGHTS.

    /// END MIRANI ACT ///

    MR. MIRANI SAYS MANY OF THE REFUGEES HAVE TURNED TO THE UNITED NATIONS FOR HELP. U-N OFFICIALS CONFIRM THEY OFFICIALLY ASKED THE IRAQI GOVERNMENT TWICE IN RECENT MONTHS TO HALT THE EXPULSIONS.

    /// OPT ///

    IN MANY CASES, IRAQI FORCES SEIZE FOOD COUPONS ISSUED TO THE KURDS UNDER THE U-N OIL FOR FOOD PROGRAM BEFORE FORCING THEM AT GUNPOINT TO LEAVE IRAQI-CONTROLLED AREAS WITH NONE OF THEIR BELONGINGS. /// END OPT /// KIRKUK, WHERE MUCH OF IRAQ'S VAST RESERVES OF OIL IS FOUND, HAS LONG BEEN ONE OF THE MAIN PROVINCES TARGETED BY THE IRAQI GOVERNMENT FOR ITS SO CALLED ARABIZATION PROGRAM. CRITICS SAY IRAQ WANTS TO PREVENT KURDS FROM LAYING CLAIM TO THE STRATEGIC PROVINCE WHERE -- TOGETHER WITH ETHNIC TURKISH TURCOMES -- THEY MAKE UP A SIGNIFICANT SHARE OF THE POPULATION. HOWEVER, MOST IRAQI KURDS BELIEVE KIRKUK BELONGS TO THEM ALONE. ONE SUCH KURD IS AN OLD PEASANT, SHUKUR MOHAMMED KADER, WHO WAS TWICE KICKED OUT OF HIS HOME IN KIRKUK BY IRAQI FORCES.

    /// MOHAMMED KADER ACT - IN KURDISH - FADE UNDER ///

    SHUKUR KADER SAYS THE OLDEST GRAVES IN KIRKUK ARE KURDISH -- NOT ARAB -- PROOF, HE SAYS, THAT THE PROVINCE BELONGS TO THE KURDS.

    PRESIDENT SADDAM'S ARABIZATION CAMPAIGN IS NOTHING NEW. IT DATES BACK TO THE 1970'S WHEN THE KURDISH REBELLION REACHED ITS PEAK. ACCORDING TO SOME ESTIMATES, UP TO ONE-MILLION IRAQI KURDS WERE FORCIBLY DISPLACED AND MADE TO SETTLE IN SO-CALLED COLLECTIVE VILLAGES ERECTED BY IRAQI TROOPS.

    KURDS CHARGE THE IRAQI GOVERNMENT'S ASSIMILATION METHODS INCLUDED PAYING ETHNIC ARABS TO MARRY KURDISH GIRLS.

    BUT KURDS WERE NOT THE ONLY VICTIMS OF ETHNIC CLEANSING. THE TURCOMENS AND ASSYRIAN CHRISTIANS MINORITY ALSO HAVE BEEN VICTIMS OF THE ARABIZATION CAMPAIGN.

    YONADIM HANNA IS THE LEADER OF THE ASSYRIAN DEMOCRATIC MOVEMENT BASED IN K-D-P - CONTROLLED NORTHERN IRAQ.

    /// YONADIM ACT ///

    WE WERE OPPRESSED AS IRAQIS, ALL THE PEOPLE OF IRAQ -- KURDS, ASSYSRIANS, AND TURCOMENS -- ESPECIALLY UNDER THE POLICY OF BLIND NATIONALISM OF THE REGIME, THE EXISTING REGIME, AND SPECIALLY AFTER 1961, WHEN THE KURDISTAN REVOLUTION STARTED, WHEN THE IRAQI REGIME WAS BOMBING THE VILLAGE, NEVER PUTTING SOME DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THIS VILLAGE AND SECOND VILLAGE. THEY WERE BOMBING EVERYBODY AND THEY WERE IMPLEMENTING I CAN SAY, THEIR ARABIZING POLICY AGAINST EVERYBODY, AGAINST ALL THE REGION.

    /// END YONADIM ACT ///

    LIKE MANY IRAQIS -- BE THEY KURDS, SHIA ARABS, OR TURCOMENS -- MR. HANNA BELIEVES THAT UNTIL THE PRESENT GOVERNMENT IN BAGHDAD IS REPLACED BY A DEMOCRATICALLY ELECTED GOVERNMENT, HE AND HIS PEOPLE WILL CONTINUE TO SUFFER. (SIGNED)
    NEB/AZ/JWH
    31-Dec-97 5:18 AM EST (1018 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)

    DATE=12/31/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-224689
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES WERE DOWN TODAY (WEDNESDAY) BUT STOCKS ENDED THE YEAR WITH A STRONG ANNUAL GAIN. V-O-A'S CORRESPONDENT BRECK ARDERY REPORTS FROM NEW YORK.

    TEXT: THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE CLOSED AT 79 HUNDRED EIGHT, DOWN SEVEN POINTS. FOR 1997, THE INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE GAINED 18 HUNDRED 64 POINTS OR ALMOST 23 PERCENT. AND, IT WAS A RECORD THREE YEARS IN A ROW THAT THE INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE GAINED MORE THAN 20 PERCENT. THE STANDARD AND POOR'S 500 INDEX CLOSED WEDNESDAY AT 970, DOWN A FRACTION OF ONE POINT.

    ANALYSTS SAY THERE WAS NO MAJOR NEWS TO MOVE STOCK PRICES AND THAT TRADING WAS DRIVEN PRIMARILY BY END-OF-THE-YEAR PORTFOLIO ADJUSTMENTS.

    AN INDEX DESIGNED TO FORECAST FUTURE U-S ECONOMIC ACTIVITY WAS UP ONE-TENTH OF ONE PERCENT IN NOVEMBER, IN-LINE WITH WALL STREET EXPECTATIONS.

    /// REST OPT ///

    THE NUMBER OF AMERICANS APPLYING FOR UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS ROSE SLIGHTLY LAST WEEK. BUT ANALYSTS SAY THE NUMBER OF PEOPLE RECEIVING JOBLESS BENEFITS, ABOUT 315 THOUSAND, REMAINS HISTORICALLY LOW.

    THE UNITED STATES TREASURY DEPARTMENT SAYS IT WILL AGAIN ISSUE SO-CALLED "INDEXED" BONDS IN EARLY JANUARY. UNLIKE TRADITIONAL GOVERNMENT SECURITIES, THE INTEREST RATES ON THE INDEXED BONDS ADJUST ALONG WITH THE INFLATION RATE. TREASURY OFFICIALS SAY THEY ARE ENCOURAGED BY DEMAND FOR THE INDEXED BONDS WHICH WERE FIRST INTRODUCED 11 MONTHS AGO.

    THE WEALTHLY AMERICAN INVESTOR GEORGE SOROS IS CAUSING DISCUSSION WITH HIS STATEMENT THAT THE FINANCIAL CRISIS IN ASIA THREATENS A WORLDWIDE DEFLATION WHICH COULD RADICALLY REDUCE THE VALUE OF FINANCIAL ASSETS. WRITING IN THE "FINANCIAL TIMES" NEWSPAPER, MR. SOROS SUGGESTS THE ESTABLISHMENT OF AN INTERNATIONAL AGENCY TO REGULATE THE ALLOCATION OF CREDIT WHICH COULD PREVENT EXCESSIVE BORROWING SUCH AS OCCURRED IN SOME ASIAN NATIONS.(SIGNED) NEB/NY/BA/LSF/PT
    31-Dec-97 5:10 PM EST (2210 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] SOROS / FINANCIAL BREAKDOWN (L-ONLY) BY MAX RUSTON (NEW YORK)

    DATE=12/31/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-224675
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE AMERICAN FINANCIER GEORGE SOROS IS WARNING ASIA'S ECONOMIC PROBLEMS COULD TRIGGER AN INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL CRISIS. MR. SOROS SAYS AN INTERNATIONAL CREDIT REGULATORY BODY IS NEEDED TO DEAL WITH THE THREAT, AS WE HEAR FROM CORRESPONDENT MAX RUSTON IN NEW YORK.

    TEXT: IN A COMMENTARY IN THE LONDON-BASED FINANCIAL TIMES NEWSPAPER, MR. SOROS SAYS THE INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL SYSTEM IS SUFFERING A SYSTEMATIC BREAKDOWN. HE BLAMES THE BREAKDOWN ON THE ABANDONMENT OF FIXED EXCHANGE RATES IN SOUTHEAST ASIA, SAYING THAT HAS RAISED THE THREAT OF WORLDWIDE DEFLATION. MR. SOROS, ONE OF THE WORLD'S BEST KNOWN AND MOST SUCCESSFUL CURRENCY TRADERS, MONEY MANAGERS, AND PHILANTHROPISTS, HAS A SOLUTION FOR THIS PROBLEM.

    MR. SOROS SAYS AN INTERNATIONAL CREDIT INSURANCE CORPORATION SHOULD BE ESTABLISHED AS A SISTER INSTITUTION TO THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND. HE SAYS PRIVATE-SECTOR FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS ARE ILL SUITED TO ALLOCATE INTERNATIONAL CREDIT, AS THEY PURSUE GOALS OF MAXIMUM PROFIT AND MINIMUM RISK. HE SAYS A NEW REGULATORY BODY WOULD USE LOAN GUARANTEES TO ENSURE A BALANCED ALLOCATION OF INTERNATIONAL CREDIT.

    BY SETTING LIMITS ON THE AMOUNTS OF MONEY IT IS WILLING TO INSURE, THE INSTITUTION WOULD HAVE SOME CONTROL OVER THE DEGREE OF RISK PRESENT IN THE MARKET.

    STANLEY NABI, OF THE INVESTMENT FIRM WOOD, STRUTHERS AND WINTHROP, SAYS THE PROPOSAL COULD HELP STABILIZE INTERNATIONAL CREDIT FLOWS.

    /// NABI ACT ///

    I THINK IT IS A VERY GOOD PROPOSAL. THESE COUNTRIES HAVE GONE FOR SEVERAL YEARS WITHOUT ANY REGULATION, WITH A GREAT DEAL OF CORRUPTION, WITH LOOSE CONTROLS IN THEIR FINANCIAL SYSTEMS. SOMEBODY HAS TO BE THERE TO TELL THEM WHAT TO DO.

    /// END ACT ///

    BUT MR. NABI SAYS HE IS NOT CONVINCED WORLDWIDE DEFLATION, A DEPRESSION, OR ANY MAJOR RECESSIONS ARE LIKELY IN 1998.

    MR. SOROS HAS BEEN BLAMED FOR SOME OF EAST ASIA'S FINANCIAL PROBLEMS. EARLIER THIS YEAR, MALAYSIAN PRIME MINISTER MAHATHIR MOHAMAD BLAMED MR. SOROS FOR CAUSING HIS COUNTRY'S CURRENCY DEVALUATION BY ALLEGEDLY WAGERING THE CURRENCY WOULD DROP -- A CHARGE MR. SOROS DENIES.

    IN HIS NEWSPAPER COMMENTARY, MR. SOROS ADMITS HIS PROPOSAL INVOLVES MANY DIFFICULT COMPLICATIONS, PARTICULARLY IN DETERMINING WHAT DEGREE OF CONTROL INDIVIDUAL GOVERNMENTS WOULD HAVE OVER CREDIT ALLOCATIONS. HE SAYS ONCE THE NEED FOR A CREDIT INSURANCE INSTITUTION IS RECOGNIZED, IT WILL BE POSSIBLE TO RESOLVE THOSE PROBLEMS. (SIGNED) NEB/NY/MPR/LSF/RAE
    31-Dec-97 2:09 PM EST (1909 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] TURKEY/ISRAEL (L/S) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)

    DATE=12/31/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-224665
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    ///EDS: CAN MAKE A SHORT SPOT BY REMOVING OPT SECTION///

    INTRO: TURKEY HAS AWARDED ISRAEL A 75-MILLION-DOLLAR CONTRACT TO MODERNIZE ITS U-S-MADE F-5 MILITARY FIGHTER JETS. AS AMBERIN ZAMAN REPORTS FROM ANKARA, THE DEAL IS THE LATEST IN A SERIES OF MOVES AIMED AT DEEPENING MILITARY COOPERATION WITH THE JEWISH STATE.

    TEXT: ISRAEL IS ALREADY UPGRADING 54 OF TURKEY'S F-4 FIGHTER PLANES IN A DEAL WORTH 630-MILLION DOLLARS. ANALYSTS SAY THE AGREEMENT ANNOUNCED WEDNESDAY WILL LIKELY TRIGGER FURTHER CRITICISM FROM TURKEY'S ARAB NEIGHBORS AND IRAN. THOSE COUNTRIES BELIEVE THE COOPERATION BETWEEN ANKARA AND ISRAEL IS DIRECTED AGAINST THEM.

    ARAB COUNTRIES -- LED BY SYRIA AND EGYPT -- SAY THAT THE SIGNING OF A MILITARY TRAINING AGREEMENT LAST YEAR BETWEEN TURKEY AND ISRAEL DISRUPTS THE REGIONAL BALANCE OF POWER AND HARMS THE MIDDLE EAST PACE PROCESS. THE AGREEMENT COVERS THE SHARING OF MILITARY INTELLIGENCE AND ALLOWS PILOTS FROM BOTH COUNTRIES TO TRAIN OVER EACH OTHER'S TERRITORY.

    //OPT//

    TURKISH OFFICIALS INSIST THEIR TIES WITH ISRAEL DO NOT AFFECT THIRD COUNTRIES. YET AT THE SAME TIME, TURKEY'S TOP MILITARY BRASS CONTINUE TO NAME SYRIA AS ONE OF THEIR COUNTRY'S MOST DANGEROUS ENEMIES BECAUSE OF ITS CONTINUED SUPPORT FOR SEPARATIST REBELS OF THE KURDISTAN WORKERS' PARTY OR P-K-K. THAT GROUP HAS BEEN FIGHTING THE TURKISH ARMY OVER THE PAST 13 YEARS FOR A SEPARATE KURDISH STATE. THE P-K-K LEADER ABDULLAH OCALAN IS WIDELY BELIEVED TO SPEND MOST OF HIS TIME IN DAMASCUS WITH THE FULL KNOWLEDGE OF THE SYRIAN AUTHORITIES.

    IRAQI KURDISH OFFICIALS SAY ISRAELI MILITARY EXPERTS ARE ADVISING TURKEY ON ITS CAMPAIGN AGAINST THE P-K-K IN KURDISH-CONTROLLED NORTHERN IRAQ, WHERE THE TURKISH KURDS REBELS HAVE SEVERAL BASES.

    //END OPT//

    THE UNITED STATES IS STRONGLY ENCOURAGING COOPERATION BETWEEN TURKEY AND ISRAEL. ALL THREE COUNTRIES WILL TAKE PART IN NAVAL EXERCISES ON JANUARY SEVENTH OFF THE ISRAELI COAST. (SIGNED)
    NEB/AZ/PCF
    31-Dec-97 9:49 AM EST (1449 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] WEDNESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=12/31/97
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-10511
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=

    //// EDS: PERISHABLE MATERIAL, DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-S-T ! ! ////

    INTRO: AS THE UNITED STATES PREPARES TO CELEBRATE THE DAWN OF A NEW YEAR, THE NATION'S EDITORIALS PAGE EDITORS ARE MAKING THEIR FINAL COMMENTS OF 1997 ON THE AFFAIRS OF THE NATION AND THE WORLD. AMONG THEIR TOPICS ON THIS LAST DAY ARE: THE PERIL POSED BY BIRD-FLU IN HONG KONG; KENYA'S FLAWED ELECTION; THE CHIAPAS MASSACRE IN MEXICO; THE CASE AGAINST NATO ENLARGEMENT; AND A CONTROVERSIAL DECISION REGARDING THE "UNABOMBER." NOW, JOINING US IN THE STUDIO IS ________________________ WITH A CLOSER LOOK AT THE COMMENTARIES AND SOME QUOTES IN TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: THE DEATH TOLL CONTINUES TO INCH UPWARD IN HONG KONG, CHINA, FROM A NEW STRAIN OF FLU THAT PASSES FROM CHICKENS TO HUMANS. THE WORLD'S EPIDEMIOLOGISTS ARE KEEPING A CLOSE EYE ON THE SITUATION, AND IN THIS COUNTRY, THEIR GROWING CONCERN IS MIRRORED IN THE EDITORIAL COLUMNS. HERE'S PART OF TODAY'S LEAD COMMENTARY FROM THE "MIAMI HERALD."

    VOICE: THUS FAR, THIS LATEST STRAIN OF THE BIRD FLU VIRUS HAS AFFECTED 20 PERSONS IN HONG KONG. FOUR OF THEM HAVE DIED, AND EIGHT HAVE BECOME SERIOUSLY ILL. DOCTORS ARE FEARFUL, HOWEVER, BECAUSE THE VIRUS WAS TRANSMITTED DIRECTLY FROM CHICKENS TO HUMANS, WHO HAVE NO NATURAL IMMUNITY TO THE DISEASE. ..... THE VIRUS IS A NEW STRAIN THAT CAN BE TRANSMITTED BY TOUCH, AND FOR WHICH THERE IS NO KNOWN VACCINE. ...AS A RESULT, SCIENTISTS ARE CONCERNED FOR THE FIRST TIME IN 20 YEARS ABOUT THE POSSIBILITY OF A PANDEMIC. [OPT] FOR YEARS THEY HAVE WARNED THAT A NEW FLU VIRUS COULD TRIGGER A WORLDWIDE EPIDEMIC SIMILAR TO THE ONE IN 1918 AND 1919 THAT KILLED 21 MILLION PEOPLE WORLDWIDE. SUCH AN OCCURRENCE CANNOT BE COUNTENANCED. [END OPT] THAT'S WHY EVERY POSSIBLE STEP TO PREVENT THE SPREAD OF THIS VIRUS MUST BE TAKEN. GIVEN THE DANGER, THE SLAUGHTER OF CHICKENS ON HONG KONG ISLAND AND ITS ADJACENT TERRITORIES IS WHOLLY JUSTIFIED.

    TEXT: ANOTHER PAPER LEADING ITS EDITORIALS WITH THOUGHTS ON THE BIRD FLU, "THE SUN" IN BALTIMORE, IS NOT AS CONCERNED.

    VOICE: THE OUTBREAK OF A DEADLY 'BIRD FLU' VIRUS IN HONG KONG - - WHICH THAT TERRITORY RIGHTLY ATTEMPTED TO CONTAIN MONDAY BY SLAUGHTERING VIRTUALLY ITS ENTIRE POULTRY POPULATION - - IS OF EXTREME CONCERN IN ASIA. [OPT] IT IS OF GREAT INTEREST TO MEDICAL RESEARCHERS WORLDWIDE, SINCE THIS APPEARS TO MARK THE FIRST TIME AVIAN FLU HAS BEEN TRANSMITTED DIRECTLY FROM BIRDS TO HUMANS. [END OPT] AMERICANS, HOWEVER, NEED NOT WORRY. AT THIS TIME, EXPERTS SAY THERE IS NO REASON TO FEAR DOMESTIC CHICKENS, LIVE OR PROCESSED, OR TO BELIEVE WE ARE ON THE CUSP OF A WORLDWIDE EPIDEMIC.

    TEXT: TURNING TO EVENTS IN AFRICA, "THE NEW YORK TIMES" IS UPSET AT REPORTS OF VOTING IRREGULARITIES AND OTHER SERIOUS PROBLEMS WITH THIS WEEK'S PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION IN KENYA.

    VOICE: KENYA'S SECOND MULTIPARTY ELECTION IS PROVING TO BE AS TROUBLED AS ITS FIRST ONE FIVE YEARS AGO. ........ IN COUNTRIES AS MISGOVERNED AND TRIBALLY DIVIDED AS KENYA, HOLDING ELECTIONS IS NOT ENOUGH TO ASSURE DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENT. RADICAL ELECTORAL REFORMS, AS WELL AS THE RETIREMENT OF PRESIDENT MOI, WILL BE NEEDED BEFORE KENYA CAN JOIN AFRICA'S GROWING LIST OF VIABLE DEMOCRACIES. ..... KENYA'S MOST URGENT CHALLENGE, HOWEVER, IS TO EMERGE FROM THIS ELECTION FIASCO WITHOUT VIOLENCE AND WITH A COMMITMENT TO REAL REFORM.

    [OPT]

    TEXT: MOVING TO WEST AFRICA, AND ANOTHER TROUBLED NATION, "THE WASHINGTON POST" ENDS THE YEAR DECRYING WHAT IT CALLS THE "DESCENT [OF] NIGERIA."

    VOICE: THE ARREST OF A DOZEN NIGERIAN MILITARY AND CIVILIAN OFFICIALS ON COUP-PLOTTING CHARGES - - SO FAR UNDETAILED - - ADVERTISES AND DEEPENS THE INSTABILITY IN AFRICA'S MOST POWERFUL STATE. NIGERIA IS TOO LARGE, VARIOUS AND VOLATILE A COUNTRY TO SUBMIT QUIETLY TO THE MILITARY RULE THAT GENERAL SANI ABACHA INSTALLED FOUR YEARS AGO. THE EVIDENCE IS THAT HIS LEADERSHIP IS WIDELY QUESTIONED AT DIFFERENT LEVELS OF SOCIETY. HIS PROMISED 'TRANSITION' TO CIVILIAN DEMOCRACY IN NATIONAL ELECTIONS PLANNED FOR NEXT OCTOBER IS BEING WIDELY SEEN AS A COVER FOR HIS RETENTION OF POWER. NIGERIA HAS BEEN RULED BY SOLDIERS FOR ALL BUT 10 YEARS SINCE IT GAINED INDEPENDENCE IN 1960. .... A CONFERENCE OF EXPERTS ..... SUGGESTS IT IS BECOMING A 'FAILED STATE.' IT IS GETTING POORER AND MORE FRAGMENTED. ITS MISMANAGEMENT AND INDULGENCE OF CORRUPTION ARE A LEGEND.

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: THE KILLING OF 45 UNARMED PEASANTS, INCLUDING MANY WOMEN AND CHILDREN AND ONE BABY, IN MEXICO'S CHIAPAS STATE LAST WEEK, CONTINUES TO DRAW OUTRAGE IN THE U-S PRESS. LONG ISLAND, NEW YORK'S NEWSDAY TODAY SAYS MEXICAN PRESIDENT ERNESTO ZEDILLO "SHOULD HAVE HEADED OFF [THE] CHIAPAS MASSACRE."

    VOICE: THE CHRISTMAS-WEEK MASSACRE ..... WAS NOT MUCH OF A SURPRISE TO ANYONE FAMILIAR WITH THE POLITICAL TURBULENCE OF THAT REGION. [OPT] IT WAS ONLY A MATTER OF TIME BEFORE THE CLASHES BETWEEN PARAMILITARY GROUPS LOYAL TO THE RULING NATIONAL PARTY AND ITS LEFT-WING OPPOSITION WOULD ERUPT IN LARGE-SCALE VIOLENCE. [END OPT] WHAT'S DISTURBING NOW IS THE MEXICAN GOVERNMENT'S FAILURE TO INTERVENE AND ITS EFFORTS TO DISTANCE ITSELF FROM LOCAL LEADERS OF THE GOVERNING PARTY RESPONSIBLE FOR THE MASSACRE. ...... [PRESIDENT] ZEDILLO IS DOING HIS COUNTRY - - AND HIS RELATIONSHIP WITH WASHINGTON - - A GREAT DISSERVICE BY FAILING TO LISTEN TO THE LEGITIMATE GRIEVANCES OF MEXICAN INDIANS. [OPT] ..... IT'S IN [MR.] ZEDILLO'S BEST INTEREST TO MAKE SURE THAT POLITICAL RESISTANCE DOES NOT TURN INTO ARMED REVOLT.

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: IN CALIFORNIA, "THE LOS ANGELES TIMES" IS URGING THE MEXICAN PRESIDENT TO GO TO CHIAPAS.

    VOICE: [OPT] THE SLAUGHTER OF DOZENS OF INDIANS AT A CHURCH SENT FEARS SURGING TO NEW HEIGHTS AND TRIGGERED AN EXODUS IN WHICH 6-THOUSAND TZOTZIL INDIANS ARE REPORTED TO HAVE LEFT THEIR IMPOVERISHED VILLAGES TO SEEK REFUGE IN THE FOREST. ONLY THE PRESENCE OF PRESIDENT ERNESTO ZEDILLO IN THE REGION CAN STILL THEIR FLIGHT. [END OPT] [MR.] ZEDILLO SHOULD GO TO CHIAPAS TO OFFER HIS CONDOLENCES TO RELATIVES OF THE MASSACRE VICTIMS AND TO ESTABLISH HIMSELF AS A PERSONAL GUARANTOR OF THE SAFETY OF THE PEOPLE THERE. [OPT] A PRESIDENTIAL VISIT .... WOULD UNDERLINE [PRESIDENT] ZEDILLO'S DEMAND FOR A NO-HOLDS-BARRED [TOTALLY THOROUGH, UNBIASED] INVESTIGATION TO FIND NOT ONLY THOSE WHO PULLED THE TRIGGERS BUT THOSE WHO ISSUED THE ORDERS. [END OPT]

    TEXT: TODAY'S ORLANDO SENTINEL USES AN OLD SCOTTISH EXPRESSION TO EXPRESS ITS CONTINUING RESERVATIONS ABOUT EXPANDING NATO, A MOVE IT LIKENS TO BUYING "A PIG IN A POKE." ["A PIG IN A POKE" IS: A PIG CONCEALED FROM THE BUYER IN A SACK, CURRENTLY MEANING: ANY "UNWISE DECISION (SINCE THE UNSEEN PIG COULD BE DEFECTIVE)] SUGGESTS "THE SENTINEL:"

    VOICE: [OPT] BUYING A PIG IN A POKE IS SOMETHING A PRUDENT CONSUMER WOULDN'T DO. SO WHY SHOULD AMERICAN TAXPAYERS CONSIDER MAKING SUCH A PURCHASE IN THE PROPOSED EXPANSION OF THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION? THEY SHOULDN'T, PURE AND SIMPLE. [END OPT] ..... NO PERSUASIVE ARGUMENT HAS BEEN PUT FORWARD TO JUSTIFY EXPANDING NATO, DESPITE THE ADMINISTRATION'S CONTENTION THAT SUCH A MOVE WOULD MAKE THE UNITED STATES AND EUROPE MORE SECURE. THE UNITED STATES ISN'T THREATENED. NEITHER IS EUROPE.

    TEXT: REGARDING A CONTROVERSIAL REFUSAL BY THE JUSTICE DEPARTMENT TO ACCEPT A GUILTY PLEA BY THE ACCUSED UNABOMBER, THEODORE KACZYNSKI, [A MAN ACCUSED OF KILLING THREE AND WOUNDING SEVERAL OTHERS DURING 20 YEARS OF MAKING AND SENDING MAIL BOMBS] AND THUS AVOID A COSTLY FEDERAL TRIAL, DRAWS THIS RESPONSE FROM "NEWSDAY" ON LONG ISLAND, WHICH CALLS THE DECISION A "BAD CALL."

    VOICE: THE PROPOSED DEAL WOULD HAVE ALLOWED [MR.] KACZYNSKI TO AVOID THE DEATH PENALTY AND THE SPECTACLE OF A TRIAL IN WHICH IT REMAINS UNCLEAR JUST HOW HE INTENDS TO DEFEND HIMSELF. A DEAL WOULD HAVE SPARED [MR.] KACZYNSKI'S FAMILY - - WHICH VALIANTLY COOPERATED WITH THE PROSECUTION - - A PAINFUL AND HUMILIATING ORDEAL. IT ALSO WOULD HAVE SAVED THE PUBLIC MONEY AND TIME WHILE STILL PRODUCING A JUST PUNISHMENT ..... [ATTORNEY GENERAL] RENO SHOULD REVERSE HERSELF. .... [MS.] RENO HAS THE DISCRETION TO TEMPER JUSTICE WITH MERCY IN THIS CASE. SHE SHOULD.

    [OPT]

    TEXT: USA TODAY, THE NATIONAL WEEKDAY PAPER, CALLS THE JUSTICE DEPARTMENT'S DECISION "COSTLY AND POINTLESS" AND ALSO CALLS FOR IT TO BE REVERSED, ADDING "JUSTICE IS NOT SERVED BY USING THE LAW TO FLOG DEAD HORSES..." ["FLOGGING A DEAD HORSE" IS A COLLOQUIALISM FOR ANY "USELESS EXERCISE."]

    TEXT: FINALLY, MORE OUTRAGE AT THE WAY JOURNALISTS ARE BEING KILLED IN CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA, FROM THIS LAST EDITORIAL OF 1997 IN MAINE'S "PORTLAND'S PRESS HERALD."

    VOICE: THE INTER AMERICAN PRESS ASSOCIATION, DEFENDER OF PRESS FREEDOMS IN THE AMERICAS, HARDLY HAD ENDED ITS 53RD GENERAL ASSEMBLY IN GUADALAJARA, MEXICO, IN OCTOBER WHEN THE KILLINGS BEGAN. THE FIRST JOURNALIST TO DIE WAS ALEJANDRO JARAMILLO, 67, WHOSE DISMEMBERED BODY WAS FOUND IN PASTO, IN SOUTHEASTERN COLOMBIA, ON OCTOBER 24. HE HAD JOINED THE STAFF OF DIARIO DEL SUR IN PASTO JUST TWO MONTHS BEFORE, AFTER WORKING FOR SEVERAL NEWSPAPERS IN CALI. THE 'HORRIFIC NATURE' OF HIS DEATH WAS CLEARLY 'AN ATTEMPT TO INTIMIDATE COLOMBIA'S JOURNALISTIC COMMUNITY,' SAYS DANILO ARBILLA, EDITOR OF BUSQUEDA IN MONTEVIDEO, URUGUAY, AND PRESIDENT OF THE I-A-P-A'S FREEDOM OF THE PRESS AND INFORMATION COMMITTEE. [MR.] JARAMILLO WROTE ABOUT CRIME AND THE JUSTICE SYSTEM. FIVE DAYS LATER, EDGAR LOPES DE FARIA WAS SHOT REPEATEDLY IN CAMPO GRANDE, BRAZIL, JUST BEFORE HE WAS TO GO ON THE AIR WITH HIS NEWS PROGRAM, 'WHAT THE PEOPLE SAY,' ON RADIO FM CAPITAL. HE HAD PLANNED TO NAME ALLEGED LOCAL ORGANIZED CRIME BOSSES ON THE SHOW. ..... A TOTAL OF SIX JOURNALISTS ALSO HAVE BEEN KIDNAPPED IN COLOMBIA THIS MONTH ALONE. ALL FORTUNATELY HAVE BEEN RELEASED. THE KILLING AND AND KIDNAPPINGS OCCURRED WITHIN WEEKS OF THE I-A-P-A'S CONDEMNATION OF SUCH ACTS IN GUADALAJARA. ..... THE JOURNALIST-KILLERS CAN'T BE ALLOWED TO GET AWAY WITH IT. THEY THREATEN TO KILL DEMOCRACY IN THE AMERICAS AS WELL.

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS SAMPLING OF COMMENTS FROM THE LAST EDITORIALS OF 1997 IN SOME OF TODAY'S U-S PRESS.
    NEB/ANG/RRM
    31-Dec-97 10:54 AM EST (1554 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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