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Voice of America, 98-10-01

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] KOSOVO VIOLENCE (L-ONLY) BY PHILIP SMUCKER (PRISTINA)
  • [02] MASSACRE OF CIVILIANS IN KOSOVO BY JUDITH LATHAM (WASHINGTON)
  • [03] YUGO/KOSOVO (L) BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (WASHINGTON)
  • [04] YUGO/KOSOVO (S) BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (WASHINGTON)
  • [05] BRITAIN / KOSOVO (L) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)
  • [06] DOLE / KOSOVO (L ONLY) BY PAMELA TAYLOR (WASHINGTON)
  • [07] NATO-KOSOVO (S/L VER) BY RON PEMSTEIN (BRUSSELS)
  • [08] PENTAGON/KOSOVO (L) BY JIM RANDLE (PENTAGON)
  • [09] U-N / KOSOVO (L) BY MAX RUSTON (UNITED NATIONS)
  • [10] U-S / KOSOVO (S-UPDATE) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WHITE HOUSE)
  • [11] U-S KOSOVO ONITER(S) BY DAVID SWAN (CAPITOL HILL)
  • [12] U-S/KOSOVO (L-UPDATE) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WHITE HOUSE)
  • [13] TURKEY-KURDS BY ALI JALALI (ISTANBUL)
  • [14] TURKEY-SYRIA (L-ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)
  • [15] CZECH / GYPSIES (L ONLY) BY ART CHIMES (PRAGUE)
  • [16] GERMANY GOVERNMENT (L-ONLY) BY SUZANNE KELLY (BONN)
  • [17] IN GERMANY, TORCH IS PASSED TO NEW GENERATION BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [18] THURSDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [01] KOSOVO VIOLENCE (L-ONLY) BY PHILIP SMUCKER (PRISTINA)

    DATE=10/1/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239545
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: AS THE UNITED NATIONS AND WESTERN LEADERS STEPPED-UP THREATS TO USE FORCE AGAINST SERBIAN SECURITY FORCES IN KOSOVO, A LEADING SERB POLITICIAN IN BELGRADE THURSDAY DEFIED NATO TO ATTACK HIS COUNTRY. PHILIP SMUCKER REPORTS FROM PRISTINA.

    TEXT: SERBIAN DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER VOJISLAV SESELJ DEFIED NATO TO USE AIR STRIKES TO INTERVENE IN KOSOVO, VOWING THAT SERBS WOULD FIGHT BACK, IF ATTACKED.

    THE DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER'S DEFIANCE REFLECTED A GROWING MOOD AMONG SERBS WHO ARE ANGRY ABOUT NATO'S THREATS OF AIR STRIKES.

    MR. SESELJ WAS QUOTED AS SAYING THAT NATO WOULD NOT DARE BOMB SERBIA. HE SAID THAT NATO AIRPLANES WOULD BE DESTROYED AND PERSONS HE CALLED "WESTERN AGENTS" TAKEN CAPTIVE.

    MR. SESELJ ACCUSED THE WEST OF WAGING WHAT HE CALLED AN "ORCHESTRATED CAMPAIGN" AGAINST SERBS TO JUSTIFY MILITARY INTERVENTION IN THE KOSOVO CONFLICT.

    WESTERN DIPLOMATS BELIEVE THAT SUCH THREATS AGAINST "WESTERN AGENTS" ARE DESIGNED TO RAISE THE SPECTER OF SERB FORCES SEIZING WESTERN HOSTAGES -- A TACTIC USED ON SEVERAL OCCASIONS BY BOSNIAN-SERB FORCES DURING THE WAR IN BOSNIA.

    DESPITE WESTERN THREATS CALLING FOR AN END TO THE CONFLICT, SPORADIC FIGHTING HAS CONTINUED IN KOSOVO OVER THE LAST TWO DAYS. THE GOVERNMENT THAT ATTACKS BY ETHNIC ALBANIAN SEPARATISTS LEFT SIX YUGOSLAV ARMY SOLDIERS DEAD WEDNESDAY.

    ETHNIC ALBANIAN GUERRILLAS IN KOSOVO ARE FIGHTING FOR INDEPENDENCE FROM SERBIAN RULE.

    MR. SESELJ SAID THAT ATROCITIES WITNESSED EARLIER THIS WEEK BY WESTERN REPORTERS HAD BEEN CARRIED OUT BY ALBANIAN SEPARATISTS AND MADE TO LOOK LIKE SERB FORCES WERE INVOLVED.

    SERB OFFICIALS HAVE DENIED THAT THEIR SECURITY FORCES ENGAGED IN THE ATROCITIES.

    WHILE THE SERBIAN GOVERNMENT CLAIMED THAT PEACE WAS RETURNING TO THE REGION, A REPORT FROM THE AMERICAN-BASED ORGANIZATION HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH CONTRADICTED THE CLAIMS. IT SAID THAT LONG COLUMNS OF REFUGEE TRACTORS AND CARS HAD BEEN TARGETED AND BURNED BY SERBIAN SECURITY FORCES IN THE AREA OF VRANIC SEVERAL DAYS AFTER LAST WEEK'S U-N AND NATO WARNINGS TO HALT THE FIGHTING. THE U-S "HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH ORGANIZATION" SAID IT BELIEVED THAT HUNDREDS OF ETHNIC ALBANIAN REFUGEES WERE TRICKED BY SERB FORCES INTO RETURNING TO THEIR BURNED-OUT VILLAGES BEFORE BEING AMBUSHED. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PS/PCF
    01-Oct-98 1:06 PM EDT (1706 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] MASSACRE OF CIVILIANS IN KOSOVO BY JUDITH LATHAM (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=10/1/98
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-41502
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT: (NOT VOICED) (EDITORS, A LONGER VERSION OF THIS SCRIPT WILL BE ISSUED LATER TODAY AS AN ENGLISH PROGRAMS FEATURE)

    INTRO: ON WEDNESDAY [9/30] THE INTERNATIONAL PRESS REPORTED THE MASSACRE OF ETHNIC ALBANIAN CIVILIANS IN YUGOSLAVIA'S KOSOVO PROVINCE. VOA'S JUDITH LATHAM PREPARED THIS BACKGROUND REPORT ON SOME REACTION BY HUMAN RIGHTS ACTIVISTS WHO ARE BALKAN SPECIALISTS.

    TEXT: FRED ABRAHAMS, A RESEARCHER AT HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH WHO IS CURRENTLY ON ASSIGNMENT IN KOSOVO, WAS ONE OF THE FIRST OUTSIDERS TO VISIT THE SITE IN THE FOREST OF DRENICA WHERE THE KOSOVAR ALBANIAN CIVILIANS FROM THE VILLAGE OF OBRINJE [OH-'BREEN-YAH] WERE MASSACRED. WHEN HE ARRIVED, HE SAYS, VILLAGERS WERE CARRYING BODIES OUT OF THE FOREST TO BE BURIED, BUT, HE SAYS, SEVEN WERE STILL LYING IN THE PLACE WHERE THEY HAD BEEN KILLED.

    /// ACT ONE, ABRAHAMS ///

    "THERE WAS A MAKESHIFT TENT WHERE THEY HAD BEEN SHELTERING BECAUSE THE VILLAGE OF OBRINJE HAD BEEN UNDER SHELLING FOR THE PAST FEW DAYS. SO THERE WERE CLEAR SIGNS OF THEIR COOKING SITE AND WHERE THEY HAD BEEN SLEEPING. THE MATTRESSES UNDER THE TENT WERE SOAKED IN BLOOD, AND IN A GULLY APPROXIMATELY FIVE OR SIX METERS AWAY THERE WERE STILL SEVEN BODIES, FIVE WOMEN AND TWO CHILDREN. ALL OF THEM HAD BEEN SHOT IN THE HEAD, AND THEY ALSO HAD SIGNS OF HAVING BEEN MASSACRED. SO ALL EVIDENCE SUGGESTS VERY STRONGLY THAT THIS WAS DONE BY MILITARY FORCES AGAINST UNARMED CIVILIANS.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. ABRAHAMS SAYS THE BODIES SHOWED EVIDENCE OF MUTILATION, (OPT) AND THERE WERE KNIFE WOUNDS IN THE BELLY AND ONE MAN HAD HIS THROAT SLIT. (END OPT) ALTHOUGH THERE HAVE BEEN OTHER REPORTED INCIDENTS OF CIVILIAN MASSACRES, SAYS MR. ABRAHAMS, THIS IS THE FIRST WHERE THE DOCUMENTATION IS SO IMMEDIATE.

    /// ACT TWO, ABRAHAMS ///

    I THINK THIS MAY BE THE FIRST TIME WHEN OUTSIDE JOURNALISTS AND HUMAN RIGHTS WORKERS GOT IN SO QUICKLY TO ACTUALLY SEE THE BODIES IN PLACE. /// OPT /// BUT DEFINITELY, THERE ARE VERY, VERY CREDIBLE REPORTS OF SIMILAR ATROCITIES BEFORE IN THE DRENICA REGION AND OTHER PARTS OF KOSOVO, BEGINNING IN FEBRUARY AND MARCH.

    /// END OPT ///

    /// END ACT ///

    FRED ABRAHAMS OF HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH SAYS HIS ORGANIZATION WANTS TO PUSH THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY TO TAKE STRONG ACTION TO SHOW THAT CIVILIANS HAVE BECOME THE VICTIMS IN THE KOSOVO CONFLICT. FORMER STATE DEPARTMENT OFFICIAL JOHN FOX -- WHO DIRECTS THE WASHINGTON OFFICE OF THE OPEN SOCIETY INSTITUTE -- SAYS THE ATTACKS ON CIVILIANS MAY PROMPT THE NATO ALLIANCE TO RESPOND WITH FORCE.

    /// ACT THREE, FOX ///

    WITH WINTER DESCENDING AND THE SLAUGHTER INTENSIFYING AND THE CYNICISM AND THE DEFIANCE OF BELGRADE TOWARD NATO REACHING NEW HEIGHTS, THEY (NATO) MIGHT ACTUALLY HAVE TO SHOW SOME BACKBONE ON THIS. THEY'VE GOT HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF CIVILIANS ON THEIR HANDS NOW; IF THEY GET INTO IT AT ALL, THEN THEY HAVE TO ADDRESS THE HUMANITARIAN DISASTER, OVER A MILLION PEOPLE WHO ARE GOING TO NEED FOOD, WHO DO NEED FOOD, [AND] THEY HAVE TO GET THE SERBIAN SECURITY FORCES OUT OF THERE IN ORDER TO DO ANY OF THIS, AND IT'S ONLY GOING TO GET WORSE.

    /// END ACT ///

    /// OPT ///

    MORE THAN 900 PEOPLE HAVE BEEN KILLED AND 300-THOUSAND FORCED FROM THEIR HOMES SINCE FEBRUARY WHEN AUTHORITIES LAUNCHED THEIR CRACKDOWN AGAINST ETHNIC ALBANIAN SEPARATISTS IN KOSOVO. /// END OPT ///
    NEB/JL/GE
    01-Oct-98 11:54 AM EDT (1554 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [03] YUGO/KOSOVO (L) BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=10/1/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239552
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: YUGOSLAVIA'S FOREIGN MINISTER ZIVIDAN JOVANOVIC SAYS THERE IS NO JUSTIFICATION FOR NATO MILITARY ACTION AGAINST HIS GOVERNMENT IN RESPONSE TO THE BLOODY CRISIS IN KOSOVO. THE YUGOSLAV OFFICIAL HELD A NEWS CONFERENCE HERE IN WASHINGTON THURSDAY, AND WE HAVE DETAILS FROM VOA'S DOUGLAS ROBERTS.

    TEXT: MR. JOVANOVIC FLEW INTO WASHINGTON THURSDAY TO FIND HEADLINES IN THE CITY'S LEADING NEWSPAPER SUGGESTING THAT A NATO ATTACK IS NOW IMMINENT.

    SPEAKING AT THE NATIONAL PRESS CLUB, THE YUGOSLAV OFFICIAL SAID OUTSIDE MILITARY INTERVENTION WOULD ONLY DAMAGE PROSPECTS FOR A RESOLUTION OF THE KOSOVO CRISIS.

    ///JOVANOVIC///

    THREAT OF USE OF FORCE HAS NO GROUND, CANNOT BRING ABOUT DIALOGUE, CAN ONLY HELP OPPONENTS OF DIALOGUE, ENCOURAGE TERRORISM IN WIDER AREA AND PROVOKE FURTHER DESTABILIZATION IN THE AREA.

    ///END ACT///

    MR. JOVANOVIC WAS NOT GIVEN THE OPPORTUNITY TO PUT HIS CASE DIRECTLY TO THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION. HE HELD MEETINGS HERE WITH SEVERAL CONGRESSMEN, BUT NOT WITH OFFICIALS OF THE STATE DEPARTMENT OR THE NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL

    SENIOR ADMINISTRATION OFFICIALS WERE TO BRIEF CONGRESS THURSDAY ON NATO PREPARATIONS FOR MILITARY STRIKES. BUT FOREIGN MINISTER JOVANOVIC SAID HE DOES NOT BELIEVE THE ALLIANCE WILL ACT.

    ///JOVANOVIC///

    WE EXPECT REASON AND WISDOM. WE DO NOT EXPECT ANY KIND OF STRIKE.

    ///END ACT///

    CALLS FOR MILITARY ACTION AGAINST BELGRADE WERE HEIGHTENED BY TWO WIDELY-REPORTED MASSACRES IN KOSOVO LAST WEEK-END. MORE THAN THIRTY ETHNIC ALBANIAN CIVILIANS, INCLUDING WOMEN, CHILDREN AND ELDERLY PEOPLE, WERE SHOT OR STABBED TO DEATH, SOME OF THEM MUTILIATED, IN VILLAGES NEAR THE PROVINCIAL CAPITAL.

    EYE-WITNESSES HAVE BLAMED SERBIAN FORCES FOR THE ATROCITIES, BUT MR. JOVANOVIC REJECTED THE CHARGES.

    ///JOVANOVIC ACT///

    THE GOVERNMENT STRONGLY DENIES ANY INVOLVEMENT OF ITS SECURITY FORCES IN ANY SUCH INCIDENT OR OCCURRENCE.

    ///END ACT///

    HE SAID YUGOSLAV AUTHORITIES ARE CONTINUING TO INVESTIGATE THE KILLINGS, AND HE SAID BELGRADE HAS INVITED FOREIGN SPECIALISTS TO JOIN THE PROBE.

    MR. JOVANOVIC DECLARED THAT THE SEPARATIST REBELS OF THE KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY HAVE BEEN, AS HE PUT IT, "NEUTRALIZED" INSIDE THE PROVINCE. AND HE SAID YUGOSLAV SPECIAL FORCES DISPATCHED TO THE AREA LAST SPRING TO DEAL WITH THE REVOLT HAVE NOW RETURNED TO THEIR BARRACKS.

    ///REMAINDER OPT///

    HE SOUGHT TO PORTRAY THE SITUATION INSIDE KOSOVO AS RETURNING TO NORMAL.

    HE ASSERTED THAT UP TO 100-THOUSAND CIVILIANS DISPLACED BY THE FIGHTING HAVE GONE BACK TO THEIR HOMES, AND ARE RECEIVING AID AND RECONSTRUCTION MATERIALS FROM HUMANITARIAN CENTERS SET UP BY YUGOSLAV AUTHORITIES.

    INTERNATIONAL AID WORKERS DISPUTE THE CLAIM. THEY SAY FEW OF THE NEARLY 300-THOUSAND DISPLACED HAVE RETURNED TO THEIR HOMES. AND THOUSANDS REMAIN IN HIDING IN WOODED AREAS, WITH LITTLE OR NO SHELTER OR FOOD, AND THE HARSH BALKAN WINTER FAST APPROACHING. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DBR/PLM
    01-Oct-98 1:51 PM EDT (1751 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] YUGO/KOSOVO (S) BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=10/1/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239528
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: YUGOSLAVIA'S FOREIGN MINISTER ZIVADIN JOVANOVIC SAYS HE DOES NOT EXPECT NATO MILITARY ATTACKS AGAINST BELGRADE GOVERNMENT FORCES IN WAR-TORN KOSOVO. THE FOREIGN MINISTER HELD A NEWS CONFERENCE (THURSDAY) IN WASHINGTON AMID REPORTS A NATO STRIKE IS IMMINENT. CORRESPONDENT DOUGLAS ROBERTS REPORTS.

    TEXT: THE YUGOSLAV OFFICIAL INSISTS THE ONLY WAY TO SOLVE THE KOSOVO PROBLEM IS THROUGH DIALOGUE. HE SAYS OUTSIDE MILITARY INTVERVENTION WILL ONLY MAKE MATTERS WORSE.

    /// JOVANOVIC ACT ///

    THESE IDEAS, PRESSURES AND THREATS CAN ONLY PROVOKE WIDER DESTABILIZATION IN THE REGION.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. JOVANOVIC ASSERTS THE SITUATION IN KOSOVO IS RETURNING TO NORMAL. HE SAYS BELGRADE'S OFFENSIVE AGAINST THE ETHNIC-ALBANIAN GUERRILLAS IS OVER AND YUGOSLAV SPECIAL FORCES DISPATCHED TO THE REGION LAST SPRING HAVE RETURNED TO THEIR BARRACKS.

    HE ALSO STRONGLY DENIES YUGOSLAV FORCES HAD ANY ROLE IN TWO WIDELY-REPORTED MASSACRES IN KOSOVO LAST WEEKEND. HE SAYS BELGRADE HAS INVITED FOREIGN SPECIALISTS TO JOIN ITS INVESTIGATION INTO THE KILLINGS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DBR/RAE
    01-Oct-98 11:29 AM EDT (1529 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] BRITAIN / KOSOVO (L) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)

    DATE=10/1/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239535
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: BRITAIN HAS ISSUED A STERN WARNING TO YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC TO STOP SERB AGGRESSION AGAINST ETHNIC ALBANIANS IN KOSOVO PROVINCE OR FACE ALLIED MILITARY ACTION. CORRESPONDENT LAURIE KASSMAN REPORTS FROM LONDON THE RENEWED THREATS COME AFTER REPORTS OF MASSACRES OF WOMEN AND CHILDREN IN KOSOVO VILLAGES..

    TEXT: BRITISH FOREIGN SECRETARY ROBIN COOK SAYS THE POLITICS OF ETHNIC HATRED IN KOSOVO WILL NOT BE TOLERATED.

    /// COOK ACT ///

    I SAY THIS TO PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC, DO NOT DARE TELL US THAT SUCH AN ATROCITY IS A PURELY INTERNAL AFFAIR FOR YOU. SUCH AN OUTRAGE TO THE LAWS OF HUMANITY IS THE BUSINESS OF ALL OF HUMANITY.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. COOK MADE THE REMARKS AT THE "LABOUR PARTY" CONFERENCE. HE TOLD DELEGATES HE HAS ASKED THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL IN THE HAGUE TO INVESTIGATE THE LATEST MASSACRES IN KOSOVO AND BRING THOSE RESPONSIBLE TO JUSTICE.

    THE FOREIGN SECRETARY WENT ON TO WARN THE YUGOSLAV LEADER THAT HE CAN NO LONGER DEFY U-N DEMANDS TO PULL HIS TROOPS OUT OF KOSOVO AND STARTS AUTONOMY TALKS THERE. TIME, MR. COOK SAYS, IS RUNNING OUT.

    /// COOK ACT TWO ///

    WE HAVE SOUGHT VIGOROUSLY AND HONORABLY FOR A DIPLOMATIC SOLUTION. WE DO NOT WANT TO USE FORCE, BUT TODAY I WARN PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC IF IT WILL TAKE FORCE, BRITAIN IS READY TO BACK FORCE.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. COOK SAYS THE NEXT STEP WILL DEPEND ON THE RESULTS OF A REPORT U-N SECRETARY GENERAL KOFI ANAN GIVES THE SECURITY COUNCIL NEXT WEEK ABOUT WHETHER PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC IS COMPLYING WITH ALL U-N SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTIONS.

    MR. COOK HAS ALSO CALLED AN URGENT MEETING FRIDAY TO COORDINATE THE STRATEGY OF THE SIX-NATION CONTACT GROUP IN CHARGE OF BALKAN PEACE EFFORTS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LMK/JWH/RAE
    01-Oct-98 11:42 AM EDT (1542 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] DOLE / KOSOVO (L ONLY) BY PAMELA TAYLOR (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=10/1/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239554
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: FORMER REPUBLICAN PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE ROBERT DOLE SAYS HE BELIEVES NATO AND THE UNITED NATIONS ARE SERIOUS ABOUT LAUNCHING MILITARY ACTION IN SERBIA'S KOSOVO PROVINCE. MR. DOLE, WHO VISITED KOSOVO IN EARLY SEPTEMBER, SAID HE DOES NOT HAVE ACCESS TO INTELLIGENCE INFORMATION, BUT THAT HE AND PRESIDENT CLINTON ARE IN AGREEMENT ON A MILITARY INTERVENTION. MR. DOLE, WHO IS NOW RETIRED, MADE THE COMMENTS IN AN INTERVIEW WITH VOA. CORRESPONDENT PAMELA TAYLOR HAS MORE IN THIS REPORT:

    TEXT: FORMER SENATOR DOLE BRIEFED PRESIDENT CLINTON AT THE WHITE HOUSE LAST WEEK ON HIS VISIT TO KOSOVO. MR. DOLE SAYS HE STRESSED TO THE PRESIDENT THAT THE UNITED STATES SHOULD LIVE UP TO A GUARANTEE MADE BY TWO U-S PRESIDENTS -- THAT KOSOVO WILL NOT BECOME ANOTHER BOSNIA:

    // ACT ONE //

    I TOLD PRESIDENT CLINTON, IF NATO MAKES THIS DECISION (TO STRIKE), AND YOU ANNOUNCE IT, I'LL STAND BY YOUR SIDE. (OPT) THIS IS NOT A 'WAG THE DOG', (END OPT) THIS IS A PROMISE YOU MADE, A PROMISE PRESIDENT BUSH MADE AND I'LL STAND BY YOUR SIDE, THIS IS ABOUT LEADERSHIP AND THE CHARACTER OF AMERICA.

    // END ACT //

    MR. DOLE SAID HE BELIEVES THAT THIS TIME THE NATO THREAT IS REAL BECAUSE OF WIDESPREAD AGREEMENT AMONG THE ALLIES THAT YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC HAS GONE TOO FAR IN TRYING TO DESTROY THE SEPARATIST MOVEMENT KNOWN AS THE KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY -- OR K-L-A.

    // ACT TWO //

    I HOPE IT'S NOT THE NORMAL HAND-WRINGING (MOCK CONCERN) THAT WE HAVE AT THE UNITED NATIONS WITH THE DIFFERENT FOREIGN LEADERS. NOT THAT WE'RE LOOKING FOR CONFLICT BUT I'LL TELL YOU WHAT'S HAPPENING TO THE (ETHNIC ALBANIAN) KOSOVARS SHOULDN'T HAPPEN TO ANY HUMAN BEING AND ITS BEEN GOING ON FOR THREE MONTHS AND WE'VE BEEN SAYING WE'RE GOING TO DO SOMETHING AND I THINK MILOSEVIC IS LAUGHING AT US.

    // END ACT //

    // OPT //

    AN ESTIMATED 900 PEOPLE HAVE BEEN KILLED IN THE CONFLICT WHICH ERUPTED IN EARLY FEBRUARY WHEN AN ILL-ORGANIZED GUERRILLA BAND CALLING ITSELF THE KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY -- THE K-L-A -- BEGAN ATTACKING SERBIAN POLICE FORCES. THE K-L-A HAS DEMANDED FULL INDEPENDENCE FROM SERBIA. KOSOVO'S POPULATION IS 90 PERCENT ETHNIC ALBANIAN WHILE THE GOVERNMENT AND SECURITY FORCES ARE SERB. // END OPT //

    MR. DOLE SAID PUBLIC CONCERN ABOUT KOSOVO HAS INCREASED IN RECENT WEEKS BECAUSE OF REPORTS IN THE MEDIA ABOUT MASSACRES OF CIVILIANS AND PHOTOGRAPHS OF ATROCITIES AGAINST WOMEN AND CHILDREN. BUT IN ORDER FOR PEACE TO COME TO KOSOVO, HE SAID, THE YUGOSLAV GOVERNMENT MUST TAKE SOME STEPS.

    // ACT TWO //

    HOW ARE WE EVER GOING TO HAVE A NEGOTIATION UNLESS THERE'S A CEASEFIRE AND YOU TAKE OUT THE YUGOSLAV ARMY AND WITHDRAW THE POLICE? BECAUSE WE WENT THROUGH 20 CHECKPOINTS IN A SIX HOUR DRIVE IN THESE SERB VILLAGES. AND THE VILLAGES HAD BEEN DESTROYED. THEY BURN THE ALBANIAN HOMES, THEY DON'T TOUCH THE SERB HOMES AND THEN THEY DRIVE THE PEOPLE UP INTO THE MOUNTAINS AND (PRESIDENT) MILOSEVIC HAS THE GALL TO TELL ME AND ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE (JOHN) SHATTUCK THAT HE'S DOING ALL HE CAN TO HELP THESE PEOPLE.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. DOLE SAID IF THE ALBANIANS ARE ALSO COMMITTING ATROCITIES, THEY SHOULD BE DEALT WITH JUST AS THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY WOULD LIKE TO DEAL WITH ATROCITIES COMMITTED BY SERB FORCES. ASKED ABOUT THE SERB CONCERN THAT A NATO ACTION WOULD END UP HELPING THE K-L-A REGROUP AND FIGHT AGAIN, MR. DOLE SAID A NEGOTIATED CEASEFIRE POLICED BY AN INTERNATIONAL FORCE WILL INSURE THAT THIS DOES NOT HAPPEN. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PAM/KL
    01-Oct-98 2:58 PM EDT (1858 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] NATO-KOSOVO (S/L VER) BY RON PEMSTEIN (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=10/1/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239540
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: IN BRUSSELS THURSDAY, NATO AMBASSADORS COMPLETED TECHNICAL PLANNING FOR A POSSIBLE MILITARY STRIKE AGAINST SERB FORCES AS A WAY TO PREVENT MORE KILLING OF CIVILIANS IN KOSOVO. RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS ALL THAT IS REQUIRED NOW IS THE POLITICAL DECISION TO LAUNCH.

    TEXT: NATO OFFICIALS SAY MILITARY PLANNING IS COMPLETE FOR ANY AIR STRIKE ON SERBIA, BUT ANY DECISION WILL AWAIT WORD FROM THE UNITED NATIONS ON WHETHER SERBIA HAS COMPLIED WITH DEMANDS TO STOP THE KILLING IN KOSOVO.

    THE NATO OFFICIALS SAY GERMANY, THE NETHERLANDS, CANADA, NORWAY, SPAIN AND PORTUGAL HAVE ALL ANNOUNCED PLANS TO CONTRIBUTE JET FIGHTERS, IF A POLITICAL DECISION IS TAKEN. THE UNITED STATES AND BRITAIN BELIEVE NATO HAS THE NECESSARY AUTHORITY TO TAKE ACTION IMMEDIATELY. BUT GREECE AND ITALY INSIST ON AN EXPLICIT GO-AHEAD FROM THE UNITED NATIONS.

    UNITED NATIONS SECRETARY GENERAL KOFI ANNAN IS EXPECTED TO REPORT NEXT WEEK ABOUT SERB EFFORTS TO COMPLY WITH SECURITY COUNCIL DEMANDS TO STOP THE KILLING IN KOSOVO. THE ALLIANCE HAS BEEN PLANNING FOR ACTION IN KOSOVO FOR MONTHS, BUT ONLY THIS WEEK HAS IT RECEIVED FORMAL PROPOSALS FROM ALLIANCE MEMBERS ON WHAT ASSETS THEY WILL CONTRIBUTE.

    ///CUT HERE FOR SHORT///

    RUSSIA HAS ANNOUNCED ITS OPPOSITION TO NATO MILITARY ACTION IN SERBIA, BUT NATO SECRETARY GENERAL JAVIER SOLANA -- TRAVELING IN ARMENIA -- HAS SAID HE BELIEVES RUSSIAN OPPOSITION CAN BE OVERCOME. WHILE NATO AIR POWER HAS BEEN ASSEMBLED FOR ACTION IN SERBIA, NATO OFFICIALS ACKNOWLEDGE LITTLE PLANNING HAS BEEN DONE TO USE GROUND TROOPS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/RDP/PCF
    01-Oct-98 12:35 PM EDT (1635 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] PENTAGON/KOSOVO (L) BY JIM RANDLE (PENTAGON)

    DATE=10/1/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239568
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    /// RE-REUNNING W/CORRECT IN LAST SENTENCE OF LAST GRAPH ///

    INTRO: PENTAGON OFFICIALS SAY TODAY (THURSDAY) NATO MOVED A STEP CLOSER TO BOMBING YUGOSLAV MILITARY TARGETS IN KOSOVO . THE INTENSIFYING MILITARY ACTIVITY FOLLOWS ALLEGED YUGOSLAV-SERB MASSACRES OF CIVILIANS IN KOSOVO. BUT A WELL KNOWN EXPERT IN STRATEGIC STUDIES SAYS AIR STRIKES MAY NOT BE THE RIGHT WAY TO SOLVE THE KOSOVO PROBLEM. V-O-A'S JIM RANDLE REPORTS FROM THE PENTAGON.

    TEXT: PENTAGON SPOKESMAN KEN BACON SAYS NATO NATIONS ARE CLOSER TO ORDERING THE PLANES TO ATTACK, BUT HAVE NOT YET DECIDED TO USE FORCE IN KOSOVO. HE SAYS NATO AMBASSADORS APPROVED AN "ACTIVATION REQUEST."

    /// BACON ACT ///

    (THIS) WILL LEAD TO THE GENERATION OF A VERY SPECIFIC TANGIBLE FORCE. AND WHEN THAT IS ALL PUT INTO PLACE, COUNTRIES WILL BASICALLY SAY WHAT THEY WILL SUBMIT TO MEET THE COMMANDER'S NEEDS AND ONCE THAT IS DONE, THE NEXT STEP IS THE ACTUAL ORDER TO USE THE FORCE.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. BACON SAYS UNITED NATIONS OFFICIALS ARE DETERMINING IF SERB- DOMINATED YUGOSLAV FORCES ARE STOPPING THEIR ATTACKS, AS DEMANDED BY A RECENT U-N SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION. HE SAYS A REPORT IS EXPECTED EARLY NEXT WEEK, AND NATO COULD STRIKE SOON AFTER THAT.

    MR BACON SAYS THE RAIDS ARE DESIGNED TO REDUCE THE YUGOSLAV MILITARY'S MEANS AND WILL TO CONTINUE ATTACKS ON KOSOVAR ALBANIANS.

    BUT A FORMER GENERAL WHO PLAYED A MAJOR ROLE IN THE GULF WAR SAYS AIR STRIKES MAY NOT HELP THE KOSOVAR ALBANIANS VERY MUCH.

    RETIRED LIEUTENANT GENERAL TERRY SCOTT, DIRECTS THE NATIONAL SECURITY PROGRAM AT HARVARD'S KENNEDY SCHOOL OF GOVERNMENT. HE SAYS THE INDEPENDENCE MINDED KOSOVAR ALBANIANS ARE LIGHTLY ARMED, AND DO THEIR BEST TO HIDE FROM THE MORE NUMEROUS FORCES OF THE SERB-DOMINATED YUGOSLAV ARMY.

    BUT EVEN THE SERB FORCES HAVE FEW LARGE TROOPS CONCENTRATIONS, TANK FORMATIONS OR LARGE COMMUNICATIONS FACILITIES THAT COULD BE HURT BY AIR RAIDS.

    /// SCOTT ACT 012 ///

    CERTAINLY AN AIR CAMPAIGN WOULD BE USEFUL IN CONVINCING THE SERBS TO RETHINK WHAT THEY ARE DOING IN KOSOVO. BUT IF YOU ARE LOOKING FOR AN IMMEDIATE REDUCTION OF THEIR CAPABILITY TO KEEP MILITARY PRESSURE ON THE CITIZENS THERE, THEN PROBABLY, THE AIR STRIKES PROBABLY WON'T BE THAT HELPFUL.

    /// END ACT ///

    GENERAL SCOTT SAYS MANY MILITARY EXPERTS QUESTION THE VALUE OF AIR STRIKES IN KOSOVO, AND THAT'S ONE REASON NATO LEADERS HAVE RELUCTANT TO USE BOMBS TO TRY TO SOLVE THE KOSOVO PROBLEMS.

    SERB FORCES BEGIN AN OFFENSIVE AGAINST THE KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY LAST FEBURARY, AND NINE HUNDRED PEOPLE HAVE BEEN KILLED IN FIGHTING. SOME THREE HUNDRED THOUSAND HAVE FLED THEIR HOMES AND ABOUT FIFTY THOUSAND ARE SAID TO BE HIDDING IN THE FOREST AND MOUNTAINS WITHOUT SHELTER AS THE HARSH BALKAN WINTER APPORACHES.

    RECENT ALEGATIONS THAT SERB FORCES HAVE EXECUTED DOZENS OF ETHNIC ALBANIANS KOSOVARS HAVE FURTHER INTENSIFY THE DRIVE BY WESTERN GOVERNMENTS TO STOP THE VIOLENCE IN KOSOVO. (SIGNED).

    /// REST OPT ///

    KOSOVO IS A PROVINCE OF SERBIA AND SERBIA IS THE DOMINANT REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA. NINTY PERCENT OF THE PEOPLE IN KOSOVO ARE ETHNIC ALBANIANS, AND MANY OF THEM WANT INDEPENDENCE FROM SERBIA. BUT THE GOVERNMENT AND SECRUITY FORCES ARE RUN BY ETHNIC SERBS, WHO CLAIM STRONG HISTORIC AND CULTRAL LINKS TO THE M/O/U/N/T/A/I/N/O/US TERRITORY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JR/WDC/PT
    01-Oct-98 6:18 PM EDT (2218 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [09] U-N / KOSOVO (L) BY MAX RUSTON (UNITED NATIONS)

    DATE=10/1/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239573
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE U-N SECURITY COUNCIL TODAY (THURSDAY) ISSUED ITS STRONGEST CALL TO DATE FOR THE YUGOSLAV GOVERNMENT TO END ITS CRACKDOWN ON ETHNIC ALBANIANS IN KOSOVO PROVINCE. THE COUNCIL CONDEMNED THE LATEST MASSACRE OF ALBANIAN VILLAGERS IN KOSOVO BUT STOPPED SHORT OF THREATENING RETALIATORY STRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAV SECURITY FORCES. V-O-A'S UNITED NATIONS CORRESPONDENT MAX RUSTON REPORTS.

    TEXT: THE COUNCIL ISSUED A STATEMENT CONDEMNING RECENT ATROCITIES IN KOSOVO AND DEMANDING AN IMMEDIATE END TO THE VIOLENCE THERE. IT PUT MOST OF THE BLAME FOR THE VIOLENCE ON YUGOSLAV LEADER SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC, BUT STOPPED SHORT OF THREATENING MILITARY ACTION AGAINST HIS SECURITY FORCES IN KOSOVO.

    THE STATEMENT WAS READ ALOUD BY SECURITY COUNCIL PRESIDENT JEREMY GREENSTOCK OF BRITAIN.

    /// GREENSTOCK ACT ///

    COUNCIL MEMBERS STRONGLY CONDEMNED THOSE RESPONSIBLE FOR THESE ATROCITIES AND THEY CALLED UPON PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC AND THE GOVERNMENT IN BELGRADE IMMEDIATELY TO INVESTIGATE AND IDENTIFY AND PUNISH THOSE RESPONSIBLE.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE STATEMENT SAYS THE COUNCIL IS DETERMINED TO PREVENT A MAJOR HUMANITARIAN CATASTROPHE IN KOSOVO. IT DEMANDS THE YUGOSLAV GOVERNMENT COMPLY WITH A RESOLUTION APPROVED LAST WEEK, WHICH ALSO CONDEMNS THE VIOLENCE AND CALLS FOR THE YUGOSLAV GOVERNMENT TO STOP ITS CRACKDOWN ON ETHNIC ALBANIANS. THAT RESOLUTION WARNS THAT ADDITIONAL MEASURES WILL BE TAKEN IF THE SITUATION DOES NOT IMPROVE BUT DOES NOT SPECIFICALLY WARN OF MILITARY INTERVENTION.

    IN THE SECURITY COUNCIL, CHINA AND RUSSIA HAVE OPPOSED MILITARY INTERVENTION IN THE CONFLICT, DESCRIBING IT AS AN INTERNAL AFFAIR FOR YUGOSLAVIA. U-S AND BRITISH OFFICIALS HAVE INDICATED THEY DO SUPPORT THE USE OF FORCE. NATO IS REPORTED TO HAVE COMPLETED PLANNING FOR POSSIBLE AIR STRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAV FORCES IN KOSOVO.

    CALLS FOR MILITARY INTERVENTION HAVE ESCALATED OVER THE LAST FEW DAYS, FOLLOWING THE EXECUTION-STYLE KILLINGS OF MANY CIVILIANS IN KOSOVO. EYEWITNESSES BLAME YUGOSLAV SECURITY FORCES FOR THE KILLINGS. THE YUGOSLAV GOVERNMENT DENIES THE CHARGES.

    THE YUGOSLAV GOVERNMENT STRONGLY OPPOSES OUTSIDE INTERVENTION, SAYING ITS SECURITY FORCES HAVE BEEN FIGHTING TERRORISTS IN KOSOVO AND NOT HARMING CIVILIANS. BUT EYEWITNESS REPORTS FROM UNITED NATIONS OFFICIALS AND OTHER OBSERVERS INDICATE YUGOSLAV FORCES HAVE FOCUSSED THEIR CRACKDOWN ON ETHNIC ALBANIANS, IN AN ATTEMPT TO STOP THEIR CALLS FOR GREATER AUTONOMY.

    ON THURSDAY, U-N SECRETARY-GENERAL KOFI ANNAN CONDEMNED THE KILLINGS IN KOSOVO AND WARNED OF A HUMANITARIAN DIASTER FOR THE THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE IN THE REGION LEFT HOMELESS BY THE CONFLICT. (SIGNED)
    NEB/UN/MPR/PT
    01-Oct-98 7:45 PM EDT (2345 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [10] U-S / KOSOVO (S-UPDATE) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WHITE HOUSE)

    DATE=10/1/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239560
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION SAYS ONLY THE IMMEDIATE PULLBACK OF YUGOSLAV SECURITY FORCES IN KOSOVO WILL PREVENT NATO AIRSTRIKES AGAINST BELGRADE MILITARY ASSETS. VOA'S DAVID GOLLUST REPORTS FROM THE WHITE HOUSE.

    TEXT: OFFICIALS HERE SAY THAT DESPITE STATEMENTS FROM BELGRADE THAT YUGOSLAV FORCES ARE RETURNING TO THEIR BARRACKS, THERE ARE ONLY ANECDOTAL REPORTS OF A PULLBACK. THEY SAY UNLESS A DEFINITIVE TREND EMERGES QUICKLY, NATO IS READY TO ENFORCE LAST WEEK'S U-N SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION WITH AIRSTRIKES. WHITE HOUSE SPOKESMAN MIKE MCCURRY SAYS IN THE WAKE OF THE PAST WEEKEND'S MASS KILLINGS OF KOSOVO CIVILIANS, THE CASE FOR MILITARY ACTION IS CLEAR:

    /// MCCURRY ACTUALITY ///

    THE COMMITMENT OF RESOURCES BY THE SERBS HAS BEEN OVERWHELMING. IT'S BEEN INDISCRIMINATE. AND THE RESULT HAS BEEN THE DEATH OF THOUSANDS OF CIVILIANS. THE SECURITY COUNCIL HAS DEALT WITH THIS VERY FORCEFULLY AND CLEARLY. AND NATO IS PREPARED TO BACK UP THE WILL OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY.

    ///END ACTUALITY///

    MR. MCCURRY SAID UNLESS THE KOSOVO SITUATION IS DEALT WITH NOW, THERE WILL BE A HUMANITARIAN DISASTER THIS WINTER AND SPILLOVER EFFECTS THAT WILL DESTABLIZE THE ENTIRE BALKANS REGION. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DAG/KL
    01-Oct-98 3:56 PM EDT (1956 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [11] U-S KOSOVO ONITER(S) BY DAVID SWAN (CAPITOL HILL)

    DATE=10/1/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239572
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION HAS ISSUED NEW WARNINGS TO YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC TO END THE BLOODSHED IN KOSOVO PROVINCE, OR FACE A FORCEFUL REACTION. THE WARNINGS CAME AFTER TOP U-S OFFICIALS BRIEFED SENATORS LATE THURSDAY ON THE SITUATION. V-O-A'S DAVID SWAN REPORTS.

    TEXT: THE PRESIDENT'S NATIONAL SECURITY TEAM SOUGHT POLITICAL COVER FROM CONGRESS (THURSDAY) FOR POSSIBLE NATO AIR STRIKES ON YUGOSLAV TARGETS. EMERGING FROM A LENGTHY CLOSED-DOOR BRIEFING, REPUBLICAN SENATOR KAY BAILEY HUTCHISON PREDICTED BOTH PARTIES WILL STAND BEHIND THE ALLIES.

    /// HUTCHISON ACT ///

    THERE IS AN ATROCITY THRESHOLD WHICH WE CAN NOT ALLOW TO JUST STAND UNADDRESSED. AND WE ARE MEETING THE ATROCITY THRESHOLD RIGHT NOW.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE EFFORT TO STOP THE FIGHTING HAS TAKEN ON NEW URGENCY FOLLOWING REPORTS OF MASSACRES OF ETHNIC ALBANIANS. THE UNITED NATIONS IS DEMANDING AN IMMEDIATE PULLBACK OF YUGOSLAV SECURITY FORCES FROM KOSOVO. OFFICIALS SAY UNLESS BELGRADE COMPLIES, THE BOMBING COULD START AS EARLY AS NEXT WEEK. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DS/WDC/WFR
    01-Oct-98 7:32 PM EDT (2332 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [12] U-S/KOSOVO (L-UPDATE) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WHITE HOUSE)

    DATE=10/1/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239564
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION SAYS ONLY THE IMMEDIATE PULLBACK OF YUGOSLAV SECURITY FORCES IN KOSOVO WILL PREVENT NATO AIRSTRIKES AGAINST BELGRADE MILITARY ASSETS. VOA'S DAVID GOLLUST REPORTS FROM THE WHITE HOUSE.

    TEXT: OFFICIALS HERE SAY THAT DESPITE STATEMENTS FROM BELGRADE THAT YUGOSLAV FORCES ARE RETURNING TO THEIR BARRACKS, THERE ARE ONLY ANECDOTAL REPORTS OF A PULLBACK.

    THEY SAY UNLESS A DEFINITIVE TREND EMERGES QUICKLY, NATO IS READY TO ENFORCE WITH AIRSTRIKES LAST WEEK'S U-N SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION FOR THE PULLBACK OF PARAMILITARY UNITS LINKED TO HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES. WHITE HOUSE SPOKESMAN MIKE MCCURRY SAYS THE CASE FOR ALLIED MILITARY ACTION IS CLEAR:

    ///MCCURRY ACTUALITY///

    IN RECENT WEEKS, THE COMMITMENT OF RESOURCES BY THE SERBS HAS BEEN OVERWHELMING. IT'S BEEN INDISCRIMINATE. AND THE RESULT HAS BEEN THE DEATH OF THOUSANDS OF CIVILIANS. THE SECURITY COUNCIL HAS DEALT WITH THIS VERY FORCEFULLY AND CLEARLY. AND NATO IS PREPARED TO BACK UP THE WILL OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY.

    ///END ACTUALITY///

    IN ADDITION TO THE WITHDRAWL OF SERB MILITARY UNITS, THE U-N RESOLUTION DEMANDS ACCESS TO KOSOVO REFUGEES BY RELIEF WORKERS AND NEGOTIATIONS TO RESTORE A MEASURE OF AUTOMONY FOR THE MAJORITY-ALBANIAN YUGOSLAV PROVINCE. MR. MCCURRY SAYS UNLESS THE KOSOVO SITUATION IS DEALT WITH AND STABILIZED NOW, THERE WILL BE A HUMANITARIAN DISASTER THIS WINTER AND SPILLOVER EFFECTS FOR THE ENTIRE BALKANS REGION.

    ///MCCURRY ACTUALITY///

    IT WOULD BE ENORMOUSLY DESTABILIZING TO SEE THIS MASS REFUGEE EXODUS FROM KOSOVO, WHICH WOULD IMPACT ALBANIA, WOULD WOULD IMPACT THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA, WHICH WOULD HAVE DESTABILIZING EFFECTS THROUGHOUT ALL THE BALKANS. AND ONE OF THE THINGS WE DON'T WANT TO SEE HAPPEN HERE IS THE SITUATION GETTING OUT OF CONTROL THAT WOULD JEOPARDIZE THE VERY FRAGILE PEACE THAT EXISTS NOW IN BOSNIA. WE STOPPED THE WAR THERE. WE WON A PEACE. WE'RE WORKING TO MAKE THAT PEACE EFFECTIVE AND WE DON'T WANT TO GO BACKWARD.

    ///END ACT///

    THE WHITE HOUSE SPOKESMAN SAID YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC HAS A HISTORY OF BACKING DOWN WHEN CONFRONTED WITH DIPLOMACY BACKED BY THE THREAT OF MILITARY FORCE. BUT HE SAID IF LAST MINUTE DIPLOMATIC EFFORTS FAIL, PRESIDENT CLINTON IS READY TO ACT MILITARILY AND TO SEE THE PROCESS THROUGH -- EVEN IF AN INITIAL SET OF AIRSTRIKES FAILS TO PROMPT COMPLIANCE WITH THE SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DAG/PLM
    01-Oct-98 5:07 PM EDT (2107 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [13] TURKEY-KURDS BY ALI JALALI (ISTANBUL)

    DATE=10/1/98
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-41498
    CONTENT=
    NOT VOICED.

    INTRO: RIVAL IRAQI KURDISH LEADERS ARE EXPECTED TO VISIT ANKARA NEXT WEEK TO RESUME TURKISH-SPONSORED TALKS. THE ANKARA VISIT FOLLOWS A U-S-MEDIATED AGREEMENT REACHED LAST MONTH IN WASHINGTON. V-O-A'S ALI JALALI REPORTS FROM ISTANBUL THE WASHINGTON PACT HAS BECOME THE SUBJECT OF EXTENSIVE DEBATE FOCUSING ON HOW THE ACCORD AFFECTS ANKARA'S ABILITY TO DEAL WITH THE KURDISH ISSUE.

    TEXT: ANKARA'S INITIAL REACTION TO THE WASHINGTON AGREEMENT ENTAILED CONCERNS IT MAY BE A FIRST STEP TOWARD SETTING UP A SEPARATE STATE IN NORTHERN IRAQ -- A MOVE TURKEY OPPOSES. BUT THE THE TURKISH FOREIGN MINISTRY HAS TONED DOWN ITS CRITICISM, SAYING WEDNESDAY IT IS HAPPY WITH PARTS OF THE AGREEMENT THAT RESTRICT THE ACTIVITY OF THE SEPARATIST KURDISTAN WORKERS PARTY (P-K-K). BUT, TURKISH ANALYSTS SAY THERE ARE STILL QUESTIONS ABOUT THE IMPACT OF THE WASHINGTON AGREEMENT ON TURKEY'S CAPABILITY TO DEAL WITH ITS LONG-STANDING KURDISH PROBLEM. TURKEY HAS BEEN WAGING A DRAWN OUT WAR WITH P-K-K SEPARATISTS IN THE COUNTRY'S SOUTHEAST AND HAS OFTEN LAUNCHED MILITARY INCURSIONS TO DESTROY THE P-K-K BASES IN IRAQ.

    THE WASHINGTON AGREEMENT WAS SIGNED SEPTEMBER 17TH BY MASSOUD BARZANI OF THE KURDISTAN DEMOCRATIC PARTY (K-D-P) AND JALAL TALABANI OF THE PATRIOTIC UNION OF KURDISTAN (P-U-K). IT AFFIRMS THE TERRITORIAL INTEGRITY AND UNITY OF IRAQ. THE ACCORD ALSO CALLS FOR CLOSE COOPERATION IN PREVENTING VIOLATIONS OF THE IRAQI BORDERS BY TERRORISTS OR OTHERS.

    PERIODIC FIGHTING BETWEEN THE TWO FACTIONS IN NORTHERN IRAQ HAS LED TO INTERVENTION BY THE IRAQI GOVERNMENT. IRAQ SUPPORTED THE K-D-P AGAINST THE P-U-K, WHICH RECEIVED HELP FROM IRAN AND SYRIA. MEANWHILE, NORTHERN IRAQ HAS BEEN CONSTANTLY USED BY THE TURKISH SEPARATIST (P-K-K) MILITANTS FOR STAGING CROSS-BORDER ATTACKS INTO TURKEY.

    CITING COMMITMENTS BY THE IRAQI KURDISH GROUPS TO SECURE THE BORDER AND COMBAT TURKISH SEPARATIST ACTIVITIES, NEWSPAPER EDITOR ILNUR CEVIK (CHEH-VIK), OF TURKEY'S "DAILY NEWS", SAYS THE AGREEMENT SHOULD ANGER IRAN AND SYRIA, RATHER THAN ANKARA. IRAN AND SYRIA HAVE BEEN ACCUSED OF HELPING THE TURKISH SEPARATISTS.

    TURKISH ANALYSTS BELIEVE TURKEY'S SUSPICIONS STEM MOSTLY FROM ITS EXCLUSION FROM THE WASHINGTON AGREEMENT AND FAILURE TO MAKE PUBLIC THE FULL TEXT OF THE AGREEMENT AFTER IT WAS SIGNED. NEWS REPORTS IN TURKEY INDICATE U-S OFFICIALS HAVE BEEN BRIEFING ANKARA BEFORE, DURING, AND AFTER THE SIGNING OF THE AGREEMENT IN WASHINGTON.

    A LEADING TURKISH JOURNALIST, SHAHIN ALPAY, SAYS TURKEY FEARS THE WASHINGTON AGREEMENT MAY LEAD TO THE CREATION OF A DE FACTO KURDISH STATE.

    // ALPAY ACT //

    THE TURKISH OFFICIAL POSITION ON THE KURDISH ISSUE IS ANY CONCESSION TOWARD THE KURDS WOULD MEAN BREAK-UP OF TURKEY AND THEY REGARD ANY SUBSTANTIAL CONCESSIONS FOR THE KURDS, EVEN IN IRAQ, A DEVELOPMENT IN THAT DIRECTION. BECAUSE THEY FIGURE THAT IF THERE IS A FEDERAL STATE IN IRAQ, THAT WOULD SHAKE THE TERRITORIAL INTEGRITY OF IRAQ AND IF IT LEADS TO A FEDERATED KURDISH STATE IT WOULD HAVE NEGATIVE EFFECT ON THE TURKISH SITUATION. THAT IS WHY THEY ARE TRYING TO STOP, BY ALL MEANS, ANY TYPE OF KURDISH ENTITY OR KURDISH STATE FROM COMING INTO EXISTENCE, THEY ARE WILLING EVEN TO COOPERATE WITH SADDAM ON THIS ISSUE.

    // END ACT //

    EXCERPTS FROM THE AGREEMENT PUBLISHED IN THE TURKISH PRESS INDICATE A GOAL FOR IRAQ TO BE REFORMED ON A FEDERATIVE BASIS THAT WOULD MAINTAIN THE NATION'S UNITY AND TERRITORIAL INTEGRITY.

    A TURKISH EDITOR IN ISTANBUL, METIN DEMIRSAR, FINDS IT ENCOURAGING THE IRAQI KURDISH FACTIONS INTEND TO DENY SANCTUARY IN IRAQ TO ANTI-TURKISH GUERRILLAS. BUT HE DOUBTS THE GROUPS COULD CONTROL THE MOUNTAINOUS BORDERS. HE SAYS THE WASHINGTON AGREEMENT SHOULD NOT LIMIT TURKEY'S ABILITY TO TAKE ACTION AGAINST SEPARATIST FIGHTERS ACROSS THE BORDER.

    // DEMIRSAR ACT //

    IF THE TWO FACTIONS ARE UNABLE TO CONTROL THE P-K-K AND THE P-K-K CONTINUES ITS INFILTRATION OF TURKEY THROUGH THE BORDER AREAS, TURKEY SHOULD HAVE THE RIGHT TO STAGE OPERATIONS IN NORTHERN IRAQ.

    // END ACT //

    TURKISH ANALYSTS SAY THE KURDISH ISSUE REMAINS ONE OF THE MOST SENSITIVE TOPICS IN THE COUNTRY'S DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN POLICIES. SOME CRITICS ARGUE THE SENSITIVITY HAS OFTEN PROMPTED OVER-REACTION TO KURDISH-RELATED DEVELOPMENTS, AND ARE CALLING FOR A MORE DEMOCRATIC APPROACH TO RESOLVE THE COUNTRY'S KURDISH PROBLEM. (SIGNED)
    NEB/RAE
    01-Oct-98 8:22 AM EDT (1222 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [14] TURKEY-SYRIA (L-ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)

    DATE=10/1/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239529
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: TURKISH PRESIDENT SULEYMAN DEMIREL HAS AGAIN WARNED SYRIA HIS COUNTRY RESERVES THE RIGHT TO RETALIATE AGAINST ITS ARAB NEIGHBOR BECAUSE OF WHAT HE CALLS ITS -- HOSTILE ATTITUDE. AS AMBERIN ZAMAN REPORTS FROM ANKARA, THE TURKISH PRESIDENT WAS REFERRING TO SYRIA'S SUPPORT FOR KURDISH SEPARATIST REBELS BASED IN TURKEY'S MAINLY SOUTHEAST REGION AND FIGHTING FOR SELF-RULE.

    TEXT: SPEAKING AT THE OPENING OF THE TURKISH PARLIAMENT IN ANKARA THURSDAY, MR. DEMIREL SAID HE WAS DECLARING TO THE WORLD ONCE AGAIN THAT TURKEY RESERVED THE RIGHT TO RETALIATE AGAINST SYRIA BECAUSE IT HAD NOT ABANDONED ITS HOSTILE ATTITUDE AND THAT, IN MR. DEMIREL'S WORDS -- TURKEY'S PATIENCE WAS NEARING AN END.

    THE TURKISH PRESIDENT'S WARNING FOLLOWS WIDESPREAD MEDIA REPORTS BASED ON EYEWITNESS ACCOUNTS OF TURKISH TROOPS MASSING ALONG THE SYRIAN BORDER. TURKISH DEFENSE MINISTER ISMET SEZGIN DENIED ANY TROOP MOVEMENT. LAST WEEK, TURKEY'S LAND FORCES COMMANDER, ATILLA ATES, ACCUSED SYRIA OF SUPPORTING REBELS OF THE SEPARATIST "KURDISTAN WORKERS PARTY," THE "P-K-K" -- DURING A TOUR HE MADE OF HATAY PROVINCE, WHICH BORDERS SYRIA. THOUGH PART OF TURKEY SINCE 1939, SYRIA HAS HISTORICAL CLAIMS ON HATAY PROVINCE AND CONTINUES TO SHOW IT AS PART OF SYRIA ON ITS OFFICIALS MAPS. GENERAL ATES SAID TURKEY DID NOT HAVE WHAT HE TERMED -- AN INCH OF SOIL TO CEDE TO SYRIA. HE OPENLY THREATENED MILITARY ACTION AGAINST DAMASCUS IF IT DID NOT END ITS SUPPORT FOR WHAT HE CALLED -- TERRORISTS.

    IN A NEWS INTERVIEW EARLIER THIS WEEK, SYRIAN FOREIGN MINISTER FAROUK AL-SHARA DISMISSED TURKEY'S CLAIMS ABOUT ITS SUPPORT FOR KURDISH REBELS AS FALSE. THE SYRIAN FOREIGN MINISTER ALSO ACCUSED TURKEY OF FORMING A STRATEGIC MILITARY ALLIANCE WITH ISRAEL.

    // OPT //

    MR. AL-SHARA SAID THE ENTIRE ARAB WORLD WAS, IN HIS WORDS, PROFOUNDLY DISTURBED BY TURKEY'S MILITARY COOPERATION WITH THE JEWISH STATE WHICH HE SAID COULD TRIGGER ANOTHER WAR IN THE MIDDLE EAST. // END OPT //

    ANALYSTS SAYS FAILURE BY TURKEY AND SYRIA TO AGREE ON THE STATUS OF THE EUPHRATES RIVER IS AT THE CORE OF THE ESCALATING TENSIONS BETWEEN THE TWO COUNTRIES. DAMASCUS HAS BEEN PRESSING ANKARA TO SIGN AN AGREEMENT TO SHARE THE WATERS, ON WHICH SYRIAN AGRICULTURE HEAVILY DEPENDS. ANKARA SAYS IT RELEASES MORE THAN ENOUGH WATER DOWNSTREAM AND THERE IS NO NEED FOR AN AGREEMENT.

    THE WATER DISPUTE IS RELATED TO THE LATEST BOUT OF DIPLOMATIC SABRE-RATTLING. TURKISH OFFICIALS HAVE ACCUSED SYRIA OF PROVIDING ARMS AND SHELTER TO THE KURDISH P-K-K IN ORDER TO PRESSURE ANKARA INTO SIGNING A WATER SHARING AGREEMENT. THE P-K-K HAS BEEN FIGHTING ALMOST A DECADE-AND-A-HALF FOR SELF RULE IN TURKEY'S SOUTHEAST PROVINCES BORDERING SYRIA, IRAN AND IRAQ. THE CONFLICT IS ESTIMATED TO HAVE CLAIMED MORE THAN 30-THOUSAND LIVES. (SIGNED)
    NEB/AZ/PCF/RAE
    01-Oct-98 11:22 AM EDT (1522 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [15] CZECH / GYPSIES (L ONLY) BY ART CHIMES (PRAGUE)

    DATE=10/1/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239525
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: EXPERTS FROM THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE HAVE BEEN IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC THIS WEEK, REVIEWING THE STATUS OF THE COUNTRY'S GYPSY MINORITY. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT ART CHIMES IN PRAGUE REPORTS THE GROUP SAYS IT FOUND MAJOR PROBLEMS, BUT ALSO A WILL TO SOLVE THEM ON THE NATIONAL LEVEL.

    TEXT: THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE TEAM SAID THERE ARE SOME GOOD POLICIES DEVELOPED IN PRAGUE BUT THEY ARE NOT BEING IMPLEMENTED AT THE LOCAL LEVEL.

    THE GROUP PRAISED THE CZECH GOVERNMENT FOR SOME ACTIONS, AND THE GOVERNMENT HAS ASKED ITS HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSIONER (PETR UHL) TO DRAFT A DOCUMENT ON WHAT THE GOVERNMENT COULD DO TO MORE FULLY INTEGRATE GYPSIES -- OR ROMA, AS THEY PREFER TO BE CALLED -- INTO CZECH LIFE.

    JOSEPHINE VERSPAGET HEADED THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE DELEGATION, AND SHE SAYS THAT IS A KEY ISSUE.

    /// VERSPAGET ACTUALITY ///

    THE ROMA IN THE CZECH SOCIETY ARE NOT REALLY SEEN AS A NATURAL PART OF THE CZECH SOCIETY. AND THIS IS, OF COURSE, A BIG PROBLEM. SO WE DO THINK THAT EDUCATION OF THE MAJORITY IN THIS FIELD ABOUT THE RIGHTS OF THE ROMA PEOPLE IS VERY IMPORTANT.

    /// END ACTUALITY ///

    MS. VERSPAGET SAID THERE SHOULD BE BETTER GUARANTEES FOR THE PHYSICAL SAFETY OF GYPSIES, WHO HAVE BEEN SUBJECTED TO REPEATED ATTACKS BY SKINHEADS AND OTHERS. AND SHE SAID THE STATE SHOULD PROSECUTE THOSE WHO ASSAULT GYPSIES.

    THE EXPERTS FROM THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE VISITED THE TOWN OF USTI NA LABEM, WHERE LOCAL AUTHORITIES HAVE PROPOSED A CONTROVERSIAL WALL TO SEPARATE GYPSIES FROM THE REST OF THE COMMUNITY.

    MS. VERSPAGET DENOUNCED THE WALL, SAYING IT COULD NEVER BE A SOLUTION TO A PROBLEM.

    /// VERSPAGET ACTUALITY ///

    WE FEEL THIS IS SEGREGATION OF PEOPLE. WE FEEL THIS IS REALLY A RACIST DECISION. THE GOVERNMENT TOLD US IN THE PAPERS WE GOT THAT THEY WILL CONDEMN AND PROHIBIT THIS WALL. WELL, WE AGREE FULLY WITH THIS BECAUSE WHEN THIS HAPPENS IT WILL HAPPEN MAYBE ALSO IN OTHER PARTS OF CZECHIA, AND THIS WILL BE REALLY A DANGER. IN MY OWN WORDS, THIS IS CREATION OF APARTHEID.

    /// END ACTUALITY ///

    PERHAPS UNDERSTANDABLY, THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE TEAM SAID CZECH GYPSIES DO NOT HAVE CONFIDENCE IN THE GOVERNMENT.

    ANOTHER MEMBER OF THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE DELEGATION -- ADREZEJ MIRGA, A POLISH-BORN GYPSY -- SAID CZECH GYPSIES, WHO OFTEN CAN NOT GET CITIZENSHIP, ARE VOTING WITH THEIR FEET.

    /// MIRGA ACTUALITY ///

    ROMA IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC DO NOT FEEL SECURE. THEY DO NOT FEEL WELL-PROTECTED BY LAW, AND THEY ARE MOTIVATED TO EMIGRATE.

    /// END ACTUALITY ///

    LARGE NUMBER OF CZECH GYPSIES HAVE TRIED TO LEAVE THE COUNTRY, SEEKING NEW HOMES ESPECIALLY IN CANADA AND BRITAIN. MR. MIRGA, WHO IS CURRENTLY A PROFESSOR AT RUTGERS UNIVERSITY IN THE UNITED STATES, SAYS THAT GYPSY POPULATIONS IN OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES FACE SIMILAR PROBLEMS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/ART/JWH
    01-Oct-98 10:57 AM EDT (1457 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [16] GERMANY GOVERNMENT (L-ONLY) BY SUZANNE KELLY (BONN)

    DATE=10/1/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239548
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: MEMBERS OF GERMANY'S SOCIAL DEMOCRATS -- THE S-P-D -- AND ITS LIKELY COALITION PARTNERS, THE ENVIRONMENTAL "GREENS" PARTY, HAVE MET IN BONN PRIOR TO THEIR FORMAL COALITION TALKS SCHEDULED TO BEGIN ON FRIDAY. AS SUZANNE KELLY REPORTS FROM BONN, IT MAY BE WEEKS BEFORE THE NEW GOVERNMENT -- MADE UP OF A COALITION OF THE S-P-D AND GREENS -- IS FINALLY ASSEMBLED.

    TEXT: NORMALLY QUIET BONN IS A CITY IN A HURRY THIS WEEK. THE SOCIAL DEMOCRATS AND THE GREENS HAVE BEEN WORKING FEVERISHLY TO PREPARE FOR COALITION TALKS, AND REPRESENTATIVES OF BOTH SIDES MET THURSDAY TO DISCUSS HOW FORMAL MEETINGS WILL PROCEED.

    S-P-D CHANCELLOR-ELECT GERHARD SCHROEDER, ALONG WITH THE GREENS PARTY CANDIDATE WHOM MANY HERE EXPECT TO BE GERMANY'S NEXT FOREIGN MINISTER -- JOSHKA FISHER -- MET LARGELY TO SET POLICY DISCUSSION GUIDELINES IN HOPES OF REACHING AGREEMENT ON MOST ISSUES LEADING TO A GOVERNING COALITION.

    POLITICAL ANALYST DIETMAR HERZ OF BONN UNIVERSITY SAYS THE PRELIMINARY DISCUSSIONS ARE CRITICAL FOR SETTING THE TONE OF OFFICIAL NEGOTIATIONS.

    //HERZ ACT//

    THAT'S QUITE NORMAL. BEFORE YOU START THE SERIOUS NEGOTIATIONS, YOU HAVE THE PRELIMINARY TALKS. THE PRELIMINARY TALKS PROBABLY ARE THE MEANS TO SET THE FRAMEWORK FOR THE NEGOTIATIONS, BECAUSE THESE NEGOTIATIONS WILL BE VERY COMPLICATED AND IT'S ONLY A SHORT TIME.

    //END ACT//

    THE TALKS BETWEEN THE S-P-D AND THE ENVIRONMENTAL GREENS PARTY ARE EXPECTED TO BE QUITE COMPLICATED. PROFESSOR HERZ SAYS THE TWO GROUPS HAVE TO REACH AGREEMENT ON A WIDE RANGE OF ISSUES IN THE COMING DAYS.

    // SECOND HERZ ACT//

    IT'S ECONOMICS -- IT'S FIGHTING THE UNEMPLOYMENT IN GERMANY. IT'S THE TAX REFORM, IT'S THE NEW IMMIGRATION LAW, IT'S GENERAL FRAMEWORK FOR FOREIGN POLICY, ESPECIALLY MILITARY INTERVENTIONS IN THE FUTURE. AND OF COURSE, (IT'S ABOUT) WHO WILL GET THE POSITIONS, WHO WILL BECOME A MINISTER AND SO ON.

    //END ACT//

    OTHER ISSUES ON THE AGENDA ARE EXPECTED TO INCLUDE HOW TO DEAL WITH NATO, PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION, CRIME FIGHTING, AND NUCLEAR ENERGY.

    GERHARD SCHROEDER HAS ALREADY SAID THAT HE PLANS TO HAVE HIS NEW GOVERNMENT IN PLACE BY THE END OF THE MONTH, AND ANNOUNCED THURSDAY THAT HE IS EXPECTED TO BE FORMALLY ELECTED BY THE PARLIAMENT AS GERMANY'S CHANCELLOR ON OCTOBER 27TH. (SIGNED)
    NEB/SK/PCF/WFR
    01-Oct-98 1:15 PM EDT (1715 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [17] IN GERMANY, TORCH IS PASSED TO NEW GENERATION BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=10/01/98
    TYPE=WORLD OPINION ROUNDUP
    NUMBER=6-10939
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=

    INTRO: AROUND THE WORLD, JOURNALISTS AND ESPECIALLY EDITORIAL PAGE EDITORS ARE DEEPLY CONCERNED WITH THE ESCALATING VIOLENCE IN KOSOVO PROVINCE, ESPECIALLY AMONG THE ELDERLY AND CHILDREN, BY THE SERBIAN POLICE. HOWEVER THE DOMINANT TOPIC IN A MAJORITY OF EDITORIALS ABOUT EUROPE THIS WEEK WAS THE DRAMATIC POLITICAL AND GENERATIONAL CHANGE THAT TOOK PLACE IN GERMANY.

    IN A SUNDAY VOTE THAT HAD BEEN FORECAST IN THE POLLS, GERMAN VOTERS BID FAREWELL TO CHANCELLOR HELMUT KOHL, THE LONGEST-SERVING GERMAN LEADER SINCE BISMARK, AND VOTED FOR THE SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC GOVERNOR OF LOWER SAXONY GERHARD SCHROEDER, TO BE THEIR NEXT LEADER.

    WE WELCOME ___________________TO OUR V-O-A MICROPHONE NOW WITH A SAMPLING IN THIS WEEK'S WORLD OPINION ROUNDUP.

    TEXT: MANY COMMENTATORS SAW THE VOTE AS SYMBOLIC OF BOTH A GENERATIONAL AS WELL AS A POLITICAL CHANGE IN EUROPE, WITH GERMANY JOINING THE OTHER POWERS - - NAMELY BRITAIN, FRANCE AND ITALY WITH YOUNGER AND MORE CENTER-LEFT GOVERNMENTS. COMMENTATORS HAVE NOTED THAT A COMMON CHARACTERISTIC OF THESE NEW LEADERS, SUCH AS TONY BLAIR IN LONDON AND MR. SCHROEDER, IS THAT THEY HAVE NOT HAD THEIR EXPERIENCES SHAPED BY LIVING THROUGH WORLD WAR TWO.

    YET SOME NEWSPAPERS HAVE EXPRESSED CONCERN OVER MR. SCHROEDER'S POSSIBLE LACK OF A FUNDAMENTAL POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY. AS ONE PAPER PUT IT, "HIS INTENTIONS REMAIN UNCLEAR ... HE CLAIMS TO EMBODY CHANGE, INNOVATION AND MODERNISM ... BUT FACTS ARE STUBBORN". SEVERAL FRENCH PAPERS WONDER WHETHER HE SHARES MR. KOHL'S COMMITMENT TO THE TRADITIONAL FRANCO-GERMAN VISION OF A UNIFIED EUROPE, OR WOULD HE REPLACE IT WITH A MORE LIBERAL TRADE POLICY AND STRENGTHEN TIES TO LONDON AND WASHINGTON.

    WE COULD FILL THIS SAMPLING ENTIRELY WITH THE GERMAN PRESS, BUT WILL SUFFICE WITH A FEW EXAMPLES, BEGINNING IN BERLIN, INCREASINGLY THE SEAT OF POWER OF THE NEW GERMANY AS IT SHIFTS FROM BONN, AND "THE BERLINER ZEITUNG."

    VOICE: THE 'BERLIN REPUBLIC,' WHOSE LEADER WILL NOW BE [MR.] SCHROEDER, WILL BE LESS POWERFUL THAN THE OLD FRG [FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY]. [MR.] SCHROEDER'S TERM COINCIDES WITH THE RAPID FURTHER DEVELOPMENT OF THE EUROPEAN UNION. THE NEW GOVERNMENT WILL BE CONFRONTED WITH ISSUES THAT CARRY AN ENORMOUS POTENTIAL FOR CONFLICT. THE FEDERALIST TRADITION OF GERMANY WILL FACE A CENTRALIST EUROPEAN UNION .... THE NEW GERMAN GOVERNMENT MUST ASSET ITS VIEWS IN BRUSSELS, AND IT MUST AT THE SAME TIME FIND AN ACCOMMODATION BETWEEN THE INTERESTS OF THE VARIOUS COUNTRIES. ... COMPROMISE WILL BE HIS MOST IMPORTANT TOOL.

    TEXT: WHILE IN ESSEN, THE "WESTDEUTSCHE ALLGEMEINE ZEITUNG" WAS CONCERNED ABOUT THE INFLUENCE OF MR. SCHROEDER'S NEW GOVERNING COALITION PARTNER, THE ENVIRONMENTAL GREEN PARTY.

    VOICE: BOTH COALITION PARTNERS ARE CERTAINLY AWARE OF THE FACT THAT A NEW GOVERNMENT WILL BE MEASURED AGAINST ITS ABILITY TO CREATE NEW JOBS. BUT PEOPLE WILL DEMAND MORE FROM THIS NEW GOVERNMENT THAN A CONTINUATION OF THE OLD ONE [POLICY] ADORNED WITH SOME RED-GREEN GARLANDS [RED IS THE COLOR OF THE SOCIAL DEMOCRATS, AND GREEN THE COLOR OF THE GREEN PARTY]. ... THE GREEN PARTY IN TURN SHOULD .... KEEP IN MIND THAT FOREIGN AND SECURITY POLICIES ARE THE WRONG PLAYGROUND.

    TEXT: IN FRANCE, "LE MONDE" FROM PARIS SUGGESTED:

    VOICE: [MR.] KOHL ... RELENTLESSLY SERVED THE FRANCO-GERMAN CONCEPT OF A EUROPEAN IDENTITY ... TODAY'S GERMANY IS A NATION .... WITH ONLY RELATIVE POWER IN THE EU ... GERMANY MUST RECOGNIZE THAT TODAY IT CANNOT HOPE TO ACHIEVE A WORLDWIDE PRESENCE OTHER THAN THROUGH THE EU ... YET FRANCE IS ALREADY SHOWING CONCERN ... THAT GERMANY MAY TURN ITS BACK ON THE FRANCO-GERMAN IDEA OF EUROPE AND REPLACE IT WITH A LIBERAL TRADE POLICY RELYING ON A THREE-WAY ALLIANCE BETWEEN WASHINGTON, LONDON AND BERLIN. FOR EUROPE, THE ARRIVAL OF [MR.] SCHROEDER IS AN OPPORTUNITY NOT TO BE MISSED.

    TEXT: A SOMEWHAT DIFFERENT VIEW FROM BRITAIN, WHERE "THE TIMES" OF LONDON OPINES:

    VOICE: /// OPT /// ATTEMPTS TO DEPICT GERHARD SCHROEDER AS A GERMAN TONY BLAIR MAY BE FAR FROM THE MARK, BUT HIS ARRIVAL AS CHANCELLOR WILL RECAST EUROPE'S POLITICAL LANDSCAPE, ENHANCING SCOPE FOR BRITISH INFLUENCE IN THE EUROPEAN UNION AT THE EXPENSE OF THE OLD FRANCO-GERMAN CORE. /// END OPT /// THE DEPARTURE OF HELMUT KOHL, A DRIVING-FORCE FOR INTEGRATION, BRINGS TO A CLOSE THE ERA, BEGUN WITH KONRAD ADENAUER IN THE 1950S, IN WHICH GERMANY'S CONDUCT IN EUROPE WAS DEFINED BY ITS SENSE OF HISTORIC DEBT TO FRANCE. IN ITS PLACE COMES A PRAGMATIC, NATIONAL-MINDED LEADER WHO MAKES NO BONES ABOUT [DOES NOT HIDE] HIS QUALMS OVER DEEPER E-U INTEGRATION.

    /// OPT ///

    TEXT: IN BELGIUM, IN THE DIAMOND CENTER OF ANTWERP, "DE FINANCIEEL-ECONOMISCHE TIJD" WONDERED ABOUT FOREIGN POLICY, AND THE NUMBER ONE DOMESTIC PROBLEM.

    VOICE: AS EARLY AS ... THE FIRST HALF OF 1999, WHEN GERMANY TAKES OVER THE EU PRESIDENCY FROM AUSTRIA, IT WILL BECOME CLEAR WHERE [CHANCELLOR] SCHROEDER'S GERMANY STANDS IN THE EUORPEAN CONTEXT. .... HOWEVER, FOREIGN POLICY IS NOT THE SCHROEDER ADMINISTRATION'S PRIORITY ... ABSOLUTE PRIORITY WILL BE GIVEN TO UNEMPLOYMENT ... THE QUESTION IS WHETHER GERHARD SCHROEDER WILL SUCCEEDED IN PUTTING GERMANY ON A NEW COURSE AS SMOOTHLY AS HE CAMPAIGNED TO DESTROY A POLITICAL MONUMENT LIKE HELMUT KOHL.

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: HERE IN NORTH AMERICA, MORE WORRY ABOUT THE GREENS FROM CANADA'S CAPITOL, OTTAWA, AND "THE OTTAWA SUN" WHICH COMMENTED:

    VOICE: THE CHANCELLOR-ELECT HAS ALSO BEEN OBLIGED BY HIS NEED FOR A PARLIAMENTARY MAJORITY TO NEGOTIATE WITH SANER ELEMENTS OF THE OFTEN SILLY AND UNPREDICTABLE GREEN PARTY ABOUT SEATS IN HIS FIRST CABINET. WHATEVER GRIEF THIS PARTNERSHIP EVENTUALLY CAUSES, THERE ARE ALREADY THE MAKINGS OF A SCHROEDER LEGEND. HE IS THE GIANT KILLER WHO TOPPLED [CHANCELLOR] KOHL.

    TEXT: IN NEXT DOOR NEIGHBOR POLAND, WARSAW'S "GAZETA WYBORCZA" TALKED OF THE WATERSHED IN EUROPEAN POLITICS SIGNALED BY THE TURNOVER.

    VOICE: NOT ONLY THE DEAN OF EUROPEAN POLICY LEAVES WITH [MR.] KOHL'S DEPARTURE, BUT ALSO A HISTORIC SYMBOL. THE EUROPE OF [CHANCELLOR] SCHROEDER MIGHT BE BETTER, BUT IT WILL NOT BE THE SAME .... EUROPE IS GETTING YOUNGER. LEAVING THE SCENE ... WITH [CHANCELLOR] KOHL IS A GENERATION WHO CARED TO CLOSE FINALLY THE NAZI CHAPTER ....[MR.] SCHROEDER WILL BE THE CHANCELLOR OF THE STATE WHICH HAS EMERGED IN THE AFTERMATH OF THE COLLAPSE OF THE BERLIN WALL. FOR HIM, THE TIME TO REPENT IS OVER FOR GERMANY.

    TEXT: QUICKLY TO THE FAR SOUTH PACIFIC, WHERE "THE AUSTRALIAN" IN SYDNEY MADE ITS POINT WITH THIS COMPARISON.

    VOICE: IN THE UNITED STATES, THE DYNAMIC UNCERTAINTIES OF CAPITALISM ARE EMBRACED ... WELFARE IS MINIMAL, TEMPORARY AND A BADGE OF SHAME. THE RESULT IS HARSH AT THE BOTTOM .... BUT WITH A WEALTH OF OPPORTUNITIES AND LOW UNEMPLOYMENT. IN EUROPE CHANGE IS RESISTED, WELFARE IS A NORMAL PART OF A CITIZENS EXPERIENCE ...AND FAR FROM BEING A BADGE OF SHAME, IT IS A SIGN OF THE COMMUNITY'S COMMITMENT TO EACH CITIZEN. THE DANGER IN EUROPE IS THAT THE PRICE IN UNEMPLOYMENT IS SO HIGH AS TO RIP APART THE SOCIAL FABRIC. ..... [MR.] KOHL'S ACHIEVEMENTS WERE BIG ... BUT HE WAS A FAILURE AT ECONOMIC REFORM.

    TEXT: AND LASTLY TO THE SUB-CONTINENT WHERE DHAKA'S "NEW NATION," ONE OF BANGLADESH'S LEADING, ENGLISH-LANGUAGE, DAILIES PHRASED THE SAME QUESTIONS THAT MANY OTHERS ARE ASKING.

    VOICE: GERMANS BROUGHT ABOUT A HISTORIC CHANGE ON SUNDAY IN THE TIGHTEST EVER ELECTION RACE IN THE POST-WAR PERIOD. ... EUROPE IS IN THE MIDST OF HISTORIC MOVE TO EVOLVE A NEW ... CURRENCY SYSTEM AND THE CRISIS IN THE BALKANS SEEMS TO BE CREATING NEW APPREHENSIONS. IN BOTH ISSUES, GERMANY PLAYED MAJOR ROLES. CAN [MR.] SCHROEDER DELIVER THE GOODS? WILL HE BE ABLE TO STEER HIS COUNTRY WELL THROUGH THE DELICATE AND TROUBLED PRESENT TIMES? THESE ARE THE QUESTIONS THAT GERMANY'S NEIGHBORS AND THE WORLD WILL BE ASKING.

    TEXT: AND WITH THAT, WE CONCLUDE THIS SAMPLING OF GLOBAL EDITORIAL REACTION TO THE LEADERSHIP VOTE IN GERMANY AT THE BEGINNING OF THIS WEEK, THAT SAW AN END TO THE KOHL ERA OF THE PAST 16 YEARS.
    NEB/ANG/WFR
    01-Oct-98 4:46 PM EDT (2046 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [18] THURSDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=10/01/98
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-10937
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=

    ////

    EDS: PERISHABLE MATERIAL, DATED AFTER 10 P-M E - D - T ! !

    ////

    INTRO: VARIOUS ECONOMIC STORIES, SUCH AS THE U-S BUDGET SURPLUS AND PENTAGON DEMANDS FOR MORE MONEY, ARE ATTRACTING THE ATTENTION OF EDITORIAL PAGE EDITORS THIS THURSDAY. OTHER TOPICS INCLUDE: THE SLAUGHTER IN KOSOVO; THE CLINTON POLICY TOWARD IRAQ; AND THE U-S STEEL INDUSTRY'S REQUEST FOR PROTECTION FROM FOREIGN IMPORTS. NOW, HERE IS ___________________ WITH TODAY'S U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: PRESIDENT CLINTON HAS ANNOUNCED AN APPROXIMATE BUDGET SURPLUS - - THE FIRST ONE SINCE 1969 - - OF ABOUT 70-BILLION DOLLARS. TODAY'S "BOSTON GLOBE" COMMENTS ABOUT THE "FINE PRINT" [OBSCURE POINTS] OF THE SURPLUS.

    VOICE: ... THE ELECTRIC 'SURPLUS' SIGN FLASHING BEHIND [PRESIDENT] CLINTON AT HIS PRESS EVENT SHOULD HAVE CARRIED A GIANT ASTERISK SIGNIFYING THE PARTS OF THE STORY THAT NEITHER PARTY WAS EMPHASIZING. ... NEITHER HE NOR THE REPUBLICANS POINTED OUT THAT THE NATIONAL DEBT IS NOW FIVE-POINT-FIVE TRILLION DOLLARS AND THAT INTEREST ON THAT DEBT GOBBLED UP THE FIRST 244-BILLION DOLLARS FROM TAXPAYERS THIS YEAR - - 15 PERCENT OF THE BUDGET. AS LONG AS DEFICITS DO NOT REAPPEAR, GUARANTEEING THE LONG-TERM HEALTH OF SOCIAL SECURITY AND MEDICARE SHOULD BE THE NATION'S OVERRIDING FISCAL PRIORITIES. EVENTUALLY, HOWEVER, TRIMMING THAT MOUNTAIN OF DEBT SHOULD BE A BIPARTISAN GOAL.

    TEXT: STILL IN NEW ENGLAND, AND STILL ON FINANCE, "PORTLAND'S [MAINE] PRESS HERALD" SAYS THE FEDERAL RESERVE BOARD TOOK THE RIGHT ACTION WITH ITS ONE-QUARTER PERCENT INTEREST RATE CUT EARLIER IN THE WEEK.

    VOICE: FED [FEDERAL RESERVE] CHAIRMAN ALAN GREENSPAN HAS SET MONETARY POLICY INCREMENTALLY OVER THE YEARS, AND THERE IS NO REASON TO EXPECT HIM TO CHANGE NOW. .... WHILE WE HAVE QUARRELED IN THE PAST WITH [MR.] GREENSPAN'S OBSESSION WITH INFLATION, HIS GO-SLOW APPROACH TO RATE CHANGES IS A GOOD ONE ... [GIVING] THE MARKETS A CHANCE TO ADJUST TO NEW INTEREST RATE ENVIRONMENTS. ... WHAT IS NEEDED FROM THE FED NOW IS A COMMITMENT TO STILL LOWER RATES.

    TEXT: STILL TALKING ABOUT FEDERAL MONEY - - THE MILITARY MADE A CASE ON CAPITOL HILL THIS WEEK FOR GETTING MORE, BECAUSE OF WHAT IT SAYS IS DIMINISHED CAPABILITY TO DEFEND THE NATION WITH THE CURRENT BUDGET. TO WHICH "THE NEW YORK TIMES" RESPONDS WITH THE HEADLINE:"THE INSATIABLE PENTAGON."

    VOICE: SEVEN YEARS AFTER THE COLLAPSE OF THE SOVIET UNION IT IS DISPIRITING TO FIND THE PENTAGON ASSERTING THAT IT NEEDS EVER LARGER BUDGETS TO INSURE THAT AMERICAN FORCES CAN QUICKLY AND EFFECTIVELY DEAL WITH POTENTIAL THREATS LIKE IRAQ AND PEACEKEEPING ASSIGNMENTS LIKE THE ONE IN BOSNIA. DESPITE SUBSTANTIAL REDUCTIONS IN FORCES AND ALL MANNER OF STRATEGIC REVIEWS, THE PENTAGON HAS NEVER FIGURED OUT HOW TO ALLOCATE MONEY WHERE IT IS REALLY NEEDED /// OPT /// OR TO REDUCE WASTE AND DUPLICATION, ESPECIALLY IN THE DEVELOPMENT AND PRODUCTION OF EXPENSIVE NEW WEAPONS SYSTEMS. ... THE NOTION OF ADDING AN EXTRA 20-BILLION DOLLARS A YEAR TO THE BUDGET TO RECRUIT AND RETAIN TROOPS AND TO REPLACE EQUIPMENT, AMONG OTHER THINGS, IS INSULTING TO TAXPAYERS. /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: TAKING THE OPPOSITE VIEW, "THE WASHINGTON TIMES" SUGGESTS;

    VOICE: .... THERE IS AGREEMENT THE MILITARY IS INCREASINGLY UNREADY TO DEFEND THIS COUNTRY'S INTERESTS BOTH HERE AND ABROAD. THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION MUST BEAR MUCH OF THE BLAME. /// OPT /// WHILE THE ADMINISTRATION HAS IN MANY WAYS TREATED THE MILITARY AS A LONG-RUNNING EXPERIMENTAL IN FEMINIST AND ....... MINORITY SOCIAL ENGINEERING, IT HAS ALSO SENT SOLDIERS OFF TO HAITI AND SOMALIA AND BOSNIA, STRETCHING ALREADY THIN U-S FORCES AROUND THE GLOBE. /// END OPT /// ...AT THE SAME, CONGRESS BEARS ITS OWN RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE RELATIVE WEAKNESS OF THE ARMED SERVICES .....[BY FAILING] ... TO PROCEED WITH ANOTHER ROUND OF BASE CLOSINGS, FORCING THE MILITARY TO MAINTAIN OUTDATED FACILITIES WITH SCARCE RESOURCES. IT'S LONG PAST TIME TO CLOSE MORE OF THEM.

    TEXT: WE'RE STILL ON FINANCES, BUT MOVING TO LATIN AMERICA, WHERE "THE LOS ANGELES TIMES" SAYS HOW IMPORTANT IT IS TO HELP THE BRAZILIAN ECONOMY THROUGH THIS WORLD FINANCIAL CRISIS, CALLING U-S SUPPORT "KEY."

    VOICE: /// OPT /// WINNING REELECTION ON SUNDAY WILL BE EASY FOR BRAZIL'S POPULAR PRESIDENT FERNANDO HENRIQUE CARDOSO. THE HARD PART WILL COME WHEN HE TRIES TO PERSUADE BRAZILIANS TO THROW THEIR COUNTRY INTO THOROUGH ECONOMIC REFORM. /// END OPT /// .... FAILURE TO SHAKE OFF ITS DOLDRUMS WILL SET THE NATION OF 160 MILLION ON A PATH REMINDFUL OF LATIN AMERICA'S PAST DEBACLES. AND BRAZIL WOULD NOT GO DOWN ALONE. IT IS THE 362-KILOGRAM GORILLA [BY FAR THE LARGEST AND MOST IMPORTANT ECONOMY] OF LATIN AMERICA, AND ITS PROBLEMS CANNOT BE IGNORED.

    TEXT: TO EUROPE NOW, WHERE THE ETHNIC CLEANSING IN YUGOSLOVIA'S KOSOVO PROVINCE AND THE SLOW PROCESS OF DOING SOMETHING ABOUT IT, DRAWS THIS REBUKE FROM "THE MILWAUKEE [WISCONSIN] JOURNAL SENTINEL" /// OPT /// UNDER A HEADLINE READING: "PIOUS SPEECHES WON'T RESCUE KOSOVO'S VICTIMS." /// END OPT ///

    VOICE: NOW, AS BEFORE, THE OUTSIDE WORLD IS FRETTING - - AND DOING LITTLE MORE. ON TUESDAY, A WHITE HOUSE OFFICIAL URGED 'A STRONG AND DECISIVE END TO WHAT IS HAPPENING,'" AND ON WEDNESDAY, BRITAIN CALLED FOR AN EMERGENCY MEETING OF THE U-N SECURITY COUNCIL. SPARE US - - ABOVE ALL, SPARE THE VICTIMS OF KOSOVO - - THE TALK. THE TIME FOR ACTION, FOR RESCUE, IS NOW. BOSNIA VERY NEARLY BECAME THE GRAVEYARD OF THIS COUNTRY'S MORAL REPUTATION. TODAY ..... THE UNITED STATES AND ITS ALLIES ARE MARCHING TOWARD THE SAME GRAVEYARD, ACTING AS THOUGHT THEY HAVE ..... LEARNED NOTHING.

    /// OPT ///

    TEXT: FROM LONG ISLAND, NEW YORK, "NEWSDAY" IS EQUALLY OUTRAGED.

    VOICE: .... WITH THE DISCOVERY OF TWO MASSACRES OF ETHNIC ALBANIAN CIVILIANS BY SERB FORCES, THERE IS GREATER URGENCY THAN EVER FOR WASHINGTON AND ITS NATO PARTNERS TO PRESSURE SERBIAN STRONGMAN SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC TO HALT HIS MILITARY ATTACKS AGAINST KOSOVARS. ..... NATO MUST ADVANCE ITS ULTIMATUM AND TELL [MR.] MILOSEVIC THAT HE HAS RUN OUT OF TIME. AND ... THE LOUDEST VOICE SHOULD BE THAT OF PRESIDENT BILL CLINTON, WHO UP UNTIL NOW HAS NOT BEEN HEARD ON THE GRISLY MATTER.

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: MORE FOREIGN POLICY ADVICE FOR, AND CRITICISM OF, PRESIDENT CLINTON, NOW FROM "THE NEW YORK POST" WHICH COMMENTS ON REPORTS IN THE WASHINGTON POST ABOUT IRAQ'S PROGRESS TOWARD MAKING A 20-KILOTON NUCLEAR WEAPON, AND REPORTS ON IT GIVEN TO THE ADMINISTRATION BY FORMER U-N ARMS INSPECTOR SCOTT RITTER.

    VOICE: THE BOTTOM LINE IS THAT IRAQ IS ON THE VERGE OF JOINING THE WORLD'S NUCLEAR CLUB. AND THE ONLY WAY TO UNCOVER AND DESTROY THOSE WEAPONS IS BY A SYSTEM OF UNHINDERED SURPRISE INSPECTIONS - - THE VERY INSPECTIONS THAT CLINTON & COMPANY HAVE ACTIVELY WORKED BEHIND THE SCENES TO PREVENT. /// OPT /// ... FORTUNATELY, THERE ARE THOSE IN CONGRESS WHO DON'T WEAR BLINDERS. THEY SHOULD HAUL SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT TO THE HILL AND MAKE HER ANSWER SOME TOUGH QUESTIONS ABOUT THIS ADMINISTRATION'S SHAMEFUL IRAQ POLICY. /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: LASTLY, BACK TO ECONOMICS AND SOME CRITICISM BY "THE WALL STREET JOURNAL" OF THE U-S STEEL INDUSTRY FOR ASKING FOR PROTECTION FROM LOWER-COST FOREIGN IMPORTED STEEL.

    VOICE: THEIR COMPLAINT LOOKS LIKE THE LEADING EDGE OF A PROTECTIONIST WAVE THAT COULD GATHER FORCE AS THE WORLD ECONOMY WORKS THROUGH THE PRESENT CRISIS. ..... ONCE THE INDUSTRY FINISHES WAILING ABOUT HOW LIFE IS UNFAIR AND LEARNS TO LIVE WITHOUT THE PROTECTIONIST ESCAPE ROUTE, MAYBE IT WILL TACKLE THE GLOBAL MARKET MORE AGGRESSIVELY AND ELIMINATE THE MORAL HAZARD THAT HAS SPAWNED THIS INDUSTRY OF BEGGARS ON THE STEPS OF THE CAPITOL.

    TEXT: WITH THOSE WORDS FROM THE NATION'S PREEMINENT BUSINESS DAILY, WE CONCLUDE THIS SAMPLING OF EDITORIAL COMMENTS FROM THURSDAY'S U-S PRESS.
    NEB/ANG/KL
    01-Oct-98 10:50 AM EDT (1450 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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