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Voice of America, 98-07-03

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] KOSOVO / UNREST (L UPDATE) BY ART CHIMES (PRISTINA)
  • [02] KOSOVO / KIDNAP (L ONLY) BY ART CHIMES (PRISTINA)
  • [03] KOSOVO / HOLBROOKE / S&L BY ART CHIMES (PRISTINA)
  • [04] U-N-H-C-R / KOSOVO (L ONLY) BY LISA SCHLEIN (GENEVA)
  • [05] DEALING WITH TROUBLED KOSOVO PROVINCE BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [06] EURO STOCKS (S ONLY) BY JACK HUIZENGA (LONDON)
  • [07] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [08] WHAT IS ISLAMISM? BY ED WARNER (WASHINGTON)

  • [01] KOSOVO / UNREST (L UPDATE) BY ART CHIMES (PRISTINA)

    DATE=7/3/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-234962
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    /// EDS: THIS REPORT UPDATES CR 2-234952 ///

    INTRO: IN YUGOSLAVIA, SERBIAN FORCES HAVE RECAPTURED A TOWN IN KOSOVO PROVINCE THAT HAD BEEN HELD FOR ABOUT TWO WEEKS BY SEPARATIST ETHNIC ALBANIAN REBELS. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT ART CHIMES IS IN KOSOVO, AND FILED THIS REPORT.

    TEXT: SERB UNITS ARE REPORTED TO HAVE ENDED THE SIEGE IN KIJEVO, ON THE MAIN ROAD WEST OF THE PROVINCIAL CAPITAL, PRISTINA.

    THERE ARE CONFLICTING REPORTS ABOUT CASUALTIES. ALBANIAN SOURCES SAY THERE WERE MANY, BUT OTHER REPORTS SAY THE GUERRILLAS WITHDREW IN THE FACE OF THE SERB ONSLAUGHT.

    AMERICAN ENVOY RICHARD HOLBROOKE, WHO RECENTLY CALLED KIJEVO MOST DANGEROUS PLACE IN EUROPE, HAS ARRIVED IN BELGRADE FOR TALKS WITH SERBIAN OFFICIALS THERE AND WITH ETHNIC ALBANIANS IN KOSOVO SATURDAY. IT WAS NOT CLEAR IF HE WOULD AGAIN MEET WITH THE KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY, AS HE DID IN A CONTROVERSIAL VISIT LAST MONTH.

    SOME ANALYSTS SAY THE MEETING WITH THE REBELS WAS, AT LEAST IN PART, RECOGNITION THAT ETHNIC ALBANIAN POLITICAL LEADERS NO LONGER HAVE THE AUTHORITY TO END THE CONFLICT. TOP POLITICIAN IBRAHIM RUGOVA EMPHASIZED FRIDAY THAT UNLIKE THE GUERRILLAS, HE WAS ELECTED BY KOSOVO'S ETHNIC ALBANIANS AND IS THEIR LEGITIMATE REPRESENTATIVE.

    ALSO FRIDAY, A BOMB EXPLODED IN PRISTINA, CAUSING SOME DAMAGE BUT NO CASUALTIES. LIFE IN PRISTINA CONTINUED NORMALLY, THOUGH JET FIGHTERS OCCASIONALLY STREAKED LOW OVER THE CITY. MR RUGOVA, THE ETHNIC ALBANIAN POLITICIAN, FRIDAY AGAIN REJECTED A SUGGESTION FROM BELGRADE THAT NEGOTIATIONS RESUME BASED ON AUTONOMY FOR KOSOVO WITHIN SERBIA. MR. RUGOVA TOLD REPORTERS AT HIS WEEKLY NEWS CONFERENCE THAT AN INDEPENDENT KOSOVO IS THE ONLY WAY THE RIGHTS OF ALL PEOPLE COULD BE PROTECTED.

    BUT THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY AGREES WITH BELGRADE'S POSITION, FEARING THAT AN INDEPENDENT KOSOVO COULD LEAD TO EVEN MORE ETHNIC STRIFE AND BLOODSHED IN THE BALKANS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/ART/JWH/JO
    03-Jul-98 2:16 PM EDT (1816 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] KOSOVO / KIDNAP (L ONLY) BY ART CHIMES (PRISTINA)

    DATE=7/3/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-234953
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE FIGHTING IN KOSOVO HAS CLAIMED MORE THAN 300 LIVES IN THE PAST FOUR MONTHS, AND TENS OF THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE HAVE BEEN DRIVEN FROM THEIR HOMES. EACH SIDE IN THE FIGHTING ACCUSES THE OTHER OF TAKING PRISONERS, THOUGH MOST OF THESE REPORTS HAVE BEEN IMPOSSIBLE TO CONFIRM. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT ART CHIMES REPORTS FROM KOSOVO ON ONE INCIDENT.

    TEXT: THE DAY BEGAN FULL OF HOPE. MEMBERS OF THE BAKRAC FAMILY BOARDED A BUS IN DJAKOVICA TO GO TO BELGRADE MONDAY, TO SEE ABOUT POSSIBLE RESETTLEMENT IN AMERICA. THEY ARE REFUGEES, SERBS WHO HAD BEEN LIVING IN ZAGREB, CROATIA, DRIVEN FROM THEIR HOMES SIX YEARS AGO AS MULTI-ETHNIC YUGOSLAVIA DISSOLVED INTO ETHICALLY CLEANSED AREAS.

    VESNA BAKRAC SAYS THE FIRST HINT OF DANGER CAME WHEN THEY PASSED A SMALL GROUP OF KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY GUERRILLAS.

    // BAKRAC ACTUALITY (IN SERBIA) - ESTAB AND FADE //

    MRS. BAKRAC SAYS SHE AND HER FAMILY WERE RIDING THROUGH KOSOVO MONDAY WHEN SEPARATIST REBELS OF THE KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY STOPPED THEIR BUS. THE GUERRILLAS WENT THROUGH THE BUS, CHECKING DOCUMENTS. BAKRAC IS A SERBIAN NAME. THE REBELS TOOK HER SON AND HUSBAND OFF THE BUS; SHE HASN'T SEEN THEM SINCE.

    VESNA IS SITTING IN AN OUTDOOR CAFE AS SHE TELLS HER STORY. WHEN SHE EXPLAINS WHAT HAPPENS, SHE SPEAKS HALTINGLY ONE MOMENT, THEN RUSHES THROUGH THE NEXT PART AT BREAKNECK SPEED. NOW SHE IS COMPOSED; A MINUTE LATER SHE IS IN TEARS. SHE PATIENTLY REPEATS DETAILS FOR A NEWCOMER WHO JOINS THE GROUP, THEN REPEATS THEM AGAIN FOR THE NEXT PERSON. HER EYES ARE SAD AND EMPTY.

    MRS. BAKRAC ASKED THE RED CROSS FOR HELP BUT SAYS THE ORGANIZATION HASN'T DONE ENOUGH. RED CROSS OFFICIALS SAY THEY TRIED TO GO TO THE SITE OF THE ABDUCTION BUT COULDN'T REACH THE AREA DUE TO FIGHTING. THE RED CROSS HAS MADE CONTACTS WITH KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY UNITS, BUT THE DECENTRALIZED NATURE OF THE GUERRILLA GROUP MAKES THE TASK DIFFICULT.

    THE INTERNATIONAL RED CROSS SAYS AS MANY AS 50 SERB CIVILIANS HAVE BEEN TAKEN BY ETHNIC ALBANIAN REBELS. ETHNIC ALBANIANS ARE ALSO BEING HELD BY SERBIAN FORCES. IN OTHER CASES, CIVILIANS MAY NOT BE OFFICIALLY DETAINED BUT MAY BE UNABLE TO LEAVE THEIR HOMES BECAUSE OF FIGHTING IN THE AREA. HUMANITARIAN ORGANIZATIONS SAY THEY ARE NOT SURE IF SERBIAN FORCES ARE SECRETLY KEEPING PRISONERS IN SO-CALLED "UNOFFICIAL" PLACES OF DETENTION. (SIGNED)
    NEB/ART/KL/JO
    03-Jul-98 11:24 AM EDT (1524 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] KOSOVO / HOLBROOKE / S&L BY ART CHIMES (PRISTINA)

    DATE=7/3/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-234933
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: AMERICAN ENVOY RICHARD HOLBROOKE TRAVELS TO BELGRADE TODAY (FRIDAY) AS THE SEARCH CONTINUES FOR PEACE IN YUGOSLAVIA'S VIOLENT KOSOVO REGION. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT ART CHIMES REPORTS FROM KOSOVO'S PROVINCIAL CAPITAL, PRISTINA.

    TEXT: MR. HOLBROOKE RETURNS TO THE REGION FOR TALKS WITH YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC. THE VISIT FOLLOWS A DECLARATION BY MR. MILOSEVIC TALKS ON KOSOVO SHOULD FOCUS ON AUTONOMY FOR THE PROVINCE, WHICH HAS A 90 PERCENT ETHNIC ALBANIAN MAJORITY.

    BUT THE KOSOVO ALBANIANS SAY THEY WANT INDEPENDENCE -- NOT THE AUTONOMY THEY HAD UNTIL 1989. AND MERE AUTONOMY MAY NOT BE ENOUGH TO SATISFY THEM AFTER YEARS OF DOMINATION FROM BELGRADE -- ESPECIALLY CONSIDERING RECENT VICTORIES OF THE SEPARATIST REBELS.

    GUERRILLAS OF THE KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY CONTROL SUBSTANTIAL PARTS OF THE PROVINCE -- EVEN THOUGH THEY SUFFERED A SETBACK EARLIER THIS WEEK WHEN SERB FORCES REGAINED CONTROL OF A STRATEGIC COAL MINING TOWN. THE UNITED STATES HAS CALLED FOR A CEASEFIRE TO GIVE NEGOTIATORS SOME BREATHING ROOM (AN ATMOSPHERE CONDUCIVE TO TALKS).

    // REST OPTIONAL FOR LONG //

    MR. HOLBROOKE RECENTLY CONDUCTED SEVERAL DAYS OF SHUTTLE DIPLOMACY IN THE REGION AND, FOR THE FIRST TIME, MET WITH REPRESENTATIVES OF THE KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY. THE MEETING SIGNIFIED ACKNOWLEDGEMENT BY WASHINGTON THAT MODERATE POLITICAL LEADER IBRAHIM RUGOVA -- WHO ADVOCATES INDEPENDENCE BY NON-VIOLENT MEANS -- IS NO LONGER THE SOLE VOICE OF THE KOSOVO ALBANIANS. INDEED, AS THE DIPLOMATS' IMMEDIATE TASK FOCUSES ON A MILITARY DISENGAGEMENT, THE REBELS MAY BE THE MORE IMPORTANT NEGOTIATING PARTNER, AT LEAST IN THE SHORT TERM. (SIGNED)
    NEB / ART / WD / WD
    03-Jul-98 2:37 AM EDT (0637 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] U-N-H-C-R / KOSOVO (L ONLY) BY LISA SCHLEIN (GENEVA)

    DATE=7/3/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-234956
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE U-N REFUGEE AGENCY (U-N-H-C-R) SAYS THE NUMBER OF DISPLACED PEOPLE IN SERBIA'S KOSOVO PROVINCE IS GROWING RAPIDLY AS FIGHTING INTENSIFIES BETWEEN YUGOSLAV TROOPS AND KOSOVO'S ETHNIC ALBANIAN SEPARATISTS. LISA SCHLEIN IN GENEVA REPORTS THE AGENCY SAYS HUNDREDS OF PEOPLE ARE FLEEING EVERY DAY INTO NEIGHBORING MONTENEGRO AND OTHER REFUGEES ARE CROSSING OVER INTO BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA.

    TEXT: THE U-N REFUGEE AGENCY CALLS THE REFUGEE AND DISPLACEMENT SITUATION IN KOSOVO CONFUSED AND ALARMING. BUT IT SAYS IT IS DIFFICULT TO KNOW EXACTLY HOW MANY PEOPLE HAVE BEEN MADE HOMELESS IN KOSOVO BECAUSE NO ONE CAN GET NEAR THE BATTLE ZONES.

    THE AGENCY ESTIMATES 52-THOUSAND PEOPLE HAVE BEEN INTERNALLY DISPLACED IN KOSOVO. BUT, IT BELIEVES THIS FIGURE IS VERY CONSERVATIVE. SEVERAL PRIVATE GROUPS IN THE AREA PUT THE FIGURE AT AROUND 120-THOUSAND.

    U-N-H-C-R SPOKESMAN, KRIS JANOWSKI, SAYS ABOUT 200 PEOPLE A DAY ARE FLEEING INTO MONTENEGRO (YUGOSLAVIA'S OTHER REPUBLIC).

    /// JANOWSKI ACT ///

    WE ESTIMATE THAT ABOUT 14-THOUSAND DISPLACED PEOPLE FROM KOSOVO ARE IN MONTENEGRO. ABOUT 25 PERCENT OF THEM ARE ETHNIC SERBS, MANY OF THEM DRAFT-AGE MALES WHO PROBABLY FLED SINCE THEY DIDN'T WANT TO BE DRAWN INTO THE CONFLICT.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. JANOWSKI SAYS THE FLIGHT OF KOSOVO REFUGEES INTO NORTHERN ALBANIA HAS VIRTUALLY COME TO A HALT. HE SAYS REFUGEES REPORT THE ROUTE IS VERY DANGEROUS. HE SAYS PEOPLE WHO TRY TO CROSS INTO ALBANIA COME UNDER FIRE. REFUGEES TALK ABOUT BEING TARGETED BY SNIPERS AND RUNNING INTO SKIRMISHES BETWEEN ALBANIAN SEPARATISTS AND SERBIAN SECURITY FORCES.

    /// JANOWSKI ACT ///

    WE'RE ALSO TOLD BY THE REFUGEES THAT THERE'S A PATTERN OF DESTRUCTION OF ALBANIAN-POPULATED VILLAGES IN KOSOVO BY WHAT THE REFUGEES DESCRIBE AS SERB PARAMILITARY FORCES WHO THEY ALLEGE GO INTO VILLAGES, PILLAGE ESSENTIALLY, TAKE EVERYTHING VALUABLE OUT IN TRUCKS AND THEN PROCEED TO KILL THE LIVESTOCK AND BURN HOUSES.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE REFUGEE AGENCY SAYS THAT SINCE THE ROUTE INTO ALBANIA IS BLOCKED, SOME PEOPLE FROM KOSOVO ARE FLEEING INTO BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. SO FAR, ABOUT 200 HAVE REGISTERED WITH THE UNITED NATIONS IN THE BOSNIAN CAPITAL, SARAJEVO. MR. JANOWSKI SAYS HE IS AFRAID THIS IS JUST WHAT HE CALLS "THE TIP OF THE ICEBERG" (THE BEGINNING OF THE PROBLEM).

    HE ALSO SAYS THE AGENCY IS CONCERNED ABOUT THE FATE OF CROATIAN SERB REFUGEES IN KOSOVO. MR. JANOWSKI SAYS MANY ARE BEING HARASSED AND INTIMIDATED BY ETHNIC ALBANIANS. AND, JUST A FEW DAYS AGO, THREE CROATIAN SERB REFUGEES WERE KIDNAPPED BY ALBANIAN GUNMEN. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LS/JWH
    03-Jul-98 12:33 PM EDT (1633 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] DEALING WITH TROUBLED KOSOVO PROVINCE BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=07/03/98
    TYPE=U-S OPINION ROUNDUP
    NUMBER=6-10796
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=

    INTRO: AS THE WEEKEND BEGAN, SERBIAN FORCES BROKE THE SIEGE BY ETHNIC ALBANIAN GUERRILLAS, OF STRATEGIC KIJEVO VILLAGE IN YUGOSLAVIA'S THE PREDOMINANTLY ETHNIC ALBANIAN PROVINCE OF KOSOVO. THE CROSSROADS VILLAGE HAD BEEN CUT OFF BY THE GUERRILLAS FOR MORE THAN A MONTH, PRESUMABLY IN RETALIATION FOR REPEATED ATTACKS BY SERBIAN PARAMILITARY POLICE AGAINST MANY ETHNIC ALBANIAN VILLAGES.

    IN ANOTHER ACT OF VIOLENCE, A BOMB CAUSED MINOR DAMAGE IN KOSOVO'S CAPITAL, PRISTINA, FRIDAY. U-S SPECIAL ENVOY RICHARD HOLBROOKE CONTINUES TO MEET WITH OFFICIALS FROM BOTH SIDES, TO TRY TO BROKER A CEASEFIRE AND GET PEACE TALKS STARTED, BUT HE DOES NOT APPEAR TO BE HAVING MUCH SUCCESS. MEANWHILE, U-S PAPERS ARE COMMENTING ON THE SITUATION, AND WE ARE JOINED NOW BY _______________ WHO HAS A SAMPLING IN TODAY'S U-S OPINION ROUNDUP.

    TEXT: THERE ARE SEVERAL COMMENTARIES BERATING THE U-S GOVERNMENT AND ITS NATO ALLIES FOR FAILING TO BACK UP ITS THREATS OF FORCE AGAINST THE SERBIAN FORCES IN KOSOVO WITH ANY SORT OF ACTION. THEY MAKE THE POINT THAT FAILURE TO ACT EARLY LED TO WIDESPREAD BLOODSHED IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA JUST A FEW YEARS AGO. THE PAPERS POINT OUT THAT BY NOW, LESSONS FROM THAT CONFLICT SHOULD HAVE BEEN LEARNED, SINCE IT WAS YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC WHO WAS ALSO CONSIDERED THE INSTIGATOR OF THAT CONFLICT AS WELL.

    OTHER DAILIES, SUCH AS "THE DALLAS MORNING NEWS" CONSIDER THE TROUBLED PROVINCE BOSNIA-TWO, AND WARN THE U-S AWAY FROM WHAT IT SEES AS A QUAGMIRE.

    WE BEGIN OUR SAMPLING IN OHIO, WHERE THE STATE'S LARGEST NEWSPAPER, "THE [CLEVELAND] PLAIN DEALER," SENT ITS CHIEF FOREIGN-AFFAIRS CORRESPONDENT ELIZABETH SULLIVAN TO THE SCENE. SHE ADDS FASCINATING BACKGROUND TO THE STORY BY EXAMINING THE SOCIAL AND CULTURAL DIFFERENCES OF THE REFUGEES FLEEING THE FIGHTING BETWEEN THE SERBS AND THE KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY AND INTO NEIGHBORING ALBANIA.

    TEXT: ALBANIA IS ... THE POOREST NATION IN EUROPE. AND THE POOREST PATCH IN THIS POOREST NATION IS ALBANIA'S NORTHERN BORDER WITH MONTENEGRO AND KOSOVO. IT IS RUGGED, INFERTILE TERRAIN WITH NO INFRASTRUCTURE. LACK OF EVEN SOMETHING SO MODEST AS A COMMUNITY CENTER FOR REFUGEE ASSISTANCE OR A LOCAL LEADER WITH WHOM TO WORK HAS STUNNED INTERNATIONAL REFUGEE OFFICIALS TRYING TO HELP AN ESTIMATED 12-THOUSAND KOSOVO ALBANIANS WHO FLED RECENTLY IN THE DESPERATELY POOR HILL VILLAGES [ON THE OTHER SIDE OF THE BORDER]. BUT AID OFFICIALS HAVE ANOTHER UNIQUE DILEMMA: THE REFUGEES ARE MUCH BETTER OFF THAN THE NATIVES. KOSOVAR ALBANIANS FROM THE FERTILE PLAINS OF SOUTHERN SERBIA ARE EDUCATED AND RICH AND WORLDLY, COMPARED WITH THEIR DISTANT COUSINS WHO NEVER CAME DOWN FROM THE MOUNTAINS. AID WORKERS FEAR THAT BY FEEDING AND HOUSING MIDDLE-CLASS KOSOVAR ALBANIANS WITHOUT GIVING BENEFITS TO NEEDY LOCALS, THEY COULD TOUCH OFF REBELLION, MORE BANDITRY AND ASSAULTS. ..... IT MAY BE SMALL COMFORT TO MOST OF US [AMERICANS] THAT A 'POLITICAL' SOLUTION TO THIS FIGHT AGAIN LIES IN SENDING OUR KIDS AND NEIGHBORS TO POLICE AND MAYBE DIE OVER A FORLORN PATCH OF BALKANS DIRT.

    TEXT: IN TEXAS, "THE DALLAS MORNING NEWS" HAS GREETED REPORTS THAT UNITS OF THE REGULAR YUGOSLAV ARMY HAVE MADE BORDER INCURSIONS INTO ALBANIA PROPER, IN TRYING TO SUPPRESS KOSOVO'S GUERRILLA ARMY, WITH DREAD. IT WARNS THAT THE U-S SHOULD STAY AWAY FROM WHAT THE PAPER TERMS "BOSNIA TWO."

    VOICE: WITH THE .... REPORTS OF YUGOSLAV ARMY INCURSIONS INTO ALBANIA, THE THREAT OF A WIDER BALKAN CONFLICT LOOMS GREATER THAN EVER BEFORE. YET BEFORE THE UNITED STATES PARTICIPATES IN A SECOND BALKAN INTERVENTION, THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION SHOULD RECONSIDER ITS RECORD IN THE REGION. ..... THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION SOUGHT TO REIN IN YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC WITH A THREATENING DISPLAY OF AIR POWER. BUT INSTEAD OF SCALING DOWN HIS CAMPAIGN TO DRIVE ETHNIC ALBANIANS FROM THE BORDER REGION OF KOSOVO INTO ALBANIA, MR. MILOSEVIC REDOUBLED HIS EFFORTS. /// OPT /// ....... RICHARD HOLBROOKE, THE NEWLY DESIGNATED U-S AMBASSADOR TO THE U-N ...... IS THE SAME EMISSARY WHO PROMISED CONGRESS THAT THE UNITED STATES WOULD BE OUT OF BOSNIA IN A YEAR. AND HE SAID THAT ONE OF THE REASONS FOR GOING INTO BOSNIA WAS SO THAT THE CONFLICT WOULD NOT SPREAD TO KOSOVO. KOSOVO IS IN CONFLICT ANYWAY. /// END OPT /// AS A WHOLE, IT [THE U-S RECORD] IS A RECORD THAT SHOULD NOT INSTILL CONFIDENCE. PRESIDENT CLINTON SHOULD KEEP THAT RECORD IN MIND AS HE PONDERS THE EXTENT AND NATURE OF AMERICA'S NEXT MOVE IN THE KOSOVO CRISIS.

    TEXT: ROBERT HUNTER, A RECENT, FORMER U-S AMBASSADOR TO NATO, WRITING ON THE OP-ED PAGE OF "THE LOS ANGELES TIMES" SAYS THE CURRENT POLICY OF NATO -- THREATS WITHOUT BACKUP -- WILL NEVER SWAY MR. MILOSEVIC TO ANY BETTER COURSE OF ACTION. AND HE WONDERS WHETHER THE MASSACRE OF HUNGARIAN FREEDOM FIGHTERS IN BUDAPEST IN 1956, BROUGHT ON BY FALSE PROMISES OF WESTERN AID, BROADCAST OVER RADIO FREE EUROPE, IS ABOUT TO BE REPEATED, WITH THE KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY.

    VOICE: ALLIED LEADERS, BOTH CIVILIAN AND MILITARY, ASSERT THAT 'TIME IS RUNNING OUT,' [AND] THAT 'NATO IS GETTING READY TO ACT' AND THAT SERBIAN BELLIGERENCE IN KOSOVO 'WILL NOT BE PERMITTED TO CONTINUE.' AS OF NOW, HOWEVER, THERE IS LITTLE CHANCE ... THESE PLEDGES WILL BE REDEEMED. .... NO ALLY IS PREPARED TO RISK LIVES BY DEPLOYING FORCES ON THE GROUND. ..... A MORE CRITICAL CONSTRAINT IS POLITICAL: FINDING A LEGAL MANDATE FOR ACTION. ..... THE U-S SHOULD REASSERT ITS LEADERSHIP.... PRESSING MOSCOW DIRECTLY AS WELL AS THE STATES THAT NOW MEET FROM TIME TO TIME ON BALKAN ISSUES. ..... THEY SHOULD BE CHARGED TO MEET NONSTOP UNTIL THEY AGREE ON A FORMULA FOR KOSOVO'S FUTURE ......

    TEXT: WRITING IN "THE BOSTON GLOBE," A VETERAN OF WORLD WAR TWO OPERATIONS IN YUGOSLAVIA BY THE U-S OFFICE OF STRATEGIC SERVICES, THE FORERUNNER OF THE C-I-A, IS FRANKLIN LINDSAY. MR. LINDSAY SUGGESTS THAT THE SAME TACTICS THAT DEFEATED HITLER'S NAZI GERMAN ARMY IN YUGOSLAVIA WILL EITHER DEFEAT MR. MILOSEVIC'S SERBIAN FORCES IN KOSOVO, OR AT LEAST MAKE A MILITARY VICTORY IMPOSSIBLE.

    VOICE: .... LIKE HITLER, [MR.] MILOSEVIC IS DISCOVERING THAT FIGHTING GUERRILLAS WHO HAVE THE SUPPORT OF THE CIVILIAN POPULATION IS NO EASY TASK. .... WHEN HITLER'S OCCUPATION BEGAN, MOST OF THE YUGOSLAV POPULATION REMAINED PASSIVE, HOPING SIMPLY TO SURVIVE AND MAKE THE BEST OF THE OCCUPATION. BUT AS THE GERMAN AND ITALIAN OCCUPIERS TRIED TO CONTROL THE COUNTRY, THEY BECAME INCREASINGLY OPPRESSIVE. THE EARLY BANDS OF PARTISANS BEGAN TO GROW IN SIZE, AND THE CIVILIAN POPULATION INCREASINGLY SUPPORTED THE RESISTANCE WITH FOOD AND RECRUITS AND, IMPORTANTLY, BY ORGANIZING CIVILIAN NETWORKS THAT REPORTED EVERY GERMAN MOVE AND PROVIDED WARNINGS OF TROOPS BEING SENT TO KILL OR CAPTURE THE PARTISAN BANDS. THE PARTISANS BEGAN TO ATTACK AND ELIMINATE, ONE BY ONE, THE ISOLATED GERMAN GARRISONS IN THE VILLAGES. THE GERMANS SOON FOUND THEY COULD NOT PROVIDE ENOUGH MEN TO GARRISON EVERY VILLAGE IN THE COUNTRY. ..... THE GERMANS [THEN] BURNED VILLAGES, CONFISCATED STORES OF FOOD AND LIVESTOCK, AND ATTEMPTED TO DRIVE PEASANT FARMERS FROM THEIR LANDS. ... FOR THE MOST PART THIS STRATEGY BACKFIRED. ..... [MR.] MILOSEVIC IS USING THE GERMAN TACTICS OF PUNISHING THE CIVILIAN ALBANIAN KOSOVARS IN AN ATTEMPT TO TURN THE POPULATION AGAINST THE ARMED RESISTANCE. IF THE YUGOSLAV RESISTANCE TO THE GERMANS IS ANY GUIDE, HE WILL NEED A PERMANENT OCCUPATION FORCE AT LEAST TEN TIMES THE SIZE OF THE ALBANIAN PARTISAN ARMY.

    TEXT: LASTLY, "THE LOS ANGELES TIMES" SUGGESTS THAT RATHER THAN A MILITARY SOLUTION, THE WESTERN ALLIANCE MUST PUSH FOR A DIPLOMATIC SOLUTION, AND THEY DO HAVE "WEAPONS" AT THEIR DISPOSAL.

    VOICE: /// OPT /// THE VIOLENCE IN YUGOSLAVIA'S KOSOVO PROVINCE SPRINGS FROM THE ARROGANT RULE OF PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC, A BOMBASTIC THUG WHO RUNS HIS COUNTRY AS MAFIA DONS ONCE RAN NEW YORK. THERE IS A CASE TO BE MADE, AND MANY HAVE DONE SO, THAT THE UNITED STATES AND ITS NATO ALLIES OUGHT TO BRING HIM DOWN WITH MILITARY POWER. ... BUT /// END OPT /// THERE IS A BETTER COURSE [THAN VIOLENCE] . ... INCREASED WESTERN PRESSURE, INCLUDING ADDITIONAL UNITED NATIONS SANCTIONS, COULD ENCOURAGE A SURPRISING AMOUNT OF POPULAR SUPPORT, EVEN ENOUGH TO TOPPLE OR BADLY DAMAGE THE REGIME. THERE MAY COME A TIME FOR DIRECT MILITARY ACTION AGAINST [MR.] MILOSEVIC, BUT FOR NOW WHAT IS REQUIRED IS A RELENTLESS TIGHTENING OF THE SCREW. /// OPT /// WASHINGTON AND ITS ALLIES SHOULD MAKE NO DEALS WITH THIS TYRANT EXCEPT ONE ASSURING HIS DEPARTURE. /// END OPT /// HE IS BEGINNING TO LOOK LIKE HISTORY.[AS IF HE HAS LOST POWER]

    TEXT: ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS U-S OPINION ROUNDUP OF CURRENT COMMENT ON THE SITUATION IN YUGOSLAVIA'S KOSOVO PROVINCE.
    NEB/ANG/JO
    03-Jul-98 2:24 PM EDT (1824 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] EURO STOCKS (S ONLY) BY JACK HUIZENGA (LONDON)

    DATE=7/3/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-234960
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES ROSE IN TRADING FRIDAY IN EUROPE. V-O-A'S JACK HUIZENGA HAS THE CLOSING MARKET REPORT FROM LONDON.

    TEXT: ANALYSTS SAY WORRIES ABOUT JAPAN'S ECONOMY APPEAR TO HAVE SUBSIDED -- AT LEAST FOR THE MOMENT. AND EUROPEAN MARKETS CLOSED THE WEEK AT OR NEAR RECORD LEVELS.

    IN FRANKFURT, THE DAX INDEX ROSE MORE THAN 56 POINTS, ALMOST ONE PERCENT. IT WAS THE FIFTH CONSECUTIVE CLOSING HIGH FOR THE FRANKFURT MARKET. IN PARIS, THE CAC-40 INDEX CLOSED AT A RECORD HIGH FOR THE SECOND CONSECUTIVE DAY. THE INDEX WAS UP MORE THAN 52 POINTS, ONE-AND-TWO-TENTHS PERCENT.

    AND IN LONDON, THE FOOTSIE-100 INDEX CLOSED UP 28 POINTS, ALMOST ONE-HALF PERCENT.

    ON THE LONDON CURRENCY EXCHANGE, THE VALUE OF THE U-S DOLLAR ROSE AGAINST THE BRITISH POUND. BUT IT WAS DOWN AGAINST THE GERMAN MARK AND THE JAPANESE YEN. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JWH
    03-Jul-98 1:08 PM EDT (1708 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=07/03/98
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-10795
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=

    //// SUITABLE FOR WEEKEND USE ////

    INTRO: THIS WEEKEND, AMERICANS ARE CELEBRATING THE HOLIDAY THAT MARKS THE NATION'S INDEPENDENCE FROM ENGLISH-RULE MORE THAN TWO CENTURIES AGO.

    IN THEIR HOLIDAY NEWSPAPERS, THEY ARE READING EDITORIALS DEALING WITH A WIDE VARIETY OF TOPICS INCLUDING: PRESIDENT CLINTON'S CHINA TRIP; AIDS-RELATED ISSUES; THE ROOT OF THE PROBLEM IN YUGOSLOVIA'S KOSOVO PROVINCE; THE LATEST SETBACK IN SPECIAL COUNSEL KENNETH STARR'S INVESTIGATION OF PRESIDENT CLINTON; AND THE JAPANESE ECONOMIC CRISIS. NOW, IN OUR STUDIO, WE WELCOME ___________________ WHO HAS TAKEN A CLOSER LOOK AT THESE COMMENTARIES AND SHARES SOME OF IT WITH US FROM TODAY'S U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: TODAY'S CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR" TRIED TO ASSESS PRESIDENT CLINTON'S TRIP TO CHINA, NOTING THAT WHILE IT WAS GOOD FOR THE PRESIDENT TO SPEAK FREELY ABOUT DEMOCRACY, THE TEST OF THE VISIT WILL BE WHETHER THE CHINESE PEOPLE CAN FOLLOW SUIT ONCE HE LEAVES.

    VOICE: /// OPT /// CHINA IS HOME TO NEARLY ONE-QUARTER OF HUMANITY AND BUSTLES WITH THE WORLD'S THIRD LARGEST CONCENTRATION OF PURCHASING POWER. IT HOLDS NUCLEAR WEAPONS AND MAY SOON PASS THE UNITED STATES AS THE LARGEST SOURCE OF GREENHOUSE GASES. IT ALSO HAS A REPREHENSIBLE RECORD ON HUMAN RIGHTS. IN SHORT, THE U-S CAN'T IGNORE CHINA. /// END OPT /// ..... SEEDS OF OPENNESS WERE SOWN BY THE PRESIDENT ON THIS TRIP. NOW THEY MUST BE NURTURED THROUGH CONSISTENT CONTACTS AT ALL LEVELS. ULTIMATELY, THE POINT IS NOT THAT A VISITING U-S PRESIDENT CAN SPEAK AND WORSHIP FREELY IN CHINA, BUT THAT CHINESE CITIZENS CAN. 'WE CAN MAXIMIZE OUR INFLUENCE [ON CHINA] ONLY BY REACHING OUT A HAND OF COOPERATION AS WELL AS STANDING STRONG WHEN THE MOMENT REQUIRES IT," [PRESIDENT] CLINTON SAID. IT WAS A STATEMENT THAT APTLY SUMMED UP HIS TRIP.

    TEXT: TURNING TO HEALTH NEWS, THE STATISTICS ARE GRIM AT THE WORLD AIDS CONFERENCE, WHICH HAS ENDED IN GENEVA AND, IN COMMENTING ON THE SESSION, "THE LOS ANGELES TIMES" IS CALLING FOR A WIDER WAR ON THE SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASE AMONG ITS NEWEST GROUP OF U-S VICTIMS.

    VOICE: AIDS, LONG DECLINING AMONG THE GAY MEN IT FIRST AFFLICTED, IS NOW RISING PRECIPITOUSLY AMONG THE HOMELESS, TEENAGE GIRLS AND AFRICAN AMERICANS, WHO ACCOUNT FOR 45 PERCENT OF ALL NEW AIDS CASES ...... AIDS IS AS MUCH A SOCIAL PROBLEM AS IT IS A MEDICAL ONE; WEAK LEADERSHIP IN WASHINGTON IS JUST PART OF THE PROBLEM. DIFFERENT GROUPS HAVE DIFFERENT KINDS OF RISKS, AND PERSONAL RESPONSIBILITY HAS TO BE A PART OF THE CONVERSATION. ABSTINENCE, CONDOM USE, HONESTY ABOUT SEXUAL HABITS AND DRUG HISTORY ALL CONTINUE TO HAVE AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN REDUCING HIV TRANSMISSION. ..... THE VIRUS CANNOT BE DEFEATED IN MEDICAL LABS ALONE.

    TEXT: TO EUROPEAN AFFAIRS, WHERE "THE WASHINGTON POST" CONTINUES TO CRITICIZE YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC FOR HIS TACTICS IN KOSOVO PROVINCE. // OPT // HE HAS SENT HIS POLICE AND TROOPS INTO THE MOSTLY ETHNIC ALBANIAN PROVINCE FOR MONTHS, SHELLING VILLAGES AND DRIVING THOUSANDS OF REFUGEES INTO NEIGHBORING ALBANIA, OR INTO THE FORESTS, AS HE TRIES TO STAMP OUT SEPARATIST GUERRILLAS. // END OPT //

    VOICE: /// OPT /// EVENTS ARE CHALLENGING THE AMERICAN EFFORT TO PROMOTE A NEGOTIATED SETTLEMENT IN SEETHING KOSOVO. AS EARLIER IN THE BALKAN WAR OF THE '90S /// END OPT

    /// .....MR. MILOSEVIC'S DEPREDATIONS AND DECEPTIONS HAVE MADE HIM A DETESTED FIGURE TO THE UNITED STATES AND ITS EUROPEAN ALLIES. BUT HE HAS SHREWDLY LOOKED FOR WAYS TO REDUCE HIS ISOLATION BY MAKING HIMSELF USEFUL TO THE ALLIED POWERS. ..... AT THE MOMENT THE NATO COUNTRIES HAVE BACKED AWAY IN RELIEF FROM THREATS OF NATO INTERVENTION TO PROTECT KOSOVAR CIVILIANS FROM THE SLIPPERY [MR.] MILOSEVIC. BUT HIS ATTACKS CONTINUE. HE SHOULD NOT BE ALLOWED TO CONCLUDE THAT THE ALLIANCE'S CARE FOR INNOCENTS IS AT AN END.

    TEXT: HERE AT HOME, THE BIG NEWS IS THE DISMISSAL, BY A FEDERAL JUDGE, OF TAX EVASION CHARGES AGAINST LONG-TIME FRIEND OF PRESIDENT CLINTON AND FORMER JUSTICE DEPARTMENT OFFICIAL, WEBSTER HUBBELL. IT IS SEEN AS A MAJOR DEFEAT FOR THE SPECIAL WHITEWATER COUNSEL KENNETH STARR, AT LEAST BY "THE BOSTON GLOBE." MR. STARR HAS BEEN INVESTIGATING PRESIDENT AND MRS. CLINTON FOR MORE THAN TWO YEARS, INCLUDING THEIR ARKANSAS LAND DEALS, WHICH MR. HUBBELL MAY KNOW ABOUT AND, MORE RECENTLY, SEX AND PERJURY ALLEGATIONS AGAINST THE PRESIDENT.

    VOICE: THERE IS ENOUGH BLAME TO GO AROUND IN THE CONFRONTATION BETWEEN THE CLINTONS AND SPECIAL PROSECUTOR KENNETH STARR. ..... BUT [MR.] STARR HAS EXPANDED THE POWERS OF HIS OFFICE IN A MANNER THAT OVERSTEPS CONSTITUTIONAL LIMITS AND VIOLATES THE AMERICAN SENSE OF FAIR PLAY. ..... [MR.] STARR'S EXCESSES HIGHLIGHT THE NEED TO RECONSIDER OR REWRITE THE INDEPENDENT COUNSEL STATUE.

    /// OPT ///

    TEXT: ON THE SAME TOPIC, "THE WASHINGTON TIMES" IS ANNOYED AT WHAT IT SEES AS THE GLOATING OF BOTH THE WHITE HOUSE AND MR. HUBBELL AT THIS LATEST VICTORY, AND THE PAPER REMINDS READERS:

    VOICE: IT STILL REMAINS TO BE SEEN ..... WHAT WORK IF ANY {MR.] HUBBELL DID TO EARN THE FEES MR. CLINTON'S SUPPORTERS DISHED OUT [PAID HIM]; [ALLEGEDLY TO KEEP HIM FROM VOLUNTEERING DAMAGING TESTIMONY AGAINST THE CLINTONS] AND HOW BIG A ROLE THAT MONEY PLAYED IN [MR.] HUBBELL'S FAILURE TO COOPERATE AS PROMISED IN MR. STARR'S WHITEWATER INVESTIGATION.

    TEXT: AS REGARDS THE STRUGGLE FOR PEACE IN NORTHERN IRELAND. IT WAS BOLSTERED THIS WEEK BY THE FIRST MEETING OF THE NEW ELECTED ASSEMBLY, BUT IS ALSO THREATENED BY THE FIRST PROTESTANT MARCH THROUGH A ROMAN CATHOLIC NEIGHBORHOOD OF PORTADOWN TOWN, ABOUT WHICH "THE BOSTON GLOBE" NOTES :

    VOICE: THE BEST POSSIBLE OUTCOME WOULD BE A SMALL PARADE, DEVOID OF THE TRAPPINGS OF ORANGE [PROTESTANT] OVERLORDSHIP. BUT THE ORANGE ORDER [ORANGE IN MEMORY OF WILLIAM OF ORANGE, THE DUTCH PROTESTANT KING WHO BECAME WILLIAM THE THIRD OF ENGLAND, AND WHO'S FORCES DEFEATED THE IRISH CATHOLICS IN THE 17TH CENTURY] REFUSES TO ENTER NEGOTIATIONS WITH THE LOCAL RESIDENTS ASSOCIATION, WHICH OPPOSES THE MARCH. THE PARADES COMMISSION, WHICH THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT SET UP TO DEAL WITH CONTENTIOUS MARCHES, DECIDED THAT THE ONE AT DRUMCREE SHOULD BE REROUTED TO PREVENT A RIOT. IN THE ABSENCE OF A COMPROMISE, THIS DECISION OUGHT TO PREVAIL.EXTREMISTS, ANGRY AT THE DECISION BY THE PARADES COMMISSION, SET FIRE TO TEN CATHOLIC CHURCHES WEDNESDAY NIGHT. THIS DESPICABLE CAMPAIGN SHOWS THE DEPTHS OF HATRED THE CONTROVERSY HAS STIRRED. IF MOBS OF ORANGEMEN DESCEND ON PORTADOWN, MORE VIOLENCE WILL FOLLOW. ...... NOW IT IS THE TURN OF THE PEOPLE OF PORTADOWN, STARTING WITH THE LOCAL ORANGE ORDER, TO REACH ACROSS THE SECTARIAN DIVIDE.

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: BACK TO ASIAN AFFAIRS NOW, AND SOME APPLAUSE FROM "THE NEW YORK TIMES" FOR WHAT THE PAPER CALLS "A CREDIBLE BANK RESCUE PACKAGE" PUT TOGETHER BY THE JAPANESE GOVERNMENT TO KEEP THAT NATION'S REELING ECONOMY FROM GETTING WORSE.

    VOICE: IF EXECUTED WELL, THE PLAN SHOULD HELP PULL JAPAN OUT OF RECESSION AND EASE ASIA'S ECONOMIC CRISIS. JAPAN HAS GONE FROM DENIAL TO DITHERING IN DEALING WITH THE CRISIS IN ITS BANKING SYSTEM THAT STEMS FROM LOANS MADE IN THE 1980'S WHEN THE COUNTRY'S BUBBLE ECONOMY WAS INFLATING PROPERTY VALUES. ....... IF JAPAN FAILS TO ACT EFFECTIVELY, THE YEN IS LIKELY TO CONTINUE FALLING ALONG WITH THE COUNTRY'S ECONOMY. THAT WOULD ADD TO PRESSURES ON OTHER ASIAN COUNTRIES, NOTABLY CHINA, TO DEVALUE THEIR CURRENCIES AND WOULD DEPRIVE THESE COUNTRIES OF A STRONG JAPANESE MARKET THEY DESPERATELY NEED. ..... BUT THERE ARE REASONS TO HOPE THE CURRENCY MARKETS WILL SOON REVERSE COURSE AS JAPAN PROVES THAT, FINALLY, IT IS TAKING THE NEEDED STEPS.

    /// OPT ///

    TEXT: ANOTHER POPULAR TOPIC IS THE LATEST IN A SERIES OF EMBARRASSMENTS FOR MAJOR U-S NEWS ORGANIZATIONS THAT PRINTED OR BROADCAST STORIES THAT LATER TURNED OUT TO BE UNTRUE. TODAY'S "NEW YORK TIMES" COMMENTS ON THE CABLE NEWS NETWORK AND TIME MAGAZINE'S RETRACTION THURSDAY OF A SENSATIONAL STORY ALLEGING THAT U-S TROOPS IN VIETNAM USED SARIN NERVE GAS TO KILL A GROUP OF U-S MILITARY DESERTERS IN LAOS. SAYS "THE TIMES" OF THIS AND OTHER MEDIA ERRORS, WHICH INCLUDED ERRONEOUS STORIES IN "THE BOSTON GLOBE AND "THE CINCINNATI ENQUIRER:"

    VOICE: FOR ALL THESE ORGANIZATIONS, THE DAMAGE WILL LINGER FOR SOME TIME. FOR C-N-N AND TIME [MAGAZINE], IT WILL UNDOUBTEDLY INJECT A HEALTHY NOTE OF CAUTION INTO FUTURE COLLABORATIONS. BUT IN EACH CASE, THE JOURNALISTS HAD THE RIGHT INSTINCT TO DECLARE ERROR OPENLY AND QUICKLY. THAT IS THE MEDIA'S ROAD TO RESTORING CREDIBILITY AFTER MAKING SUCH GRAVE MISTAKES.

    TEXT: AND LASTLY, A WORD ABOUT THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THIS HOLIDAY, ON WHICH AMERICANS CELEBRATE THE TWO-HUNDRED-AND-TWENTY-SECOND BIRTHDAY OF THE NATION, FROM "THE PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER," WHICH RECALLS THE WORDS OF BOTH THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE AND THE FAMED GETTYSBURG ADDRESS BY PRESIDENT LINCOLN.

    VOICE: ON THIS BUSY WEEKEND, LET US STRIVE TO REMEMBER WHAT THE DECLARATION AND THE BATTLE [OF GETTYSBURG] TEACH: ..... WE STILL HOLD THESE TRUTHS TO BE SELF-EVIDENT - - EQUALITY, LIBERTY AND THE PURSUIT OF HAPPINESS - - THOUGH WE FIGHT LIKE THE DICKENS [FIERCELY] OVER HOW TO APPLY THEM AND STRUGGLE TO FIND THE VIRTUE THEY DEMAND. ..... IT IS UP TO EACH OF **US** [ITALICS FOR EMPHASIS] TO ENSURE THAT SUCH GOVERNMENT SHALL NOT PERISH FROM THE EARTH.

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: THAT CONCLUDES THIS HOLIDAY - - AT LEAST IN AMERICA - - VERSION OF OUR EDITORIAL DIGEST FOR THIS FOURTH OF JULY WEEKEND.
    NEB/ANG/JO
    03-Jul-98 12:59 PM EDT (1659 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] WHAT IS ISLAMISM? BY ED WARNER (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=7/3/98
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-40857
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: "ISLAMISM" -- IT'S A WORD THAT HAS COME TO DESCRIBE A MORE FERVENT, POLITICALLY INTENSE VERSION OF MUSLIM FUNDAMENTALISM. MANY EQUATE ISLAMISM WITH POLITICAL EXTREMISM, EVEN TOTALITARIANISM, BUT OTHERS SAY THAT'S NOT SO. V-O-A'S ED WARNER REPORTS.

    TEXT: "RELIGION HAS TURNED INTO A DANGEROUS POLITICAL IDEOLOGY." THAT IS HOW DANIEL PIPES, DIRECTOR OF THE "MIDDLE EAST FORUM," A PUBLIC POLICY INSTITUTE, DESCRIBES THE MORE FERVENT FORMS OF ISLAM, WHICH HE AND OTHERS CALL "ISLAMISM."

    AT A WASHINGTON CONFERENCE AT THE "CENTER FOR STRATEGIC AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES," MR. PIPES ARGUES THAT ADHERENCE TO THE SACRED LAW OF ISLAM IN POLITICS LEADS TO OPPRESSION, SUCH AS IN IRAN, IRAQ AND SUDAN.

    // PIPES ACT //

    IT IS AN ATTEMPT TO USE THE STATE FOR COERCIVE PURPOSES. IT IS, IN OTHER WORDS, ANOTHER 20TH CENTURY RADICAL UTOPIAN SCHEME, LIKE MARXIST-LENINISM OR FASCISM, BY WHICH TO CONTROL THE STATE AND RUN SOCIETY. IT IS, IN MY UNDERSTANDING, AN ISLAMIC-FLAVORED VERSION OF TOTALITARIANISM, WHERE THE DETAILS, OF COURSE, ARE VERY DIFFERENT FROM THE PRECEDING, BUT THE ULTIMATE PURPOSE IS VERY SIMILAR.

    // END ACT //

    BUT HOUCHANG CHAHABI, A PROFESSOR OF HISTORY AT BOSTON UNIVERSITY, SAYS THAT IS TOO SIMPLISTIC -- THAT ISLAMISM SHOULD BE SEEN AS DIVIDED INTO TWO CAMPS: ONE TOTALITARIAN; THE OTHER, LIBERAL.

    HE NOTES THAT LIBERALS, SUCH AS IRANIAN PHILOSOPHER ABD AL-KARIM SURUSH, SAY THE TRUTHS OF THE KORAN EMERGE FROM CONTINUING STUDY AND THIS KIND OF BELIEF, MR. CHAHABI SAYS, IS HELPING CHANGE REVOLUTIONARY IRAN FROM ITS EARLY AUTHORITARIANISM TO ITS PRESENT TREND TOWARD OPENNESS.

    IRAN'S MUSLIM CLERGY MAY APPEAR TO BE UNDER STRICT SUPERVISION, HE SAYS, BUT IN REALITY THEY ARE NOT:

    // CHAHABI ACT //

    THE ORDER OF THE CLERGY IS IN ITS DISORDER -- MEANING THAT THERE IS A HIERARCHY, BUT IT IS NOT ORGANIZED LIKE A PYRAMID. IT IS A VERY DIFFUSE SORT OF HIERARCHY, AND DISAGREEMENT IS BUILT INTO THIS HIERARCHY. AND THE RESULT WAS THAT AS SOON AS OTHER GROUPS WERE ELIMINATED FROM THE CONTEST FOR POWER, DISAGREEMENTS AROSE WITHIN THE REGIME OVER BASIC POLICY ISSUES, AND WE HAVE VARIOUS CLERICS COMPETING FOR POWER ON VERY DIFFERENT PLATFORMS.

    // END ACT //

    PROFESSOR CHAHABI SAYS JUST BECAUSE "ISLAMISTS" GET INVOLVED IN POLITICS DOES NOT MEAN THEY RESORT TO EXTREMISM -- THEIR POLITICS CAN BE MODERATE. THE TEACHINGS OF ISLAM CAN BE INTERPRETED IN A HUMANISTIC WAY, AND ISLAMISM IS COMPATIBLE WITH DEMOCRACY.

    FRED VON DER MEHDEN, A PROFESSOR OF POLITICAL SCIENCE AT RICE UNIVERSITY (IN TEXAS), SAYS THAT AN INCREASING RELIGIOUS FERVOR AMONG MUSLIMS IN INDONESIA HAS NOT LED TO EXTREMISM -- BUT PRAGMATISM AND MODERATION:

    // MEHDEN ACT //

    DURING THE LAST 40 TO 50 YEARS, I HAVE GONE BACK AND FORTH TO SOUTHEAST ASIA. I HAVE FOUND IT STRIKING, THE EXTENT TO WHICH MUSLIMS NOW PRACTICE, PARTICULARLY IN JAVA, THEIR RELIGION IN MUCH MORE ORTHODOX FASHION THAN THEY DID PREVIOUSLY WITH REGARD TO PRAYER, WITH REGARD TO RAMADAN, WITH REGARD TO A VARIETY OF THINGS OF THIS NATURE, BUT ALSO A CONSIDERABLY GREATER INTELLECTUAL RELIGIOUS FERMENT THAT HAS TAKEN PLACE.

    // END ACT //

    PROFESSOR VON DER MEHDEN SAYS A RICH, PROVOCATIVE LITERATURE ON "ISLAMISM" IS NOW POURING OUT OF THE MUSLIM WORLD, SOME OF IT STIMULATED BY THE INTERACTION OF MUSLIMS AND WESTERNERS AT SUCH EDUCATIONAL CENTERS AS THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO OR THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA IN LOS ANGELES.

    PROFESSOR VON DER MEHDEN WARNS, HOWEVER, THAT THE LIBERAL, ENHANCING ASPECT OF ISLAMISM CAN BE THREATENED BY POLITICAL INSTABILITY AND OPPRESSION -- WITNESS THE VIOLENCE IN ALGERIA AND SUDAN. HE SAYS THE LIBERAL ISLAMISTS MUST ALWAYS BE ON GUARD AGAINST THE TOTALITARIAN ONES. (SIGNED)
    NEB/EW/RRM
    03-Jul-98 12:16 PM EDT (1616 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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